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Sample records for address biological questions

  1. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data.

  2. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision

    PubMed Central

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences. PMID:22773951

  3. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  4. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  5. Question answering for biology.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain.

  6. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  7. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  8. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  9. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  10. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  11. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  12. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  13. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  14. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy: Addressing Prevailing Questions.

    PubMed

    Radvanyi, Laszlo G

    2015-01-01

    Autologous adoptive T-cell therapies have made tremendous strides over the last few years with excitement currently being generated by technologies that can reprogram T-cell specificities toward any desired antigen including chimeric antigen receptors and recombinant T-cell receptors. Time will tell whether these new genetically engineered T-cell technologies will be effective as advertised, especially in solid tumors, considering the limited availability of specific antigens and the difficulty in managing the unpredictable on-target, off-tissue toxicities. However, a form of T-cell therapy that has been utilized in patients more than any other and has left a lasting mark in the field is tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy has consistently yielded durable clinical responses in selected patients with metastatic melanoma and is now being increasingly applied to treat other solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Despite its long history in the clinic and key developments over the last few decades that have augmented response rates and have made TIL manufacturing more streamlined, a number of key outstanding conceptual questions remain to be answered in the TIL therapy field. In this review, we address critical questions, including the mechanism of action of TILs and active T-cell subsets, the current need for lymphoablative preconditioning, predictive biomarkers, the role of combination therapy such as checkpoint blockade, new excitement over the recognition of mutated antigens (the "mutanome") by TILs, and issues in developing TILs for nonmelanoma indications. In each case, we will critically discuss the main issues and concerns and how they can affect the eventual positioning of TIL therapy in the mainstream of cancer care. PMID:26588676

  15. Biology of cancer: some questions to answer.

    PubMed

    Chapekar, T

    2001-10-01

    Though great advances in cancer biology have taken place through these years, some fundamental questions are still to be explained. Some observations in this regard are discussed in the present paper. In the course of experimental studies on hormonal stimulation of target cells, it was observed that goat granulosa cells showed differential proliferative response to sustained stimulation by oLH and hCG in culture. oLH caused cells to proliferate whereas hCG failed to stimulate the cells though both the gonadotropins have common receptors on the target cell. Further studies might throw some light on the mechanism of signal transduction in cell biology and neoplasia. A question is also posed as to how to interpret thermodynamically the sustained growth of cancer vis-a-vis the host.

  16. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  17. Three Naive Questions: Addressed to the Modern Educational Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to question anew the popular and supposedly self-evident affirmation of education, in its modern incarnation as in its historical notion. The "naive" questions suggest that we have recently taken for granted that education ought to be for the masses, that it ought to be upbringing, and that it is better than ignorance.…

  18. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  19. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  20. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: A Case Study for Using Biomonitoring Data to Address Risk Assessment Questions

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children. PMID:17107866

  2. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Beckstrand, Renea L

    2016-02-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a prime position to educate parents and promote childhood vaccinations while also dispelling common vaccination myths. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to synthesize evidence-based answers to common parental questions regarding childhood vaccinations. PMID:26400833

  3. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1992-01-01

    The nature of biological issues which can be addressed during long-term space missions is briefly discussed. These issues include structure, from cell to organ to organism; function, the regulation of systems such as immunology, neural sciences, and behavior; and reproduction and development.

  4. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  5. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale; Bartholow, Dr. John; Jager, Yetta; al., et.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  6. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  8. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  9. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  10. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  11. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  12. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  13. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    PubMed

    Hood, E

    1999-12-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.

  14. Using imprecise probabilities to address the questions of inference and decision in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Sly, Peter D; Burton, Paul R

    2002-05-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in the development of new medical therapies. There is, however, an ethical issue surrounding the use of randomized treatment allocation when the patient is suffering from a life threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. Such patients can only benefit from the treatment they actually receive and not from the alternative therapy, even if it ultimately proves to be superior. We discuss a novel new way to analyse data from such clinical trials based on the use of the recently developed theory of imprecise probabilities. This work draws an explicit distinction between the related but nevertheless distinct questions of inference and decision in clinical trials. The traditional question of scientific interest asks 'Which treatment offers the greater chance of success?' and is the primary reason for conducting the clinical trial. The question of decision concerns the welfare of the patients in the clinical trial, asking whether the accumulated evidence favours one treatment over the other to such an extent that the next patient should decline randomization and instead express a preference for one treatment. Consideration of the decision question within the framework of imprecise probabilities leads to a mathematical definition of equipoise and a method for governing the randomization protocol of a clinical trial. This paper describes in detail the protocol for the conduct of clinical trials based on this new method of analysis, which is illustrated in a retrospective analysis of data from a clinical trial comparing the anti-emetic drugs ondansetron and droperidol in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The proposed methodology is compared quantitatively using computer simulation studies with conventional clinical trial designs and is shown to maintain high statistical power with reduced sample sizes, at the expense of a high type I error rate that we argue is irrelevant in some

  15. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  16. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo. PMID:20672079

  17. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtov, K. V.; Petunin, A. I.; Burov, A. E.; Puzyr, A. P.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody-antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo.

  18. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, E

    1999-01-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

  19. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S

    2007-07-01

    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  20. [Shortage and need of physicians in Germany? Questions addressed to health services research].

    PubMed

    Adler, G; v d Knesebeck, J-H

    2011-02-01

    The problem of shortage of physicians has been discussed controversially in Germany for years, and the different positions of the interest groups involved have not been resolved. The question of the present and anticipated future requirement of physicians is central for an appropriate and necessary medical care of the population. In the analysis, supply and demand of medical care have to be distinguished. Relatively reliable data do exist for the supply of physicians; however, the changing number of working hours that male and--in particular female--physicians are willing to contribute should be taken into consideration. Reliable data for the future demand are presently not available. Several variables (e.g., demography, disease spectrum of an aging society, medical progress, the changing rules of working hours, and the shift of medical care between hospital and practice care) depend on future developments. Considering the existing serious indicators of a growing shortage of physicians, it is recommended to put more effort into the scientific investigation of these factors. More profound data should improve the basis for decisions in health and education politics.

  1. Interest in Biology: A Developmental Shift Characterized Using Self-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2007-01-01

    Identifying students' interests in biology can play an important role in improving existing curricula to meet their needs. An analysis of 1,751 self-generated biological questions raised by children, adolescents, and adults yielded data regarding the different age groups' interests in biology. Research limitations and applications for teaching are…

  2. The similarity question for biologicals and non-biological complex drugs.

    PubMed

    Crommelin, Daan J A; Shah, Vinod P; Klebovich, Imre; McNeil, Scott E; Weinstein, Vera; Flühmann, Beat; Mühlebach, Stefan; de Vlieger, Jon S B

    2015-08-30

    For small - low molecular weight - molecule medicines a robust regulatory system has evolved over the years. This system guarantees high and constant quality of our (generic) medicines. Pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence assessment are the pillars under that system. But there are complex medicines where the question of equivalence is more challenging to answer. For biologicals the paradigm of similarity rather than equality (the emergence of 'biosimilars') was developed in the past decade. This has been a program where an evolutionary, science based approach has been chosen by the frontrunner regulatory body, the EMA, with a 'learn and confirm' character. In addition, there is another group of complex drugs, the non-biological complex drugs, NBCDs, where the generic paradigm can be challenged as well. The NBCDs are defined as: 1. consisting of a complex multitude of closely related structures; 2. the entire multitude is the active pharmaceutical ingredient; 3. the properties cannot be fully characterized by physicochemical analysis and 4. the consistent, tightly controlled manufacturing process is fundamental to reproduce the product. NBCDs encompass product families such as the glatiramoids, liposomes, iron-carbohydrate colloids and many candidates of the group of the upcoming nanoparticulate systems. Following the main principles of regulatory pathways for biologicals (with appropriate product-by-product adjustments), instead of that for small molecules, would be the more logical strategy for these NBCDs. The status and outstanding regulatory issues for biosimilars and NBCD-similars/follow on versions were discussed at a conference in Budapest, Hungary (October 2014) and this commentary touches upon the issues brought up in the presentations, deliberations and conclusions.

  3. The Swimming Ammonite: How Computed Tomography can Address Questions of Functional Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanis, Robert; Hoffmann, Rene; Zachow, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    has strong potential to address the controversial life-habits of adult ammonites through the study of the buoyant properties of the phragmocone and the structural properties of the shell. The implications for palaeobiology are clear, however the understanding of ammonite life-habits is also important for utilization as archives for palaeoenvironmetal/geochemical data.

  4. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    , and fluxes within system components and across boundaries (i.e., ground water, surface water, unsaturated zone, phreatophytes) including chemical and biological/microbiological investigations in addition to on-going hydrologic and geophysical investigations.

  5. Biology of cancer: thermodynamic answers to some questions.

    PubMed

    Klimek, R

    2001-12-01

    All the theories of carcinogenesis have properly described this event from methodologically different points of view (medical, biological, social, biochemical psychological etc.). The point is that one should understand the thermodynamical rules underlying each of these approaches. On this level of knowledge, quantum thermodynamics combines matter and energy, while technical quantization in a novel way differentiates precancerous states as the dissipathogenic ones from the neoplasms as the newly formed dissipative structures (systems). From the essential nature of the neoplasm one can derive some general rules of therapy which focus mainly on: 1 degrees prevention and therapy of the dissipathogenic states, 2 degrees strengthening of the regenerative and defensive mechanisms of the organism and, finally, 3 degrees removal of neoplastic changes as widely as necessary but also as sparingly as possible. For a long time, these rules have been observed in reverse order. That cannot improve the medical outcome, which has not changed for a few dozen years, i.e. recovery depending on the clinical level at the moment of the diagnosis.

  6. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    recall and factual questions (Watts & Anderson, 1971; Falker, 1974; Rickards, 1974, 1976). The effect of placing questions directly within textual narrative has been much less researched than the issue of placing questions before or after the reading passage. The effect of this interspersed questioning strategy as part of science textbooks is apparently unresearched to date. The purpose of the research reported here was to determine the relative effects of certain question types when these questions were interspersed throughout the reading passage in textual materials for students in university introductory biology. It was hypothesized for experimental purposes that students reading a passage in biology concepts with specific types of interspersed questions would comprehend and retain no more of that passge than students reading the same passage without interspersed questions.

  7. Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers…

  8. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  9. Learning biology through research papers: a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students.

    PubMed

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research question, demonstrates the events that led to the answer, and poses new questions, we attempted to examine the effect of studying through research papers on students' ability to pose questions. Students were asked before, during, and after instruction what they found interesting to know about embryonic development. In addition, we monitored students' questions, which were asked orally during the lessons. Questions were scored according to three categories: properties, comparisons, and causal relationships. We found that before learning through research papers, students tend to ask only questions of the properties category. In contrast, students tend to pose questions that reveal a higher level of thinking and uniqueness during or following instruction with research papers. This change was not observed during or following instruction with a textbook. We suggest that learning through research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students and results in higher thinking levels and uniqueness. PMID:14673492

  10. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  11. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jennifer K; Wise, Sarah B; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA-student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204

  12. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer K.; Wise, Sarah B.; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA–student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204

  13. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  14. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-03-31

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  15. A Role for History and Philosophy of Biology in Exploring New Questions in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daggett, Melissa A. F.

    2012-01-01

    A number of current reports are challenging educators of undergraduate biology students to increase the role, interactions and approaches of other disciplines. The goal stated in these reports is to produce a college graduate with the skills and competencies to solve pressing global problems such as producing ample food, fuels, and making health…

  16. Separating the Research Question from the Laboratory Techniques: Advancing High-School Biology Teachers' Ability to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Eilat; Yarden, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry is essentially a process in which research questions are asked and an attempt is made to find the answers. However, the formulation of operational research questions of the sort used in authentic scientific inquiry is not a trivial task. Here, we set out to explore the possible influence of separating the research question from the…

  17. Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  18. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  19. Epithelial Skin Biology: Three Decades of Developmental Biology, a Hundred Questions Answered and a Thousand New Ones to Address

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian skin epidermis and its hair and sweat gland appendages provide a protective barrier that retains essential body fluids, guards against invasion by harmful microbes, and regulates body temperature through the ability to sweat. At the interface between the external environment and the body, skin is constantly subjected to physical trauma and must also be primed to repair wounds in response to injury. In adults, the skin maintains epidermal homeostasis, hair regeneration, and wound repair through the use of its stem cells. This essay focuses on when stem cells become established during skin development and where these cells reside in adult epithelial tissues of the skin. I explore how skin stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis and repair wounds and how they regulate the delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation. Finally, I tackle the relation between skin cancer and mutations that perturb the regulation of stem cells. PMID:26970628

  20. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Gurr, Geoff M.; You, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles. PMID:26793225

  1. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints.

    PubMed

    Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular - particularly DNA-related - techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to 'who eats whom' questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now - in turn - are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles.

  2. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  3. On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2001-05-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive trait, and what constrains the use of the host's immune defences. Using bumblebees, Bombus spp, and their parasites as a model system, answers to some of these questions have been found, while at the same time the complexity of the interaction has led expectations away from simple theoretical models. In addition, the results have also led to the unexpected discovery of novel phenomena concerning, for instance, female mating strategies.

  4. Introducing Astrophysics and Cosmology as Part of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Liberal Arts Courses Addressing "The Big Questions" of Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesney, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    There is an opportunity to bring college students to the exploration of the grandeur and wonder of the universe through the design and crafting of courses for the university and liberal arts curricula that would develop multidisciplinary perspectives within the frames of reference of astrophysics and cosmology. There is broad interest within colleges and universities to provide courses that examine "The Big Questions" of human experience from a variety of perspectives. The study of the history of discoveries and insights that we have gained through the development of astrophysics and cosmology provides course options for students to use to explore these questions. Such hybrid courses enable students to approach the questions of origins, human existence, appreciation of the natural world, appreciation of the universe at large, and the significance of our evolving comprehension of the universe from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including those that border on the astrophysical and cosmological domains. There are within such courses opportunities to examine historical, philosophical, theological, and cultural perspectives as they intersect with our scientific understanding of where and who we are. The first of these courses at Sacred Heart University has been developed and presented for the past two years as part of the new Core Curriculum. The development of that course, entitled The Journey in the Physical Universe, will be discussed, and insights will be shared.

  5. The Space Station - Past, present and future with some thoughts on some legal questions that need to be addressed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the concept of a space station is briefly considered, taking into account a story written by Hale (1869), quantitative work provided by Oberth and Tsiolkovsky, von Braun, and the U.S. decision regarding the establishment of a space station. Arguments in favor of constructing a space station are related to the utility of a laboratory in earth orbit, the importance of a repair and maintenance base for satellites, the provision of capabilities for the commercial utilization of space, and the employment of a space station as a staging base for missions to the moon, Mars, and, possibly, the asteroids. Plans for the implementation of the Space Station concept are discussed, taking into account also legal issues involved in such an implementation. Attention is given to questions regarding the applicability of the Liability convention, U.S. domestic law, the domestic law of other countries, and four treaties.

  6. 'A question of balance': addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S; McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973 to 2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development and human rights. Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs' contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  7. Biochemistry and Biology of GDF11 and Myostatin: Similarities, Differences, and Questions for Future Investigation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan G; Poggioli, Tommaso; Katsimpardi, Lida; Buchanan, Sean M; Oh, Juhyun; Wattrus, Sam; Heidecker, Bettina; Fong, Yick W; Rubin, Lee L; Ganz, Peter; Thompson, Thomas B; Wagers, Amy J; Lee, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (or GDF8) are closely related members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles. Yet, despite commonalities in protein sequence, receptor utilization and signaling, accumulating evidence suggests that these 2 ligands can have distinct functions in many situations. GDF11 is essential for mammalian development and has been suggested to regulate aging of multiple tissues, whereas myostatin is a well-described negative regulator of postnatal skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and modulates metabolic processes. In this review, we discuss the biochemical regulation of GDF11 and myostatin and their functions in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. We also highlight recent clinical findings with respect to a potential role for GDF11 and/or myostatin in humans with heart disease. Finally, we address key outstanding questions related to GDF11 and myostatin dynamics and signaling during development, growth, and aging. PMID:27034275

  8. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  9. Addressing the Impact of Foster Care on Biological Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Maha N.; Harp, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study explores from a dual perspective the impact of the fostering process on biological children in the home. Ten foster parents and their biological children were interviewed separately. The impact of foster care on the psychological, educational, and social well-being of biological children and their relationship with parents and siblings…

  10. An Investigation into Students' Difficulties in Numerical Problem Solving Questions in High School Biology Using a Numeracy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fraser J.

    2016-01-01

    The "mathematics problem" is a well-known source of difficulty for students attempting numerical problem solving questions in the context of science education. This paper illuminates this problem from a biology education perspective by invoking Hogan's numeracy framework. In doing so, this study has revealed that the contextualisation of…

  11. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

  12. Teleology then and now: the question of Kant's relevance for contemporary controversies over function in biology.

    PubMed

    Zammito, John

    2006-12-01

    'Naturalism' is the aspiration of contemporary philosophy of biology, and Kant simply cannot be refashioned into a naturalist. Instead, epistemological 'deflation' was the decisive feature of Kant's treatment of the 'biomedical' science in his day, so it is not surprising that this might attract some philosophers of science to him today. A certain sense of impasse in the contemporary 'function talk' seems to motivate renewed interest in Kant. Kant--drawing on his eighteenth-century predecessors-provided a discerning and powerful characterization of what biologists had to explain in organic form. His difference from the rest is that he opined that it was impossible to explain it. Its 'inscrutability' was intrinsic. The third Critique essentially proposed the reduction of biology to a kind of pre-scientific descriptivism, doomed never to attain authentic scientificity, to have its 'Newton of the blade of grass'. By contrast, for Locke, and a fortiori for Buffon and his followers, 'intrinsic purposiveness' was a fact of the matter about concrete biological phenomena; the features of internal self-regulation were hypotheses arising out of actual research practice. The difference comes most vividly to light once we recognize Kant's distinction of the concept of organism from the concept of life. If biology must conceptualize self-organization as actual in the world, Kant's regulative/constitutive distinction is pointless in practice and the (naturalist) philosophy of biology has urgent work to undertake for which Kant turns out not to be very helpful. PMID:17157770

  13. Teleology then and now: the question of Kant's relevance for contemporary controversies over function in biology.

    PubMed

    Zammito, John

    2006-12-01

    'Naturalism' is the aspiration of contemporary philosophy of biology, and Kant simply cannot be refashioned into a naturalist. Instead, epistemological 'deflation' was the decisive feature of Kant's treatment of the 'biomedical' science in his day, so it is not surprising that this might attract some philosophers of science to him today. A certain sense of impasse in the contemporary 'function talk' seems to motivate renewed interest in Kant. Kant--drawing on his eighteenth-century predecessors-provided a discerning and powerful characterization of what biologists had to explain in organic form. His difference from the rest is that he opined that it was impossible to explain it. Its 'inscrutability' was intrinsic. The third Critique essentially proposed the reduction of biology to a kind of pre-scientific descriptivism, doomed never to attain authentic scientificity, to have its 'Newton of the blade of grass'. By contrast, for Locke, and a fortiori for Buffon and his followers, 'intrinsic purposiveness' was a fact of the matter about concrete biological phenomena; the features of internal self-regulation were hypotheses arising out of actual research practice. The difference comes most vividly to light once we recognize Kant's distinction of the concept of organism from the concept of life. If biology must conceptualize self-organization as actual in the world, Kant's regulative/constitutive distinction is pointless in practice and the (naturalist) philosophy of biology has urgent work to undertake for which Kant turns out not to be very helpful.

  14. Artificial Cell Research as a Field that Connects Chemical, Biological and Philosophical Questions.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This review article discusses the interdisciplinary nature and implications of artificial cell research. It starts from two historical theories: Gánti's chemoton model and the autopoiesis theory by Maturana and Varela. They both explain the transition from chemical molecules to biological cells. These models exemplify two different ways in which disciplines of chemistry, biology and philosophy can profit from each other. In the chemoton model, conclusions from one disciplinary approach are relevant for the other disciplines. In contrast, the autopoiesis model itself (rather than its conclusions) is transferred from one discipline to the other. The article closes by underpinning the relevance of artificial cell research for philosophy with reference to the on-going philosophical debates on emergence, biological functions and biocentrism. PMID:27363375

  15. Seeing the forest for the trees: the limitations of phylogenies in comparative biology. (American Society of Naturalists Address).

    PubMed

    Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-06-01

    The past 30 years have seen a revolution in comparative biology. Before that time, systematics was not at the forefront of the biological sciences, and few scientists considered phylogenetic relationships when investigating evolutionary questions. By contrast, systematic biology is now one of the most vigorous disciplines in biology, and the use of phylogenies not only is requisite in macroevolutionary studies but also has been applied to a wide range of topics and fields that no one could possibly have envisioned 30 years ago. My message is simple: phylogenies are fundamental to comparative biology, but they are not the be-all and end-all. Phylogenies are powerful tools for understanding the past, but like any tool, they have their limitations. In addition, phylogenies are much more informative about pattern than they are about process. The best way to fully understand the past-both pattern and process-is to integrate phylogenies with other types of historical data as well as with direct studies of evolutionary process.

  16. How Can the eCampus Be Organized and Run To Address Traditional Concerns, but Maintain an Innovative Approach to Providing Educational Access? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #3. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Joyce

    This paper discusses the findings of St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question: "How can the eCampus be organized and run to address traditional faculty concerns, but maintain an innovative approach to providing educational access?" In order to evaluate this question, a list was compiled of faculty issues identified by…

  17. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Anella, Fabrizio; Wieczorek, Rafal; Stano, Pasquale; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the chemical viewpoint, macromolecules are formed by chemical pathways leading to the condensation of building blocks (amino acids, or nucleotides) in long-chain copolymers (proteins and nucleic acids, respectively). The second difficulty deals with a conceptual problem, namely with the emergence of specific sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge "sequence space", leading to the question "why these macromolecules, and not the others?" We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides, like Ser-His, with respect to peptide- and nucleotides-condensation, as a realistic model of primitive organocatalysis. We have also set up a strategy for exploring the sequence space of random proteins and RNAs (the so-called "never born biopolymer" project) with respect to the production of folded structures. Being still far from solved, the main aspects of these "open questions" are discussed here, by commenting on recent results obtained in our groups and by providing a unifying view on the problem and possible solutions. In particular, we propose a general scenario for macromolecule formation via fragment-condensation, as a scheme for the emergence of specific sequences based on molecular growth and selection.

  18. The case for a deep-atmospheric in situ mission to address the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Garvin, J. B.; Glaze, L. S.; Campbell, B. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Flores, A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W. S.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ravine, M. A.; Webster, C. R.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Current understanding of Venus lags behind that for Mars, with a major disparity of information concerning noble and trace gases and the small scale surface processes needed for comparative studies of terrestrial planet evolution. Despite global surface mapping by Magellan, discoveries by Venera landers, and ongoing atmospheric observations by the Venus Express (VEx) orbiter, significant questions about Venus remain unanswered. To place Venus into its proper context with respect to Mars and Earth, it is necessary to obtain new measurements that address top issues identified in the National Research Council (NRC) Solar System Decadal Survey: (1) evolution of the atmosphere, history of climate, and evidence of past hydrologic cycles; (2) history of volatiles and sedimentary cycles; and (3) planetary surface evolution. To answer these questions, new measurements are needed. First and foremost, in situ noble gas measurements are needed to constrain solar system formation and Venus evolution. In particular, the isotopic ratios of Xe and Kr can provide unique insights into planetary accretion. Isotopic measurements of nitrogen (15N/14N) will place important constraints on atmospheric loss processes. Current knowledge of this ratio has a substantial uncertainty of ×20%. VEx observations of hydrogen isotopes indicate the D/H ratio above the clouds is substantially greater than measured by Pioneer Venus, and varies with height. High precision measurements of the vertical distribution of the D/H isotopic ratio below the cloud layers will provide constraints on models of the climate history of water on Venus. The majority of atmospheric mass is located below the clouds. Current data suggest intense interaction among atmospheric gases down to the surface. The haze within the cloud region of unknown composition plays a central role in the radiative balance. Photochemically-derived species (H2SO4, OCS, CO, Sn) are subjected to thermochemical reactions below the clouds

  19. Questioning the preclinical paradigm: natural, extreme biology as an alternative discovery platform

    PubMed Central

    Buffenstein, Rochelle; Nelson, O. Lynne; Corbit, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The pace at which science continues to advance is astonishing. From cosmology, microprocessors, structural engineering, and DNA sequencing our lives are continually affected by science-based technology. However, progress in treating human ailments, especially age-related conditions such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, moves at a relative snail's pace. Given that the amount of investment is not disproportionately low, one has to question why our hopes for the development of efficacious drugs for such grievous illnesses have been frustratingly unrealized. Here we discuss one aspect of drug development –rodent models – and propose an alternative approach to discovery research rooted in evolutionary experimentation. Our goal is to accelerate the conversation around how we can move towards more translative preclinical work. PMID:25553771

  20. Hierarchical organization, integrations in biology and cancer, balance loss, and a question on modernism.

    PubMed

    Harguindey, S; Katin, M; Edgerton, F; Takita, H

    1981-09-01

    The hierarchical organization of biological processes is considered in the light of universal interrelationships of each and every factor affecting open systems such as human life. The maintenance of health and/or the production of disease are viewed at different levels of biological organization as related to the dualistic concept. The relative effects of environmental versus genetic tendencies in the pathogenesis of "disease" are mathematically formulated as related to time and location. Psychological determinants are considered as cause and as consequence of the onset of somatic disease. The multifactorial aspects of chronic pathology are seen in relation to dominant tendencies in life and in medical sciences, as well as to individual factors. The "non-specificity" of some aspects of cancer as related to "Adaptation" is advanced. Doubts are raised regarding the ultimate value of modern technological achievements and overspecialization per se, as well as on the lines followed by modern trends in the organization of cancer research. Finally, the increasing need for progressive thoughtful integration versus increasing specialization is stressed.

  1. Mars - is it a habitable planet? - A biological approach to find answers to this question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J. P.; Lorek, A.; Koncz, A.; Khan, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Möhlmann, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-12-01

    An overview on different experiments with photosynthetic organisms such as extremophilic microorganisms like lichens and cyanobacteria and even higher plants shows the different degrees of adaptation. The most resistant organisms can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of a variety of organisms in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species were exposed during different experiments either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like BIOPAN and EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of these species were also exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions. In parallel environmental parameters were monitored in space and in the simulation chambers to get an impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity. The outcome of this work might be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new experimental and biological approach and to evaluate how bio-regenerative life supporting systems might be feasible and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  2. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  3. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  4. CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org.

  5. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  6. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Anella, Fabrizio; Wieczorek, Rafal; Stano, Pasquale; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the chemical viewpoint, macromolecules are formed by chemical pathways leading to the condensation of building blocks (amino acids, or nucleotides) in long-chain copolymers (proteins and nucleic acids, respectively). The second difficulty deals with a conceptual problem, namely with the emergence of specific sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge “sequence space”, leading to the question “why these macromolecules, and not the others?” We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides, like Ser-His, with respect to peptide- and nucleotides-condensation, as a realistic model of primitive organocatalysis. We have also set up a strategy for exploring the sequence space of random proteins and RNAs (the so-called “never born biopolymer” project) with respect to the production of folded structures. Being still far from solved, the main aspects of these “open questions” are discussed here, by commenting on recent results obtained in our groups and by providing a unifying view on the problem and possible solutions. In particular, we propose a general scenario for macromolecule formation via fragment-condensation, as a scheme for the emergence of specific sequences based on molecular growth and selection. PMID:24757502

  7. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  8. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  9. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  10. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  11. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  12. Law addresses question of space artifact ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. astronauts who participated in many of NASA's early space missions will receive full ownership rights to artifacts from those missions through legislation that President Barack Obama signed into law on 25 September. The legislation, which received broad bipartisan support, provides artifact ownership rights to any of NASA's Mercury, Gemini, or Apollo space programs through the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, whose flight occurred in July 1975. The law defines artifacts as expendable, disposable, or personal use items—including personal logs and flight hardware salvaged from jettisoned lunar modules—used by astronauts that were not required to be returned to NASA; lunar rocks and other lunar material are not defined as artifacts. Bill cosponsor Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex.), chair of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, said on 19 September, “A majority of these items have been in the personal possession of the astronauts for 40 years or more. Over the last decade, NASA has begun to challenge the astronauts' ownership of these mementos. This issue was first brought to my attention late last year. I was surprised to learn that NASA had, on an irregular basis, intervened several times to claim ownership.”

  13. What Part of NO Don't You Understand? Some Answers to the Cardinal Questions in Nitric Oxide Biology*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G.; Dranka, Brian P.; Bailey, Shannon M.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates biological processes through signaling mechanisms that exploit its unique biochemical properties as a free radical. For the last several decades, the key aspects of the chemical properties of NO relevant to biological systems have been defined, but it has been a challenge to assign these to specific cellular processes. Nevertheless, it is now clear that the high affinity of NO for transition metal centers, particularly iron, and the rapid reaction of NO with oxygen-derived free radicals can explain many of its biological and pathological properties. Emerging studies also highlight a growing importance of the secondary metabolites of NO-dependent reactions in the post-translational modification of key metabolic and signaling proteins. In this minireview, we emphasize the current understanding of the biochemistry of NO and place it in a biological context. PMID:20410298

  14. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges with a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented…

  15. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  16. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen’s d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen’s d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen’s d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. PMID:26194205

  17. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations.

  18. On extracting design principles from biology: I. Method-General answers to high-level design questions for bioinspired robots.

    PubMed

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-02-02

    When millions of years of evolution suggest a particular design solution, we may be tempted to abandon traditional design methods and copy the biological example. However, biological solutions do not often translate directly into the engineering domain, and even when they do, copying eliminates the opportunity to improve. A better approach is to extract design principles relevant to the task of interest, incorporate them in engineering designs, and vet these candidates against others. This paper presents the first general framework for determining whether biologically inspired relationships between design input variables and output objectives and constraints are applicable to a variety of engineering systems. Using optimization and statistics to generalize the results beyond a particular system, the framework overcomes shortcomings observed of ad hoc methods, particularly those used in the challenging study of legged locomotion. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of the relative running efficiency of rotary-kneed and telescoping-legged robots.

  19. Integration of biological ion channels onto optically addressable micro-fluidic electrode arrays for single molecule characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Bachand, George David; Keller, David J.; Patrick, Elizabeth L.; Marshall, Jason A.; Ortiz, Theodore P.; Meyer, Lauren A.; Davis, Ryan W.; Brozik, James A.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter

    2004-12-01

    The challenge of modeling the organization and function of biological membranes on a solid support has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily driven by potential applications in biosensor design. Affinity-based biosensors show great promise for extremely sensitive detection of BW agents and toxins. Receptor molecules have been successfully incorporated into phospholipid bilayers supported on sensing platforms. However, a collective body of data detailing a mechanistic understanding of membrane processes involved in receptor-substrate interactions and the competition between localized perturbations and delocalized responses resulting in reorganization of transmembrane protein structure, has yet to be produced. This report describes a systematic procedure to develop detailed correlation between (recognition-induced) protein restructuring and function of a ligand gated ion channel by combining single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and single channel current recordings. This document is divided into three sections: (1) reported are the thermodynamics and diffusion properties of gramicidin using single molecule fluorescence imaging and (2) preliminary work on the 5HT{sub 3} serotonin receptor. Thirdly, we describe the design and fabrication of a miniaturized platform using the concepts of these two technologies (spectroscopic and single channel electrochemical techniques) for single molecule analysis, with a longer term goal of using the physical and electronic changes caused by a specific molecular recognition event as a transduction pathway in affinity based biosensors for biotoxin detection.

  20. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Sobradillo, Patricia; Celli, Bartolomé

    2011-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels. However, its diagnosis, assessment, and therapeutic management are based almost exclusively on the severity of airflow limitation. A better understanding of the multiple dimensions of COPD and its relationship to other diseases is very relevant and of high current interest. Recent theoretical (scale-free networks), technological (high-throughput technology, biocomputing), and analytical improvements (systems biology) provide tools capable of addressing the complexity of COPD. The information obtained from the integrated use of those techniques will be eventually incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review summarizes our current knowledge in this area and offers an insight into the elements needed to progress toward an integrated, multilevel view of COPD based on the novel scientific strategy of systems biology and its potential clinical derivative, P4 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participatory).

  1. Origin of the fittest: link between emergent variation and evolutionary change as a critical question in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2011-07-01

    In complex organisms, neutral evolution of genomic architecture, associated compensatory interactions in protein networks and emergent developmental processes can delineate the directions of evolutionary change, including the opportunity for natural selection. These effects are reflected in the evolution of developmental programmes that link genomic architecture with a corresponding functioning phenotype. Two recent findings call for closer examination of the rules by which these links are constructed. First is the realization that high dimensionality of genotypes and emergent properties of autonomous developmental processes (such as capacity for self-organization) result in the vast areas of fitness neutrality at both the phenotypic and genetic levels. Second is the ubiquity of context- and taxa-specific regulation of deeply conserved gene networks, such that exceptional phenotypic diversification coexists with remarkably conserved generative processes. Establishing the causal reciprocal links between ongoing neutral expansion of genomic architecture, emergent features of organisms' functionality, and often precisely adaptive phenotypic diversification therefore becomes an important goal of evolutionary biology and is the latest reincarnation of the search for a framework that links development, functioning and evolution of phenotypes. Here I examine, in the light of recent empirical advances, two evolutionary concepts that are central to this framework-natural selection and inheritance-the general rules by which they become associated with emergent developmental and homeostatic processes and the role that they play in descent with modification. PMID:21490021

  2. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  3. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  4. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  5. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  6. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  7. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  8. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  9. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  10. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular language.…

  11. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  12. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  13. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  14. Relationship of Teacher Questioning and Student Answering Behaviors in High School Biology and Chemistry Classes across the School Year. Classroom Interaction Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Robert E.; And Others

    This research assessed whether, within the context of a classroom session, the pattern of questioning and discussion used by teachers is related to the pattern of student responses. Clear and comprehensible linkages between questioning and answering behaviors were found in this study. These results indicate that researchers can help resolve the…

  15. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered. The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  16. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  17. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  18. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  20. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  1. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  2. Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  3. Republished: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  4. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  5. Ins and outs of systems biology vis-à-vis molecular biology: continuation or clear cut?

    PubMed

    De Backer, Philippe; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology 'revolutionizes' molecular biology and 'transcends' its assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology's use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement.

  6. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  7. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  8. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  9. Computational systems chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  10. Colanic Acid Intermediates Prevent De Novo Shape Recovery of Escherichia coli Spheroplasts, Calling into Question Biological Roles Previously Attributed to Colanic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Dev K.

    2016-01-01

    that inhibited recovery of wall-less cells. When testing for the biological role of CA, most previous experiments used mutants that would accumulate these deadly intermediates, meaning that all prior conclusions must be reexamined to determine if the results were caused by these lethal side effects instead of accurately reflecting the biological purpose of CA itself. PMID:26833417

  11. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  12. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  13. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  14. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  15. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  17. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  18. What is the Purpose of Biology in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. Steve; Nichols, B. Kim

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a debate over biology education that took place during a symposium sponsored by the School Science and Mathematics editors in 1908. The six published symposium contributions were meant to address such questions as whether zoology, botany, and human physiology should be studied in one biology course, and what the general purposes for…

  19. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  20. Seven essential questions on G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    König, Sebastian L B; Evans, Amanda C; Huppert, Julian L

    2010-08-01

    The helical duplex architecture of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1951 and is well known and understood. However, nucleic acids can also adopt alternative structural conformations that are less familiar, although no less biologically relevant, such as the G-quadruplex. G-quadruplexes continue to be the subject of a rapidly expanding area of research, owing to their significant potential as therapeutic targets and their unique biophysical properties. This review begins by focusing on G-quadruplex structure, elucidating the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions underlying its formation and highlighting several substructural variants. A variety of methods used to characterize these structures are also outlined. The current state of G-quadruplex research is then addressed by proffering seven pertinent questions for discussion. This review concludes with an overview of possible directions for future research trajectories in this exciting and relevant field.

  1. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

    2003-03-27

    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  2. Evolutionary biology and the question of teleology.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Teleology-what Aristotle called "final cause"-is trying to understand things in terms of the future, as when we ask about the plates on the back of the dinosaur, stegosaurus, and suggest that they might sometime be used to control the internal temperature of the brute. Recently the philosopher Thomas Nagel has argued for a wholesale embrace of teleological thinking in the sciences, particularly the life sciences. I argue that Nagel's thinking is shoddy and ill-informed, but that in some sense biologists do (with reason) seem drawn to teleological understanding, and so the correct response is not outright rejection of the very idea but a more informed and sympathetic approach to those aspects of nature that seem to call for final cause thinking. PMID:26739773

  3. Evolutionary biology and the question of teleology.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Teleology-what Aristotle called "final cause"-is trying to understand things in terms of the future, as when we ask about the plates on the back of the dinosaur, stegosaurus, and suggest that they might sometime be used to control the internal temperature of the brute. Recently the philosopher Thomas Nagel has argued for a wholesale embrace of teleological thinking in the sciences, particularly the life sciences. I argue that Nagel's thinking is shoddy and ill-informed, but that in some sense biologists do (with reason) seem drawn to teleological understanding, and so the correct response is not outright rejection of the very idea but a more informed and sympathetic approach to those aspects of nature that seem to call for final cause thinking.

  4. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  5. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  6. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  7. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  8. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  9. Points of View: Content versus Process--Is This a Fair Choice? Undergraduate Biology Courses for Nonscientists: Toward a Lived Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    "Points of View" addresses issues faced by many people within the life sciences educational realm. This issue addresses the question "What should a biology student know?" The author argues for focusing on skill over content when teaching nonmajors biology, with the foundation of his argument being that literacy in any field…

  10. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  11. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  12. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  13. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  14. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  17. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  18. Negative Questions in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yat-shing, Cheung

    1974-01-01

    Mainly concerned with where negative questions in Chinese originate.An abstract treatment allows the derviation of all questions from a general underlying structure with disjunctive pattern and accounts for the discordance between the answer to a negative question and its answer particle. (Author/RM)

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  20. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  1. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  2. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  3. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  4. Five questions to ask about the soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the

  5. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  6. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Germany - Practice and open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Ulrike

    2010-04-15

    Eight years after the enactment of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) () it is time to investigate where and how SEA are being implemented in Germany in order to find out open questions and research needs. In this study, we analysed in which planning types SEA are common practice, and where can deficits be identified, and to what extent differences occur between spatial and sectoral planning with respect to carrying out SEA. Pressing challenges in performing SEA as well as open questions are addressed such as the handling of cumulative effects and the interrelationships between the environmental factors, and how the monitoring of environmental effects is considered by the practitioners. The results show that SEA is well implemented in local land-use planning, regional planning, and in local landscape planning, while the implementation in sectoral planning varies widely. The SEA in clean air planning is looked at in more detail, because this is discussed controversially in the specialist field, and obstacles against SEA are identified in this field. Finally some new topics are addressed for which solutions in spatial and environmental planning including SEA must be found, e.g. the consideration of biological diversity and the potential role of SEA in climate change. A European study on the identified open questions and their handling in different contexts and countries may allow for a qualitative amendment in practice.

  7. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution. This study explores instructor practices and beliefs related to mitigating students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Interviews with 32 instructors revealed that many instructors do not believe it is their goal to help students accept evolution and that most instructors do not address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Instructors cited many barriers to discussing religion in the context of evolution in their classes, most notably the instructors' own personal beliefs that religion and evolution may be incompatible. These data are exploratory and are intended to stimulate a series of questions about how we as college biology instructors teach evolution.

  8. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution. This study explores instructor practices and beliefs related to mitigating students’ perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Interviews with 32 instructors revealed that many instructors do not believe it is their goal to help students accept evolution and that most instructors do not address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Instructors cited many barriers to discussing religion in the context of evolution in their classes, most notably the instructors’ own personal beliefs that religion and evolution may be incompatible. These data are exploratory and are intended to stimulate a series of questions about how we as college biology instructors teach evolution. PMID:27193289

  9. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    PubMed

    Radick, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  10. Ontology-based aggregation of biological pathway datasets.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Keyuan; Nash, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The massive accumulation of biological data in the past decades has generated a significant amount of biological knowledge which is represented in one way as biological pathways. The existence of over 150 pathway databases reflects the diversity of the biological data and heterogeneity of data models, storage formats and access methods. To address an intriguing biological question, it is not uncommon for a biologist to query more one pathway database to acquire a more complete picture of current understanding of biology. To facility life scientists in searching biological pathway data, we designed a biological pathway aggregator which aggregates various pathway datasets via the BioPAX ontology, a community-developed ontology based upon the concept of Semantic Web for integrating and exchanging biological pathway data. Our aggregator is composed of modules that retrieve the data from various sources, transform the raw data to BioPAX format, persist the converted data in the persistent data store, and enable queries by other applications.

  11. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  12. Biology Cognitive Preferences of Preservice Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yeong-Jing

    1991-01-01

    The Biology Cognitive Preference Inventory (BCPI) for investigating the biology cognitive preference styles of 143 students in the biology teacher education program was developed and validated. The cognitive preferences include factual information or recall, principles, questioning, and applications. Preservice biology teachers exhibited a strong…

  13. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  14. 21 CFR 610.64 - Name and address of distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Name and address of distributor. 610.64 Section...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.64 Name and address of distributor. The name and address of the distributor of a product may appear on the label provided that the...

  15. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)

  16. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  17. Jump-starting life? Fundamental aspects of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    What is life and how could it originate? This question lies at the core of understanding the cell as the smallest living unit. Although we are witnessing a golden era of the life sciences, we are ironically still far from giving a convincing answer to this question. In this short article, I argue why synthetic biology in conjunction with the quantitative sciences may provide us with new concepts and tools to address it. PMID:26323686

  18. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  19. Problem of Questioning

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-31

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  20. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditor, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Outlines a dramaturg's process when working on three different plays. Contends that the myriad variations on the question "what will happen next?" serve as the basic architecture on which the dynamic relationship between the story/storytellers and the audience is built. Observes that the continual planning and answering of questions is story. (PM)

  1. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  2. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  4. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  5. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  6. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  7. Children's Understanding of Biological Inheritance: Nature, Nurture, and Essentialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    This study examining children's understanding of biological inheritance addressed four central questions: (1) are young children able to distinguish between the relative influences of nature and nurture in their understanding of how physical characteristics versus behaviors and preferences develop in animals? (2) does children's understanding of…

  8. A new organismal systems biology: how animals walk the tight rope between stability and change.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Dianna K; Tsukimura, Brian

    2014-07-01

    The amount of knowledge in the biological sciences is growing at an exponential rate. Simultaneously, the incorporation of new technologies in gathering scientific information has greatly accelerated our capacity to ask, and answer, new questions. How do we, as organismal biologists, meet these challenges, and develop research strategies that will allow us to address the grand challenge question: how do organisms walk the tightrope between stability and change? Organisms and organismal systems are complex, and multi-scale in both space and time. It is clear that addressing major questions about organismal biology will not come from "business as usual" approaches. Rather, we require the collaboration of a wide range of experts and integration of biological information with more quantitative approaches traditionally found in engineering and applied mathematics. Research programs designed to address grand challenge questions will require deep knowledge and expertise within subfields of organismal biology, collaboration and integration among otherwise disparate areas of research, and consideration of organisms as integrated systems. Our ability to predict which features of complex integrated systems provide the capacity to be robust in changing environments is poorly developed. A predictive organismal biology is needed, but will require more quantitative approaches than are typical in biology, including complex systems-modeling approaches common to engineering. This new organismal systems biology will have reciprocal benefits for biologists, engineers, and mathematicians who address similar questions, including those working on control theory and dynamical systems biology, and will develop the tools we need to address the grand challenge questions of the 21st century.

  9. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  10. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  11. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  12. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  13. Is the DPT tautomerization of the long A·G Watson-Crick DNA base mispair a source of the adenine and guanine mutagenic tautomers? A QM and QTAIM response to the biologically important question.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-03-01

    Herein, we first address the question posed in the title by establishing the tautomerization trajectory via the double proton transfer of the adenine·guanine (A·G) DNA base mispair formed by the canonical tautomers of the A and G bases into the A*·G* DNA base mispair, involving mutagenic tautomers, with the use of the quantum-mechanical calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It was detected that the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization proceeds through the asynchronous concerted mechanism. It was revealed that the A·G base mispair is stabilized by the N6H···O6 (5.68) and N1H···N1 (6.51) hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and the N2H···HC2 dihydrogen bond (DH-bond) (0.68 kcal·mol(-1) ), whereas the A*·G* base mispair-by the O6H···N6 (10.88), N1H···N1 (7.01) and C2H···N2 H-bonds (0.42 kcal·mol(-1) ). The N2H···HC2 DH-bond smoothly and without bifurcation transforms into the C2H···N2 H-bond at the IRC = -10.07 Bohr in the course of the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization. Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···O6 H-bond is anticooperative to the two others-N1H···N1 and N2H···HC2 in the A·G base mispair, while the latters are significantly cooperative, mutually strengthening each other. In opposite, all three O6H···N6, N1H···N1, and C2H···N2 H-bonds are cooperative in the A*·G* base mispair. All in all, we established the dynamical instability of the А*·G* base mispair with a short lifetime (4.83·10(-14) s), enabling it not to be deemed feasible source of the A* and G* mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases. The small lifetime of the А*·G* base mispair is predetermined by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy for the A*·G* → A·G transition. Moreover, all of the six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations cannot develop during this lifetime that additionally confirms the aforementioned results. Thus, the A*·G* base mispair cannot be

  14. Biology Teachers' Conceptions of the Diversity of Life and the Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Paloma Rodrigues; de Andrade, Mariana A. Bologna Soares; de Andrade Caldeira, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biology is a science that involves study of the diversity of living organisms. This diversity has always generated questions and has motivated cultures to seek plausible explanations for the differences and similarities between types of organisms. In biology teaching, these issues are addressed by adopting an evolutionary approach. The aim of this…

  15. What can plants do for cell biology?

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Historically, cell biologists studied organisms that represented a reasonable sampling of life's diversity, whereas recently research has narrowed into a few model systems. As a result, the cells of plants have been relatively neglected. Here I choose three examples to illustrate how plants have been informative and could be even more so. Owing to their ease of imaging and genetic tractability, multicellular plant model systems provide a unique opportunity to address long-standing questions in cell biology. PMID:23943803

  16. A Personalist Ontological Approach to Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tatay, Lucía; Hernández-Andreu, José Miguel; Aznar, Justo

    2016-07-01

    Although synthetic biology is a promising discipline, it also raises serious ethical questions that must be addressed in order to prevent unwanted consequences and to ensure that its progress leads toward the good of all. Questions arise about the role of this discipline in a possible redefinition of the concept of life and its creation. With regard to the products of synthetic biology, the moral status that they should be given as well as the ethically correct way to behave towards them are not clear. Moreover, risks that could result from a misuse of this technology or from an accidental release of synthetic organisms into the environment cannot be ignored; concerns about biosecurity and biosafety appear. Here we discuss these and other questions from a personalist ontological framework, which defends human life as an essential value and proposes a set of principles to ensure the safeguarding of this and other values that are based on it. PMID:26644292

  17. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  18. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  19. Using Notable Children's Literature and Questioning Techniques to Enhance Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary; Poole, Scott

    Intended for language arts teachers of the upper elementary grades, this guide suggests vocabulary and discussion questions for teaching novels. The questions are on an inferential level of interpretation, rather than literal, and address such topics as style, technique, and plot development. Novels for which questions are provided are: (1) "White…

  20. Educational Choice: Practical Policy Questions. Occasional Paper Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    The consideration of school choice plans raises policy questions for school administrators. This paper addresses pragmatic concerns about definitions and policy questions related to educational finance. Interdistrict choice, emphasizing families' right to choose among existing public schools, raises questions regarding transportation and…

  1. Key Questions for Reviewing Virtual Charter School Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document contains key questions to consider when evaluating virtual charter school proposals.The insert is designed to help authorizers evaluate school quality and capacity in light of the distinctive attributes of virtual schooling. These questions address major functional areas as well essential questions that authorizers should ask of…

  2. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

  3. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  4. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  5. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  6. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  7. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  8. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  9. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  10. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  11. A Statewide High School Physics Question Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    During 1981-82 a physics contest was held in North Carolina in which a new physics question was asked each month. Information is provided for others contemplating a similar task. Areas addressed include costs, prizes (calculators), number of entries, contest rules, contest goals, and such problems as time involvement. (JN)

  12. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  13. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  14. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  15. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  16. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  17. Recruitment: Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Robert W.

    1974-01-01

    The author summarizes various past studies on job recruitment methods and raises further unanswered questions, especially important to policy-makers, pertaining to the: (1) impact on employers, workers, and society; (2) level of sophistication of employer recruitment method selection; (3) major factors influencing a recruitment selection method;…

  18. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  20. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  1. Exploring Synthetic and Systems Biology at the University of Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Liz; Rosser, Susan; Elfick, Alistair

    2016-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic and Systems Biology ('SynthSys') was originally established in 2007 as the Centre for Integrative Systems Biology, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Today, SynthSys embraces an extensive multidisciplinary community of more than 200 researchers from across the University with a common interest in synthetic and systems biology. Our research is broad and deep, addressing a diversity of scientific questions, with wide ranging impact. We bring together the power of synthetic biology and systems approaches to focus on three core thematic areas: industrial biotechnology, agriculture and the environment, and medicine and healthcare. In October 2015, we opened a newly refurbished building as a physical hub for our new U.K. Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology funded by the BBSRC/EPSRC/MRC as part of the U.K. Research Councils' Synthetic Biology for Growth programme.

  2. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  3. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  4. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  5. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  7. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  8. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  9. More Questions Than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on the article 'Time to Change Drivers for Science Literacy' by Peter Fensham and addresses two issues: (1) Why is reforming the science curriculum so hard?; and (2) What are the potential possibilities of and problems with Fensham's reform proposal? (Contains 12 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Ethical Questions and Biologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    A three-part questionnaire was used to assess degree of emphasis given to values education in college biology. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaire, mailed to 377 biologists (185 forms returned), included items focusing on the significance of ethical issues and when life-science related values are best introduced to students. (JN)

  14. [To the question of the optimization of methods for detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, and their metabolites in biological fluids in workers involved in production of polyvinyl chloride].

    PubMed

    Zhurba, O M; Alekseenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the improvement of methodological approaches to the gas chromatographic methods- of the detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane and their metabolites--chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid in biological fluids. There were evaluated such metrological characteristics of methods, as repeatability, interlaboratoty precision, relevance and accuracy. The value of relative expanded uncertainty does not exceed 30%. There are reported optimal regimes of gas chromatographic analysis, conditions for sample preparation. The results of the contents ofthese chemical compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids from persons working in contact with chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented These techniques can be used for the detection ofthe fact of exposure to toxic substances, assessment of the level of exposure and biomonitoring.

  15. The Art of Asking Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  16. Core questions in domestication research.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  19. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  20. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the

  1. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the

  2. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  3. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  4. Automatically classifying question types for consumer health questions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification.

  5. Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L

    2012-10-01

    I pose eight questions central to understanding how biological invasions affect ecosystems, assess progress towards answering those questions and suggest ways in which progress might be made. The questions concern the frequency with which invasions affect ecosystems; the circumstances under which ecosystem change is most likely; the functions that are most often affected by invaders; the relationships between changes to ecosystems, communities, and populations; the long-term responses of ecosystems to invasions; interactions between biological invasions and other anthropogenic activities and the difficulty of managing undesirable impacts of non-native species. Some questions have been answered satisfactorily, others require more data and thought, and others might benefit from being reformulated or abandoned. Actions that might speed progress include careful development of trait-based approaches; strategic collection and publication of new data, including more frequent publication of negative results; replacement of expert opinion with hard data where needed; careful consideration of whether questions really need to be answered, especially in cases where answers are being provided for managers and policy-makers; explicit attention to and testing of the domains of theories; integrating invasions better into an ecosystem context; and remembering that our predictive ability is limited and will remain so for the foreseeable future.

  6. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  7. Chemical biology approaches for the study of apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Child, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical biology and the techniques the field encompasses provide scientists with the means to address biological questions in ever-evolving and technically sophisticated ways. They facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms of cell phenomena on timescales not achievable by other means. Libraries of small molecules, bioorthogonal chemistries and technical advances in mass-spectrometry techniques enable the modern chemical biologist to tackle even the most difficult of biological questions. It is because of their broad applicability that these approaches are well suited to systems less tractable to more classical genetic methods. As such, the parasite community has embraced them with great success. Some of these successes and the continuing evolution of chemical biology applied to apicomplexans will be discussed.

  8. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  9. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  10. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  11. Generation of Priority Research Questions to Inform Conservation Policy and Management at a National Level

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  12. Commentary: Plastic ocean and the cancer connection: 7 questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Benno Meyer-Rochow, V; Valérie Gross, J; Steffany, Frank; Zeuss, Dominique; Erren, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    A plethora of recent scientific reports testifies to challenges the world is facing from an ever-increasing marine plastic pollution. Toxicological concerns have been put forward, but possible links between the now ubiquitous synthetic polymers and human as well as wildlife cancers remain to be investigated. Hence, this commentary which addresses seven questions. Given numerous uncertainties on the factual impacts of plastics, we should embark on empirical studies into the validity of biologically plausible links between plastic residues and cancers and concomitantly consider ways to reduce plastics in the world within and around us.

  13. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  14. Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.

    PubMed

    1991-02-01

    Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

  15. Engaging Students through Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

  16. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  17. Ask an intelligent question...

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.

    1995-05-01

    In recent years, as electric utilities have moved toward deregualtion, industry watchers have counceled them to create streamlined competitor intelligence functions or else be outstripped by utilities that do. Gathering competitor intelligence stays focused on answering key questions and showing a cource of action. To that extent, it is part and parcel of good decision-making. In strategic analysis, intelligence focuses on broad-scale comparisons to other electric utilities to determine competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This information helps utilities develop business strategies, including a high-level view of what products and services to offer customers. The objective is to ensure that the company doesn`t miss an important issue or trend, so such analysis is ongoing and benefits from a visionary or creative viewpoint.

  18. Child Care Administrative Software--Questions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Addresses questions concerning the selection and use of specialized child care administrative software packages. Examines the timing of the purchase, uniqueness of packages, selection considerations, long-term features, indicators of flexibility, cautions, technological change, and future trends. (SD)

  19. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support.

  20. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  1. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  2. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  3. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  4. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  5. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  6. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  7. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siejk, Cate

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  8. Moving Students' Questions out of the Parking Lot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This article provides teachers with ideas on how to address students' self-generated questions. Following a third-grade classroom, the article explores the use of a "parking lot" -- a repository for the seemingly off-task questions which curious students naturally pose. As students encounter informational text with genuine purposes,…

  9. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  10. Educators' Commonly Asked Questions about Assistive Technology Devices and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Deborah Parker

    This monograph, intended for Maine educators, presents basic information in question-and-answer format on assistive technology devices and services and the role of assistive technology in delivering appropriate education to children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Questions address the following topics: definitions;…

  11. Biologicals in rheumatoid arthritis: current and future

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Ali Berkant; Feist, Eugen; Burmester, Gerd-R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the review is to highlight the current knowledge about established and new biologicals and to summarise recent advances by focusing on comparative efficacy, safety and possible discontinuation of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Up to now, comparative analyses showed only minor differences with respect to efficacy and safety among the established biologicals. Studies confirmed the excellent drug retention rate as well as efficacy and safety of approved biologicals including their use in monotherapy. Tapering and in some instances discontinuation of biologicals is possible in disease remission. In case of relapse, patients usually show full response after reintroduction of the same compound. The development of biologicals continues fast with several new biologicals targeting different or established cytokines or cellular subsets of the immune system. With several new biologicals in the pipeline and different formulations for established compounds, treatment options for RA will become even more versatile and sophisticated. Although we get closer to the aim of decreasing the proportion of refractory patients, many questions have to be addressed in the near future regarding emerging biosimilars and biologicals with new modes of action. PMID:26535144

  12. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  13. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can influence activity, performance, and fitness. Allowing for these potential interactions, 10 questions on growth and maturation that have relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness are presented. The questions are not mutually exclusive and address several broadly defined topical areas: exercise and growth, body weight status (body mass index, adiposity rebound, "unhealthy weight gain"), movement proficiency (hypothesized barrier, role in obesity), individual differences, tracking, maturity-associated variation in performance, and corresponding variation in physical activity. Central to the discussion of each is the need for a biocultural approach recognizing the interactions of biology and behavior as potential influences on the variables of interest.

  14. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  16. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  17. The Questions of Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  18. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  19. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  20. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  1. Conservation Biology and real-world conservation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John G

    2006-06-01

    In the 20 years since Conservation Biology was launched with the aim of disseminating scientific knowledge to help conserve biodiversity and the natural world, our discipline has hugely influenced the practice of conservation. But we have had less impact outside the profession itself and we have not transformed that practice into an enterprise large enough to achieve our conservation goals. As we look to the next 20 years, we need to become more relevant and important to the societies in which we live. To do so, the discipline of conservation biology must generate answers even when full scientific knowledge is lacking, structure scientific research around polices and debates that influence what we value as conservationists, go beyond the certitude of the biological sciences into the more contextual debates of the social sciences, engage scientifically with human-dominated landscapes, and address the question of how conservation can contribute to the improvement of human livelihoods and the quality of human life.

  2. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  3. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  4. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  5. Exploration of question intonation in read American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrdal, Ann K.; Jilka, Matthias

    2003-10-01

    Several generally accepted intonational features of questions in American English have not been the subject of much empirical study: namely that wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal accents, and that their intonational contours are identical to those of declarative sentences, while yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal accents. The study addresses the following questions about question intonation: How frequently do yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal tones, and how often do wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal tones? How similar are the intonational contours and features of declarative sentences and wh-questions with phrase-final falls (L-L%)? How do the sentence pitch ranges of yes/no questions, wh-questions, and declarative sentences compare? Does a speaker's characteristic pitch range affect the character or frequency of occurrence of question phrasal-tones? Speaker and utterance pitch ranges and their relation to prosodic features of pitch accents and phrasal tones were observed in yes/no and in wh-questions, and compared to a sample of simple declarative sentences spoken by the same speakers: 5 female and 3 male American English professional voice talents. The same set of 12 sentences were read by each of the 8 speakers in the same contexts. Theoretical and practical implications of the results will be discussed.

  6. The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael R; Oakley, Todd H

    2007-01-01

    Background The last third of the 20th Century featured an accumulation of research findings that severely challenged the assumptions of the "Modern Synthesis" which provided the foundations for most biological research during that century. The foundations of that "Modernist" biology had thus largely crumbled by the start of the 21st Century. This in turn raises the question of foundations for biology in the 21st Century. Conclusion Like the physical sciences in the first half of the 20th Century, biology at the start of the 21st Century is achieving a substantive maturity of theory, experimental tools, and fundamental findings thanks to relatively secure foundations in genomics. Genomics has also forced biologists to connect evolutionary and molecular biology, because these formerly Balkanized disciplines have been brought together as actors on the genomic stage. Biologists are now addressing the evolution of genetic systems using more than the concepts of population biology alone, and the problems of cell biology using more than the tools of biochemistry and molecular biology alone. It is becoming increasingly clear that solutions to such basic problems as aging, sex, development, and genome size potentially involve elements of biological science at every level of organization, from molecule to population. The new biology knits together genomics, bioinformatics, evolutionary genetics, and other such general-purpose tools to supply novel explanations for the paradoxes that undermined Modernist biology. Open Peer Reviewers This article was reviewed by W.F. Doolittle, E.V. Koonin, and J.M. Logsdon. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Comments section. PMID:18036242

  7. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  8. Cloning: questions answered and unsolved.

    PubMed

    Latham, Keith E

    2004-02-01

    Cloning by the transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei to oocytes has produced viable offspring in a variety of mammalian species. The technology is still in its initial stages of development. Studies to date have answered several basic questions related to such issues as genome potency, life expectancy of clones, mitochondrial fates, and feasibility of inter-species nuclear transfer. They have also raised new questions related to the control of nuclear reprogramming and function. These questions are reviewed here.

  9. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  10. Classroom Questioning Techniques: The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael

    The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions was developed for use by teachers who wish to stimulate their students' critical thinking skills, but who find the terminology of existing skill taxonomies both confusing and elusive. This taxonomy consists of six levels of questions. Each level is given the name of a television program reflecting how the student…

  11. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  12. Seven Questions About Stroke and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Seizures and stroke are both common neurologic conditions, but when they occur in close temporal proximity they produce much more concern than either does alone. The stroke specialist (and the family) fear that convulsions will worsen the stroke because of acute hypertension and airway compromise, and the epileptologist is concerned that these acute seizures are the harbingers of later epilepsy. Other less commonly recognized but important aspects of this relationship are that subclinical seizures worsen some forms of stroke, and some anticonvulsants may have more adverse effects on stroke patients than they do in other groups. In surveying the connections between these two conditions, I have attempted to address seven questions. For some questions, there are data to help provide an answer; for others, there is only opinion; and for a maddening few, newer research is making older suggestions less certain. PMID:23447718

  13. Seven questions about stroke and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    Seizures and stroke are both common neurologic conditions, but when they occur in close temporal proximity they produce much more concern than either does alone. The stroke specialist (and the family) fear that convulsions will worsen the stroke because of acute hypertension and airway compromise, and the epileptologist is concerned that these acute seizures are the harbingers of later epilepsy. Other less commonly recognized but important aspects of this relationship are that subclinical seizures worsen some forms of stroke, and some anticonvulsants may have more adverse effects on stroke patients than they do in other groups. In surveying the connections between these two conditions, I have attempted to address seven questions. For some questions, there are data to help provide an answer; for others, there is only opinion; and for a maddening few, newer research is making older suggestions less certain. PMID:23447718

  14. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  15. Outstanding questions: physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John

    2012-02-28

    The Standard Model of particle physics agrees very well with experiment, but many important questions remain unanswered, among them are the following. What is the origin of particle masses and are they due to a Higgs boson? How does one understand the number of species of matter particles and how do they mix? What is the origin of the difference between matter and antimatter, and is it related to the origin of the matter in the Universe? What is the nature of the astrophysical dark matter? How does one unify the fundamental interactions? How does one quantize gravity? In this article, I introduce these questions and discuss how they may be addressed by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, with particular attention to the search for the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. PMID:22253238

  16. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  17. Minding Our P's through Q's: Addressing Possibilities and Precautions of Community Work through New Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Art therapists increasingly work outside traditional mental health treatment programs and facilitate art-making experiences within community-based settings. Although traditional mental health facilities provide frameworks for meeting ethical principles such as privacy, roles, consent to treatment, and setting therapeutic goals, community-based art…

  18. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  19. Methane emissions in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: issues addressed and questions raised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) has been studied during the last decade. Our investigation, including observational studies using hydrological, biogeochemical, geophysical, geo-electrical, microbiological, and isotopic methods, and modeling efforts to assess current subsea permafrost state and the ESAS' contribution to the regional CH4 budget, have clarified processes driving CH4 emissions in the ESAS and spilt some light on possible sources involvement. Despite some authors believe that CH4 fluxes from subsea permafrost in the ESAS will depend on rates of CH4 production in gradually thawing sediments while subsea permafrost will remain frozen for millennia, results of our investigation showed the opposite. Permafrost failure caused by long-lasting warming by sea water due to sea level rise, deep/open taliks formation due to combined heating effects of seawater, river runoff, geothermal flux, and pre-existing thermokarst and global-change-induced warming, determines destabilization of massive gas reservoirs, leading to large-scale CH4 releases, including release of pre-formed CH4 long preserved within/beneath subsea permafrost. Resultant rates of CH4 emissions over the ESAS vary spatially by 3-5 orders of magnitude. Re-drilling of subsea permafrost performed from the fast ice 30 years after it was first drilled in 1982-1983, revealed modern rates of subsea permafrost degradation. These results contradict previous hypotheses that: 1) taliks beneath thermokarst lakes always freeze after submergence; 2) rates of permafrost degradation after inundation decrease over time; and 3) thousands of years required to form escape paths for permafrost-preserved gas. Involvement of shallow relic hydrates is suggested based on results of experimental work with sediment cores extracted from the near-shore zone of the ESAS. In-situ investigations revealed that dissolved CH4 could remain in the seawater up to 1000 days, because oxidation rates are low. Storms could release some aqueous CH4 to atmosphere; dissolved CH4, captured beneath ice in winter, can spread via currents and escape to atmosphere through breaks in the ice. Progressive subsea permafrost thawing and decreasing ice extent could significantly increase CH4 emissions from the ESAS.

  20. Preparing for Parents: How Australian Teacher Education Is Addressing the Question of Parent-School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Barr, Jenny; Chapman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Parent-school engagement is widely embraced as a policy and educational ideal, yet to date there are few studies of how teacher education prepares students for this important aspect of their professional lives. In this paper, we consider findings from a recent Australian study that explored how the issue of parent-school relations is currently…

  1. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  2. Using Dimensional Data to Address Enrollment Management Questions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duniway, Bob; Wiegand, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment management is central to the success of a college or university. A school must enroll students into courses, completion of a series of which will lead to graduation. While all colleges and universities must manage the enrollment process at least operationally, it is challenging to keep track of all the related data that would allow for…

  3. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  4. Exotic models may offer unique opportunities to decipher specific scientific question: the case of Xenopus olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Jean; Amano, Tosikazu

    2013-09-01

    The fact that olfactory systems are highly conserved in all animal species from insects to mammals allow the generalization of findings from one species to another. Most of our knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of the olfactory system comes from data obtained in a very limited number of biological models such as rodents, Zebrafish, Drosophila, and a worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. These models have proved useful to answer most questions in the field of olfaction, and thus concentrating on these few models appear to be a pragmatic strategy. However, the diversity of the organization and physiology of the olfactory system amongst phyla appear to be greater than generally assumed and the four models alone may not be sufficient to address all the questions arising from the study of olfaction. In this article, we will illustrate the idea that we should take advantage of biological diversity to address specific scientific questions and will show that the Xenopus olfactory system is a very good model to investigate: first, olfaction in aerial versus aquatic conditions and second, mechanisms underlying postnatal reorganization of the olfactory system especially those controlled by tyroxine hormone.

  5. Sourcebook for Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Donald L.; And Others

    This is a reference book of curriculum and multimedia materials, equipment and supplies, professional references, and auxiliary resource material. This sourcebook attempts to meet the needs of the classroom biology teacher and is a direct response to the many questions and concerns of both biology teachers and those preparing to become teachers.…

  6. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  7. Science questions for the Magellan continuing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Stofan, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan has completed two mapping cycles around the planet Venus, returning high resolution synthetic aperture images and altimetry data of over 95 percent of the planet's surface. Venus is dominated by low lying volcanic plains with an impact crater population indicating an average surface age of about 500 million years. Highland regions either tend to be characterized by volcanic shield complexes and rifting or by complex ridged terrain. Successful as the primary mission of Magellan has been, significant scientific questions remain to be addressed with imaging and gravity data that will be collected over the next several years.

  8. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  9. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences. PMID:26946674

  10. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    PubMed Central

    Koziol-McLain, J.; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage. Objective—To measure the test-retest reliability of these injury related questions. Methods—Of 330 BRFSS participants, 229 (69%) were called a second time and reasked nine selected injury questions. Retests were completed 7–28 days after the original interview. Results—Test-retest agreement was very high (κ >0.80) for bicycle helmet use, domestic police visits, and gun ownership. All other injury risk questions had substantial agreement (κ >0.60). Conclusions—The injury related questions added to the Colorado BRFSS have high test-retest reliability. PMID:10875674

  11. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  12. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  13. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias; Putoczki, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late-stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new-targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre-clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278

  14. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias; Putoczki, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late-stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new-targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre-clinical development of new therapeutics.

  15. RESEARCH IN THERMAL BIOLOGY: BURNING QUESTIONS FOR COLDWATER STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past de...

  16. H2S during circulatory shock: Some unresolved questions

    PubMed Central

    McCook, Oscar; Radermacher, Peter; Volani, Chiara; Asfar, Pierre; Ignatius, Anita; Kemmler, Julia; Möller, Peter; Szabó, Csaba; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E.; Wang, Rui; Georgieff, Michael; Wachter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of “acute on chronic disease”, i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions i) of the “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and, ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable “on line” due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a “constitutive” CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states. PMID:24650697

  17. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is now widely used as a model system in molecular and developmental biology, as well as in physiology and cell biology. However, ecologists and evolutionary biologists have turned their attention to the mouse ear cress only much more recently and almost reluctantly. The reason for this is the perception that A. thaliana is not particularly interesting ecologically and that it represents an oddity from an evolutionary standpoint. While there is some truth in both these attitudes, similar criticisms apply to other model systems such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which has been extensively studied from an organismal perspective. Furthermore, the shortcomings of A. thaliana in terms of its restricted ecological niche are counterbalanced by the wealth of information on the molecular and developmental biology of this species, which makes possible to address evolutionary questions that can rarely be pursued in other species. This chapter reviews the history of the use of A. thaliana in organismal biology and discusses some of the recent work and future perspectives of research on a variety of field including life history evolution, phenotypic plasticity, natural selection and quantitative genetics. I suggest that the future of both molecular and especially organismal biology lies into expanding our knowledge from limited and idiosyncratic model systems to their phylogenetic neighborhood, which is bound to be more varied and biologically interesting. PMID:22303188

  18. Ecology and evolutionary biology of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is now widely used as a model system in molecular and developmental biology, as well as in physiology and cell biology. However, ecologists and evolutionary biologists have turned their attention to the mouse ear cress only much more recently and almost reluctantly. The reason for this is the perception that A. thaliana is not particularly interesting ecologically and that it represents an oddity from an evolutionary standpoint. While there is some truth in both these attitudes, similar criticisms apply to other model systems such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which has been extensively studied from an organismal perspective. Furthermore, the shortcomings of A. thaliana in terms of its restricted ecological niche are counterbalanced by the wealth of information on the molecular and developmental biology of this species, which makes possible to address evolutionary questions that can rarely be pursued in other species. This chapter reviews the history of the use of A. thaliana in organismal biology and discusses some of the recent work and future perspectives of research on a variety of field including life history evolution, phenotypic plasticity, natural selection and quantitative genetics. I suggest that the future of both molecular and especially organismal biology lies into expanding our knowledge from limited and idiosyncratic model systems to their phylogenetic neighborhood, which is bound to be more varied and biologically interesting. PMID:22303188

  19. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  20. Current advances in systems and integrative biology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Scott W.; Fernandes, Marco; Husi, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology has gained a tremendous amount of interest in the last few years. This is partly due to the realization that traditional approaches focusing only on a few molecules at a time cannot describe the impact of aberrant or modulated molecular environments across a whole system. Furthermore, a hypothesis-driven study aims to prove or disprove its postulations, whereas a hypothesis-free systems approach can yield an unbiased and novel testable hypothesis as an end-result. This latter approach foregoes assumptions which predict how a biological system should react to an altered microenvironment within a cellular context, across a tissue or impacting on distant organs. Additionally, re-use of existing data by systematic data mining and re-stratification, one of the cornerstones of integrative systems biology, is also gaining attention. While tremendous efforts using a systems methodology have already yielded excellent results, it is apparent that a lack of suitable analytic tools and purpose-built databases poses a major bottleneck in applying a systematic workflow. This review addresses the current approaches used in systems analysis and obstacles often encountered in large-scale data analysis and integration which tend to go unnoticed, but have a direct impact on the final outcome of a systems approach. Its wide applicability, ranging from basic research, disease descriptors, pharmacological studies, to personalized medicine, makes this emerging approach well suited to address biological and medical questions where conventional methods are not ideal. PMID:25379142

  1. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  2. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  3. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  4. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  5. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  6. Modeling and simulation of biological systems from image data

    PubMed Central

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2013-01-01

    This essay provides an introduction to the terminology, concepts, methods, and challenges of image-based modeling in biology. Image-based modeling and simulation aims at using systematic, quantitative image data to build predictive models of biological systems that can be simulated with a computer. This allows one to disentangle molecular mechanisms from effects of shape and geometry. Questions like “what is the functional role of shape” or “how are biological shapes generated and regulated” can be addressed in the framework of image-based systems biology. The combination of image quantification, model building, and computer simulation is illustrated here using the example of diffusion in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23533152

  7. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    asymmetry in the haze distribution? (vi) what is the direction of the near surface wind at different locations on the planet? JAXA's Akatsuki orbiter will soon begin collecting unique and valuable observations in April 2016 which will increase our knowledge, but other measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D, Venus Climate Mission or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. Many new missions to Venus are being developed or conceived and it is important to keep the key questions about Venus in focus.

  8. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  9. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  10. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  11. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Home > Education > Questions to Ask Your Doctor Education What is mbc? Diagnosis Guide for the Newly ... treatment in a community-based medical office. Consider distance from home, availability of specialists, access to clinical ...

  12. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  13. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  14. MicroRNA-regulated networks: the perfect storm for classical molecular biology, the ideal scenario for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Vera, Julio; Lai, Xin; Schmitz, Ulf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many regulatory pathways some of which are complex networks enriched in regulatory motifs like positive or negative feedback loops or coherent and incoherent feedforward loops. Their complexity makes the understanding of their regulation difficult and the interpretation of experimental data cumbersome. In this book chapter we claim that systems biology is the appropriate approach to investigate the regulation of these miRNA-regulated networks. Systems biology is an interdisciplinary approach by which biomedical questions on biochemical networks are addressed by integrating experiments with mathematical modelling and simulation. We here introduce the foundations of the systems biology approach, the basic theoretical and computational tools used to perform model-based analyses of miRNA-regulated networks and review the scientific literature in systems biology of miRNA regulation, with a focus on cancer.

  15. On the temporal interpretation of certain surprise questions.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This article considers a special kind of surprise questions, i.e. those introduced by the adversative particle ma (but), and compares it with surprise exclamations. The main issue addressed here concerns the obligatory presence in the questions of the imperfect verbal form, versus the obligatory presence in exclamations of a non-imperfect indicative. It will be shown that the special semantics associated with these structures determines the presence of a certain verbal form. Some syntactic issues will be addressed in the final section, having to do with the representation in the syntax of properties connected to the context. PMID:27610309

  16. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  17. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  18. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  19. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

  20. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  1. The insanity defense: asking and answering the ultimate question.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, J R; Clements, C

    1987-01-01

    The authors address the main questions in the insanity defense debate: Should it be abolished? Should psychiatrists participate as expert witnesses? Is the profession damaged by such testimony? Is there a logical leap between providing psychiatric findings and providing an opinion to the ultimate question? Because the free will/determinism model underlying the current insanity defense positions can be used to argue either side of the debate, it does not supply any rational answers. The authors reframe the discussion, using a systems approach, and suggest answers to these questions that are in line with the clinical realities and on a firmer philosophic ground.

  2. Systems biology: a biologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Bose, Biplab

    2013-12-01

    The debate over reductionism and antireductionism in biology is very old. Even the systems approach in biology is more than five decades old. However, mainstream biology, particularly experimental biology, has broadly sidestepped those debates and ideas. Post-genome data explosion and development of high-throughput techniques led to resurfacing of those ideas and debates as a new incarnation called Systems Biology. Though experimental biologists have co-opted systems biology and hailed it as a paradigm shift, it is practiced in different shades and understood with divergent meanings. Biology has certain questions linked with organization of multiple components and processes. Often such questions involve multilevel systems. Here in this essay we argue that systems theory provides required framework and abstractions to explore those questions. We argue that systems biology should follow the logical and mathematical approach of systems theory and transmogrification of systems biology to mere collection of higher dimensional data must be avoided. Therefore, the questions that we ask and the priority of those questions should also change. Systems biology should focus on system-level properties and investigate complexity without shying away from it.

  3. Systems biology: a biologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Bose, Biplab

    2013-12-01

    The debate over reductionism and antireductionism in biology is very old. Even the systems approach in biology is more than five decades old. However, mainstream biology, particularly experimental biology, has broadly sidestepped those debates and ideas. Post-genome data explosion and development of high-throughput techniques led to resurfacing of those ideas and debates as a new incarnation called Systems Biology. Though experimental biologists have co-opted systems biology and hailed it as a paradigm shift, it is practiced in different shades and understood with divergent meanings. Biology has certain questions linked with organization of multiple components and processes. Often such questions involve multilevel systems. Here in this essay we argue that systems theory provides required framework and abstractions to explore those questions. We argue that systems biology should follow the logical and mathematical approach of systems theory and transmogrification of systems biology to mere collection of higher dimensional data must be avoided. Therefore, the questions that we ask and the priority of those questions should also change. Systems biology should focus on system-level properties and investigate complexity without shying away from it. PMID:23872085

  4. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  5. Addressing Concerns and Taking on the Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Mintz, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors begin by addressing some of the questions raised about the Values Statement. They then focus on next steps, first briefly summarizing a few excellent suggestions made by the authors of the reaction papers and then zeroing in on the tension-wrought issue of when values regarding sexual orientation and religion…

  6. 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take…

  7. Addressing Equity within Science Education Courses: Sharing Approaches and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Bryan, Lynn; Hammrich, Penny; Lynch, Sharon; McGinnis, Randy; Pyle, Eric

    A discussion session provided opportunities for individuals involved in science teacher education to exchange approaches and ideas on how equity issues in science teaching and learning are being addressed in science teacher education courses. Evaluative questions included: (1) What conceptions of equity in science education underpin individual…

  8. On the Question of an Identity Status Category Order: Rasch Model Step and Scale Statistics Used to Identify Category Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Owidha, Amjed; Green, Kathy E.; Kroger, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether or not a developmental continuum underlies James Marcia's identity statuses has been a topic of debate among identity researchers for nearly 20 years. This study addressed the prefatory question of whether the identity statuses can be empirically ordered in a theoretically optimal way. This question was addressed via use of…

  9. Introduction to biology and chromosomal instabilities in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, K. M.; Ferrantini, A.; Domany, E.

    2010-10-01

    The recent decade has witnessed a surge of physicists to biology. Some of the activities of the participating groups focus on bona fide physics questions, posed on biological systems (such as the physics of molecular motors, for example). Another kind of research in which physicists take part alongside computer scientists and applied mathematicians, deals with questions that are of direct interest to biologists; they come under the umbrella of computational and systems biology. The topic of these lectures lies at the most biological end of this spectrum, addressing problems of clinical relevance which were posed and initiated by biologists. The objective of these lectures is to help the curious physicist to learn and to understand more about this emerging, highly interdisciplinary field of research, by providing brief introductions to molecular biology and cancer research. This is followed by a cursory review of some recent research done by the “Domany group” and its collaborations with biological and clinical labs. Furthermore, we mention (mainly in footnotes) a small subset of studies in which physicists have contributed to this field during the past years. A more detailed review of recent contributions by physicists is beyond the scope of this introductory text. The introductory nature of these lecture notes naturally induces a strong bias regarding publications cited; consequently, these lecture notes do not provide a fair, historically correct and updated review of relevant literature.

  10. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  11. Microfluidics: reframing biological enquiry.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Todd A; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2015-09-01

    The underlying physical properties of microfluidic tools have led to new biological insights through the development of microsystems that can manipulate, mimic and measure biology at a resolution that has not been possible with macroscale tools. Microsystems readily handle sub-microlitre volumes, precisely route predictable laminar fluid flows and match both perturbations and measurements to the length scales and timescales of biological systems. The advent of fabrication techniques that do not require highly specialized engineering facilities is fuelling the broad dissemination of microfluidic systems and their adaptation to specific biological questions. We describe how our understanding of molecular and cell biology is being and will continue to be advanced by precision microfluidic approaches and posit that microfluidic tools - in conjunction with advanced imaging, bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches - will transform biology into a precision science.

  12. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. PMID:26384372

  13. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/.

  14. The Media Effects Question: "Unresolvable" or Asking the Right Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    Critiques articles by Robert Kozma (IR 529 138) and Richard Clark (EJ 294 173) on the influence of media on learning. The author argues that Clark and Kozma are raising different questions and suggests that researchers focus on the effectiveness of whole units of instruction rather than on individual components. (Contains 14 references.) (KRN)

  15. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  16. Can we build a more efficient airplane? Using applied questions to teach physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Aatish

    2014-03-01

    For students and for the science-interested public, applied questions can serve as a hook to learn introductory physics. Can we radically improve the energy efficiency of modern day aircraft? Are solar planes like the Solar Impulse the future of travel? How do migratory birds like the alpine swift fly nonstop for nearly seven months? Using examples from aeronautical engineering and biology, I'll discuss how undergraduate physics can shed light on these questions about transport, and place fundamental constraints on the flight properties of flying machines, whether birds or planes. Education research has shown that learners are likely to forget vast content knowledge unless they get to apply this knowledge to novel and unfamiliar situations. By applying physics to real-life problems, students can learn to build and apply quantitative models, making use of skills such as order of magnitude estimates, dimensional analysis, and reasoning about uncertainty. This applied skillset allows students to transfer their knowledge outside the classroom, and helps build connections between traditionally distinct content areas. I'll also describe the results of an education experiment at Rutgers University where my colleagues and I redesigned a 100+ student introductory physics course for social science and humanities majors to address applied questions such as evaluating the energy cost of transport, and asking whether the United States could obtain all its energy from renewable sources.

  17. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  18. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  19. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  20. Distinguishing among Declarative, Descriptive and Causal Questions to Guide Field Investigations and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare V.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers as well as students often have difficulty formulating good research questions because not all questions lend themselves to scientific investigation. The following is a guide for high-school and college life-science teachers to help students define question types central to biological field studies. The mayfly nymph was selected as the…

  1. Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

  2. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  3. Beyond patchwork precaution in the dual-use governance of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of synthetic biology holds the potential of a major breakthrough in the life sciences by transforming biology into a predictive science. The dual-use characteristics of similar breakthroughs during the twentieth century have led to the application of benignly intended research in e.g. virology, bacteriology and aerobiology in offensive biological weapons programmes. Against this background the article raises the question whether the precautionary governance of synthetic biology can aid in preventing this techno-science witnessing the same fate? In order to address this question, this paper proceeds in four steps: it firstly introduces the emerging techno-science of synthetic biology and presents some of its potential beneficial applications. It secondly analyses contributions to the bioethical discourse on synthetic biology as well as precautionary reasoning and its application to life science research in general and synthetic biology more specifically. The paper then identifies manifestations of a moderate precautionary principle in the emerging synthetic biology dual-use governance discourse. Using a dual-use governance matrix as heuristic device to analyse some of the proposed measures, it concludes that the identified measures can best be described as "patchwork precaution" and that a more systematic approach to construct a web of dual-use precaution for synthetic biology is needed in order to guard more effectively against the field's future misuse for harmful applications.

  4. The First Questions of Social Studies: Initiating a Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, S. G.; VanSledright, B. A.

    1992-01-01

    Argues for a viable discourse community of the social studies profession. Suggests that such a professional conversation is characterized by an engaging and authentic topic and skilled conversationalists of equal status. Recommends that the first questions to be addressed deal with the nature of value, reality, and knowledge. (DK)

  5. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  6. Questions of Matter: Critical Conversations in Online Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Turnbull, Sarah; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    How professional development is delivered in today's networked world has shifted greatly, and research into online spaces of learning is growing. Numerous questions, however, remain regarding how online spaces can be leveraged to foster meaningful conversations that address current critical educational issues. This qualitative study examines the…

  7. Validating Two Questions in the Force Concept Inventory with Subquestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Jun-ichiro; Taniguchi, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the structural validity of Q.16 and Q.7 in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We address whether respondents who answer Q.16 and Q.7 correctly actually have an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. To examine respondents' levels of understanding, we use subquestions that test them on concepts…

  8. La CEQ et la Question Nationale et Linguistique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This report addresses the question of whether Canada is really a bilingual, multicultural nation, or a bilingual, monocultural nation, or a bilingual, bicultural nation. The history of Quebec is outlined and a comparison is made between the ethnic and linguistic composition of Quebec and the rest of Canada, showing that the percentage of people of…

  9. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The Tempest"; "Richard II";…

  10. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  11. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  12. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  13. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  14. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  15. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  16. Some Questions for Feminist Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Christopher G.

    Some questions about feminist rhetoric would include the following. Should a speaker resist the phallocentric rhetoric of the academy by refusing, resisting or otherwise willfully choosing not to say, "Here are my points, Here are my conclusions, Here is my argument that I hope to persuade you to believe?" Should a speaker foster a discourse that…

  17. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  18. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  19. The US Biology Education Standards, New Biology Curricula and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the events leading up to the current US biology education standards, a brief examination of the National Science Education Standards for biology, and a description of the three recently developed biology curricula that were designed to address the new standards. Several evaluative studies of these curricula…

  20. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  1. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  2. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  3. Behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Space Station research includes two kinds of adaption to space: somatic (the adjustments made by an organism, within its lifetime, in response to local conditions), and transgenerational adaption (continuous exposure across sequential life cycles of genetic descendents). Transgenerational effects are akin to evolutionary process. Areas of a life Sciences Program in a space station address the questions of the behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development, using the Norway rat as the focus of experimentation.

  4. Update on the genomics and basic biology of Brachypodium: International Brachypodium Initiative (IBI).

    PubMed

    Catalan, Pilar; Chalhoub, Boulos; Chochois, Vincent; Garvin, David F; Hasterok, Robert; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Mur, Luis A J; Pecchioni, Nicola; Rasmussen, Søren K; Vogel, John P; Voxeur, Aline

    2014-07-01

    The scientific presentations at the First International Brachypodium Conference (abstracts available at http://www.brachy2013.unimore.it) are evidence of the widespread adoption of Brachypodium distachyon as a model system. Furthermore, the wide range of topics presented (genome evolution, roots, abiotic and biotic stress, comparative genomics, natural diversity, and cell walls) demonstrates that the Brachypodium research community has achieved a critical mass of tools and has transitioned from resource development to addressing biological questions, particularly those unique to grasses.

  5. The Next Wave of Biological Agents for the Treatment of IBD: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Reena; Chande, Nilesh; Vermeire, Séverine; Sandborn, William J; Parker, Claire E; Feagan, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Multiple new biological treatments for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are becoming available. Specifically, vedolizumab and ustekinumab are monoclonal antibodies that target molecular pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis. What can Cochrane reviews tell us about the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of these new agents? A Cochrane inflammatory bowel disease group symposium held at the 2015 Digestive Diseases Week annual meeting addressed these questions. This article reviews the data presented at that session. PMID:27306074

  6. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  7. Biological invasions in agricultural settings: insights from evolutionary biology and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Ciosi, Marc; Lombaert, Eric; Estoup, Arnaud

    2011-03-01

    Invasion biology and agriculture are intimately related for several reasons and in particular because many agricultural pest species are recent invaders. In this article we suggest that the reconstruction of invasion routes with population genetics-based methods can address fundamental questions in ecology and practical aspects of the management of biological invasions in agricultural settings. We provide a brief description of the methods used to reconstruct invasion routes and describe their main characteristics. In particular, we focus on a scenario--the bridgehead invasion scenario --which had been overlooked until recently. We show that this scenario, in which an invasive population is the source of other invasive populations, is evolutionarily parsimonious and may have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution of many recent agricultural pests.

  8. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.

  9. Answering evolutionary questions: A guide for mechanistic biologists.

    PubMed

    Masel, Joanna; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-07-01

    The questions and methods of molecular biology and evolutionary biology are clearly distinct, yet a unified approach can lead to deep insights. Unfortunately, attempts to unify these approaches are fraught with pitfalls. In this informal series of questions and answers, we offer the mechanistically oriented biologist a set of steps to come up with evolutionarily reasonable and meaningful hypotheses. We emphasize the critical power and importance of carefully constructed null hypotheses, and we illustrate our ideas with examples representing a range of topics, from the biology of aging, to protein structure, to speciation, and more. We also stress the importance of mathematics as the lingua franca for biologists of all stripes, and encourage mechanistic biologists to seek out quantitative collaborators to build explicit mathematical models, making their assumptions explicit, and their logic clear and testable. Biologists in all realms of inquiry stand to gain from strong bridges between our disciplines. PMID:27151396

  10. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  11. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  12. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  13. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  14. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  15. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  16. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  17. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  18. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  2. Queering high school biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.

    2004-08-01

    As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.

  3. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  4. The paradox of premature mortality in schizophrenia: new research questions.

    PubMed

    Wildgust, Hiram Joseph; Hodgson, Richard; Beary, Mike

    2010-11-01

    The life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia is reduced by between 15 and 25 years. Those patients dying of natural causes die of the same diseases as in the general population. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) identified underlying global risk factors for mortality in the general population. However, there is little evidence in the literature assessing their validity in those with schizophrenia. The WHO report on global health risks (2009) identifies hypertension, smoking, raised glucose, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high cholesterol as the six leading global mortality risk factors. Currently, there are minimal data on the contribution to mortality that these risk factors make in schizophrenia, and their optimum management. Both short and long-term studies are needed to address these gaps. New research has raised important questions about risk balance with regards to ideal body mass, with some studies showing that being overweight is associated with lower all-cause mortality and lower suicide rates. Cardiorespiratory fitness is being recognized as a more powerful predictor of mortality than smoking, hypertension or diabetes in men. However, there are virtually no published data on assessment of fitness levels in schizophrenia. New studies have raised concerns about the quality of physical care for patients with schizophrenia, which is another important avenue of future research. A greater biological understanding of the relationship between these disorders and schizophrenia would inform clinical practice. Low birth weight has been associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and it will be important to explore this risk factor for both physical and mental health outcomes.

  5. The recent evolution of the question "What is life"?

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The question "What is life?" is absent from the writings of present-day biologists and scientists. However, an answer to this question, even if only partial, is needed for successful completion of projects in astrobiology and synthetic biology. The reasons for this absence are metaphysical, epistemological, and historical. No one has a full answer to this question, but there are many good reasons to keep posing it. Answers are no longer sought in the existence of strengths or mechanisms specific to life. The secret of life has been unveiled and it is nothing other than physical chemistry. What remains to be understood is the way the characteristics of organisms have emerged and been combined within one unique "object." The answer to the question "What is life?" is now looked for in the scenario that generated life.

  6. Landauer in the Age of Synthetic Biology: Energy Consumption and Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Lang, Alex H.; Schwab, David J.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing how it may be possible to overcome these limitations using "post-translational" synthetic biology that exploits reversible protein modification.

  7. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  8. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  9. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  10. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    4. How is the succession of native floodplain vegetation shaped by present-day flow and sediment conditions? Answering these questions will produce baseline data on the current distributions of landforms and habitats (question 1), the extent of the functional floodplain (question 2), and the effects of modern flow and sediment regimes on future floodplain landforms, habitats, and vegetation succession (questions 3 and 4). Addressing questions 1 and 2 is a logical next step because they underlie questions 3 and 4. Addressing these four questions would better characterize the modern Willamette Basin and help in implementing and setting realistic targets for ongoing management strategies, demonstrating their effectiveness at the site and basin scales, and anticipating future trends and conditions.

  14. Questionable measures are pretty meaningless.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas J L; Wong, Paul T P

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King argued that meaning in life (MIL) is widely experienced and exists at high levels. In this brief commentary, the current authors examine what they believe are several flaws in their argument: a lack of clarity in defining MIL; the questionable validity of the instruments used to measure MIL throughout Heintzelman and King's article; and an erroneous interpretation of quantitative reports of MIL from surveys and the academic literature.

  15. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  16. Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the "how" question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

  17. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  19. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

  20. Systems cell biology.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  1. Systems cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred D.; Ratushny, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology. PMID:25225336

  2. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  3. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  4. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  5. [Several important questions of epigenetics].

    PubMed

    Xue, Kaixian

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occurs without a change in DNA sequence. The development of epigenetics makes up for the insufficiency of classic genetics and promotes the development of genetics. The interrelationship between epigenetics and genetics is like a yin-yang, which are different from each other, and cooperatively take part in regulation of critical biological processes of development and evolution, etc. They constitute the two inseparable parts of genetics. The definition, research connotation and Chinese translation of epigenetics are also discussed.

  6. The chemical biology of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Zang, Wenwen; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yajun; He, Yanhua; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Jiajia; Zheng, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    The sirtuin family of enzymes are able to catalyze the N(ε)-acyl-lysine deacylation reaction on histone and non-histone protein substrates. Over the past years since the discovery of its founding member (i.e. the yeast silent information regulator 2 (sir2) protein) in 2000, the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has been demonstrated to play an important regulatory role in multiple crucial cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage repair, and metabolism. This reaction has also been regarded as a current therapeutic target for human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. The unique β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD(+) or NAD(+))-dependent nature of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has also engendered extensive mechanistic studies, resulting in a mechanistic view of the enzyme chemistry supported by several lines of experimental evidence. On the journey toward these knowledge advances, chemical biological means have constituted an important functional arsenal; technically, a variety of chemical probes and modulators (inhibitors and activators) have been developed and some of them have been employed toward an enhanced mechanistic and functional (pharmacological) understanding of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction. On the other hand, an enhanced mechanistic understanding has also facilitated the development of a variety of chemical probes and modulators. This article will review the tremendous accomplishments achieved during the past few years in the field of sirtuin chemical biology. It is hoped that this would also help to set a stage for how outstanding mechanistic and functional questions for the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction could be addressed in the future from the chemical biology perspective.

  7. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  8. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  9. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  10. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  11. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  12. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  13. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  14. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2006-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  15. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  16. Legal Challenges and Pitfalls for Start-up Companies - 48 Common Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Transforming a business idea into reality requires a legal implementation plan. The following 48 questions and answers address key issues that typically arise in start-up situations. Early planning can help avoid costly mistakes. PMID:26508601

  17. Educational Computing and the Ecological Crisis: Some Questions about Our Curriculum Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes that although society is in the "Information Age," humans still must work interdependently with their natural resources. Addresses three question concerning the use of computers and how they relate to society's ecological awareness. (GG)

  18. Evolution of natural history information in the 21st century – developing an integrated framework for biological and geographical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Threats to marine and estuarine species operate over many spatial scales, from nutrient enrichment at the watershed/estuarine scale to invasive species and climate change at regional and global scales. To help address research questions across these scales, we provide here a standardized framework for a biogeographical information system containing queriable biological data that allows extraction of information on multiple species, across a variety of spatial scales based on species distributions, natural history attributes and habitat requirements. As scientists shift from research on localized impacts on individual species to regional and global scale threats, macroecological approaches of studying multiple species over broad geographical areas are becoming increasingly important. The standardized framework described here for capturing and integrating biological and geographical data is a critical first step towards addressing these macroecological questions and we urge organizations capturing biogeoinformatics data to consider adopting this framework.

  19. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    perspectives for future applications. We are most grateful that you agreed with the special format of the symposium which clearly does not follow conven- tional conferences. Allow me to call your special attention once again to two main differences: The presentations are not review papers praising already achieved break-throughs but introductions to a list of open questions and issues for which our understanding is still unsatisfactory. To give such presentations requires courage and scientific integrity. I would like to thank all speakers now already for their willingness to cope with such a difficult task. We have allocated at least 50 minutes for discussion after each presentation not only for discussing the paper as such but, if possible, to find answers to the open questions. If one or several participants in the audience during the discussion think they can contribute to improving our understanding of heterostructures, they are invited to write their ideas up and, if the referees agree, we are more than happy to publish these ideas in the proceedings. We admit that the program is rather demanding. For that reason, we plan to have a break on Thursday afternoon by first going to Denmark and touring the Hamlet castle of Kronborg. We then sail back to Sweden and will be hosted by the Krapperup castle where we will have a candle-light dinner and thereafter a baroque music concert featuring the Concerto Copenhagen. All participants, observers, and accompanying spouses are invited and we hope you will all enjoy the excur- sion. The local organising committee acknowledges with pleasure the financial and all other support received from the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Institute of Physics as well as the initial initiative taken by the chairman of the Nobel Com- mittee for Physics, Prof. Nordling, who was the first to suggest this Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semicon- ductors". Special thanks also to the members of the program committee who have been of inestimable

  20. [Presidential address at the 20th Journees sur la Fertilite et l'Orthogenie].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1993-01-01

    Recollections of the author's early experiences in French family planning and reflections on the ethical issues and legal status of new fertility technologies are the major topics of this address. The group that was to become le Mouvement francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF) was founded in 1956 by the author and others and opened its first family planning center in 1961, before contraception became legal. Despite opposition from physicians and Catholic clergy, the MFPF operated 100 centers serving over 100,000 clients by 1965. In 1969 the MFPF began a study of abortion. Despite legalization, the controversy concerning the legitimacy of abortion has not subsided. More recently, the practices of artificial insemination with donor sperm, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and other medically assisted fertility technologies have raised moral, ethical, and legal questions for all societies. The questions range from the legitimacy of gamete donation to the status of unused embryos. The dissociation of different stages of the reproductive process affects concepts of filiation, paternity and maternity. In the absence of appropriate legislation, it has been left largely to the courts to create a new body of law at this frontier. The review of legislation in France, elsewhere in Europe, and in the U.S. concerning contested filiation in cases of artificial insemination, the legitimacy of insemination of a woman after the death of her spouse, the preservation and donation of embryos, surrogate motherhood, the child's rights to information about his biological parents, and other questions indicate that no consensus has yet emerged concerning the admissibility and legitimacy of specific practices. It would be highly desirable for the European countries to adopt a common legislation in these areas.

  1. Grids: The Top Ten Questions

    DOE PAGES

    Schopf, Jennifer M.; Nitzberg, Bill

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become a reachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. A distributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefits to scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technical challenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasive security, and standards, while socio-political issues include building a user community, adding incentives for sites to be part of a user-centric environment, and educating funding sources about the needs of this community. This paper details the areasmore » relating to Grid research that we feel still need to be addressed to fully leverage the advantages of the Grid.« less

  2. Fixing past mistakes. Answers to questions about reviews, refunds, disclosures.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    A medical group must address practical and legal issues when it discovers improper payments, billing mistakes or alleged misconduct. Its response has a significant impact on how the charges are resolved. A group and its providers can come under fraud and abuse investigations, whistle-blower allegations and Medicare payment reviews. Many questions arise in response to billing errors or allegations of misconduct. PMID:14571591

  3. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  4. Asexuality: few facts, many questions.

    PubMed

    Van Houdenhove, Ellen; Gijs, Luk; T'Sjoen, Guy; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been increasing interest in asexuality during the past decade, still little is known on this topic. To define asexuality, three different approaches have been proposed: a definition that is based on sexual behavior, one on sexual desire/sexual attraction, one on self-identification, and one on a combination of these. Depending on the definition used, reported prevalence rates range from 0.6% to 5.5%. In this article, the authors present characteristics of asexuality and review biological, psychological, and sociodemographic factors associated with asexuality. Given the suggestion of existing overlap with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, special attention is paid to similarities and differences between this condition and asexuality. It is further noted that theoretical models to understand (the etiology) of asexuality are underdeveloped. PMID:24134401

  5. Some questions of space bioengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyiri, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    Zero-gravity offers selective effect on growth and metabolic activity unicellular organisms as well as unique opportunities in purification of organic compounds. These make it possible to consider the biosynthesis and recovery of certain metabolites economically feasible in space. Design, construction and operation of systems for the above mentioned purposes requires interdisciplinary actions within the scope of a new discipline: space bioengineering. The problems and perspectives of this discipline particularly in the application of bioreactor-recovery systems in space to manufacture metabolites of high economic and scientific value. Special attention is paid to pivotal factors such as various mass transport phenomena, contamination control, automatic control of optimum environment and synchronization of the operation of the biological (biosynthesis) and the physiochemical (recovery-purification) systems.

  6. Asexuality: few facts, many questions.

    PubMed

    Van Houdenhove, Ellen; Gijs, Luk; T'Sjoen, Guy; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been increasing interest in asexuality during the past decade, still little is known on this topic. To define asexuality, three different approaches have been proposed: a definition that is based on sexual behavior, one on sexual desire/sexual attraction, one on self-identification, and one on a combination of these. Depending on the definition used, reported prevalence rates range from 0.6% to 5.5%. In this article, the authors present characteristics of asexuality and review biological, psychological, and sociodemographic factors associated with asexuality. Given the suggestion of existing overlap with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, special attention is paid to similarities and differences between this condition and asexuality. It is further noted that theoretical models to understand (the etiology) of asexuality are underdeveloped.

  7. Plant cutin genesis: unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Eva; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    The genesis of cutin, the main lipid polymer present in the biosphere, has remained elusive for many years. Recently, two main approaches have attempted to explain the process of cutin polymerization. One describes the existence of an acyltransferase cutin synthase enzyme that links activated monomers of cutin in the outer cell wall, while the other shows that plant cutin is the final result of an extracellular nonenzymatic self-assembly and polymerizing process of cutin monomers. In this opinion article, we explain both models and suggest that they could be pieces of a more complex biological scenario. We also highlight their different characteristics and current limitations, and suggest a potential synergism of both hypotheses.

  8. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  9. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  10. Drug discovery FAQs: workflows for answering multidomain drug discovery questions.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.

  11. Forming a Research Question from a Multi-Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: It is not uncommon for individuals to ask biostatisiticians and epidemiologists to assist them with a research project. Often the request is in the shape of statistical analyses. However, most of these requests are nothing more than missed opportunities. This manuscript focuses on the reasons underlying such a statement. Most individuals might say that the most important aspect of a study is its conclusion. Many who would disagree with this sentiment and would feel that the most important aspect of a study rather is the question it intends to address. If this question is not articulated sufficiently, any additional information stemming from the study will most likely be irrelevant. Herein, some principles for formulating (successfully) a question from a multi-center database will be described. PMID:19361039

  12. Models in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the most popular models currently being chosen for biological research and the reasons behind those choices. Among the current favorites are zebra fish, fruit flies, mice, monkeys, and yeast. Concludes with a brief examination of the ethical issues involved, and why some animals may need to be replaced in research with model systems.…

  13. Chirality, quantum mechanics, and biological determinism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The holy grail of astrobiology is the discovery of a second sample of life that has emerged de novo, independently of life on Earth (as opposed to extraterrestrial life that shares a common origin with terrestrial life via a panspermia process). It would then be possible to separate aspects of biology that are lawlike and expected from those that are accidental and contingent, and thus to address the question of whether the laws of nature are intrinsically bio-friendly. The popular assumption that life is an almost inevitable product of physics and chemistry, and therefore widespread in the universe, is known as biological determinism. It remains an open question whether biological determinism is correct, as there is little direct evidence in its favour from fundamental physics. Homochirality is a deep property of known life, and provides an important test case for the competing ideas of contingency versus lawfulness - or chance versus necessity. Conceivably, a chiral signature is imprinted on life by fundamental physics via parity-violating mixing of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. If so, homochirality would be universal and lawlike. On the other hand, it may be the result of chance: a random molecular accident during the pre-biotic phase. If the latter explanation is correct, one could expect that a second sample of life may have opposite chiral signature even if it resembled known life in its basic biochemistry. There is thus a curious obverse relationship between chirality and biogenesis in relation to biological determinism. If the chiral signature of life is the product of chance, we may hope to discover "mirror life" (i.e. organisms with opposite chiral signature) as evidence of a second genesis, and the latter would establish that life's emergence from non-life is quasi-deterministic. On the other hand, if the chiral signature is determined by fundamental physics, then it may be much harder to establish an independent origin for extraterrestrial

  14. Evidence-based medicine for diagnostic questions.

    PubMed

    Evers, Johannes L H; Land, Jolande A; Mol, Ben W

    2003-02-01

    When searching the medical care literature for evidence on a diagnostic test, three questions should be addressed each time a study is found: (1) Is this evidence about a diagnostic test valid? (2) Does the test accurately discriminate between patients who do and patients who do not have a specific disorder? (3) Can the test be applied to this patient who is right now sitting in front of me? We will discuss hysterosalpingography (HSG) as an example of a valid and accurate diagnostic test to be applied in a general population of subfertile couples to assess tubal patency (specificity 0.83). HSG is an unreliable test for diagnosing tubal occlusion however (sensitivity 0.65). If HSG were normal, other investigations could be pursued and diagnostic laparoscopy (LS) only performed if conception had not occurred by a later date. If HSG were abnormal, LS would be needed to confirm or exclude tubal occlusion. Patients with risk factors for pelvic or tubal disease, including an abnormal Chlamydia antibody test (CAT) and those showing abnormalities at pelvic examination, should proceed directly to LS because they are significantly more likely to have pelvic pathology. A completely different issue would be HSG as a prognostic test for the occurrence of pregnancy. In theory, the occurrence of pregnancy may be considered a gold standard; however, in reproductive medicine, with so many causes of subfertility other than tubal pathology, a diagnostic test for one single disorder, if normal, will never be able to accurately predict the eventual occurrence of pregnancy.

  15. The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Weimer, Katja; Horing, Björn; Zipfel, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analyses and re-analyses of trial data have not been able to answer some of the essential questions that would allow prediction of placebo responses in clinical trials. We will confront these questions with current empirical evidence. The most important question asks whether the placebo response rates in the drug arm and in the placebo arm are equal. This ‘additive model’ is a general assumption in almost all placebo-controlled drug trials but has rarely been tested. Secondly, we would like to address whether the placebo response is a function of the likelihood of receiving drug/placebo. Evidence suggests that the number of study arms in a trial may determine the size of the placebo and the drug response. Thirdly, we ask what the size of the placebo response is in ‘comparator’ studies with a direct comparison of a (novel) drug against another drug. Meta-analytic and experimental evidence suggests that comparator studies may produce higher placebo response rates when compared with placebo-controlled trials. Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laboratory and outside of trials in clinical routine. This question poses a serious challenge whether the drug response in trials can be taken as evidence of drug effects in clinical routine. PMID:21576146

  16. Unresolved questions in human copper pump mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2015-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential transition metal providing activity to key enzymes in the human body. To regulate the levels and avoid toxicity, cells have developed elaborate systems for loading these enzymes with Cu. Most Cu-dependent enzymes obtain the metal from the membrane-bound Cu pumps ATP7A/B in the Golgi network. ATP7A/B receives Cu from the cytoplasmic Cu chaperone Atox1 that acts as the cytoplasmic shuttle between the cell membrane Cu importer, Ctr1 and ATP7A/B. Biological, genetic and structural efforts have provided a tremendous amount of information for how the proteins in this pathway work. Nonetheless, basic mechanistic-biophysical questions (such as how and where ATP7A/B receives Cu, how ATP7A/B conformational changes and domain-domain interactions facilitate Cu movement through the membrane, and, finally, how target polypeptides are loaded with Cu in the Golgi) remain elusive. In this perspective, unresolved inquiries regarding ATP7A/B mechanism will be highlighted. The answers are important from a fundamental view, since mechanistic aspects may be common to other metal transport systems, and for medical purposes, since many diseases appear related to Cu transport dysregulation. PMID:26537407

  17. A Case Study of Question Formations of the Saudi EFL Learners at Bisha University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed Al-Hassaani, Abdulbari Mahboob

    2016-01-01

    This paper has studied the question formation techniques used by the Saudi students at Bisha University. It addresses the problems faced by the students in forming questions in English. The study has identified that a large number of the students suffer from the lack of proper grammar rules in forming various types of interrogative sentences and…

  18. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  19. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  20. Alternative Physics Examination Questions: Identification and Explanation of Different Discriminating Powers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of unfairness arises in high-stakes public examinations when students choose questions from alternatives that are offered and marks on the alternatives turn out to be discrepant. This paper addresses and defines unfairness and discrepancy in the context of alternative questions in Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations (TEE) in Western…

  1. Input Consistency in the Acquisition of Questions in Bulgarian and English: A Hypothesis Testing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornyova, Lidiya

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to address several major empirical and theoretical issues related to English-speaking children's difficulties with auxiliary use and inversion in questions. The empirical data on English question acquisition are inconsistent due to differences in methods and techniques used. A range of proposals about the source of…

  2. Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

  3. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  4. It's more than stamp collecting: how genome sequencing can unify biological research.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences, especially the human reference, has revolutionized the study of biology. However, while the genomes of some species have been fully sequenced, a wide range of biological problems still cannot be effectively studied for lack of genome sequence information. Here, I identify neglected areas of biology and describe how both targeted species sequencing and more broad taxonomic surveys of the tree of life can address important biological questions. I enumerate the significant benefits that would accrue from sequencing a broader range of taxa, as well as discuss the technical advances in sequencing and assembly methods that would allow for wide-ranging application of whole-genome analysis. Finally, I suggest that in addition to 'big science' survey initiatives to sequence the tree of life, a modified infrastructure-funding paradigm would better support reference genome sequence generation for research communities most in need.

  5. It’s More Than Stamp Collecting: How Genome Sequencing Can Unify Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences, especially the human reference, has revolutionized the study of biology. However, whilst the genomes of some species have been fully sequenced, a wide range of biological problems still cannot be effectively studied for lack of genome sequence information. Here, I identify neglected areas of biology and describe how both targeted species sequencing and more broad taxonomic surveys of the tree of life can address important biological questions. I enumerate the significant benefits that would accrue from sequencing a broader range of taxa, as well as discuss the technical advances in sequencing and assembly methods that would allow for wide-ranging application of whole-genome analysis. Finally, I suggest that in addition to “Big Science” survey initiatives to sequence the tree of life, a modified infrastructure-funding paradigm would better support reference genome sequence generation for research communities most in need. PMID:26003218

  6. Understanding of Energy in Biology and Vitalistic Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka; Chipman, David

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the possible connection between misconceptions of energy in biological phenomena and adherence to scientifically oriented conceptions of biology. Makes recommendations for basing the biology curriculum on the second law of thermodynamics. Contains 31 references. (DDR)

  7. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  8. Vibrations, quanta and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2013-07-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme - the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  9. Robustness: confronting lessons from physics and biology.

    PubMed

    Lesne, Annick

    2008-11-01

    The term robustness is encountered in very different scientific fields, from engineering and control theory to dynamical systems to biology. The main question addressed herein is whether the notion of robustness and its correlates (stability, resilience, self-organisation) developed in physics are relevant to biology, or whether specific extensions and novel frameworks are required to account for the robustness properties of living systems. To clarify this issue, the different meanings covered by this unique term are discussed; it is argued that they crucially depend on the kind of perturbations that a robust system should by definition withstand. Possible mechanisms underlying robust behaviours are examined, either encountered in all natural systems (symmetries, conservation laws, dynamic stability) or specific to biological systems (feedbacks and regulatory networks). Special attention is devoted to the (sometimes counterintuitive) interrelations between robustness and noise. A distinction between dynamic selection and natural selection in the establishment of a robust behaviour is underlined. It is finally argued that nested notions of robustness, relevant to different time scales and different levels of organisation, allow one to reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements for robustness and adaptability in living systems. PMID:18823391

  10. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  11. Indirect Review and Priming Through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothkopf, Ernst Z.; Billington, Marjorie J.

    1974-01-01

    The hypothesis that being questioned about a narrow topic while reading enhances the recall of other material closely related is supported. The relationship between the performances facilitating adjunct questions requires further explanation. (Author/BJG)

  12. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  13. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  14. The Resurgence of Biological Determinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Elizabeth A.; Kilty, Keith M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two areas where science has been and still is used to justify policies and attitudes that are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. This article analyzes the debate over whether these correlations are biologically or socially determined. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the…

  15. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  16. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  17. Validating two questions in the Force Concept Inventory with subquestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun-ichiro; Taniguchi, Masa-aki

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we evaluate the structural validity of Q.16 and Q.7 in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We address whether respondents who answer Q.16 and Q.7 correctly actually have an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. To examine respondents’ levels of understanding, we use subquestions that test them on concepts believed to be required to answer the actual FCI questions. Our sample size comprises 111 respondents; we derive false-positive ratios for prelearners and postlearners and then statistically test the difference between them. We find a difference at the 0.05 significance level for both Q.16 and Q.7, implying that it is possible for postlearners to answer both questions without an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions; therefore, the structures of Q.16 and Q.7 are invalid. In this study, we only evaluate the validity of these two FCI questions; we do not assess the validity of previous studies that have compared total FCI scores.

  18. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  19. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  20. Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

  1. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  2. Questions ouvertes/questions fermees: une dichotomie qui appelle une analyse critique (Open Questions/Closed Questions: A Dichotomy that Calls for a Critical Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Shirley; Bried, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Among the strategies used by the adult to engage the child in a linguistic interaction, those involving questioning occupy a central position. One of the parameters usually taken into account to differentiate the type of questions directed to the child is the opposition between closed (i.e., yes/no) and open-ended questions. The relevance of that…

  3. What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)

  4. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  5. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  6. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  7. Questioning and Teaching. A Manual of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    Questions and questioning play a major role in both formal and informal educative processes. They are the means by which a child expresses the desire to understand the world outside and they subsequently become the means by which a teacher assesses whether or not a child has satisfactorily assimilated something. This book considers questions from…

  8. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  9. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  10. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  11. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  12. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  13. EDITORIAL: MEMS in biology and medicine MEMS in biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Beth L.; Herr, Amy E.

    2011-05-01

    Stimulating—the first word that springs to mind regarding the emerging and expanding role of MEMS in biological inquiry. When invited to guest-edit this special issue on 'MEMS in biology and medicine' for JMM, we jumped at the opportunity. Partly owing to the breadth of the stimulating research in this nascent area and partly owing to the stimulating of biological function made possible with MEMS accessible length and time scales, we were eager to assemble manuscripts detailing some of the most cutting edge biological research being conducted around the globe. In addition to cutting edge engineering, this special issue features challenging biological questions addressed with innovative MEMS technologies. Topics span from Yetisen and colleagues' inquiry into quantifying pollen tube behaviour in response to pistil tissues [1] to Morimoto and colleagues' engineering efforts to produce monodisperse droplets capable of encapsulating single cells (without surface modification) [2]. Questions are bold, including a means to achieve therapeutically-relevant scaling for enrichment of leukocytes from blood (Inglis et al [3]), assessing the dependence of Escherichia coli biofilm formation on bacterial signalling (Meyer et al [4]), and elucidation of adhesion dynamics of circulating tumour cells (Cheung et al [5]) among others. Technologies are diverse, including microfabricated magnetic actuators (Lee et al [6]), stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposites (Hess et al [7]), and SU-8 electrothermal microgrippers (Chu et al [8]) to name but a few. Contributing authors do indeed span a large swathe of the globe, with contributions from Australia, Italy, China, Canada, Denmark, Japan, the USA and numerous other locations. Collaboration finds a home here—with researchers from macromolecular science and electrical engineering collaborating with the Veterans Affairs Medical Center or neurosurgery researchers working with biological and electrical engineers. The questions posed by

  14. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  15. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  16. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  17. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  18. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...