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Sample records for address complex environmental

  1. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  2. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  3. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  4. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  5. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  6. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  7. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  8. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  9. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J. ); Austin, R. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure.

  10. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  11. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  12. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  13. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  14. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  15. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify the significance of intertextuality in students' realizations of low- and high-complexity discourses. In the high-complexity event, we show how students take on different roles and use modality and projection as grammatical resources for opening up, for different positions, multiple voices, and various contextual resources. Successful handling of complexity is construed by the interplay between students' roles in the discourse and resources in language for making multiple voices present. In the high-complexity event, the handling of complexity is guided by the students' sense of purpose. Handling complexity is demanding, and explicit scaffolding is necessary to prevent a potentially complex challenge from being treated as a simple one.

  16. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-01

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible. PMID:26862684

  17. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  18. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  19. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  20. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  1. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  2. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  3. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  4. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications. PMID:22483262

  5. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  6. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  7. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  8. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  9. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  10. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  11. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  12. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  13. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  14. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  15. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  16. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  17. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers.

  18. Environmental complex mixture toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gardner, H S; Brennan, L M; Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Boncavage-Hennessey, E M; Wolfe, M J

    1998-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was found as a contaminant in the well supplying water to an aquatic testing laboratory. The groundwater was routinely screened by a commercial laboratory for volatile and semivolatile compounds, metals, herbicides, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods. Although TCE was the only reportable peak on the gas chromatograph, with average concentrations of 0.200 mg/l, other small peaks were also present, indicating the possibility that the contamination was not limited to TCE alone. A chronic 6-month carcinogenicity assay was conducted on-site in a biomonitoring trailer, using the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) in an initiation-promotion protocol, with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as the initiator and the TCE-contaminated groundwater as a promoter. Study results indicated no evidence of carcinogenic potential of the groundwater without initiation. There was, however, a tumor-promotional effect of the groundwater after DEN initiation. A follow-up laboratory study was conducted using reagent grade TCE added to carbon-filtered groundwater to simulate TCE concentrations comparable to those found in the contaminated groundwater. Study results indicated no promotional effects of TCE. These studies emphasize the necessity for on-site bioassays to assess potential environmental hazards. In this instance, chemical analysis of the groundwater identified TCE as the only reportable contaminant, but other compounds present below reportable limits were noted and may have had a synergistic effect on tumor promotion observed with the groundwater exposure. Laboratory toxicity testing of single compounds can produce toxicity data specific to that compound for that species but cannot take into account the possible toxic effects of mixtures of compounds.

  19. Environmental complex mixture toxicity assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, H S; Brennan, L M; Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Boncavage-Hennessey, E M; Wolfe, M J

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was found as a contaminant in the well supplying water to an aquatic testing laboratory. The groundwater was routinely screened by a commercial laboratory for volatile and semivolatile compounds, metals, herbicides, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods. Although TCE was the only reportable peak on the gas chromatograph, with average concentrations of 0.200 mg/l, other small peaks were also present, indicating the possibility that the contamination was not limited to TCE alone. A chronic 6-month carcinogenicity assay was conducted on-site in a biomonitoring trailer, using the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) in an initiation-promotion protocol, with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as the initiator and the TCE-contaminated groundwater as a promoter. Study results indicated no evidence of carcinogenic potential of the groundwater without initiation. There was, however, a tumor-promotional effect of the groundwater after DEN initiation. A follow-up laboratory study was conducted using reagent grade TCE added to carbon-filtered groundwater to simulate TCE concentrations comparable to those found in the contaminated groundwater. Study results indicated no promotional effects of TCE. These studies emphasize the necessity for on-site bioassays to assess potential environmental hazards. In this instance, chemical analysis of the groundwater identified TCE as the only reportable contaminant, but other compounds present below reportable limits were noted and may have had a synergistic effect on tumor promotion observed with the groundwater exposure. Laboratory toxicity testing of single compounds can produce toxicity data specific to that compound for that species but cannot take into account the possible toxic effects of mixtures of compounds. Images Figure 2 PMID:9860885

  20. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  1. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  2. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  3. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  4. Applying an Environmental Model to Address High-Risk Drinking: A Town/Gown Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John B.; Downs, Tracy T.; Cohen, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a case study of a project by the University of Delaware and the City of Newark to apply an environmental model to address the excessive use of alcohol by college students. Data about changes in the behavior and experiences of students over a 10-year period are compared. The authors discuss some of the practical implications…

  5. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  6. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addressing environmental concerns? 224.102 Section 224.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  7. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  8. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  9. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  10. Much Can Be Learned about Addressing Antibiotic Resistance from Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Steinar; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a common-pool resource challenge. This means that efforts to address ABR can learn from similar collective action problems faced within the environmental sector. Multilateral environmental agreements are the backbone of global environmental governance. Their ability to effectively solve environmental problems depends on the problem structure and the regime's problem-solving capacity. The success or failure of environmental agreements is mainly determined by the problem structure, including the degree of political consensus and scientific certainty. But agreements' institutional design also matter because they can change the problem structure and problem-solving capacity. Based on experiences with environmental agreements, an international ABR agreement should contain robust reporting/verification procedures, sanctions for non-compliance, assistance for implementation, majority vote decision-making rules, a strong secretariat, an independent scientific panel, and specific commitments. More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible. PMID:26243243

  11. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  12. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits.

  13. Environmental issues related to mineral development in the Stillwater Complex, Mt. Information Circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nigbor, M.T.; Iverson, S.R.; Hyndman, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines publication identifies the significant environmental issues associated with the potential development of strategic and critical minerals in the Stillwater Complex, MT. The Stillwater Complex contains deposits of Cr, platinum-group metals (PGM), and Ni. Issues that must be addressed prior to minerals development include the effects mining, milling, and smelting will have on the land, water, and air, and methods of minimizing the environmental impacts.

  14. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  15. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  16. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  17. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  18. Green primaries: environmentally friendly energetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Huynh, My Hang V; Hiskey, Michael A; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-04-01

    Primary explosives are used in small quantities to generate a detonation wave when subjected to a flame, heat, impact, electric spark, or friction. Detonation of the primary explosive initiates the secondary booster or main-charge explosive or propellant. Long-term use of lead azide and lead styphnate as primary explosives has resulted in lead contamination at artillery and firing ranges and become a major health hazard and environmental problem for both military and civilian personnel. Devices using lead primary explosives are manufactured by the tens of millions every year in the United States from primers for bullets to detonators for mining. Although substantial synthetic efforts have long been focused on the search for greener primary explosives, this unresolved problem has become a "holy grail" of energetic materials research. Existing candidates suffer from instability or excessive sensitivity, or they possess toxic metals or perchlorate. We report here four previously undescribed green primary explosives based on complex metal dianions and environmentally benign cations, (cat)(2)[M(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)] (where cat is NH(4)(+) or Na(+), M is Fe(2+) or Cu(2+), and NT(-) is 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)). They are safer to prepare, handle, and transport than lead compounds, have comparable initiation efficiencies to lead azide, and offer rapid reliable detonation comparable with lead styphnate. Remarkably, they possess all current requirements for green primary explosives and are suitable to replace lead primary explosives in detonators. More importantly, they can be synthesized more safely, do not pose health risks to personnel, and cause much less pollution to the environment.

  19. Green primaries: Environmentally friendly energetic complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-01-01

    Primary explosives are used in small quantities to generate a detonation wave when subjected to a flame, heat, impact, electric spark, or friction. Detonation of the primary explosive initiates the secondary booster or main-charge explosive or propellant. Long-term use of lead azide and lead styphnate as primary explosives has resulted in lead contamination at artillery and firing ranges and become a major health hazard and environmental problem for both military and civilian personnel. Devices using lead primary explosives are manufactured by the tens of millions every year in the United States from primers for bullets to detonators for mining. Although substantial synthetic efforts have long been focused on the search for greener primary explosives, this unresolved problem has become a “holy grail” of energetic materials research. Existing candidates suffer from instability or excessive sensitivity, or they possess toxic metals or perchlorate. We report here four previously undescribed green primary explosives based on complex metal dianions and environmentally benign cations, (cat)2[MII(NT)4(H2O)2] (where cat is NH4+ or Na+, M is Fe2+ or Cu2+, and NT− is 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2). They are safer to prepare, handle, and transport than lead compounds, have comparable initiation efficiencies to lead azide, and offer rapid reliable detonation comparable with lead styphnate. Remarkably, they possess all current requirements for green primary explosives and are suitable to replace lead primary explosives in detonators. More importantly, they can be synthesized more safely, do not pose health risks to personnel, and cause much less pollution to the environment. PMID:16567623

  20. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so.

  1. Linear mixed model for heritability estimation that explicitly addresses environmental variation

    PubMed Central

    Heckerman, David; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kadie, Carl; Pomilla, Cristina; Carstensen, Tommy; Martin, Hilary; Ekoru, Kenneth; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Widmer, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2016-01-01

    The linear mixed model (LMM) is now routinely used to estimate heritability. Unfortunately, as we demonstrate, LMM estimates of heritability can be inflated when using a standard model. To help reduce this inflation, we used a more general LMM with two random effects—one based on genomic variants and one based on easily measured spatial location as a proxy for environmental effects. We investigated this approach with simulated data and with data from a Uganda cohort of 4,778 individuals for 34 phenotypes including anthropometric indices, blood factors, glycemic control, blood pressure, lipid tests, and liver function tests. For the genomic random effect, we used identity-by-descent estimates from accurately phased genome-wide data. For the environmental random effect, we constructed a covariance matrix based on a Gaussian radial basis function. Across the simulated and Ugandan data, narrow-sense heritability estimates were lower using the more general model. Thus, our approach addresses, in part, the issue of “missing heritability” in the sense that much of the heritability previously thought to be missing was fictional. Software is available at https://github.com/MicrosoftGenomics/FaST-LMM. PMID:27382152

  2. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. PMID:25499795

  3. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  4. Environmental Perception as a Diagnostic Probe of Environmental Complexity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Mirlaine R.; Macedo, Renato L. G.; Freitas, Matheus P.; Nunes, Cleiton A.; Venturin, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Educational methods to diagnose and improve the level of environmental conception are required. The present work reports a methodology based on studies about the environmental perception of a university public, divided into general students and those related to the forest sciences, who are involved with disciplines and researches related…

  5. Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-pacific.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Caleb; Rao, Mala; Reid, Paaparangi; Surjadi, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world's population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic, social and environmental challenges. Tackling health inequities is a political imperative that requires leadership, political courage, social action, a sound evidence base and progressive public policy. PMID:23070757

  6. Monitoring hypoxia: approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Janssen, Felix; He, Yunchang; Holtappels, Moritz; Konovalov, Sergey; Prien, Ralf; Rehder, Gregor; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    , and proved highly suitable to resolve oxygen intrusions into highly stratified systems and hence, to identify and localize processes in complex redoxclines. We also present an example of novel technology applied in the Baltic Sea, which would be highly suitable for the Black Sea. The time series recordings of the profiling instrumentation platform GODESS in the Gotland Basin allowed a thorough characterization of oscillating redoxclines as temporally dynamic, three-dimensional systems. Stand-alone static moorings equipped with optical oxygen sensors, current meters, and turbidity sensors allowed to resolve fast oxygen fluctuations at the sediment-water interface due to, e.g., internal waves and Ekman pumping on the Crimean shelf and identified the formation of seasonal (summer) hypoxia as an highly dynamic process on the north-western Black Sea shelf. This comprehensive study within the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and land-locked water bodies", www.hypox.net) was able to address many aspects of hypoxia, e.g., in the Black Sea, and revealed the vital need for dedicated oxygen monitoring programs to adequately address the risk of hypoxia formation and ecosystem response. The challenge in any kind of monitoring is to choose the appropriate approach and technology that is suited to resolve the temporal and spatial scales on which the phenomenon occurs.

  7. Environmental laws complex, but compliance is crucial

    SciTech Connect

    Fognani, J.D. )

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that imposition of criminal penalties for violation of environmental requirements is no longer confined to the midnight dumper or to the blatant practices of illegal pollution of rivers and steams. Criminalization of the environmental regulatory process presents serious consequences to independent oil and gas producers, who use a variety of substances in drilling and production and who generate a number of waste streams What may seem like normal operations, long conducted in a particular way, come under increasing scrutiny, and penalties assessed for criminal acts can be severe. In this new climate, oil and gas operators and their personnel must take special care to satisfy all environmental requirements.

  8. [Clinic of environmental pediatric care in a high complexity hospital].

    PubMed

    Gaioli, Marisa; Amoedo, Diego; González, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Children environmental health is considered by The World Health Organization as one of the main challenges of Public Health during the Century XXI. They promote the development of programs that allow approaching, disclosure or mitigation of the impact of polluting agents on health at every level of pediatric attention. The Children Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" has created an Environmental Health Office in order to address the demands of those patients with suspected or verified exposure to environmental risks. An Environmental Clinical History has been elaborated with this purpose.

  9. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  10. Medical, Functional, and Environmental Aspects of Chronic Illness and Disability: Addressing the C.9 CORE Curriculum Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Frances; Parker, Randall; Livneh, Hanoch; Brodwin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article provides suggestions for curriculum modifications that may be necessary to meet the new Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) Standard C.9, Medical, Functional, and Environmental Implications of Disability. Specifically addressed are (a) goals and objectives for meeting the new standards, (b) suggestions for new curricular units,…

  11. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  12. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  13. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  14. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

    1995-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  15. [Asthma: a complex disease determined by genetic and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Louis, R; Schleich, F; Corhay, J-L; Louis, E

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease highly dependent of environmental exposure and genetic background. Through linkage analysis, positional cloning and genome wide association studies, novel asthma genes have come out such as ADAM-33 or ORMLD3. Important environmental factors include allergenic exposure, pollutants and especially particulate matters, tobacco, aerosol exposure, viral infections and level of exposure to endotoxin. The effects of environmental factors are modulated by the genetic sequence and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Recently, it has also become clear that environmental factors may alter gene expression by DNA methylation or histone methylation/acetylation without changing the gene sequence and thereby changing asthmatic phenotype.

  16. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  17. Reducing asthma disparities by addressing environmental inequities: a case study of regional asthma management and prevention's advocacy efforts.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Anne Kelsey; Ervice, Joel; Lorenzen, Kathryn; Prentice, Bob; White, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes its collaborative approach to address a social determinant of health--air quality--and the associated inequities that have led to asthma disparities impacting African American and Latino communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. The strategies, aimed at decreasing diesel pollution in disproportionately impacted communities, span the levels of the socioecological model, with an emphasis on policy outcomes. Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes how this work fits within a larger comprehensive approach to address asthma disparities encompassing several components, ranging from clinical management to environmental protection. PMID:21160331

  18. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  19. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  20. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  1. When Time Makes a Difference: Addressing Ergodicity and Complexity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The detection of complexity in behavioral outcomes often requires an estimation of their variability over a prolonged time spectrum to assess processes of stability and transformation. Conventional scholarship typically relies on time-independent measures, "snapshots", to analyze those outcomes, assuming that group means and their…

  2. Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

    2012-01-01

    Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

  3. Addressing the Complexity of Writing Development: Toward an Ecological Model of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Elizabeth; Roozen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article offers one potential response to Yancey's (1999) call for a fourth wave of writing assessment able to capture writing development in all of its complexity. Based on an ecological perspective of literate development that situates students' growth as writers across multiple engagements with writing, including those outside of school,…

  4. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  5. Ethical issues raised in addressing the needs of people with serious mental disorders in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Rutkow, Lainie; Kass, Nancy E; Rabins, Peter V; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.

  6. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  7. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  8. Behind the fence forum theater: an arts performance partnership to address lupus and environmental justice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith Marie; Anderson, Judith; Lee, Rhonda; White, Janice; Hahn-Baker, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a method to improve environmental quality in communities primarily inhabited by minorities or low-income families. The Buffalo Lupus Project was a CBPR partnership formed to explore the relationship between a local waste site and high rates of lupus. The "Behind the Fence" Community Environmental Forum Theater project was able to successfully funnel the results of scientific research and ongoing activities to the community by utilizing a Forum Theater approach, image-making techniques, an interactive workshop, and energetic public performance. Filming of project activities will expand the reach of that original performance and provide other communities with a potential model for similar efforts. PMID:20129904

  9. Addressing the Highest Risk: Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Elaine E

    2012-06-08

    Report topics: Current status of cleanup; Shift in priorities to address highest risk; Removal of above-ground waste; and Continued focus on protecting water resources. Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff has enabled unprecedented cleanup progress. Progress on TRU campaign is well ahead of plan. To date, have completed 130 shipments vs. 104 planned; shipped 483 cubic meters of above-ground waste (vs. 277 planned); and removed 11,249 PE Ci of material at risk (vs. 9,411 planned).

  10. Using Formative Research to Develop Environmental and Ecological Interventions to Address Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J.; White, John M.; Baase, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Methods Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100 point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs 3.0 respectively). Conclusions Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level. PMID:18073340

  11. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  12. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  13. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  14. Investigating hypoxia in aquatic environments: diverse approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; Boltacheva, N.; Çagatay, M. N.; Dale, A. W.; Etiope, G.; Erdem, Z.; Geraga, M.; Gilli, A.; Gomoiu, M. T.; Hall, P. O. J.; Hansson, D.; He, Y.; Holtappels, M.; Kirf, M. K.; Kononets, M.; Konovalov, S.; Lichtschlag, A.; Livingstone, D. M.; Marinaro, G.; Mazlumyan, S.; Naeher, S.; North, R. P.; Papatheodorou, G.; Pfannkuche, O.; Prien, R.; Rehder, G.; Schubert, C. J.; Soltwedel, T.; Sommer, S.; Stahl, H.; Stanev, E. V.; Teaca, A.; Tengberg, A.; Waldmann, C.; Wehrli, B.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated

  15. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  16. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority-up to 90%-of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  17. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority—up to 90%—of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  18. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority-up to 90%-of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (PUEC), conducted August 4 through August 15, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team specialists are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at PUEC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the PUEC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the PUEC Survey. 55 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  1. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. PMID:25439245

  2. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health.

  3. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  4. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  5. Environmental Complexity and Central Nervous System Development and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching,…

  6. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  7. Habitat complexity, environmental change and personality: A tropical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pamela Delarue, Emma Michelle; Kerr, Sarah Emily; Lee Rymer, Tasmin

    2015-11-01

    Tropical rainforests are species-rich, complex ecosystems. They are increasingly being negatively affected by anthropogenic activity, which is rapidly and unpredictably altering their structure and complexity. These changes in habitat state may expose tropical animals to novel and unpredictable conditions, potentially increasing their extinction risk. However, an animal's ability to cope with environmental change may be linked to its personality. While numerous studies have investigated environmental influences on animal personalities, few are focused on tropical species. In this review, we consider how behavioural syndromes in tropical species might facilitate coping under, and adapting to, increasing disturbance. Given the complexity of tropical rainforests, we first discuss how habitat complexity influences personality traits and physiological stress in general. We then explore the ecological and evolutionary implications of personality in the tropics in the context of behavioural flexibility, range expansion and speciation. Finally, we discuss the impact that anthropogenic environmental change may have on the ecological integrity of tropical rainforests, positing scenarios for species persistence. Maintaining tropical rainforest complexity is crucial for driving behavioural flexibility and personality type, both of which are likely to be key factors facilitating long term persistence in disturbed habitats.

  8. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  9. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  10. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  11. The Anopheles dirus complex: spatial distribution and environmental drivers

    PubMed Central

    Obsomer, Valérie; Defourny, Pierre; Coosemans, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Background The Anopheles dirus complex includes efficient malaria vectors of the Asian forested zone. Studies suggest ecological and biological differences between the species of the complex but variations within species suggest possible environmental influences. Behavioural variation might determine vector capacity and adaptation to changing environment. It is thus necessary to clarify the species distributions and the influences of environment on behavioural heterogeneity. Methods A literature review highlights variation between species, influences of environmental drivers, and consequences on vector status and control. The localisation of collection sites from the literature and from a recent project (MALVECASIA) produces detailed species distributions maps. These facilitate species identification and analysis of environmental influences. Results The maps give a good overview of species distributions. If species status partly explains behavioural heterogeneity, occurrence and vectorial status, some environmental drivers have at least the same importance. Those include rainfall, temperature, humidity, shade, soil type, water chemistry and moon phase. Most factors are probably constantly favourable in forest. Biological specificities, behaviour and high human-vector contact in the forest can explain the association of this complex with high malaria prevalence, multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and partial control failure of forest malaria in Southeast Asia. Conclusion Environmental and human factors seem better than species specificities at explaining behavioural heterogeneity. Although forest seems essential for mosquito survival, adaptations to orchards and wells have been recorded. Understanding the relationship between landscape components and mosquito population is a priority in foreseeing the influence of land-cover changes on malaria occurrence and in shaping control strategies for the future. PMID:17341297

  12. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  13. The Exposome: Embracing the Complexity for Discovery in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Balshaw, David M.; Kwok, Richard K.; Thompson, Claudia L.; Collman, Gwen W.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Environmental exposures are ubiquitous and play a fundamental role in the development of complex human diseases. The exposome, which is defined as the totality of environmental exposures over the life course, allows for systematic evaluation of the relationship between exposures and associated biological consequences, and represents a powerful approach for discovery in environmental health research. However, implementing the exposome concept is challenged by the ability to accurately assess multiple exposures and the ability to integrate information across the exposure–disease continuum. On 14–15 January 2015, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held the Exposome Workshop where a group of international and U.S. scientists from different disciplines gathered to review the state of the science in research areas related to the exposome and to provide recommendations for incorporating the exposome concept into each research area. To move the field forward, the NIEHS is establishing a Children’s Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) to provide infrastructure support for access to laboratory and statistical analyses to children’s health studies. It is recognized that incorporating the exposome concept into exposure and environmental health research will be a long journey and will require significant collaborative efforts from different scientific disciplines, nations, and stakeholders. PMID:27479988

  14. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  15. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  16. Application of the high throughput Attagene Factorial TM platform to environmental monitoring: Characterizing complex, environmental mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays can be employed to evaluate the integrated effects of complex mixtures of both known and unidentified contaminants present in environmental samples. However, such methods have typically focused on one or a few pathways despite the fact that the chemicals in a mixture ma...

  17. Complex environmental drivers of immunity and resistance in malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Courtney C; Moller-Jacobs, Lillian L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-11-01

    Considerable research effort has been directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis of mosquito innate immune mechanisms. Whether environmental factors interact with these mechanisms to shape overall resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine how changes in mean ambient temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection affected the immunity and resistance of Anopheles stephensi to infection with Escherichia coli. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the gene expression of three immune genes in response to challenge with heat-killed E. coli. We also infected mosquitoes with live E. coli and ran bacterial growth assays to quantify host resistance. Both mosquito immune parameters and resistance were directly affected by mean temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection. Furthermore, there was a suite of complex two- and three-way interactions yielding idiosyncratic phenotypic variation under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrate mosquito immunity and resistance to be strongly influenced by a complex interplay of environmental variables, challenging the interpretation of the very many mosquito immune studies conducted under standard laboratory conditions.

  18. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management.

    PubMed

    Fratini, C F; Elle, M; Jensen, M B; Mikkelsen, P S

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management cycle'. But Danish municipalities and utility companies are struggling to bring such solutions into practice. 'Green infrastructure', for example, requires the consideration of a larger range of aspects related to the urban context than the traditional urban water system optimization. There is the need for standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the basis of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.

  19. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  20. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Central Campus Complex John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankert, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the Proposed Action to consolidate multiple facilities in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Industrial Area by constructing two new buildings in the existing headquarters area between NASA Parkway, 3rd Street, C Avenue, and D Avenue. Under the Proposed Action, the historic Headquarters Building will be demolished and a new building will be constructed closer to the Operations and Checkout Building by centering it on D A venue (Hunton Brady Architects, P A and Jones Edmunds and Associates, Inc. 2011). This option was selected from a group of 15 initial sketches as the most viable option during a Central Campus Complex Siting Study completed in February 2011. A No-Action Alternative is also presented in which no demolition or construction of new facilities would occur. Implementing the Proposed Action will have major impacts to cultural resources, while the remaining environmental impacts will be minor.

  2. Complexity analysis of the turbulent environmental fluid flow time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, D. T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Drešković, N.; Mimić, G.

    2014-02-01

    We have used the Kolmogorov complexities, sample and permutation entropies to quantify the randomness degree in river flow time series of two mountain rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing the turbulent environmental fluid, for the period 1926-1990. In particular, we have examined the monthly river flow time series from two rivers (the Miljacka and the Bosnia) in the mountain part of their flow and then calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KL) based on the Lempel-Ziv Algorithm (LZA) (lower-KLL and upper-KLU), sample entropy (SE) and permutation entropy (PE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the KLL, KLU, SE and PE values in two rivers are close to each other regardless of the amplitude differences in their monthly flow rates. We have illustrated the changes in mountain river flow complexity by experiments using (i) the data set for the Bosnia River and (ii) anticipated human activities and projected climate changes. We have explored the sensitivity of considered measures in dependence on the length of time series. In addition, we have divided the period 1926-1990 into three subintervals: (a) 1926-1945, (b) 1946-1965, (c) 1966-1990, and calculated the KLL, KLU, SE, PE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1946-1965, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE and PE, in comparison to the period 1926-1990. This complexity loss may be primarily attributed to (i) human interventions, after the Second World War, on these two rivers because of their use for water consumption and (ii) climate change in recent times.

  3. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  4. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rhebergen, F.; Taylor, R. C.; Ryan, M. J.; Page, R. A.; Halfwerk, W.

    2015-01-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  5. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  6. Number and regulation of protozoan aquaporins reflect environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Von Bülow, Julia; Beitz, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes. Evidence has accumulated that protozoan aquaporin water and solute channels (AQP) contribute to adaptation in changing environments. Intracellular protozoan parasites live a well-sheltered life. Plasmodium spp. express a single AQP, Toxoplasma gondii two, while Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishamnia spp. encode up to five AQPs. Their AQPs are thought to import metabolic precursors and simultaneously to dispose of waste and to help parasites survive osmotic stress during transmission to and from the insect vector or during kidney passages. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that swims freely in the human blood. Expression and intracellular localization of the three T. brucei AQPs depend on the stage of differentiation during the life cycle, suggesting distinct roles in energy generation, metabolism, and cell motility. Free-living amoebae are in direct contact with the environment, encountering severe and sudden changes in the availability of nutrition, and in the osmotic conditions due to rainfall or drought. Amoeba proteus expresses a single AQP that is present in the contractile vacuole complex required for osmoregulation, whereas Dictyostelium discoideum expresses four AQPs, of which two are present in the single-celled amoeboidal stage and two more in the later multicellular stages preceding spore formation. The number and regulation of protozoan aquaporins may reflect environmental complexity. We highlight the gated AqpB from D. discoideum as an example of how life in the wild is challenged by a complex AQP structure-function relationship.

  7. Number and regulation of protozoan aquaporins reflect environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Von Bülow, Julia; Beitz, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes. Evidence has accumulated that protozoan aquaporin water and solute channels (AQP) contribute to adaptation in changing environments. Intracellular protozoan parasites live a well-sheltered life. Plasmodium spp. express a single AQP, Toxoplasma gondii two, while Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishamnia spp. encode up to five AQPs. Their AQPs are thought to import metabolic precursors and simultaneously to dispose of waste and to help parasites survive osmotic stress during transmission to and from the insect vector or during kidney passages. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that swims freely in the human blood. Expression and intracellular localization of the three T. brucei AQPs depend on the stage of differentiation during the life cycle, suggesting distinct roles in energy generation, metabolism, and cell motility. Free-living amoebae are in direct contact with the environment, encountering severe and sudden changes in the availability of nutrition, and in the osmotic conditions due to rainfall or drought. Amoeba proteus expresses a single AQP that is present in the contractile vacuole complex required for osmoregulation, whereas Dictyostelium discoideum expresses four AQPs, of which two are present in the single-celled amoeboidal stage and two more in the later multicellular stages preceding spore formation. The number and regulation of protozoan aquaporins may reflect environmental complexity. We highlight the gated AqpB from D. discoideum as an example of how life in the wild is challenged by a complex AQP structure-function relationship. PMID:26338868

  8. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. ); Finn, M.G. )

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  9. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T.; Finn, M.G.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  10. Specialized Environmental Chamber Test Complex: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Specialized Environmental Test Complex. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  12. The emergence of environmental homeostasis in complex ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dyke, James G; Weaver, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states.

  13. The Emergence of Environmental Homeostasis in Complex Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, James G.; Weaver, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states. PMID:23696719

  14. Complex Environmental Data Modelling Using Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    The research deals with an adaptation and application of Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) to high dimensional environmental data. GRNN [1,2,3] are efficient modelling tools both for spatial and temporal data and are based on nonparametric kernel methods closely related to classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Adaptive GRNN, using anisotropic kernels, can be also applied for features selection tasks when working with high dimensional data [1,3]. In the present research Adaptive GRNN are used to study geospatial data predictability and relevant feature selection using both simulated and real data case studies. The original raw data were either three dimensional monthly precipitation data or monthly wind speeds embedded into 13 dimensional space constructed by geographical coordinates and geo-features calculated from digital elevation model. GRNN were applied in two different ways: 1) adaptive GRNN with the resulting list of features ordered according to their relevancy; and 2) adaptive GRNN applied to evaluate all possible models N [in case of wind fields N=(2^13 -1)=8191] and rank them according to the cross-validation error. In both cases training were carried out applying leave-one-out procedure. An important result of the study is that the set of the most relevant features depends on the month (strong seasonal effect) and year. The predictabilities of precipitation and wind field patterns, estimated using the cross-validation and testing errors of raw and shuffled data, were studied in detail. The results of both approaches were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. In conclusion, Adaptive GRNN with their ability to select features and efficient modelling of complex high dimensional data can be widely used in automatic/on-line mapping and as an integrated part of environmental decision support systems. 1. Kanevski M., Pozdnoukhov A., Timonin V. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. Theory, applications and software. EPFL Press

  15. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; deBettencourt, Megan T.; Kopperman, Rebecca; Banasiak, Meredith; Roberts, Joshua M.; Halavi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC), defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2). The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of RC during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast (BWVC) add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from BWVC are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a “reasoning heuristic” and BWVC engages a “sensory heuristic.” Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem solving. PMID:24133465

  16. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, M Layne; Debettencourt, Megan T; Kopperman, Rebecca; Banasiak, Meredith; Roberts, Joshua M; Halavi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC), defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2). The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of RC during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast (BWVC) add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from BWVC are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a "reasoning heuristic" and BWVC engages a "sensory heuristic." Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem solving. PMID:24133465

  17. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-02-27

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site.

  18. 76 FR 80385 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Proposed Maricopa Sun Solar Complex Multi-Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Proposed Maricopa Sun Solar Complex... (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act for the proposed Maricopa Sun Solar Complex Habitat... your information request or comment is in reference to the Maricopa Sun Solar Complex...

  19. COMPONENT-BASED AND WHOLE-MIXTURE ASSESSMENTS IN ADDRESSING THE UNIDENTIFIED FRACTION OF COMPLEX MIXTURES: DRINKING WATER AS AN EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Component-Based and Whole-Mixtures Assessments in Addressing the Unidentified Fraction of Complex Mixtures: Drinking Water as an Example

    J. E. Simmons; L. K. Teuschler; C. Gennings; T. F. Speth; S. D. Richardson; R. J. Miltner; M. G. Narotsky; K. D. Schenck; G. Rice

  20. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  1. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  2. Environmental Influence on the Evolution of Morphological Complexity in Machines

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Joshua E.; Bongard, Josh C.

    2014-01-01

    Whether, when, how, and why increased complexity evolves in biological populations is a longstanding open question. In this work we combine a recently developed method for evolving virtual organisms with an information-theoretic metric of morphological complexity in order to investigate how the complexity of morphologies, which are evolved for locomotion, varies across different environments. We first demonstrate that selection for locomotion results in the evolution of organisms with morphologies that increase in complexity over evolutionary time beyond what would be expected due to random chance. This provides evidence that the increase in complexity observed is a result of a driven rather than a passive trend. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that morphologies having greater complexity evolve in complex environments, when compared to a simple environment when a cost of complexity is imposed. This suggests that in some niches, evolution may act to complexify the body plans of organisms while in other niches selection favors simpler body plans. PMID:24391483

  3. Environmental influence on the evolution of morphological complexity in machines.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Joshua E; Bongard, Josh C

    2014-01-01

    Whether, when, how, and why increased complexity evolves in biological populations is a longstanding open question. In this work we combine a recently developed method for evolving virtual organisms with an information-theoretic metric of morphological complexity in order to investigate how the complexity of morphologies, which are evolved for locomotion, varies across different environments. We first demonstrate that selection for locomotion results in the evolution of organisms with morphologies that increase in complexity over evolutionary time beyond what would be expected due to random chance. This provides evidence that the increase in complexity observed is a result of a driven rather than a passive trend. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that morphologies having greater complexity evolve in complex environments, when compared to a simple environment when a cost of complexity is imposed. This suggests that in some niches, evolution may act to complexify the body plans of organisms while in other niches selection favors simpler body plans. PMID:24391483

  4. Environmental Restoration Strategic Plan. Remediating the nuclear weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    With the end of the cold war, the US has a reduced need for nuclear weapons production. In response, the Department of Energy has redirected resources from weapons production to weapons dismantlement and environmental remediation. To this end, in November 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (renamed the Office of Environmental Management in 1994). It was created to bring under a central authority the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes at DOE sites and inactive or shut down facilities. The Environmental Restoration Program, a major component of DOE`s Environmental Management Program, is responsible for the remediation and management of contaminated environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, sediments) and the decommissioning of facilities and structures at 130 sites in over 30 states and territories.

  5. Addressing Structural and Environmental Factors for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Mmari, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    A deeper understanding of how structure and environment shape the sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of youths across a range of outcomes has implications for the development of successful policies and programs. We have discussed some of the key structural and environmental factors that influence the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and the importance of engaging adolescents in identifying solutions. We have highlighted 2 case studies that describe structural or environmental approaches to improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health and made recommendations to more systematically incorporate attention to structure and environment to improve global adolescent health. PMID:26270290

  6. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve seaway complex distribution enhancements, Brazoria, Galveston and Harris Counties, Texas. Revised environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a 40-inch diameter, 46-mile long buried crude oil pipeline from existing facilities of the SPR Seaway Complex located near Freeport, Texas, to an existing commercial crude oil terminal near Texas City, Texas. In May 1984, DOE issued an Environmental Assessment ((EA); DOE/EA-0252) and a Finding of No Significant Impact for this action. The May 1985 EA addressed the construction and operation of a DOE-owned buried crude oil pipeline from Bryan Mound to the ARCO Terminal located in Texas City, Galveston County, Texas. The EA assessed three alternative alignments for outing the pipeline from Bryan Mound past Freeport to a common point near Stratton Ridge. From Stratton Ridge to Texas City, one route segment was considered. All three alternative alignments around Freeport were subsequently determined to be unsuitable for safe construction of a large-diameter buried pipeline, primarily because of crowded pipeline corridors and restricted pipeline rights-of-way (ROW). Therefore, the SPR identified and is herein considering a fourth alternative route segment from Bryan Mound through the City of Freeport, across the Old Brazos River and Dow Barge Canal, and northward to Stratton Ridge. The route is about 11 miles long, and is in or adjacent to existing utility and pipeline right-of-way for about 70% of its length. Crude oil throughput capacity for all cases is 1.10 million barrels per day. This revised EA addresses environmental impacts of construction and operation of the pipeline along the fourth subalternative route segment, as compared to impacts from the three previously considered alternative route segments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  9. Fifth amendment taking and environmental protection under the police power: Historical development and a modest proposal to address the muddle

    SciTech Connect

    Root, T.E.; Dotterrer, I.L.

    1995-12-01

    Under its developing {open_quotes}just compensation{close_quotes} jurisprudence, the United States Supreme Court has applied the constitutional requirement (of just compensation for taking private property for public use) to overly intrusive regulations. The application of the just compensation clause to governmental environmental protection activity has pitted the basic principle of protection of private property from government confiscation against another basic principle-the police power (which allows the government to regulate the use of property to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the people). The authors outline the muddle resulting from the conflict of these two constitutional principles after tracing the development of each. This article first outlines the general trend of increasing regulation of the uses of private property under environmental laws pursuant to the police power, and then outlines the development of Fifth Amendment just compensation jurisprudence (from eminent domain, through inverse condemnation, to regulatory taking). The authors urge Congress to authorize a Commission to review exercise of the police power and environmental protection legislation in light of the Fifth Amendment just compensation provision and to recommend legislation that will reconcile the two principles.

  10. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Re-imagining decision making: addressing a discrete social driver of HIV/AIDS through the lens of complexity science.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Moerschell, Linda; Mamabolo, Robert; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that decision making is a discrete social driver that can be associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Limpopo province in South Africa. The authors argue that complexity science can inform future research and interventions by presenting two decision making frameworks arising out of complexity science that have the potential to enable young people to better negotiate decision-making contexts whilst simultaneously opening spaces of dialogue that can mitigate the impact of HIV-risk in specific, punctuated contexts. The methodological design was prompted by findings from youth-oriented community engagement projects that include Communication Conversations and Sex & Relationships Education. The proposed methods have the potential to exploit the phenomenon of leadership emergence as a product of decision making at critical moments. This has the potential to promote the growth of home-grown leadership skill sets that make sense to young people and to enable them better manage their own health, thus reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual violence. PMID:25920986

  12. Re-imagining decision making: addressing a discrete social driver of HIV/AIDS through the lens of complexity science.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Moerschell, Linda; Mamabolo, Robert; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that decision making is a discrete social driver that can be associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Limpopo province in South Africa. The authors argue that complexity science can inform future research and interventions by presenting two decision making frameworks arising out of complexity science that have the potential to enable young people to better negotiate decision-making contexts whilst simultaneously opening spaces of dialogue that can mitigate the impact of HIV-risk in specific, punctuated contexts. The methodological design was prompted by findings from youth-oriented community engagement projects that include Communication Conversations and Sex & Relationships Education. The proposed methods have the potential to exploit the phenomenon of leadership emergence as a product of decision making at critical moments. This has the potential to promote the growth of home-grown leadership skill sets that make sense to young people and to enable them better manage their own health, thus reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual violence.

  13. Complex environmental forcing across the biogeographical range of coral populations.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Emily B; Gouhier, Tarik C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a substantial body of work on how temperature shapes coastal marine ecosystems, the spatiotemporal variability of seawater pH and corresponding in situ biological responses remain largely unknown across biogeographic ranges of tropical coral species. Environmental variability is important to characterize because it can amplify or dampen the biological consequences of global change, depending on the functional relationship between mean temperature or pH and organismal traits. Here, we characterize the spatiotemporal variability of pH, temperature, and salinity at fringing reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia and Nanwan Bay, Taiwan using advanced time series analysis, including wavelet analysis, and infer their potential impact on the persistence and stability of coral populations. Our results demonstrate that both the mean and variance of pH and temperature differed significantly between sites in Moorea and Taiwan. Seawater temperature at the Moorea site passed the local bleaching threshold several times within the ~45 day deployment while aragonite saturation state at the Taiwan site was often below commonly observed levels for coral reefs. Our results showcase how a better understanding of the differences in environmental conditions between sites can (1) provide an important frame of reference for designing laboratory experiments to study the effects of environmental variability, (2) identify the proximity of current environmental conditions to predicted biological thresholds for the coral reef, and (3) help predict when the temporal variability and mean of environmental conditions will interact synergistically or antagonistically to alter the abundance and stability of marine populations experiencing climate change.

  14. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  15. Environmental Equity and Health: Understanding Complexity and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Stover, Gabriel N.; Rosenthal, Joyce E.; Sherard, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The authors invoke a population health perspective to assess the distribution of environmental hazards according to race/ethnicity, social class, age, gender, and sexuality and the implications of these hazards for health. The unequal burden of environmental hazards borne by African American, Native American, Latino, and Asian American/Pacific Islander communities and their relationship to welldocumented racial/ethnic disparities in health have not been critically examined across all population groups, regions of the United States, and ages. The determinants of existing environmental inequities also require critical research attention. To ensure inclusiveness and fill important gaps, scientific evidence is needed on the health effects of the built environment as well as the natural environment, cities and suburbs as well as rural areas, and indoor as well as outdoor pollutants. PMID:12554571

  16. Molecular paleoecology: using gene regulatory analysis to address the origins of complex life cycles in the late Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ewan F; Moy, Vanessa N; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C; Morris, Robert L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous grazing drove the exploitation of the pelagos by metazoan eggs and embryos, and eventually larvae. The alternative hypothesis predicts that early bilaterians were holopelagic, and new adult stages were added on when these holopelagic forms began to feed on the benthos. The former hypothesis predicts that the larvae of protostomes and deuterostomes are not homologous, with the implication that larval-specific structures, including the apical organ, are the products of convergent evolution, whereas the latter hypothesis predicts homology of larvae, specifically homology of the apical organ. We show that in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the transcription factors NK2.1 and HNF6 are necessary for the correct spatial expression profiles of five different cilia genes. All of these genes are expressed exclusively in the apical plate after the mesenchyme-blastula stage in cells that also express NK2.1 and HNF6. In addition, abrogation of SpNK2.1 results in embryos that lack the apical tuft. However, in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, NK2.1 and HNF6 are not expressed in any cells that also express these same five cilia genes. Nonetheless, like the sea urchin, the gastropod expresses both NK2.1 and FoxA around the stomodeum and foregut, and FoxA around the proctodeum. As we detected no similarity in the development of the apical tuft between the sea urchin and the abalone, these molecular data are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of mobile, macrophagous metazoans drove the evolution of complex life cycles multiple times independently in the late Precambrian.

  17. Cognitive Illusions as Hindrances to Learning Complex Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred; Pugh, Ava

    This study examined the effectiveness of an environmental science course for teaching college students about the ozone depletion problem. In the spring of 2000, students in the course, "Life in the Environment," were pretested and posttested with a 38-item questionnaire consisting of 3 sets of Likert-style statements plus multiple choice…

  18. The Impact of Environmental Complexity upon Adult Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner; Gribbin, Kathy

    Recent investigations have demonstrated greater variance in change in intellectual performance between different generations or age groups than is true for generalized developmental change across chronological age. Such findings have led to a careful investigation of certain environmental factors which might account for such change. A new…

  19. Heat Map Visualization of Complex Environmental and Biomarker Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, the assessment of human systems interactions with the environment has permeated all phases of environmental and public health research. We are invoking lessons learned from the broad discipline of Systems Biology research that focuses primarily on molecular ...

  20. In vitro assessment of estrogenic bioactivity in complex environmental effluents**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effluents contain a diversity of chemicals, can originate from a variety of sources, and have been found to contain estrogenic and/or androgenic activity. In this study, samples were collected from targeted sites or as runoff from an agriculture field that was spray...

  1. In vitro assessment of estrogenic bioactivity in complex environmental effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effluents contain a diversity of chemicals, can originate from a variety of sources, and have been found to contain estrogenic and/or androgenic activity. In this study, samples were collected from targeted sites or as runoff from an agriculture field that was spray...

  2. Complex Environmental Forcing across the Biogeographical Range of Coral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rivest, Emily B.; Gouhier, Tarik C.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a substantial body of work on how temperature shapes coastal marine ecosystems, the spatiotemporal variability of seawater pH and corresponding in situ biological responses remain largely unknown across biogeographic ranges of tropical coral species. Environmental variability is important to characterize because it can amplify or dampen the biological consequences of global change, depending on the functional relationship between mean temperature or pH and organismal traits. Here, we characterize the spatiotemporal variability of pH, temperature, and salinity at fringing reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia and Nanwan Bay, Taiwan using advanced time series analysis, including wavelet analysis, and infer their potential impact on the persistence and stability of coral populations. Our results demonstrate that both the mean and variance of pH and temperature differed significantly between sites in Moorea and Taiwan. Seawater temperature at the Moorea site passed the local bleaching threshold several times within the ~45 day deployment while aragonite saturation state at the Taiwan site was often below commonly observed levels for coral reefs. Our results showcase how a better understanding of the differences in environmental conditions between sites can (1) provide an important frame of reference for designing laboratory experiments to study the effects of environmental variability, (2) identify the proximity of current environmental conditions to predicted biological thresholds for the coral reef, and (3) help predict when the temporal variability and mean of environmental conditions will interact synergistically or antagonistically to alter the abundance and stability of marine populations experiencing climate change. PMID:25799322

  3. From process complexity to communication effectiveness: A challenge to those within and outside of the environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary work has become a cornerstone in research across the environmental sciences. Our work does so by evaluating biogeochemical cycling, specifically methane, in the context of landscape hydrology. Atmospheric methane is a greenhouse gas 27 times more potent than carbon dioxide and has been increasing at an unprecedented rate. This drastic increase in atmospheric methane has been attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossil fuels, ruminants, and rice cultivation, which together constitute approximately 67% of global methane sources. Characterizing CH4 flux in natural systems has remained difficult due to complex relationships among environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and soil water content). To address this, we focus on how the redistribution of water in complex terrain influences the magnitude and direction of flux in upland and riparian soils. Distilling this complex behavior and scaling these observations is complicated by interacting feedback loops and uncertainties associated with global scale modeling. However, progress is critical given that predicting future climate is necessary to forecasting the quantity and distribution of available fresh water, and understanding how ecosystem processes, and energy/food production will be affected. Water sciences and environmental science as a whole must improve communication to a range of audiences, and advocate for researchers, policy makers, and business leaders to work together for a more sustainable future. A crucial step in this process is to optimize the appropriate level of information to convey that is both memorable and meaningful given the complexity of environmental systems. The challenge also extends to artists and filmmakers to present the subject in compelling ways that inspire audiences to take action in their own communities. True integration of professionals across environmental, social, political, and economic disciplines while motivating local involvement

  4. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  5. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  6. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  7. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors. PMID:27266020

  8. Cognitive Illusions as Hindrances to Learning Complex Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of short-term interventions on preservice elementary teachers' understanding of the topic of ozone depletion and whether complex issues can be dealt with successfully through short-term intervention. Reports that preservice teachers' understanding improved through a short-term intervention using a mix of…

  9. Highly-Complex Environmentally-Realistic Mixtures: Challenges and Advances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The difficulties involved in design, conduct, analysis and interpretation of defmed mixtures experiments and use of the resulting data in risk assessment are now wellknown to the toxicology, risk assessment and risk management communities. The arena of highly-complex environment...

  10. Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals.

  11. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  12. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Sobradillo, Patricia; Celli, Bartolomé

    2011-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels. However, its diagnosis, assessment, and therapeutic management are based almost exclusively on the severity of airflow limitation. A better understanding of the multiple dimensions of COPD and its relationship to other diseases is very relevant and of high current interest. Recent theoretical (scale-free networks), technological (high-throughput technology, biocomputing), and analytical improvements (systems biology) provide tools capable of addressing the complexity of COPD. The information obtained from the integrated use of those techniques will be eventually incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review summarizes our current knowledge in this area and offers an insight into the elements needed to progress toward an integrated, multilevel view of COPD based on the novel scientific strategy of systems biology and its potential clinical derivative, P4 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participatory).

  13. Critical complexity in environmental health practice: simplify and complexify

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The magic word ‘complexity’ has been buzzing around in science, policy and society for quite some time now. There seems to be a common feel for a ‘new way’ of doing things, for overcoming the limits of tradition. From the combined perspective of critical complexity thinking and environment and health practice we want to contribute to the development of alternative routines that may help overcome the limitations of traditional environment and health science. On the one hand traditional environment and health science is too self-confident with respect to potential scientific insight in environment and health problems: complexity condemns us to limited and ambiguous knowledge and the need for simplification. A more modest attitude would be more realistic from that point of view. On the other hand from a problem solving perspective more boldness is required. Waiting for Godot (perfect undisputed knowledge) will not help us with respect to the challenges posed to society by environment and health problems. A sense of urgency is legitimate: the paralysis by traditional analysis should be resolved. Nevertheless this sense of urgency should not withhold us from investing in the problem solving quality of our endeavour; quality takes time, fastness from a quality perspective often leads us to a standstill. We propose the concept of critical complexification of environment and health practice that will enable the integration of relevant actors and factors in a pragmatic manner. We will illustrate this with practical examples and especially draw attention to the practical complexities involved, confronting us not only with fundamental questions, but also with fundamental challenges. PMID:22759501

  14. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  15. Study on Circular Complex viewed from Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeguchi, Tomoo; Adachi, Katsushige; Yoshikawa, Akira; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Iguchi, Manabu

    In machining processes, cutting fluids are generally used for cooling and lubricating workpieces at the point cutting. However, these fluids frequently include chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, or other additives. The chemicals not only become a mist affecting the health of workers engaged in the processing but also make the workshop environment worse. In particular, the chlorine becomes one of the causes of global warming by treating waste oil under high temperature conditions. It is furthermore said that huge cost beyond the purchase cost of oil occurs and dioxins (carcinogen) usually exist in the waste oil. Therefore, an environmentally-friendly cooling-air cutting system is required from the standpoint of green manufacturing. This system has been noted as a technique to solve the issues against the environment mentioned above. In the cooling-air cutting processing, the amount of CO2 emission shows a low value compared with the dry cutting one which uses oil. It is therefore thought that the cooling-air cutting system is a very important processing technique as an environmental countermeasure. At present, in strictly economic and environmental situations, the compatibility of the betterment of production efficiency with the improvement of environment is a subject in the actual spot of a cut processing. This study deals with the test results of cooling-air drilling performance from the viewpoint of taking green manufacturing into account. The workpiece made of die steel SKDll was manufactured by the cooling-air drilling performance at a revolution of 840 rpm and a temperature of -20°C with a high-speed steel drill (SKH56). The results were compared with those for the dry cutting performance. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The tool life for cooling-air drilling performance was about 6 times as long as that for the dry cutting performance. 2) The chip temperature for cooling-air drilling was 220°C lower than that for the dry cutting

  16. KEYNOTE ADDRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past two decades an environmental conference series has emerged in Poland to become one of the premier forums on the chemical aspects of environmental protection. The forum is called Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment CPE). The first conference of this serie...

  17. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals’ environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the “post-materialist thesis” to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20514147

  18. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

    PubMed

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

    2014-10-01

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond.

  19. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

    PubMed

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

    2014-10-01

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond. PMID:25122231

  20. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  1. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  2. Governance of complex socio-environmental risks: the case of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Mikael; Gilek, Michael; Udovyk, Oksana

    2011-03-01

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and sociopolitical controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  3. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants.

    PubMed

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nash, Michael A; Christie, Fiona J; Hahs, Amy K; Livesley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  4. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Christie, Fiona J.; Hahs, Amy K.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  5. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  6. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  8. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  9. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  10. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  11. Environmental Uncertainty and Communication Network Complexity: A Cross-System, Cross-Cultural Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowski, James

    An infographic model is proposed to account for the operation of systems within their information environments. Infographics is a communication paradigm used to indicate the clustering of information processing variables in communication systems. Four propositions concerning environmental uncertainty and internal communication network complexity,…

  12. Utilizing high throughput bioassays to characterize the bioactivity of complex environmental samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays can be employed to evaluate the integrated effects of complex mixtures of both known and unidentified contaminants present in environmental samples. However, such methods have typically focused on one or a few bioactivities despite the fact that the chemicals in a mixtu...

  13. Characterizing the bioactivity of complex environmental samples using high throughput toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays can be employed to evaluate the integrated effects of complex mixtures of both known and unidentified contaminants present in environmental samples. However, such methods have typically focused on one or a few bioactivities despite the fact that the chemicals in a mixtu...

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  15. Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR): A protocol for a trial of a complex intervention addressing the 'why' and 'how' of appropriate antibiotic prescribing in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher C; Hood, Kerry; Cohen, David; Dunstan, Frank; Evans, Meirion R; Rollnick, Stephen; Moore, Laurence; Hare, Monika; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Evans, John

    2009-01-01

    Background After some years of a downward trend, antibiotic prescribing rates in the community have tended to level out in many countries. There is also wide variation in antibiotic prescribing between general practices, and between countries. There are still considerable further gains that could be made in reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, but complex interventions are required. Studies to date have generally evaluated the effect of interventions on antibiotic prescribing in a single consultation and pragmatic evaluations that assess maintenance of new skills are rare. This paper describes the protocol for a pragmatic, randomized evaluation of a complex intervention aimed at reducing antibiotic prescribing by primary care clinicians. Methods and design We developed a Social Learning Theory based, blended learning program (on-line learning, a practice based seminar, and context bound learning) called the STAR Educational Program. The 'why of change' is addressed by providing clinicians in general practice with information on antibiotic resistance in urine samples submitted by their practice and their antibiotic prescribing data, and facilitating a practice-based seminar on the implications of this data. The 'how of change' is addressed through context-bound communication skills training and information on antibiotic indication and choice. This intervention will be evaluated in a trial involving 60 general practices, with general practice as the unit of randomization (clinicians from each practice to either receive the STAR Educational Program or not) and analysis. The primary outcome will be the number of antibiotic items dispensed over one year. An economic and process evaluation will also be conducted. Discussion This trial will be the first to evaluate the effectiveness of this type of theory-based, blended learning intervention aimed at reducing antibiotic prescribing by primary care clinicians. Novel aspects include feedback of practice level data

  16. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  17. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. PMID:26595281

  18. Effect of environmental factors on the complexation of iron and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kai; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifeng; Chen, Yaojin; Wang, Yuzhou

    2015-01-01

    A method of size exclusion chromatography coupled with ultraviolet spectrophotometry and off-line graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to assess the complexation properties of iron (Fe) and humic acid (HA) in a water environment. The factors affecting the complexation of Fe and HA, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature and UV radiation, were investigated. The Fe-HA complex residence time was also studied. Experimental results showed that pH could influence the deprotonation of HA and hydrolysis of Fe, and thus affected the complexation of Fe and HA. The complexation was greatly disrupted by the presence of NaCl. Temperature had some influence on the complexation. The yield of Fe-HA complexes showed a small decrease at high levels of UV radiation, but the effect of UV radiation on Fe-HA complex formation at natural levels could be neglected. It took about 10 hr for the complexation to reach equilibrium, and the Fe-HA complex residence time was about 20 hr. Complexation of Fe and HA reached a maximum level under the conditions of pH 6, very low ionic strength, in the dark and at a water temperature of about 25°C, for 10 hr. It was suggested that the Fe-HA complex could form mainly in freshwater bodies and reach high levels in the warm season with mild sunlight radiation. With changing environmental parameters, such as at lower temperature in winter or higher pH and ionic strength in an estuary, the concentration of the Fe-HA complex would decrease. PMID:25597677

  19. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated.

  20. Environmental complexity and feeding enrichment can mitigate effects of space constraints in captive callitrichids.

    PubMed

    Sha, John Chih Mun; Ismail, Rubiah; Marlena, Diana; Lee, Jia Ling

    2016-04-01

    Non-human primates housed in zoos and laboratories often exhibit reduced activity and this poses welfare concerns. We examined the effects of enclosure types of differing size and environmental complexity on the activities of two species of callitrichids. We found that cotton-top tamarins housed in an enclosure of larger size and more environmental complexity showed higher activity levels, which was mainly contributed by more feeding/foraging activity. By contrast, Goeldi's monkeys housed in an enclosure of larger size and more environmental complexity showed lower activity levels, which was mainly contributed by less locomotory activity. In both species, off-exhibit groups housed in smaller enclosures did not show significantly less locomotory activity which would have been expected, as larger availability spaces should allow more opportunities for locomotion. Furthermore, the feeding enrichment had significant effects on increased feeding/foraging activity for both cotton-top tamarins and Goeldi's monkeys, irrespective of enclosure type. These results suggested that environmental complexity (or application of feeding enrichment) that provided more opportunities for natural foraging could have a larger effect on overall activity levels compared with larger enclosure sizes that should provide more locomotion opportunities. More importantly, it showed that even when enclosure space and complexity were limited, increased opportunities for foraging through the application of enrichment could increase species-typical behaviours. Such inexpensive, easy to implement enrichment methods should be applied to provide more complex environments for captive non-human primates, particularly in situations where there are logistical and/or cost constraints to the modification of physical exhibits.

  1. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  2. Design of a WSN for the Sampling of Environmental Variability in Complex Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Tardío, Miguel A.; Felicísimo, Ángel M.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ environmental parameter measurements using sensor systems connected to a wireless network have become widespread, but the problem of monitoring large and mountainous areas by means of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is not well resolved. The main reasons for this are: (1) the environmental variability distribution is unknown in the field; (2) without this knowledge, a huge number of sensors would be necessary to ensure the complete coverage of the environmental variability and (3) WSN design requirements, for example, effective connectivity (intervisibility), limiting distances and controlled redundancy, are usually solved by trial and error. Using temperature as the target environmental variable, we propose: (1) a method to determine the homogeneous environmental classes to be sampled using the digital elevation model (DEM) and geometric simulations and (2) a procedure to determine an effective WSN design in complex terrain in terms of the number of sensors, redundancy, cost and spatial distribution. The proposed methodology, based on geographic information systems and binary integer programming can be easily adapted to a wide range of applications that need exhaustive and continuous environmental monitoring with high spatial resolution. The results show that the WSN design is perfectly suited to the topography and the technical specifications of the sensors, and provides a complete coverage of the environmental variability in terms of Sun exposure. However these results still need be validated in the field and the proposed procedure must be refined. PMID:25412218

  3. Environmental Interactions and Epistasis Are Revealed in the Proteomic Responses to Complex Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Samir, Parimal; Rahul; Slaughter, James C; Link, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Ultimately, the genotype of a cell and its interaction with the environment determine the cell's biochemical state. While the cell's response to a single stimulus has been studied extensively, a conceptual framework to model the effect of multiple environmental stimuli applied concurrently is not as well developed. In this study, we developed the concepts of environmental interactions and epistasis to explain the responses of the S. cerevisiae proteome to simultaneous environmental stimuli. We hypothesize that, as an abstraction, environmental stimuli can be treated as analogous to genetic elements. This would allow modeling of the effects of multiple stimuli using the concepts and tools developed for studying gene interactions. Mirroring gene interactions, our results show that environmental interactions play a critical role in determining the state of the proteome. We show that individual and complex environmental stimuli behave similarly to genetic elements in regulating the cellular responses to stimuli, including the phenomena of dominance and suppression. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of a stimulus on a protein is dominant over other stimuli if the response to the stimulus involves the protein. Using publicly available transcriptomic data, we find that environmental interactions and epistasis regulate transcriptomic responses as well. PMID:26247773

  4. Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

    2004-05-01

    Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Texoma Complex distribution enhancements: Orange and Jefferson Counties, Texas; Calcasieu and Cameron Parishes, Louisiana: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct and operate two buried crude oil pipelines to provide for unconstrained drawdown of three Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities of the Texoma Complex located in portions of Louisiana and Texas. The project is required to provide a crude oil distribution system capable of meeting a planned increase in the Texoma Complex drawdown rate to 2,340,000 barrels-per-day (bpd). The EA addresses a no-action alternative and alternative pipeline routes. Potential impacts from pipeline construction concern disturbances to prime farmlands, floodplains and wetlands. A very small acreage of prime farmlands is involved; the total is not considered significant. The Floodplain/Wetlands Assessment states that the effects of pipeline construction and operation on floodplains and associated wetlands will be temporary and localized. DOE determined in a Floodplain Statement of Findings that for the project as a whole there is no practicable alternative to locating in a floodplain, and that the proposal conforms to appropriate state and local floodplain protection standards. Potential impacts from pipeline operation are primarily concerned with accidental releases of crude oil to the environment. Because the pipelines will be buried, the probability of a major pipeline break releasing large quantities of crude oil is small and pipeline testing and the development of an oil spill contingency plan will reduce the seriousness of any oil spill. The proposed pipelines are expected to involve no other environmental concerns. It is the determination of DOE that the proposed Texoma Complex Distribution Enhancements do not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment; therefore an environmental impact statement will not be prepared. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  7. [Isolation of Sporothrix pallida complex in clinical and environmental samples from Chile].

    PubMed

    Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo M; Vieille Oyarzo, Peggy I; Carvajal Silva, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of S. pallida complex from medical samples and home garden soil of a patient in Chile is here in reported. Fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex can cause various infections. In Chile, the medical and environmental isolates of these this complex are rare. The aim of this study was to identify an unusual agent in a case of onychomycosis and to detect its presence in the patient's home garden. For this purpose, clinical samples were obtained by scraping the patient's subungueal first right toe nail as well as by taking soil samples from different areas of her home garden. Species identification was performed by morphophysiology and one of the strains isolated from the patient's toe nail was sent to CBS for molecular confirmation (14.062). S. pallida complex was identified both from the patient's toe nail and samples taken from her home garden.

  8. Remodeling of Bacterial RNA Polymerase Supramolecular Complex in Response to Environmental Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Seema; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-03-20

    Directed binding of RNA polymerase to distinct promoter elements controls transcription and promotes adaptive responses to changing environmental conditions. To identify proteins that modulate transcription, we have expressed a tagged alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase in Shewanella oneidensis under controlled growth conditions, isolated the protein complex using newly developed multiuse affinity probes, and used LC-MS/MS to identify proteins in the complex. Complementary fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the average size of the RNA polymerase complex in cellular lysates. We find that RNA polymerase exists as a large supramolecular complex with an apparent mass in excess of 1.4 MDa, whose protein composition substantially changes in response to growth conditions. Enzymes that copurify with RNA polymerase include those associated with tRNA processing, nucleotide metabolism, and energy biosynthesis, which we propose to be necessary for optimal transcriptional rates.

  9. Effects of environmental complexity and temporary captivity on foraging behavior of wild-caught meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Amaranta E; McPhee, M Elsbeth

    2014-01-01

    Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging behaviors of wild-caught, adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Forty-six individuals captured from a meadow outside Oshkosh, WI, were assigned to 1 of 4 captive treatment groups: simple/<50 days (SS), simple/>50 days, complex/<50 days, and complex/>50 days. Number of dish visits, proportion foraging, and frequency of nonforaging behaviors recorded during a 15-min foraging trial were measured for all subjects. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests were conducted to analyze 4 different comparisons within this behavioral data. Overall, neither time in captivity or environmental complexity affected nonforaging behaviors. In contrast, foraging behaviors did change with treatment: Voles were less active at food dishes and visited control dishes more in treatment group SS than in the other treatment groups. In addition, sex-related differences in foraging behaviors were maintained when voles were exposed to environmental complexity. This article includes options for wildlife managers to adapt captive environments to meet the welfare and behavioral needs of translocated wild nonhuman mammals. PMID:24559285

  10. Effects of environmental complexity and temporary captivity on foraging behavior of wild-caught meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Amaranta E; McPhee, M Elsbeth

    2014-01-01

    Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging behaviors of wild-caught, adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Forty-six individuals captured from a meadow outside Oshkosh, WI, were assigned to 1 of 4 captive treatment groups: simple/<50 days (SS), simple/>50 days, complex/<50 days, and complex/>50 days. Number of dish visits, proportion foraging, and frequency of nonforaging behaviors recorded during a 15-min foraging trial were measured for all subjects. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests were conducted to analyze 4 different comparisons within this behavioral data. Overall, neither time in captivity or environmental complexity affected nonforaging behaviors. In contrast, foraging behaviors did change with treatment: Voles were less active at food dishes and visited control dishes more in treatment group SS than in the other treatment groups. In addition, sex-related differences in foraging behaviors were maintained when voles were exposed to environmental complexity. This article includes options for wildlife managers to adapt captive environments to meet the welfare and behavioral needs of translocated wild nonhuman mammals.

  11. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs.

  12. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations. The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual cycle, indicating

  13. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1 alpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of different plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. Parameter uncertainty has been widely addressed by calibrating models at data-rich ocean sites. However, relatively little attention has been given to quantifying uncertainty in the physical fields required by the plankton models at these sites, and tendencies in the biogeochemical properties due to the effects of horizontal processes are often neglected. Here we use model twin experiments, in which synthetic data are assimilated to estimate a system's known "true" parameters, to investigate the impact of error in a plankton model's environmental input data. The experiments are supported by a new software tool, the Marine Model Optimization Testbed, designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergence tendencies of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error variance over an annual cycle, indicating variation in the significance attributable to individual model-data differences. An inverse scheme using ensemble-based estimates of the

  14. Quantifying the response of structural complexity and community composition to environmental change in marine communities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Bridge, Tom; Hustache, Julie; Williams, Stefan B; Byrne, Maria; Figueira, Will

    2016-05-01

    Habitat structural complexity is a key factor shaping marine communities. However, accurate methods for quantifying structural complexity underwater are currently lacking. Loss of structural complexity is linked to ecosystem declines in biodiversity and resilience. We developed new methods using underwater stereo-imagery spanning 4 years (2010-2013) to reconstruct 3D models of coral reef areas and quantified both structural complexity at two spatial resolutions (2.5 and 25 cm) and benthic community composition to characterize changes after an unprecedented thermal anomaly on the west coast of Australia in 2011. Structural complexity increased at both resolutions in quadrats (4 m(2)) that bleached, but not those that did not bleach. Changes in complexity were driven by species-specific responses to warming, highlighting the importance of identifying small-scale dynamics to disentangle ecological responses to disturbance. We demonstrate an effective, repeatable method for quantifying the relationship among community composition, structural complexity and ocean warming, improving predictions of the response of marine ecosystems to environmental change. PMID:26679689

  15. Department of Energy environmental management complex-wide integration using systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbourn, P.

    1997-10-01

    A systems engineering approach was successfully used to recommend changes to environmental management activities across the DOE Complex. A team of technical experts and systems engineers developed alternatives that could save tax payers billions of dollars if the barriers are removed to allow complete implementation. The alternatives are technically-based and defensible, and are being worked through the stakeholder review process. The integration process and implementing project structure are both discussed.

  16. Rapid and specific SPRi detection of L. pneumophila in complex environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Foudeh, Amir M; Trigui, Hana; Mendis, Nilmini; Faucher, Sebastien P; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    Legionellosis is a very devastating disease worldwide mainly due to unpredictable outbreaks in man-made water systems. Developing a highly specific and sensitive rapid detection system that detects only metabolically active bacteria is a main priority for water quality assessment. We previously developed a versatile technique for sensitive and specific detection of synthetic RNA. In the present work, we further investigated the performance of the developed biosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila in complex environmental samples, particularly those containing protozoa. The specificity and sensitivity of the detection system were verified using total RNA extracted from L. pneumophila in spiked water co-cultured with amoebae. We demonstrated that the expression level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is extremely dependent on the environmental conditions. The presence of amoebae with L. pneumophila, especially in nutrition-deprived samples, increased the amount of L. pneumophila 15-fold after 1 week as measured through the expression of 16s rRNA. Using the developed surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection method, we were also able to successfully detect L. pneumophila within 3 h, both in the presence and absence of amoebae in the complex environmental samples obtained from a cooling water tower. These findings suggest that the developed biosensing system is a viable method for rapid, real-time and effective detection not only for L. pneumophila in environmental samples but also to assess the risk associated with the use of water contaminated with other pathogens. PMID:25935681

  17. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Shelly D; Kemner, Kenneth M; Brooks, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy identifies calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes at environmental concentrations.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Brooks, S. C.; Biosciences Division; ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 {micro}M uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations.

  19. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luplertlop, Natthanej; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand. PMID:27467209

  20. Quantifying the resilience of biogeochemical cycles to environmental change in complex aquatic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that aquatic environments such as lakes, rivers and estuaries display complex system properties in response to anthropogenic forcing. Whilst our ability to characterize these dynamics and model them has advanced considerably for ideal systems, it remains difficult to investigate them across more complex aquatic landscapes. New model approaches are required that are able to accommodate spatial heterogeneity, connectivity between both terrestrial and aquatic sub-systems, and that are suited to capture the complex feedback and co-evolution processes that shape the signatures we observe in biogeochemical cycles. A way forward lies in the integration of the diversity of models of ecohydrology and aquatic system dynamics, with environmental sensing data in a way that balances process-driven and data-driven approaches for exploring landscape function, however many challenges remain. Here we report on a strategy being applied for the lower Murray River, Australia, that integrates models of terrestrial landscapes, riparian ecohydrology and surface water hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models in conjunction with sensor network data. The model system is used to quantify biogeochemical budgets and signatures that characterize individual sub-systems within the landscape, but also to quantify how the landscape as a whole responds to environmental change. Whilst such a coupled system is complex and many uncertainties exist, several theoretically relevant metrics of ecosystem function are being used to guide model validation. Further efforts to improve model predictions through assimilation of observed data using Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling are being explored.

  1. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luplertlop, Natthanej; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand.

  2. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand. PMID:27467209

  3. Environmentally induced changes in correlated responses to selection reveal variable pleiotropy across a complex genetic network.

    PubMed

    Sikkink, Kristin L; Reynolds, Rose M; Cresko, William A; Phillips, Patrick C

    2015-05-01

    Selection in novel environments can lead to a coordinated evolutionary response across a suite of characters. Environmental conditions can also potentially induce changes in the genetic architecture of complex traits, which in turn could alter the pattern of the multivariate response to selection. We describe a factorial selection experiment using the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei in which two different stress-related phenotypes (heat and oxidative stress resistance) were selected under three different environmental conditions. The pattern of covariation in the evolutionary response between phenotypes or across environments differed depending on the environment in which selection occurred, including asymmetrical responses to selection in some cases. These results indicate that variation in pleiotropy across the stress response network is highly sensitive to the external environment. Our findings highlight the complexity of the interaction between genes and environment that influences the ability of organisms to acclimate to novel environments. They also make clear the need to identify the underlying genetic basis of genetic correlations in order understand how patterns of pleiotropy are distributed across complex genetic networks.

  4. Widespread Environmental Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revealed by a Molecular Detection Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nuno; Santos, Catarina; Valente, Teresa; Gortázar, Christian; Almeida, Virgílio; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) has been considered crucial for bovine tuberculosis persistence in multi-host-pathogen systems. However, MTC contamination has been difficult to detect due to methodological issues. In an attempt to overcome this limitation we developed an improved protocol for the detection of MTC DNA. MTC DNA concentration was estimated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Making use of this protocol we showed that MTC contamination is widespread in different types of environmental samples from the Iberian Peninsula, which supports indirect transmission as a contributing mechanism for the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in this multi-host-pathogen system. The proportion of MTC DNA positive samples was higher in the bovine tuberculosis-infected than in presumed negative area (0.32 and 0.18, respectively). Detection varied with the type of environmental sample and was more frequent in sediment from dams and less frequent in water also from dams (0.22 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of MTC-positive samples was significantly higher in spring (p<0.001), but MTC DNA concentration per sample was higher in autumn and lower in summer. The average MTC DNA concentration in positive samples was 0.82 MPN/g (CI95 0.70–0.98 MPN/g). We were further able to amplify a DNA sequence specific of Mycobacterium bovis/caprae in 4 environmental samples from the bTB-infected area. PMID:26561038

  5. Widespread Environmental Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revealed by a Molecular Detection Protocol.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Santos, Catarina; Valente, Teresa; Gortázar, Christian; Almeida, Virgílio; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) has been considered crucial for bovine tuberculosis persistence in multi-host-pathogen systems. However, MTC contamination has been difficult to detect due to methodological issues. In an attempt to overcome this limitation we developed an improved protocol for the detection of MTC DNA. MTC DNA concentration was estimated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Making use of this protocol we showed that MTC contamination is widespread in different types of environmental samples from the Iberian Peninsula, which supports indirect transmission as a contributing mechanism for the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in this multi-host-pathogen system. The proportion of MTC DNA positive samples was higher in the bovine tuberculosis-infected than in presumed negative area (0.32 and 0.18, respectively). Detection varied with the type of environmental sample and was more frequent in sediment from dams and less frequent in water also from dams (0.22 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of MTC-positive samples was significantly higher in spring (p<0.001), but MTC DNA concentration per sample was higher in autumn and lower in summer. The average MTC DNA concentration in positive samples was 0.82 MPN/g (CI95 0.70-0.98 MPN/g). We were further able to amplify a DNA sequence specific of Mycobacterium bovis/caprae in 4 environmental samples from the bTB-infected area. PMID:26561038

  6. Widespread Environmental Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revealed by a Molecular Detection Protocol.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Santos, Catarina; Valente, Teresa; Gortázar, Christian; Almeida, Virgílio; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) has been considered crucial for bovine tuberculosis persistence in multi-host-pathogen systems. However, MTC contamination has been difficult to detect due to methodological issues. In an attempt to overcome this limitation we developed an improved protocol for the detection of MTC DNA. MTC DNA concentration was estimated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Making use of this protocol we showed that MTC contamination is widespread in different types of environmental samples from the Iberian Peninsula, which supports indirect transmission as a contributing mechanism for the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in this multi-host-pathogen system. The proportion of MTC DNA positive samples was higher in the bovine tuberculosis-infected than in presumed negative area (0.32 and 0.18, respectively). Detection varied with the type of environmental sample and was more frequent in sediment from dams and less frequent in water also from dams (0.22 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of MTC-positive samples was significantly higher in spring (p<0.001), but MTC DNA concentration per sample was higher in autumn and lower in summer. The average MTC DNA concentration in positive samples was 0.82 MPN/g (CI95 0.70-0.98 MPN/g). We were further able to amplify a DNA sequence specific of Mycobacterium bovis/caprae in 4 environmental samples from the bTB-infected area.

  7. Health, safety, and environmental risk assessment of steel production complex in central Iran using TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Jozi, S A; Majd, N Moradi

    2014-10-01

    This research was carried out with the aim of presenting an environmental management plan for steel production complex (SPC) in central Iran. Following precise identification of the plant activities as well as the study area, possible sources of environmental pollution and adverse impacts on the air quality, water, soil, biological environment, socioeconomic and cultural environment, and health and safety of the employees were determined considering the work processes of the steel complex. Afterwards, noise, wastewater, and air pollution sources were measured. Subsequently, factors polluting the steel complex were identified by TOPSIS and then prioritized using Excel Software. Based on the obtained results, the operation of the furnaces in hot rolling process with the score 1, effluent derived from hot rolling process with the score 0.565, nonprincipal disposal and dumping of waste at the plant enclosure with the score 0.335, walking beam process with the score 1.483 respectively allocated themselves the highest priority in terms of air, water, soil and noise pollution. In terms of habitats, land cover and socioeconomic and cultural environment, closeness to the forest area and the existence of four groups of wildlife with the score 1.106 and proximity of villages and residential areas to the plant with the score 3.771 respectively enjoyed the highest priorities while impressibility and occupational accidents with the score 2.725 and cutting and welding operations with score 2.134 had the highest priority among health and safety criteria. Finally, strategies for the control of pollution sources were identified and Training, Monitoring and environmental management plan of the SPC was prepared.

  8. Assessment of methods to recover DNA from bacteria, fungi and archaea in complex environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Herrera-López, David; López-Chávez, Mariana Y; Cancino-Gómez, Máximo; Reyes-Reyes, Ana L

    2015-11-01

    DNA extraction from environmental samples is a critical step for metagenomic analysis to study microbial communities, including those considered uncultivable. Nevertheless, obtaining good quality DNA in sufficient quantities for downstream methodologies is not always possible, and it depends on the complexity and stability of each ecosystem, which could be more problematic for samples from tropical regions because those ecosystems are less stable and more complex. Three laboratory methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from samples representing unstable (decaying coffee pulp and mangrove sediments) and relatively stable (compost and soil) environments were tested. The results were compared with those obtained using two commercial DNA extraction kits. The quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by PCR amplification to verify the recovery of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genetic material. The laboratory method that gave the best results used a lysis procedure combining physical, chemical, and enzymatic steps.

  9. [Genotoxicity resulting from a complex mixture of environmental origin using 2 bacterial systems].

    PubMed

    López, L; Moretton, J

    1996-01-01

    The genotoxicity of environmental complex mixtures was tested with Ames mutagenicity assay and with Bacillus subtilis rec assay for estimation of primary DNA damage. Soil samples obtained from an area contaminated with petrochemical wastes were sequentially extracted with ethyl ether and methanol. After evaporation to dryness the extracts were resuspended in dimethylsulfoxide for their use in biological tests. No mutagenic response was detected with the Ames test. Ether extract from parcel 1 showed an unusually high toxicity for Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and induced DNA damage in Bacillus subtilis with a clear relationship dose-genotoxic response. The analysis of the results obtained in both assays and the nature of the samples indicate that the genotoxicity detected in the complex mixture is compatible with the one caused by DNA intercalating compounds.

  10. Assessment of methods to recover DNA from bacteria, fungi and archaea in complex environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Herrera-López, David; López-Chávez, Mariana Y; Cancino-Gómez, Máximo; Reyes-Reyes, Ana L

    2015-11-01

    DNA extraction from environmental samples is a critical step for metagenomic analysis to study microbial communities, including those considered uncultivable. Nevertheless, obtaining good quality DNA in sufficient quantities for downstream methodologies is not always possible, and it depends on the complexity and stability of each ecosystem, which could be more problematic for samples from tropical regions because those ecosystems are less stable and more complex. Three laboratory methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from samples representing unstable (decaying coffee pulp and mangrove sediments) and relatively stable (compost and soil) environments were tested. The results were compared with those obtained using two commercial DNA extraction kits. The quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by PCR amplification to verify the recovery of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genetic material. The laboratory method that gave the best results used a lysis procedure combining physical, chemical, and enzymatic steps. PMID:26014885

  11. Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Rahau S.; Ewert, Kai K.; Silva, Bruno F. B.; Leal, Cecilia; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally responsive materials, i.e., materials that respond to changes in their environment with a change in their properties or structure, are attracting an increasing amount of interest. We recently designed and synthesized a series of cleavable multivalent lipids (CMVLn, with n = 2 to 5 the number of positive headgroup charges at full protonation) with a disulfide bond in the linker between cationic headgroup and hydrophobic tails. The self-assembled complexes of the CMVLs and DNA are a prototypical environmentally responsive material, undergoing extensive structural rearrangement when exposed to reducing agents. We investigated the structural evolution of CMVL–DNA complexes at varied complex composition, temperature and incubation time using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A related lipid with a stable linker, TMVL4, was used as a control. In a nonreducing environment CMVL–DNA complexes form the lamellar (LαC) phase, with DNA rods sandwiched between lipid bilayers. However, new self-assembled phases form when the disulfide linker is cleaved by dithiothreitol or the biologically relevant reducing agent glutathione. The released DNA and cleaved CMVL headgroups form a “loosely organized” phase, giving rise to a characteristic broad SAXS correlation profile. CMVLs of high headgroup charge also form condensed DNA bundles. Intriguingly, the cleaved hydrophobic tails of the CMVLs reassemble into tilted chain-ordered Lβ′ phases upon incubation at physiological temperature (37 °C), as indicated by characteristic WAXS peaks. X-ray scattering further reveals that two of the three phases (LβF, LβL, and LβI) comprised by the Lβ′ phase coexist in these samples. The described system may have applications in lipid-based nanotechnologies. PMID:22616637

  12. Supercritical fluid methods for the analysis of complex fuel and environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Yonker, C.R.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Chess, E.K.; Udseth, H.R.; Frye, S.L.; Wright, B.W.

    1985-11-01

    The application of supercritical fluid methods can greatly improve the analysis of complex mixtures spanning wide chemical classes. In separations from complex matrices supercritical fluids can be used to improve both extraction efficiency and speed. The variable solvating powers and gas-like diffusion coefficients and viscosities can provide efficient new methods for sample enrichment, cleanup and fractionation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is applicable to both thermally labile and less volatile materials. The use of small diameter (25- to 50-..mu..m) fused silica capillary columns provides chromatographic efficiencies for SFC that are nearly comparable to conventional capillary gas chromatography and much greater than practical by liquid chromatography (LC). The development of practical capillary SFC-MS instrumentation, allowing both electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS), is expected to provide a powerful alternative to LC-MS for complex mixture analysis. Recent results will be presented on the development of methods for the analysis of fuels, labile pollutants, hazardous solid waste materials, and related complex environmental mixtures. The application of various supercritical fluids for sample extraction, SFC and SFC-MS, and the recent development of a system for automated supercritical fluid extraction-chromatography will also be described. Finally, the potential role of supercritical fluid methods in routine chemical analysis will be discussed. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: environmental acclimation and photosynthetic flux control

    PubMed Central

    Schöttler, Mark A.; Tóth, Szilvia Z.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is dynamically adjusted to long-term changes in environmental conditions such as growth light intensity and light quality, and to changing metabolic demands for ATP and NADPH imposed by stresses and leaf aging. By changing photosynthetic complex stoichiometry, a long-term imbalance between the photosynthetic production of ATP and NADPH and their metabolic consumption is avoided, and cytotoxic side reactions are minimized. Otherwise, an excess capacity of the light reactions, relative to the demands of primary metabolism, could result in a disturbance of cellular redox homeostasis and an increased production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the initiation of cell death programs. In this review, changes of the abundances of the different constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental conditions and during leaf ontogenesis are summarized. The contributions of the different photosynthetic complexes to photosynthetic flux control and the regulation of electron transport are discussed. PMID:24860580

  14. Mapping environmental partitioning properties of nonpolar complex mixtures by use of GC × GC.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Deedar; Gros, Jonas; Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-06-17

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) is effective for separating and quantifying nonpolar organic chemicals in complex mixtures. Here we present a model to estimate 11 environmental partitioning properties for nonpolar analytes based on GC × GC chromatogram retention time information. The considered partitioning properties span several phases including pure liquid, air, water, octanol, hexadecane, particle natural organic matter, dissolved organic matter, and organism lipids. The model training set and test sets are based on a literature compilation of 648 individual experimental partitioning property data. For a test set of 50 nonpolar environmental contaminants, predicted partition coefficients exhibit root-mean-squared errors ranging from 0.19 to 0.48 log unit, outperforming Abraham-type solvation models for the same chemical set. The approach is applicable to nonpolar organic chemicals containing C, H, F, Cl, Br, and I, having boiling points ≤402 °C. The presented model is calibrated, easy to apply, and requires the user only to identify a small set of known analytes that adapt the model to the GC × GC instrument program. The analyst can thus map partitioning property estimates onto GC × GC chromatograms of complex mixtures. For example, analyzed nonpolar chemicals can be screened for long-range transport potential, aquatic bioaccumulation potential, arctic contamination potential, and other characteristic partitioning behaviors. PMID:24901063

  15. Model Organisms Retain an “Ecological Memory” of Complex Ecologically Relevant Environmental Variation

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Karlyn D.; Wurtmann, Elisabeth J.; Pinel, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Although tractable model organisms are essential to characterize the molecular mechanisms of evolution and adaptation, the ecological relevance of their behavior is not always clear because certain traits are easily lost during long-term laboratory culturing. Here, we demonstrate that despite their long tenure in the laboratory, model organisms retain “ecological memory” of complex environmental changes. We have discovered that Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, a halophilic archaeon that dominates microbial communities in a dynamically changing hypersaline environment, simultaneously optimizes fitness to total salinity, NaCl concentration, and the [K]/[Mg] ratio. Despite being maintained under controlled conditions over the last 50 years, peaks in the three-dimensional fitness landscape occur in salinity and ionic compositions that are not replicated in laboratory culturing but are routinely observed in the natural hypersaline environment of this organism. Intriguingly, adaptation to variations in ion composition was associated with differential regulation of anaerobic metabolism genes, suggesting an intertwined relationship between responses to oxygen and salinity. Our results suggest that the ecological memory of complex environmental variations is imprinted in the networks for coordinating multiple cellular processes. These coordination networks are also essential for dealing with changes in other physicochemically linked factors present during routine laboratory culturing and, hence, retained in model organisms. PMID:24413600

  16. Gene-Disease Network Analysis Reveals Functional Modules in Mendelian, Complex and Environmental Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Bundschus, Markus; Rautschka, Michael; Mayer, Miguel A.; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientists have been trying to understand the molecular mechanisms of diseases to design preventive and therapeutic strategies for a long time. For some diseases, it has become evident that it is not enough to obtain a catalogue of the disease-related genes but to uncover how disruptions of molecular networks in the cell give rise to disease phenotypes. Moreover, with the unprecedented wealth of information available, even obtaining such catalogue is extremely difficult. Principal Findings We developed a comprehensive gene-disease association database by integrating associations from several sources that cover different biomedical aspects of diseases. In particular, we focus on the current knowledge of human genetic diseases including mendelian, complex and environmental diseases. To assess the concept of modularity of human diseases, we performed a systematic study of the emergent properties of human gene-disease networks by means of network topology and functional annotation analysis. The results indicate a highly shared genetic origin of human diseases and show that for most diseases, including mendelian, complex and environmental diseases, functional modules exist. Moreover, a core set of biological pathways is found to be associated with most human diseases. We obtained similar results when studying clusters of diseases, suggesting that related diseases might arise due to dysfunction of common biological processes in the cell. Conclusions For the first time, we include mendelian, complex and environmental diseases in an integrated gene-disease association database and show that the concept of modularity applies for all of them. We furthermore provide a functional analysis of disease-related modules providing important new biological insights, which might not be discovered when considering each of the gene-disease association repositories independently. Hence, we present a suitable framework for the study of how genetic and environmental factors

  17. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis.

  18. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  19. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  20. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  1. The phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex responsive to environmental conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A R; Schaefer, M R; Chiang, G G; Collier, J L

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms can acclimate to their environment by changing many cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. In this article we discuss the phycobilisome, the light-harvesting apparatus of cyanobacteria and red algae. Unlike most light-harvesting antenna complexes, the phycobilisome is not an integral membrane complex but is attached to the surface of the photosynthetic membranes. It is composed of both the pigmented phycobiliproteins and the nonpigmented linker polypeptides; the former are important for absorbing light energy, while the latter are important for stability and assembly of the complex. The composition of the phycobilisome is very sensitive to a number of different environmental factors. Some of the filamentous cyanobacteria can alter the composition of the phycobilisome in response to the prevalent wavelengths of light in the environment. This process, called complementary chromatic adaptation, allows these organisms to efficiently utilize available light energy to drive photosynthetic electron transport and CO2 fixation. Under conditions of macronutrient limitation, many cyanobacteria degrade their phycobilisomes in a rapid and orderly fashion. Since the phycobilisome is an abundant component of the cell, its degradation may provide a substantial amount of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited cells. Furthermore, degradation of the phycobilisome during nutrient-limited growth may prevent photodamage that would occur if the cells were to absorb light under conditions of metabolic arrest. The interplay of various environmental parameters in determining the number of phycobilisomes and their structural characteristics and the ways in which these parameters control phycobilisome biosynthesis are fertile areas for investigation. PMID:8246846

  2. Locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinuse): The effect of light and environmental complexity

    PubMed Central

    Eilam, David

    2004-01-01

    Background Rodents typically avoid illuminated and open areas, favoring dark or sheltered environments for activity. While previous studies focused on the effect of these environmental attributes on the level of activity, the present study tested whether the spatio-temporal structure of activity was also modified in illuminated compared with dark and complex compared with open arenas. For this, we tested common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) in empty or stone-containing arenas with lights on or lights off. Results In an illuminated or open arena, spiny mice moved in less frequent but longer trips with relatively long distances between consecutive stops. In contrast, in either a dark arena or an arena with stones, the animals took shorter and more frequent trips, with more stops per trip and shorter inter-stop distances. In illuminated arenas spiny mice remained mainly along the walls, whereas locomotion in the center was more prevalent in dark empty arenas, and was carried out along convoluted paths. Increasing environmental complexity by adding stones to either illuminated or dark arenas increased locomotion along straight trajectories and away from walls. Conclusions Earlier findings of reduced activity in illuminated or open areas have been extended in the present study by demonstrating changes in the spatio-temporal structure of locomotor behavior. In the more complex arenas (with stones) spiny mice traveled along short straight segments whereas in the open their trips were longer and took the shape of a zigzag path which is more effective against fast or nearby predators. Alternatively, the zigzag path may reflect a difficulty in navigation. PMID:15537426

  3. Heterochrony in a complex world: disentangling environmental processes of facultative paedomorphosis in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Ficetola, Gentile F

    2014-05-01

    Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the possibility to test hypotheses that could explain its success across environments. Amphibians are particularly suitable to exploring these questions because they express complex life cycles (i.e. metamorphosis) that have been disrupted by heterochronic processes (paedomorphosis: retention of larval traits in adults). The large phenotypic variation across populations suggests that more complex processes than expected are operating, but they remain to be investigated through multivariate analyses over a large range of natural populations across time. In this study, we compared the likelihood of multiple potential environmental determinants of heterochrony. We gathered data on the proportion of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) across more than 150 populations during 10 years and used an information-theoretic approach to compare the support of multiple potential processes. Six environmental processes jointly explained the proportion of paedomorphs in populations: predation, water availability, dispersal limitation, aquatic breathing, terrestrial habitat suitability and antipredator refuges. Analyses of variation across space and time supported models based on the advantage of paedomorphosis in favourable aquatic habitats. Paedomorphs were favoured in deep ponds, in conditions favourable to aquatic breathing (high oxygen content), with lack of fish and surrounded by suitable terrestrial habitat. Metamorphs were favoured by banks allowing easy dispersal. These results indicate that heterochrony relies on complex processes involving multiple ecological variables and exemplifies why heterochronic patterns occur in contrasted environments. On the other hand, the fast selection of alternative morphs shows that metamorphosis and paedomorphosis

  4. Enoxacin-Tb3+ complex as an environmentally friendly fluorescence probe for DNA and its application.

    PubMed

    Tong, Changlun; Hu, Zhou; Liu, Weiping

    2007-02-15

    The fluorescence intensity of the enoxacin (ENX)-Tb(3+) complex enhanced by DNA was studied. On the basis of this study, an environmentally friendly fluorescence probe of enoxacin-Tb(3+) for the determination of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA was developed. Under the optimal conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity was in proportion to the concentration of DNA in the range of 2.0x10(-8) to 2.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) for hsDNA, 1.0x10(-8) to 1.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) for ctDNA and 5.0x10(-9) to 1.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) for thermally denatured ctDNA. The detection limits (S/N=3) were 5.0, 9.0 and 3.0ng mL(-1), respectively. The interaction modes between ENX-Tb(3+) and DNA and the mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement were also discussed in details. The experimental results from UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and the competing combination tests between the ENX-Tb(3+) complex and EB probe indicated that the possible interaction modes between enoxacin-Tb(3+) complex and DNA had at least two different binding modes: the electrostatic binding and the intercalation binding. Additionally, this fluorescence probe was used to study the interaction between heavy metals and DNA.

  5. Understanding and Addressing Barriers to Implementation of Environmental and Policy Interventions to Support Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Radvanyi, Catherine; Duggan, Kathleen; Motton, Freda; Wiggs, Imogene; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Rural residents are at greater risk of obesity than urban and suburban residents. Failure to meet physical activity and healthy eating recommendations play a role. Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Yet most of the evidence comes from urban and suburban communities. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify types of environmental and policy interventions being implemented in rural communities to promote physical activity or healthy eating, 2) identify barriers to the implementation of environmental or policy interventions, and 3) identify strategies rural communities have employed to overcome these barriers. METHODS Key informant interviews with public health professionals working in rural areas in the United States were conducted in 2010. A purposive sample included 15 practitioners engaged in planning, implementing, or evaluating environmental or policy interventions to promote physical activity or healthy eating. FINDINGS Our findings reveal that barriers in rural communities include cultural differences, population size, limited human capital, and difficulty demonstrating the connection between social and economic policy and health outcomes. Key informants identified a number of strategies to overcome these barriers such as developing broad-based partnerships and building on the existing infrastructure. CONCLUSON Recent evidence suggests that environmental and policy interventions have potential to promote physical activity and healthy eating at the population level. To realize positive outcomes, it is important to provide opportunities to implement these types of interventions and document their effectiveness in rural communities. PMID:23289660

  6. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  7. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  8. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    Vardzia represents an unique cultural heritage monument - rock cut city, which unites architectural monument and Natural-Geological complex. Such monuments are particularly vulnerable and their restoration and conservation requires complex approach. It is curved in various layers of volcanic tuffs and covers several hectares of area, with chronologically different segments of construction. This monument, as many similar monuments worldwide, is subjected to slow but permanent process of destruction, expressed in following factors: surface weathering of rock, active tectonics (aseismic displacement along the active faults and earthquakes), interaction between lithologically different rock layers, existence of major cracks and associated complex block structure, surface rainwater runoff and infiltrated ground water, temperature variations, etc. During its lifetime, Vardzia was heavily damaged by Historical Earthquake of 1283 and only partly restored afterwards. The technological progress together with the increased knowledge about ongoing environmental processes, established the common understanding that the complex monitoring of the environment represents the essential component for resolving such a principal issues, as: Proper management and prevention of natural disasters; Modeling of environmental processes, their short and long term prognosis; Monitoring of macro and micro climate; Safe functioning and preservation of important constructions. Research Center of Cultural Heritage and Environment of Ilia State University in cooperation with Experts from ISPRA, with the funding from the State agency of Cultural Heritage, has developed a concept of Vardzia complex monitoring network. Concept of the network includes: monitoring local meteorological conditions (meteorological station), monitoring microclimate in caves (temperature and humidity in the air and rock), monitoring microtremors and ambient seismic noise in Vardzia (local strong motion network), monitoring

  9. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. PMID:27005969

  10. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus.

  11. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  12. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  13. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  14. Multiple environmental stressors elicit complex interactive effects in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Talent, Larry G; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Nisanian, Mandana; Gogal, Robert M; Johnson, Mark S; Perkins, Edward J; Gust, Kurt A

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of multiple-stressor effects stemming from habitat degradation, climate change, and exposure to chemical contaminants is crucial for addressing challenges to ecological and environmental health. To assess the effects of multiple stressors in an understudied taxon, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used to characterize the individual and combined effects of food limitation, exposure to the munitions constituent 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and Plasmodium mexicanum (lizard malaria) infection. Three experimental assays were conducted including: Experiment I--TNT × Food Limitation, Experiment II--Food Limitation × Malaria Infection, and Experiment III--TNT × Malaria Infection. All experiments had a 30 day duration, the malaria treatment included infected and non infected control lizards, food limitation treatments included an ad libitum control and at least one reduced food ration and TNT exposures consisting of daily oral doses of corn oil control or a corn oil-TNT suspension at 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day. The individual stressors caused a variety of effects including: reduced feeding, reduced testes mass, anemia, increased white blood cell (WBC) concentrations and increased mass of liver, kidney and spleen in TNT exposures; reduced cholesterol, WBC concentrations and whole body, testes and inguinal fat weights given food limitation; and increased WBC concentrations and spleen weights as well as decreased cholesterol and testes mass in malaria infected lizards. Additive and interactive effects were found among certain stressor combinations including elimination of TNT-induced hormesis for growth under food limitation. Ultimately, our study indicates the potential for effects modulation when environmental stressors are combined. PMID:22975894

  15. Genetic activity profiles--application in assessing potential carcinogenicity of complex environmental mixtures.

    PubMed

    Waters, M D; Claxton, L D; Stack, H F; Graedel, T E

    1990-01-01

    Some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of a complex environmental mixture may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity of its component chemicals. The expanded genetic activity profile (GAP) data-base provides a computer-generated graphic representation of genetic bioassay data as a function of dose of the substance tested. In addition, the atmospheric chemical compound (ACC) data-base contains information on chemical structures, properties, detection methods and sources of chemicals found in ambient air. Using the combined data-bases, information on the quantity of an individual chemical present within a mixture or fraction of a mixture may be related to the quantity (lowest effective dose; LED) of the chemical required to demonstrate a positive response in one or more genetic bioassays. Alternatively, quantitative information on the carcinogenic potency of each individual compound (TD50 value) may be related to the quantity present in the mixture or mixture fraction and used to calculate the percent human exposure dose/rodent potency dose (HERP) for the chemical. Using an additivity assumption, a conservative estimate of potential carcinogenic hazard for the mixture may be calculated based on the HERP indices for its chemical components. This conceptual approach is limited by the relatively small number of chemicals identified in complex mixtures for which genetic toxicology and animal cancer data exist.

  16. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  17. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  18. Adapting a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program for HIV-Infected Preadolescents and Their Families: Youth, Families and Health Care Providers Coming Together to Address Complex Needs

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary; Block, Megan; Mellins, Claude; Traube, Dorian E.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Minott, Desiree; Miranda, Claudia; Petterson, Jennifer; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion program specifically designed to meet the needs of perinatally-infected preadolescents and their families. This project represents one of the first attempts to involve perinatally HIV-infected youth in HIV prevention efforts while simultaneously addressing their mental health and health care needs. The program, entitled CHAMP+ (Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project-Plus), focuses on: (1) the impact of HIV on the family; (2) loss and stigma associated with HIV disease; (3) HIV knowledge and understanding of health and medication protocols; (4) family communication about puberty, sexuality and HIV; (5) social support and decision making related to disclosure; and (6) parental supervision and monitoring related to sexual possibility situations, sexual risk taking behavior and management of youth health and medication. Findings from a preliminary evaluation of CHAMP+ with six families are presented along with a discussion of challenges related to feasibility and implementation within a primary health care setting for perinatally infected youth. PMID:20852676

  19. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  20. Long-term stewardship of the environmental legacy at restored sites within the Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex.

    PubMed

    Wells, James R; Spitz, Henry B

    2003-11-01

    It is readily apparent, as the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management proceeds in remediating its vast network of contaminated nuclear weapons facilities, that final cleanup at many facilities will not be performed to a level allowing unrestricted use of the facility. Instead, these facilities must rely on engineering, administrative, and institutional controls to ensure the level of cleanup performed at the site remains adequately protective of public health and the environment. In order for these controls to remain effective, however, a plan for long-term stewardship of these sites must be developed that is approved by the U.S. Congress. Although this sounds simple enough for the present, serious questions remain regarding how best to implement a program of stewardship to ensure its effectiveness over time, particularly for sites with residual contamination of radionuclides with half-lives on the order of thousands of years. Individual facilities have attempted to answer these questions at the site-specific level. However, the complexities of the issues require federal support and oversight to ensure the programs implemented at each of the facilities are consistent and effective. The Department of Energy recently submitted a report to Congress outlining the extent of long-term stewardship needs at each of its facilities. As a result, the time is ripe for forward thinking Congressional action to address the relevant issues and ensure the remedy of long-term stewardship successfully carries out its intended purpose and remains protective of public health and the environment. The regulatory elements necessary for the stewardship program to succeed can only be implemented through the plenary powers of the U.S. Congress.

  1. Environmental Literacy of Sixth Grade Students in Arkansas: Implications for Environmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education must be better integrated into K-12 curriculum to advance environmental literacy. Producing a citizenry that can understand and address the complex environmental issues facing the world today and in the future is essential to sustainable life on this planet. Using the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey, 6th grade…

  2. Can fuzzy logic bring complex problems into focus? Modeling imprecise factors in environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.

    2004-06-14

    In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in resolving some of the conflict, divisiveness

  3. Latent class model with familial dependence to address heterogeneity in complex diseases: adapting the approach to family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Alexandre; Croteau, Jordie; Tayeb, Arafat; Mérette, Chantal; Labbe, Aurélie

    2011-04-01

    Clinical diagnoses of complex diseases may often encompass multiple genetically heterogeneous disorders. One way of dissecting this heterogeneity is to apply latent class (LC) analysis to measurements related to the diagnosis, such as detailed symptoms, to define more homogeneous disease sub-types, influenced by a smaller number of genes that will thus be more easily detectable. We have previously developed a LC model allowing dependence between the latent disease class status of relatives within families. We have also proposed a strategy to incorporate the posterior probability of class membership of each subject in parametric linkage analysis, which is not directly transferable to genetic association methods. Under the framework of family-based association tests (FBAT), we now propose to make the contribution of an affected subject to the FBAT statistic proportional to his or her posterior class membership probability. Simulations showed a modest but robust power advantage compared to simply assigning each subject to his or her most probable class, and important power gains over the analysis of the disease diagnosis without LC modeling under certain scenarios. The use of LC analysis with FBAT is illustrated using autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms on families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange, where we examined eight regions previously associated to autism in this sample. The analysis using the posterior probability of membership to an LC detected an association in the JARID2 gene as significant as that for ASD (P = 3 × 10(-5)) but with a larger effect size (odds ratio = 2.17 vs. 1.55).

  4. Variability in measures of reproductive success in laboratory-kept colonies of zebrafish and implications for studies addressing population-level effects of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Paull, Gregory C; Van Look, Katrien J W; Santos, Eduarda M; Filby, Amy L; Gray, D Melati; Nash, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2008-04-28

    Laboratory tests that quantify reproductive success using model fish species are used to investigate for population-level effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other chemicals discharged into the environment. Even for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), however, one of the most widely used laboratory models, surprisingly little is known about the normal variability in measures of reproductive success and this information is crucial for robust test design. In this study, the dynamics of breeding and inherent variability in egg output/viability and sperm quality were characterized among individuals/colonies and over time in 34 colonies of laboratory-kept zebrafish over a 20-day study period. For this work, a '6 x 6' (six males and six females) colony size was adopted, as this is both environmentally relevant and optimal when considering egg output and animal welfare combined: an initial experiment showed egg output per female increased with decreasing colony size however, there was also a parallel increase in aggressive behavior. Both egg output and viability in '6 x 6' colonies were highly variable among colonies (with co-efficients of variation (CVs) of 30 and 11%, respectively) and over the 20-day study duration (considering egg output and viability of all the colonies combined, the CVs were 20 and 12%, respectively). The patterns of egg production also differed among the '6 x 6' colonies, and they included a cyclical output, a consistent daily output, an infrequent egg output with intermittent days of very high egg output, and an output with no obvious pattern. Sperm quality, measured as percentage motility and curvilinear velocity (VCL), was variable both among individuals within '6 x 6' colonies and across colonies, with percentage motility being the most variable parameter (mean CVs of 82% inter-individual within colonies and 49% inter-colony). Sperm quality did not, however, vary over a 24h period. A minimum number of six replicate '6 x 6' colonies

  5. Integrating Research and Action: A Systematic Review of Community-based Participatory Research To Address Health Disparities In Environmental and Occupational Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950

  6. Complex interplays among population dynamics, environmental forcing, and exploitation in fisheries.

    PubMed

    Rouyer, T; Fromentin, J-M; Ménard, F; Cazelles, B; Briand, K; Pianet, R; Planque, B; Stenseth, N C

    2008-04-01

    The patterns of variations in fisheries time series are known to result from a complex combination of species and fisheries dynamics all coupled with environmental forcing (including climate, trophic interactions, etc.). Disentangling the relative effects of these factors has been a major goal of fisheries science for both conceptual and management reasons. By examining the variability of 169 tuna and billfish time series of catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout the Atlantic as well as their linkage to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), we find that the importance of these factors differed according to the spatial scale. At the scale of the entire Atlantic the patterns of variations are primarily spatially structured, whereas at a more regional scale the patterns of variations were primarily related to the fishing gear. Furthermore, the NAO appeared to also structure the patterns of variations of tuna time series, especially over the North Atlantic. We conclude that the patterns of variations in fisheries time series of tuna and billfish only poorly reflect the underlying dynamics of these fish populations; they appear to be shaped by several successive embedded processes, each interacting with each other. Our results emphasize the necessity for scientific data when investigating the population dynamics of large pelagic fishes, because CPUE fluctuations are not directly attributable to change in species' abundance.

  7. Transcription and activation under environmental stress of the complex telomeric repeats of Chironomus thummi.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guitarte, J L; Díez, J L; Morcillo, G

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to their traditional role, telomeres seem to behave as transcriptionally active regions. RNAs complementary to the short DNA repeats characteristic of telomerase-maintained telomeres have recently been identified in various mammalian cell lines, representing a new and unexpected element in telomere architecture. Here, we report the existence of transcripts complementary to telomeric sequences characteristic of Chironomus thummi telomeres. As in other Diptera, the non-canonical telomeres of chironomids lack the simple telomerase repeats and have instead more complex repetitive sequences. Northern blots of total RNA hybridized with telomere probes and RT-PCR with telomere-specific tailed primers confirm the existence of small non-coding RNAs of around 200 bp, the size of the DNA repeated telomeric unit. Telomere transcripts are heterogeneous in length, and they appear as a ladder pattern that probably corresponds to multimers of the repeat. Moreover, telomeres are activated under conditions of environmental stress, such as heat shock, appearing highly decondensed and densely labelled with acetylated H4 histone, as well as with RNA polymerase II antibodies, both marks of transcriptional activity. Changes in the expression levels of telomeric RNA were detected after heat shock. These findings provide evidence that transcriptional activity of the repetitive telomere sequences is an evolutionarily conserved feature, not limited to telomerase telomeres. The functional significance of this non-coding RNA as a new additional element in the context of telomere biology remains to be explained.

  8. Complex interplays among population dynamics, environmental forcing, and exploitation in fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Rouyer, T.; Fromentin, J.-M.; Ménard, F.; Cazelles, B.; Briand, K.; Pianet, R.; Planque, B.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2008-01-01

    The patterns of variations in fisheries time series are known to result from a complex combination of species and fisheries dynamics all coupled with environmental forcing (including climate, trophic interactions, etc.). Disentangling the relative effects of these factors has been a major goal of fisheries science for both conceptual and management reasons. By examining the variability of 169 tuna and billfish time series of catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout the Atlantic as well as their linkage to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), we find that the importance of these factors differed according to the spatial scale. At the scale of the entire Atlantic the patterns of variations are primarily spatially structured, whereas at a more regional scale the patterns of variations were primarily related to the fishing gear. Furthermore, the NAO appeared to also structure the patterns of variations of tuna time series, especially over the North Atlantic. We conclude that the patterns of variations in fisheries time series of tuna and billfish only poorly reflect the underlying dynamics of these fish populations; they appear to be shaped by several successive embedded processes, each interacting with each other. Our results emphasize the necessity for scientific data when investigating the population dynamics of large pelagic fishes, because CPUE fluctuations are not directly attributable to change in species' abundance. PMID:18391220

  9. Use of the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to Simulate Complex Waste Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, G. T.; Ho, Q. T.; Berger, S. R. K.

    2003-02-26

    The Environmental Simulation Program is a process simulator designed for aqueous based chemical processes. ESP, which is produced by OLI Systems, Inc., utilizes sophisticated activity coefficient models and predictive equations that result in the ability to simulate very complex electrolyte systems (OLI, 2002). The software comes with databanks of regressed parameters for a large number of aqueous, vapor, and solid species covering most of the elements. ESP has been used extensively at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to predict nuclear waste slurry vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium. It has and is being used to model leaching and washing of nuclear waste sludges, evaporation of nuclear waste solutions, crystallization of salts, precipitation of plutonium and other metals from waste solutions, and other processing of dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions, sludges, and slurries. The software is also used extensively to rationalize the characterization of nuclear wastes using limited data from analyses of waste samples. The OLI provided databanks suffer from a legacy interaction model that limits the accuracy when neutral solutes are important. Also, the nitrate-nitrite systems typically found in nuclear wastes are not properly parameterized in ESP databases because of the existence of sodium nitrate and nitrite ion pairs. Properties databanks for ESP have been developed at Flour Federal Services that eliminate the legacy model and provide more accurate simulation results than the OLI supplied databases for such concentrated solutions and slurries.

  10. Histopathology of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) chronically exposed to a complex environmental mixture.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, M W; Wolfe, M J; Burton, D T; Hoffmann, F J; Shedd, T R; Gardner, H S

    1999-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the carcinogenicity of a complex groundwater that contained 5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant heavy metals and 13 chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. A test protocol that used 10 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN) prior to groundwater exposure was designed to assess both initiation and promotion. The fish were exposed continuously for 9 mo with 0, 1, 5, or 25% groundwater, by volume, with either West Branch of Canal Creek water (Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD) or dechlorinated tap water as the diluent, while concurrent controls were run in the laboratory. Incidental findings included various neoplasms in the nares, ovary, skeletal muscle, skin, swim bladder, testis, thymus, and thyroid. Factors evaluated during statistical analyses of fish neoplasm prevalence included diluent type, groundwater percentage, fish gender, and DEN initiation. Liver neoplasm prevalence was higher in DEN-initiated fish and was frequently higher in males. Concentrations of up to 25% groundwater, by volume, showed no evidence of being a complete carcinogen and showed no consistent, conclusive evidence of being a promoter.

  11. Visual cortex plasticity: a complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Maya-Vetencourt, José Fernando; Origlia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The central nervous system architecture is highly dynamic and continuously modified by sensory experience through processes of neuronal plasticity. Plasticity is achieved by a complex interplay of environmental influences and physiological mechanisms that ultimately activate intracellular signal transduction pathways regulating gene expression. In addition to the remarkable variety of transcription factors and their combinatorial interaction at specific gene promoters, epigenetic mechanisms that regulate transcription have emerged as conserved processes by which the nervous system accomplishes the induction of plasticity. Experience-dependent changes of DNA methylation patterns and histone posttranslational modifications are, in fact, recruited as targets of plasticity-associated signal transduction mechanisms. Here, we shall concentrate on structural and functional consequences of early sensory deprivation in the visual system and discuss how intracellular signal transduction pathways associated with experience regulate changes of chromatin structure and gene expression patterns that underlie these plastic phenomena. Recent experimental evidence for mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity following congenital or acquired sensory deprivation both in human and animal models will be considered as well. We shall also review different experimental strategies that can be used to achieve the recovery of sensory functions after long-term deprivation in humans. PMID:22852098

  12. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  13. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and

  14. Environmental Toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David A.; Welbourn, Pamela

    2002-03-01

    Environmental Toxicology is a comprehensive introductory textbook dealing with most aspects of the subject, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Early chapters deal with basic to advanced concepts, methods and approaches. The next discusses the environmental toxicology of individual or groups of substances. The third part addresses complex issues, in which many of the concepts, approaches and substances covered in earlier parts are incorporated. The fourth part includes chapters on risk assessment, rehabilitation and regulatory toxicology. The book concludes with a summary of present and future areas of emphasis. Each chapter contains a comprehensive list of references and further reading, case studies from different jurisdictions, and student exercises.

  15. Is Heat Generated from a Crematorium an Appropriate Source for District Heating? Student Teachers' Reasoning About a Complex Environmental Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal study on how science student teachers' reasoning about a complex environmental issue developed through a teacher education programme in mathematics and science for grades 1-7 (ages 7-13). Of special interest was to follow the ways in which student teachers used scientific knowledge in their reasoning. The issue…

  16. TESTING FOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FROM COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) employs the cumulative distribution function (cdf) to measure the status of quantitative variables for resources of interest. The ability to compare cdf's for a resource from, say,...

  17. Environmental assessment: Strategic Petroleum Reserve Seaway Complex distribution enhancements, Brazoria, Galveston, and Harris Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) of the US Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a 42-inch buried crude oil pipeline, between 48 and 53 miles long, to transport crude oil from existing facilities of the SPR Seaway Complex located near Freeport, Texas, to an existing commercial crude oil terminal near Texas City, Texas. Three subalternative pipeline segments are under consideration for the origin of the route at the SPR Bryan Mound storage site located near Freeport, Texas. Crude oil throughput for all cases is 1,315,000 bpd. The environmental impacts of the proposed action are related to pipeline construction and operation. Potential impacts from pipeline construction are primarily concerned with prime farmland and wetlands. The use of ''double ditching'' techniques to restore original soil profile will minimize impacts to prime farmlands, and impacts on wetlands. Compliance with US Army Corps of Engineers permit conditions (which specify restoration of land to original contours, disposal of spoil in upland areas, and revegetation of riparian areas) will mitigate impacts on wetlands. Water use during pipeline testing in accordance with permit conditions is not expected to be significant. Potential impacts from pipeline operation are primarily concerned with accidental releases of crude oil to the environment. As a worst-case, 0.01 spill events would occur during one six-month drawdown, and the volume of oil spilled would be about 18,000 bbl for the pipeline. Because the pipeline will be buried, the occurrence of a major pipeline break releasing large quantities of crude oil is unlikely. Testing and inspection of buried pipeline, and the development of an oil spill contingency plan will reduce the seriousness of an oil spill. Impacts on floodplains are also expected to be minor. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment. Executive summary, Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation`s Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country`s nuclear weapons. The Complex also produces and/or recycles the nuclear materials used in building weapons and stores nuclear materials for future use. DOE also dismantles the weapons retired from the stockpile. In addition, DOE conducts surveillance and maintenance activities to ensure the reliability and safety of the stockpiled weapons throughout their operational life.

  19. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  20. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from

  1. School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. School of Public Health.

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and…

  2. Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties(2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Bork, Peer

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Peer Bork of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory on "Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  3. Microbial metaproteomics: Identifying the repertoire of proteins that microorganisms use to compete and cooperate in complex environmental communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Sharma, Ritin; Chourey, Karuna; Giannone, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The availability of genome information for microbial consortia, including unculturable species, from environmental samples has enabled systems-biology interrogation by providing a means to access genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic information. This provides a unique opportunity to characterize the molecular activities and interactions of these microbial systems at a comprehensive level never before possible. Such information not only provides details about the organizational, functional, and metabolic activities of such systems, but also the untapped reserve of molecular activities that might be invoked and exploited under certain environmental conditions. Since bacteria naturally exist in complex ecosystems, it is imperative to develop and utilize analytical approaches that can provide molecular level details on systems consisting of mixed microbial membership. This is the realm of metaproteomics - the characterization of the complement of proteins expressed by a microbial community in an environmental sample

  4. Environmental effects of inclusion complexation between methylated beta-cyclodextrin and diclofop-methyl.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiyun; Liu, Weiping; Chen, Shengwen

    2005-08-24

    Diclofop-methyl (DM) is a broad-spectrum herbicide but often shows a reduced biological activity against the target grasses due to its poor water solubility and slow translocation within plant tissues. Randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) is an effective inclusion complexation agent and, as a potential formulation additive, may thus improve the behavior of DM. We evaluated the complexing role of MCD by measuring the solubility and soil sorption of DM as a function of MCD concentration, as well as the dissolution rates of DM-MCD complexes. The complex was also extensively characterized by UV, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The apparent solubility of DM linearly increased with MCD concentration, indicating the formation of a 1:1 complex. In contrast, diclofop was not complexed by MCD. The DM-MCD complex appeared to have formed within the hydrophobic cavity of MCD. With the measured stability constant of 4740 L mol(-)(1), the complex was apparently stable, which resulted in DM resistant to hydrolysis, and hence the ratio of DM to the sum of DM and diclofop increased toward unity with increasing MCD concentration. The DM-MCD complex also quickly dissolved to a maximum within 5 min, due presumably to the hydrophilicity of MCD. The sorption of DM by soil was significantly reduced in the presence of MCD. All the results suggest that MCD may effectively improve the availability of DM to pests and for bioremediation.

  5. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  6. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  7. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  8. On wildfire complexity, simple models and environmental templates for fire size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, M. M.; Bradstock, R.; Gill, M.; Sadler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation fires affect some 370 Mha annually. At global and continental scales, fire activity follows predictable spatiotemporal patterns driven by gradients and seasonal fluctuations of primary productivity and evaporative demand that set constraints for fuel accumulation rates and fuel dryness, two key ingredients of fire. At regional scales, fires are also known to affect some landscapes more than others and within landscapes to occur preferentially in some sectors (e.g. wind-swept ridges) and rarely in others (e.g. wet gullies). Another common observation is that small fires occur relatively frequent yet collectively burn far less country than relatively infrequent large fires. These patterns of fire activity are well known to management agencies and consistent with their (informal) models of how the basic drivers and constraints of fire (i.e. fuels, ignitions, weather) vary in time and space across the landscape. The statistical behaviour of these landscape fire patterns has excited the (academic) research community by showing some consistency with that of complex dynamical systems poised at a phase transition. The common finding that the frequency-size distributions of actual fires follow power laws that resemble those produced by simple cellular models from statistical mechanics has been interpreted as evidence that flammable landscapes operate as self-organising systems with scale invariant fire size distributions emerging 'spontaneously' from simple rules of contagious fire spread and a strong feedback between fires and fuel patterns. In this paper we argue that the resemblance of simulated and actual fire size distributions is an example of equifinality, that is fires in model landscapes and actual landscapes may show similar statistical behaviour but this is reached by qualitatively different pathways or controlling mechanisms. We support this claim with two key findings regarding simulated fire spread mechanisms and fire-fuel feedbacks. Firstly, we

  9. Predicted Distribution of Major Malaria Vectors Belonging to the Anopheles dirus Complex in Asia: Ecological Niche and Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Obsomer, Valerie; Defourny, Pierre; Coosemans, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Methods derived from ecological niche modeling allow to define species distribution based on presence-only data. This is particularly useful to develop models from literature records such as available for the Anopheles dirus complex, a major group of malaria mosquito vectors in Asia. This research defines an innovative modeling design based on presence-only model and hierarchical framework to define the distribution of the complex and attempt to delineate sibling species distribution and environmental preferences. At coarse resolution, the potential distribution was defined using slow changing abiotic factors such as topography and climate representative for the timescale covered by literature records of the species. The distribution area was then refined in a second step using a mask of current suitable land cover. Distribution area and ecological niche were compared between species and environmental factors tested for relevance. Alternatively, extreme values at occurrence points were used to delimit environmental envelopes. The spatial distribution for the complex was broadly consistent with its known distribution and influencing factors included temperature and rainfall. If maps developed from environmental envelopes gave similar results to modeling when the number of sites was high, the results were less similar for species with low number of recorded presences. Using presence-only models and hierarchical framework this study not only predicts the distribution of a major malaria vector, but also improved ecological modeling analysis design and proposed final products better adapted to malaria control decision makers. The resulting maps can help prioritizing areas which need further investigation and help simulate distribution under changing conditions such as climate change or reforestation. The hierarchical framework results in two products one abiotic based model describes the potential maximal distribution and remains valid for decades and the other

  10. [EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE HANTAVIRUS SURVIVAL IN COMPLEXES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SUBSTRATES].

    PubMed

    Iunikhina, O V; Kompanets, G G

    2016-01-01

    Survival of viruses in the environment is a very important problem in epidemiology, especially for infections with indirect transmission. This work describes the results of the experimental study of adsorption and survival of the hantavirus on different environmental substrates (natural organic and inorganic sorbents). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution (5-10%) was effective in the hantavirus elution and phosphate-buffer saline (PBS) pH- 7,2 was optimal for elution of specific RNA. Potential survival of the infectious hantavirus on environmental substrates was observed within up to 14 days at +4°C. PMID:27145598

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on the germination of basidiospores in the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Adrian; Vogan, Aaron; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In basidiomycetous fungi, the viability of basidiospores is an important component of sexual fitness. However, relatively little is known about the genetic and environmental factors influencing basidiospore germination. In this study, we used human opportunistic yeast pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans, as models to investigate the potential effects of selected genetic and environmental factors on basidiospore germination. A total of five strains with known genome structure were used to construct six crosses, three of which were between strains within the same species, while the remaining three were hybrid crosses between C. neoformans and C. deneoformans. Offspring from these crosses were incubated on two media (a nutrient-limiting and a nutrient-rich) and three temperatures (23 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C). In general, spores from intra-specific crosses had greater germination rates than those from inter-specific crosses. Of the two environmental factors, temperature showed a greater influence than nutrient medium, with the 37 °C environment yielding lower germination rates than at 23 °C and 30 °C environments in most crosses. Furthermore, there were notable interaction effects between environmental factors and parental strains or strain pairs on basidiospore germination. We discuss the implications of these results on pathogenesis and speciation in this human fungal pathogen. PMID:27644692

  12. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  13. Environmental Communication Pedagogy for Sustainability: Developing Core Capacities to Engage with Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreavy, Bridie; Druschke, Caroline Gottschalk; Sprain, Leah; Thompson, Jessica L.; Lindenfeld, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogy informed by environmental communication can enhance collaboration within and outside the classroom. Through our collaborative, sustainability-focused work within the United States and internationally, we identified core capacities that prepare people to work together to form inclusive organizations and identify and respond to pressing…

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on the germination of basidiospores in the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Adrian; Vogan, Aaron; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In basidiomycetous fungi, the viability of basidiospores is an important component of sexual fitness. However, relatively little is known about the genetic and environmental factors influencing basidiospore germination. In this study, we used human opportunistic yeast pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans, as models to investigate the potential effects of selected genetic and environmental factors on basidiospore germination. A total of five strains with known genome structure were used to construct six crosses, three of which were between strains within the same species, while the remaining three were hybrid crosses between C. neoformans and C. deneoformans. Offspring from these crosses were incubated on two media (a nutrient-limiting and a nutrient-rich) and three temperatures (23 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C). In general, spores from intra-specific crosses had greater germination rates than those from inter-specific crosses. Of the two environmental factors, temperature showed a greater influence than nutrient medium, with the 37 °C environment yielding lower germination rates than at 23 °C and 30 °C environments in most crosses. Furthermore, there were notable interaction effects between environmental factors and parental strains or strain pairs on basidiospore germination. We discuss the implications of these results on pathogenesis and speciation in this human fungal pathogen. PMID:27644692

  15. Currents in Environmental Education: Mapping a Complex and Evolving Pedagogical Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauve, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring to light and celebrate the richness of the environmental education field, thereby paying homage to the pedagogical creativity of its architects over the course of the last thirty years, as well as to their contribution in reflecting on the meaning, problems and possibilities of our relationship to the…

  16. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  17. Correction: Complex environmental forcing across the biogeographical range of coral populations.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Emily B; Gouhier, Tarik C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a substantial body of work on how temperature shapes coastal marine ecosystems, the spatiotemporal variability of seawater pH and corresponding in situ biological responses remain largely unknown across biogeographic ranges of tropical coral species.Environmental variability is important to characterize because it can amplify or dampen the biological consequences of global change, depending on the functional relationship between mean temperature or pH and organismal traits. Here, we characterize the spatiotemporal variability of pH, temperature, and salinity at fringing reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia and Nanwan Bay, Taiwan using advanced time series analysis, including wavelet analysis, and infer their potential impact on the persistence and stability of coral populations.Our results demonstrate that both the mean and variance of pH and temperature differed significantly between sites in Moorea and Taiwan. Seawater temperature at the Moore a site passed the local bleaching threshold several times within the ~45 day deployment while aragonite saturation state at the Taiwan site was often below commonly observed levels for coral reefs. Our results showcase how a better understanding of the differences in environmental conditions between sites can (1) provide an important frame of reference for designing laboratory experiments to study the effects of environmental variability,(2) identify the proximity of current environmental conditions to predicted biological thresholds for the coral reef, and (3) help predict when the temporal variability and mean of environmental conditions will interact synergistically or antagonistically to alter the abundance and stability of marine populations experiencing climate change.

  18. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF A GOLF COMPLEX ON COASTAL WETLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal wetlands and other near-shore areas. The chemical and biological magnitude of the problem is almost unknown. To provide perspective on this issue, the effects of golf complex r...

  20. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  1. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  2. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  3. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  4. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF... Services Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions...

  5. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  6. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  7. Chelation ion chromatography as a method for trace elemental analysis in complex environmental and biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Siriraks, A.; Kingston, H.M. ); Riviello, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The development and evaluation of a new method for the determination of trace transition and rare-earth elements based on the combination of chelation and ion chromatography are described. The new method, chelation ion chromatography (Chelation IC), uses a chelating column to concentrate and separate transition and rare-earth elements from the common alkali and alkaline-earth metals, as well as other matrix components, prior to analysis by ion chromatography. The sample fraction from the chelating column contains only the concentrated analyte ions, thus eliminating interfering matrix components from complex matrices such as seawater and digested biological, botanical, and geological materials. This combination of chelation and ion chromatography provides a technique that makes possible the determination of trace elements in complex matrices that have proven to be difficult or impossible to analyze by ion chromatography or conventional atomic spectroscopy techniques.

  8. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    PubMed

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  9. Metagenomic Predictions: From Microbiome to Complex Health and Environmental Phenotypes in Humans and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Elizabeth M.; Moate, Peter J.; Marett, Leah C.; Cocks, Ben G.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammals have a large cohort of endo- and ecto- symbiotic microorganisms (the microbiome) that potentially influence host phenotypes. There have been numerous exploratory studies of these symbiotic organisms in humans and other animals, often with the aim of relating the microbiome to a complex phenotype such as body mass index (BMI) or disease state. Here, we describe an efficient methodology for predicting complex traits from quantitative microbiome profiles. The method was demonstrated by predicting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) status and BMI from human microbiome data, and enteric greenhouse gas production from dairy cattle rumen microbiome profiles. The method uses unassembled massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data to form metagenomic relationship matrices (analogous to genomic relationship matrices used in genomic predictions) to predict IBD, BMI and methane production phenotypes with useful accuracies (r = 0.423, 0.422 and 0.466 respectively). Our results show that microbiome profiles derived from MPS can be used to predict complex phenotypes of the host. Although the number of biological replicates used here limits the accuracy that can be achieved, preliminary results suggest this approach may surpass current prediction accuracies that are based on the host genome. This is especially likely for traits that are largely influenced by the gut microbiota, for example digestive tract disorders or metabolic functions such as enteric methane production in cattle. PMID:24023808

  10. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor-descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments.

  11. Metagenomic predictions: from microbiome to complex health and environmental phenotypes in humans and cattle.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Moate, Peter J; Marett, Leah C; Cocks, Ben G; Hayes, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    Mammals have a large cohort of endo- and ecto- symbiotic microorganisms (the microbiome) that potentially influence host phenotypes. There have been numerous exploratory studies of these symbiotic organisms in humans and other animals, often with the aim of relating the microbiome to a complex phenotype such as body mass index (BMI) or disease state. Here, we describe an efficient methodology for predicting complex traits from quantitative microbiome profiles. The method was demonstrated by predicting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) status and BMI from human microbiome data, and enteric greenhouse gas production from dairy cattle rumen microbiome profiles. The method uses unassembled massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data to form metagenomic relationship matrices (analogous to genomic relationship matrices used in genomic predictions) to predict IBD, BMI and methane production phenotypes with useful accuracies (r = 0.423, 0.422 and 0.466 respectively). Our results show that microbiome profiles derived from MPS can be used to predict complex phenotypes of the host. Although the number of biological replicates used here limits the accuracy that can be achieved, preliminary results suggest this approach may surpass current prediction accuracies that are based on the host genome. This is especially likely for traits that are largely influenced by the gut microbiota, for example digestive tract disorders or metabolic functions such as enteric methane production in cattle. PMID:24023808

  12. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor–descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments. PMID:25901309

  13. Environmental change and rates of evolution: the phylogeographic pattern within the hartebeest complex as related to climatic variation.

    PubMed

    Flagstad, O; Syvertsen, P O; Stenseth, N C; Jakobsen, K S

    2001-04-01

    Global climate fluctuated considerably throughout the Pliocene-Pleistocene period, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide array of species. Using the phylogeographic patterns within the hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)) complex, we evaluated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental change for a typical large mammal ranging on the African savannah. Our results, as generated from two mitochondrial DNA markers (the D-loop and cytochrome b), suggest an origin of the hartebeest in eastern Africa from where the species has colonized other parts of the continent. Phylogenetic analyses revealed an early diversification into southern and northern hartebeest lineages, an event that may be related to the formation of the Rift Valley lakes. The northern lineage has further diverged into eastern and western lineages, most probably as a result of the expanding central African rainforest belt and subsequent contraction of savannah habitats during a period of global warming. The diversification events appear to have coincided with major climatic changes and are highly correlated in time. These observations strongly suggest that large-scale climatic fluctuations have been a major determinant for the species' evolutionary history and that hartebeest evolution has mainly taken place in isolated yet environmentally favourable refugia during periods of global warming. Indications of sudden population expansion for two putative ancestral hartebeest populations provide further support for a refugia-based explanation of the diversification events. Reciprocal monophyly between southern and northern lineages may suggest that reproductive barriers exist and that the hartebeest complex comprises two different species.

  14. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Welch, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Progress on plans for the development and testing of a practical procedure and system for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and environmental complexes from space-acquired imagery is discussed. With primary emphasis on ERTS-1 imagery, but supported by appropriate aircraft photography as necessary, the objectives are to accomplish the following: (1) Develop and test in a few selected sites and areas of the western United States a standard format for an ecological and land use legend for making natural resource inventories on a simulated global basis. (2) Based on these same limited geographic areas, identify the potentialities and limitations of the legend concept for the recognition and annotation of ecological analogs and environmental complexes. An additional objective is to determine the optimum combination of space photography, aerial photography, ground data, human data analysis, and automatic data analysis for estimating crop yield in the rice growing areas of California and Louisiana.

  15. Interactions of NADP-reducing enzymes across varying environmental conditions: a model of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Rzezniczak, Teresa Z; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2012-12-01

    Interactions across biological networks are often quantified under a single set of conditions; however, cellular behaviors are dynamic and interactions can be expected to change in response to molecular context and environment. To determine the consistency of network interactions, we examined the enzyme network responsible for the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH across three different conditions: oxidative stress, starvation, and desiccation. Synthetic, activity-variant alleles were used in Drosophila melanogaster for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh), and cytosolic malic enzyme (Men) along with seven different genetic backgrounds to lend biological relevance to the data. The responses of the NADP-reducing enzymes and two downstream phenotypes (lipid and glycogen concentration) were compared between the control and stress conditions. In general, responses in NADP-reducing enzymes were greater under conditions of oxidative stress, likely due to an increased demand for NADPH. Interactions between the enzymes were altered by environmental stress in directions and magnitudes that are consistent with differential contributions of the different enzymes to the NADPH pool: the contributions of G6PD and IDH seem to be accentuated by oxidative stress, and MEN by starvation. Overall, we find that biological network interactions are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, underscoring the importance of examining networks as dynamic entities.

  16. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  17. Detection and characterization of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in common human diseases and complex clinical endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological organisms are complex systems that dynamically integrate inputs from a multitude of physiological and environmental factors. Therefore, in addressing questions concerning the etiology of complex health outcomes, it is essential that the systemic nature of biology be ta...

  18. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  19. Environmental DNA COI barcoding for quantitative analysis of protists communities: A test using the Nebela collaris complex (Amoebozoa; Arcellinida; Hyalospheniidae).

    PubMed

    Kosakyan, Anush; Mulot, Matthieu; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    Environmental DNA surveys are used for screening eukaryotic diversity. However, it is unclear how quantitative this approach is and to what extent results from environmental DNA studies can be used for ecological studies requiring quantitative data. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) is used for species-level taxonomic studies of testate amoebae and should allow assessing the community composition from environmental samples, thus bypassing biases due to morphological identification. We tested this using a COI clone library approach and focusing on the Nebela collaris complex. Comparisons with direct microscopy counts showed that the COI clone library diversity data matched the morphologically identified taxa, and that community composition estimates using the two approaches were similar. However, this correlation was improved when microscopy counts were corrected for biovolume. Higher correlation with biovolume-corrected community data suggests that COI clone library data matches the ratio of mitochondria and that within closely-related taxa the density of mitochondria per unit biovolume is approximately constant. Further developments of this metabarcoding approach including quantifying the mitochondrial density among closely-related taxa, experiments on other taxonomic groups and using high throughput sequencing should make if possible to quantitatively estimate community composition of different groups, which would be invaluable for microbial food webs studies.

  20. International technology catalogue: Foreign technologies to support the environmental restoration and waste management needs of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Jimenez, R.D.; Esparza-Baca, C.

    1995-07-01

    This document represents a summary of 27 foreign-based environmental restoration and waste management technologies that have been screened and technically evaluated for application to the cleanup problems of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. The evaluation of these technologies was initiated in 1992 and completed in 1995 under the DOE`s International Technology Coordination Program of the Office of Technology Development. A methodology was developed for conducting a country-by-country survey of several regions of the world where specific environmental technology capabilities and market potential were investigated. The countries that were selected from a rank-ordering process for the survey included: then West Germany, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Taiwan, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and the Former Soviet Union. The notably innovative foreign technologies included in this document were screened initially from a list of several hundred, and then evaluated based on criteria that examined for level of maturity, suitability to the DOE needs, and for potential cost effective application at a DOE site. Each of the selected foreign technologies that were evaluated in this effort for DOE application were subsequently matched with site-specific environmental problem units across the DOE complex using the Technology Needs Assessment CROSSWALK Report. For ease of tracking these technologies to site problem units, and to facilitate their input into the DOE EnviroTRADE Information System, they were categorized into the following three areas: (1) characterization, monitoring and sensors, (2) waste treatment and separations, and (3) waste containment. Technical data profiles regarding these technologies include title and description, performance information, development status, key regulatory considerations, intellectual property rights, institute and contact personnel, and references.

  1. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Alston, Lee J.; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Government policies are needed when people’s behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society’s most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  2. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, M.R.; Short, S.M.; Stiles, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above.

  3. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  4. The first-perspective alignment effect: the role of environmental complexity and familiarity with surroundings.

    PubMed

    Tlauka, Michael; Carter, Pelham; Mahlberg, Tim; Wilson, Paul N

    2011-11-01

    People often remember relatively novel environments from the first perspective encountered or the first direction of travel. This initial perspective can determine a preferred orientation that facilitates the efficiency of spatial judgements at multiple recalled locations. The present study examined this "first-perspective alignment effect" (FPA effect). In three experiments, university students explored three-path routes through computer-simulated spaces presented on a desktop computer screen. Spatial memory was then tested employing a "judgement of relative direction" task. Contrary to the predictions of a previous account, Experiment 1 found a reliable FPA effect in barren and complex environments. Experiment 2 strongly implicated the importance of complete novelty of the space surrounding the route in producing the effect. Experiment 3 found that, while familiarity with the surrounding space greatly attenuated the FPA effect with immediate testing, the effect reemerged following a 7-day delay to testing. The implications for the encoding and retrieval of spatial reference frames are discussed.

  5. Environmental broadening of the CTTS bands: the hexaammineruthenium(II) complex in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yurenev, P V; Kretov, M K; Scherbinin, A V; Stepanov, N F

    2010-12-16

    Cluster ab initio quantum chemistry approach is developed to simulate the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) absorption band and satellite ligand field bands of hexaammineruthenium(II) ion in aqueous solution. Several cluster models, including 16, 21, and 38 water molecules, are explored for this purpose. TDDFT method with long-range corrected BLYP (LC-BLYP) functional is used to obtain the vertical transition characteristics, and DFT B3LYP is used for calculation of the ground state geometry and vibrational frequencies of the solvated complex. A simple harmonic bath model is employed to estimate the absorption bandwidths and coherence decay times with the parameters taken from the quantum chemistry calculations. The present approach provides rather reasonable estimates for the CTTS band position and shape, also giving an additional insight for the mechanism of the CTTS band broadening.

  6. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  7. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  8. Environmentally Friendly Mechanochemical Syntheses and Conversions of Highly Luminescent Cu(I) Dinuclear Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Kato, Masako

    2016-03-01

    Luminescent dinuclear Cu(I) complexes, [Cu2X2(dpypp)2] [Cu-X; X = Cl, Br, I; dpypp = 2,2'-(phenylphosphinediyl)dipyridine], were successfully synthesized by a solvent-assisted mechanochemical method. A trace amount of the assisting solvent plays a key role in the mechanochemical synthesis; only two solvents possessing the nitrile group, CH3CN and PhCN, were effective for promoting the formation of dinuclear Cu-X. X-ray analysis revealed that the dinuclear structure with no Cu···Cu interactions, bridged by two dpypp ligands, was commonly formed in all Cu-X species. These complexes exhibited bright green emission in the solid state at room temperature (Φ = 0.23, 0.50, and 0.74; λem = 528, 518, and 530 nm for Cu-Cl, Cu-Br, and Cu-I, respectively). Emission decay measurement and TD-DFT calculation suggested that the luminescence of Cu-X could be assigned to phosphorescence from the triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state, effectively mixed with the halide-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)XLCT) excited state, at 77 K. The source of emission changed to thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) with the same electronic transition nature at room temperature. In addition, the CH3CN-bound analogue, [Cu2(CH3CN)2(dpypp)2](BF4)2, was successfully mechanochemically converted to Cu-X by grinding with solid KX in the presence of a trace amount of assisting water.

  9. Complex Response of White Pines to Past Environmental Variability Increases Understanding of Future Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Virginia; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future. PMID:25885810

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of copper ions as neocuproine complex in environmental aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Shahab; Golshekan, Mostafa

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient extraction method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to UV-Vis spectrophotometry was developed for the preconcentration and determination of copper ions in environmental samples. Briefly, cupric ions (Cu II) were reduced to cuprous (Cu I) with addition of hydroxyl amine hydrochloride and formed hydrophobic chelates with neocuproine. Then, a proper mixture of acetonitrile (as dispersive solvent) and choloroform (as extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into the solution and a cloudy solution was formed. After centrifuging, choloroform was sedimented at the bottom of a conical tube and diluted with 100 µL of methanol for further UV-Vis spectrophotometry measurement. An orthogonal array design (OAD) was employed to study the effects of different parameters on the extraction efficiency. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a preconcentration factor up to 63.6 was achieved for extraction from 5.0 mL of sample solution. The limit of detection (LOD) based on S/N = 3 was 0.33 µg L-1 and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-200 µg L-1 with reasonable linearity (r2 > 0.997). Finally, the accuracy of the proposed method was successfully evaluated by determination of trace amounts of copper ions in different water samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  11. An adaptable mesocosm platform for performing integrated assessments of nanomaterial risk in complex environmental systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffan, Mélanie; Tella, Marie; Santaella, Catherine; Brousset, Lenka; Paillès, Christine; Barakat, Mohamed; Espinasse, Benjamin; Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Masion, Armand; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Achouak, Wafa; Thiéry, Alain; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Physical-chemists, (micro)biologists, and ecologists need to conduct meaningful experiments to study the environmental risk of engineered nanomaterials with access to relevant mechanistic data across several spatial and temporal scales. Indoor aquatic mesocosms (60L) that can be tailored to virtually mimic any ecosystem appear as a particularly well-suited device. Here, this concept is illustrated by a pilot study aimed at assessing the distribution of a CeO2-based nanomaterial within our system at low concentration (1.5 mg/L). Physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters took two weeks to equilibrate. These parameters were found to be reproducible across the 9-mesocosm setup over a 45-day period of time. Recovery mass balances of 115 +/- 18% and 60 +/- 30% of the Ce were obtained for the pulse dosing and the chronic dosing, respectively. This demonstrated the relevance of our experimental approach that allows for adequately monitoring the fate and impact of a given nanomaterial.

  12. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Virginia; Krause, Teresa R; Whitlock, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future. PMID:25885810

  13. An adaptable mesocosm platform for performing integrated assessments of nanomaterial risk in complex environmental systems

    PubMed Central

    Auffan, Mélanie; Tella, Marie; Santaella, Catherine; Brousset, Lenka; Paillès, Christine; Barakat, Mohamed; Espinasse, Benjamin; Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Masion, Armand; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Achouak, Wafa; Thiéry, Alain; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Physical-chemists, (micro)biologists, and ecologists need to conduct meaningful experiments to study the environmental risk of engineered nanomaterials with access to relevant mechanistic data across several spatial and temporal scales. Indoor aquatic mesocosms (60L) that can be tailored to virtually mimic any ecosystem appear as a particularly well-suited device. Here, this concept is illustrated by a pilot study aimed at assessing the distribution of a CeO2-based nanomaterial within our system at low concentration (1.5 mg/L). Physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters took two weeks to equilibrate. These parameters were found to be reproducible across the 9-mesocosm setup over a 45-day period of time. Recovery mass balances of 115 ± 18% and 60 ± 30% of the Ce were obtained for the pulse dosing and the chronic dosing, respectively. This demonstrated the relevance of our experimental approach that allows for adequately monitoring the fate and impact of a given nanomaterial. PMID:25001877

  14. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  15. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  16. Sedimentary facies and environmental ichnology of a ?Permian playa-lake complex in western Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Acenolaza, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    A moderately diverse arthropod icnofauna occurs in ?Permian ephemeral lacustrine deposits of the Paganzo Basin that crop out at Bordo Atravesado, Cuesta de Miranda, western Argentina. Sedimentary successions are interpreted as having accumulated in a playa-lake complex. Deposits include three sedimentary facies: (A) laminated siltstone and mudstone: (B) current-rippled cross-laminated very fine grained sandstone: and (C) climbing and wave-rippled cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone deposited by sheet floods under wave influence in the playa-lake complex. Analysis of facies sequences suggests that repeated vertical facies associations result from transgressive regressive episodes of variable time spans. The Bordo Atravesado ichnofauna includes Cruziana problematica, Diplocraterion isp., cf. Diplopadichnus biformis, Kouphichnium? isp., Merostomichnites aicunai, Mirandaichnium famatinense, Monomorphichnus lineatus, Palaeophyeus tubularis, Umfolozia sinuosa and Umfolozia ef. U. longula. The assemblage is largely dominated by arthropod trackways and represents an example of the Scoyenia ichnofacies. Trace fossils are mostly preserved as hypichnial ridges on the soles of facies C beds, being comparatively rare in facies A and B. Ichnofossil preservation was linked to rapid influx of sand via sheet floods entering into the lake. Four taphonomic variants (types 1-4) are recognized, each determined by substrate consistency and time averaging. Type 1 is recorded by the presence of low density assemblages consisting of poorly defined trackways, which suggests that arthropods crawled in soft, probably slightly subaqueous substrates. Type 2 is represented by low to moderate density suites that include sharply defined trackways commonly associated with mud cracks, suggesting that the tracemakers inhabited a firm, desiccated lacustrine substrate. Type 3 displays features of types 1 and 2 and represents palimpsestic bedding surfaces, resulting from the overprint of terrestrial

  17. Divergent environmental preferences and areas of sympatry of tick species in the Amblyomma cajennense complex (Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Tarragona, Evelina L; Vesco, Umberto; Meneghi, Daniele de; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-12-01

    Four species of Neotropical ticks, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma tonelliae and Amblyomma sculptum (formerly included in the catch-all name A. cajennense), have an allopatric distribution in much of their range, with areas of parapatry for at least two of them. We inferred the abiotic niches of these organisms using coefficients of a harmonic regression of the temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, reflecting plant stress) from remotely sensed data from MODIS satellites with 0.05° spatial resolution. Combinations of coefficients describing the phenology of these two variables pointed to divergent niche preferences, compatible with previous events of vicariance among the species. Amblyomma cajennense has been recorded in areas with small variations in temperature and NDVI. The remaining species were recorded in areas with large variations. The maximum environmental niche overlap was ∼73.6% between A. mixtum and A. cajennense and 73.5% between A. tonelliae and A. sculptum. Projecting these inferences on the geographical space revealed probable areas of sympatry or parapatry between A. mixtum and A. cajennense or between A. tonelliae and A. sculptum, the latter of which was confirmed with field collections. The A. sculptum distribution overlaps with that of A. tonelliae in northern Argentina and Paraguay; parapatry occurs at one extreme of the conditions occupied by both species. Compared with areas of allopatry, sites with both species had consistently lower temperatures, except for 10-12weeks during the summer, and higher NDVI values throughout the year. We hypothesise that the overlap between A. tonelliae and A. sculptum resulted from secondary contact between populations, with A. sculptum adapting to sites with high water availability to balance high summer temperatures. Additional surveys of the areas of spatial overlap among these species are necessary to elucidate the forces driving their evolution and their

  18. Mechanisms of defect complex formation and environmental-assisted fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.R.; Muratov, L.S.; Kang, B.S.J.; Li, K.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide has excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperature with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides is being undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work will connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component at this point is on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell} and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell}. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences to be explored for hydrogen diffusion. The experimental work at this stage has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior. For this reason, comparative crack growth tests of FA-186, FA-187, and FA-189 iron aluminides (all with basic composition of Fe-28A{ell}-5Cr, at % with micro-alloying additives of Zr, C or B) under, air, oxygen, or water environment have been performed. These tests showed that the alloys are susceptible to room temperature hydrogen embrittlement in both B2 and DO{sub 3} conditions. Test results indicated that FA-187, and FA-189 are intrinsically more brittle than FA-186.

  19. Environmental Radioactivity : a case study in HHP granitic region of Tusham ring complex Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa B., S.; Singh, H.; Singh, J.; Singh, S.; Sonikawade R., G.

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of radon levels in the soil-gas, groundwater and indoor-air in the dwellings of the high heat producing (HHP)-granitic region of Tusham ring complex, Bhiwani District, Haryana. Radon release from soil and groundwater was found to be comparatively higher than the values observed in the nearby non-HHP/non-granitic regions of Punjab. The soil-gas and the groundwater radon concentration of HHP region of Tusham ring conmplex varies from 42.8±0.7 - 71.5±3.2 kBq m-3 with an average value of 61 kBq m-3, and 17.4±1.3 - 49.7±1.7 Bq l-1 with an average of 26.2 Bq l-1respectively, whereas in non-granitic/non-HHP regions the average value 31.5 (16.3±0.8-44.1±1.8) kBq m-3 and 7.9 (4.7±0.7-14.0±1.2) Bql-1 respectively have been observed. Indoor radon concentration in around 155 traditional dwellings in a wide range of villages situated in this HHP region has also been measured using the SSNTDs (LR-115) for two continuous years. Indoor radon levels in these dwellings in these dwellings have been found to be varying from 109 ± 80 to 1006 ± 55 Bq m-3 whereas the annual average radon values vary from 60 ±37 to 235 ±55 Bq m-3 for the dwellings of the villages studied in a non-HHP region of Amritsar District, Punjab. A positive correlation has been observed between the soil-gas and indoor radon levels particularly in the periphery of the exposed HHP rock formations, which may likely be the result of the imfluence of imbeded and exposed HHP granitic rocks and thus the active-soil formations. In the present study, uranium concentration and radon exhalation rate in the wide range of soil/rock samples collected from this region, known to be composed of acid volcanics & associated HHP granites have been estimated. For comparative analysis, the soil samples from some districts of Punjab have also been analyzed for uranium estimation and radon exhalation rate. The ‘ CAN ' technique using plastic track detector LR-115 type-II has

  20. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Pradhan, Ajay; Khan, Faisal Ahmad; Lindström, Pia; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Ivarsson, Per; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention. PMID:26168046

  1. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  2. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  3. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-03-03

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  4. Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from environmental and human sources.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Birgit; Mayo, Mark; Peeters, Charlotte; Zlosnik, James E A; Spilker, Theodore; Hird, Trevor J; LiPuma, John J; Kidd, Timothy J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Ginther, Jennifer L; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul; Bell, Scott C; Jacobs, Jan A; Currie, Bart J; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Nine Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria were isolated during environmental surveys for the ecological niche of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the aetiological agent of melioidosis, in the Northern Territory of Australia. They represented two multi-locus sequence analysis-based clusters, referred to as Bcc B and Bcc L. Three additional environmental and clinical Bcc B isolates were identified upon deposition of the sequences in the PubMLST database. Analysis of the concatenated nucleotide sequence divergence levels within both groups (1.4 and 1.9%, respectively) and towards established Bcc species (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively) demonstrated that the two taxa represented novel Bcc species. All 12 isolates were further characterized using 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence analysis, RAPD analysis, DNA base content determination, fatty acid methyl ester analysis and biochemical profiling. Analysis of recA gene sequences revealed a remarkable diversity within each of these taxa, but, together, the results supported the affiliation of the two taxa to the Bcc. Bcc B strains can be differentiated from most other Bcc members by the assimilation of maltose. Bcc L strains can be differentiated from other Bcc members by the absence of assimilation of N-acetylglucosamine. The names Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. with type strain LMG 28156(T) ( = CCUG 65686(T)) and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov. with type strain LMG 28158(T) ( = CCUG 65687(T)) are proposed for Bcc B and Bcc L bacteria, respectively.

  5. Efficacy of species-specific recA PCR tests in the identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex environmental isolates.

    PubMed

    Dalmastri, Claudia; Pirone, Luisa; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Chiarini, Luigi

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated if recA species-specific PCR assays could be successfully applied to identify environmental isolates of the widespread Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species. A total of 729 Bcc rhizosphere isolates collected in different samplings were assigned to the species B. cepacia genomovar I (61), B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB (514), B. ambifaria (124) and B. pyrrocinia (30), by means of recA (RFLP) analysis, and PCR tests were performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of recA species-specific primers pairs. B. cepacia genomovar I specific primers produced the expected amplicon with all isolates of the corresponding species (sensitivity, 100%), and cross-reacted with all B. pyrrocinia isolates. On the contrary, B. cenocepacia IIIB primers did not give the expected amplicon in 164 B. cenocepacia IIIB isolates (sensitivity, 68.1%), and isolates of distinct populations showed different sensitivity. B. ambifaria primers failed to amplify a recA-specific fragment only in a few isolates of this species (sensitivity, 93.5%). The absence of specific amplification in a high number of B. cenocepacia rhizosphere isolates indicates that recA specific PCR assays can lead to an underestimation of environmental microorganisms belonging to this bacterial species. PMID:15869960

  6. Xanthan Exopolysaccharide: Cu(2+) Complexes Affected from the pH-Dependent Conformational State; Implications for Environmentally Relevant Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Causse, Benjamin; Spadini, Lorenzo; Sarret, Géraldine; Faure, Adeline; Travelet, Christophe; Madern, Dominique; Delolme, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    The conformational impact of environmental biopolymers on metal sorption was studied through Cu sorption on xanthan. The apparent Cu(2+) complexation constant (logK; Cu(2+) + L(-) ↔ CuL(+)) decreased from 2.9 ± 0.1 at pH 3.5 to 2.5 ± 0.1 at pH 5.5 (ionic strength I = 0.1). This behavior is in apparent contradiction with basic thermodynamics, as usually the higher the pH the more cations bind. Our combined titration, circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering study indicated that the change observed in Cu bond strength relates to a conformational change of the structure of xanthan, which generates more chelating sites at pH 3.5 than at pH 5.5. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that the Cu sorption constants on xanthan were always higher than those measured on a mixture of pyruvic and glucuronic acids (logK = 2.2), which are the two constitutive ligands present in the xanthan monomer. This study shows the role of the structural conformation of natural biopolymers in metal bond strength. This finding may help to better predict the fate of Cu and other metals in acidic environmental settings such as aquatic media affected by acid mine drainage, as well as peats and acidic soils, and to better define optimal conditions for bioremediation processes.

  7. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex during the late laying period of quail at different environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Balci, T A; Gursu, M F; Juturu, V; Kucuk, O

    2006-04-01

    Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASIdagger; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, inositol 25%) is a novel material which is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Poor eggshell quality has been a major economic concern to commercial egg producers. Poor egg quality, skeletal abnormalities and architectural deterioration of bone tissue are common problems under hot conditions and in older birds. The effects of ASI supplementation on egg production, egg quality, levels of osteocalcin (OC) and bone mineral content were investigated in heat-stressed Japanese quail during the later part of the laying period. The birds were randomly assigned to six treatment groups consisting of six replicates of five birds each in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (temperatures, ASI levels). The birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (TN) or 34 degrees C (HS) for 8 h/d and fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 500 or 1000 g of ASI/kg. Heat exposure reduced egg production, egg quality and bone mineralisation when the basal diet was fed. ASI supplementation had no effect on feed intake or egg production under TN or HS conditions. However, ASI supplementation increased egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight and Haugh unit in both TN and HS groups during the late laying period. Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly improved by ASI supplementation in both TN and HS groups. Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased linearly with dietary ASI supplementation during the late laying period. The amount of calcium and phosphorus in the excreta decreased, while ash, mineral content, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in tibia increased in ASI-supplemented quail in both TN and HS groups during the late laying period. ASI supplementation significantly improved egg quality and bone

  8. Development of the millimeter-wave complex, intended for environmental control of nuclear, chemical, and power production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, A. S.; Vald-Perlov, V. M.; Strukov, I. A.

    1997-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of the millimeter wave complex, intended for environmental control. To organize a reliable system for control and monitoring of the atmosphere one needs an adequate set of the measurement methods and devices for carrying out the needed measurements. At best, the devices must be capable of the remote sensing of the atmosphere in the continuous mode and should have proper means for communication with the central data acquisition system. The most informative methods for the atmospheric measurements are based on the microwave remote sensing. Particularly, using a 5-millimeter receiver (radiometer) it is possible to measure temperature vs. height dependence up to 1 km with required for temperature and height resolutions. Besides, a 3-millimeter coherent radar can be used for measuring the amount of condensed water (fog, rain, clouds) and smoke. Such hydrometers and other small particles support a dissipation of pollution from the accident to the distant areas. Besides, the radar allows us to measure the speed and direction of wind, which is very important for prediction of the danger for the other areas. So, the microwave complex, consisting of a 5-mm radiometer and a 3-mm coherent radar enables us to obtain needed information about the atmosphere state and to predict situation after the accident took place.

  9. Individuality in gut microbiota composition is a complex polygenic trait shaped by multiple environmental and host genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Benson, Andrew K; Kelly, Scott A; Legge, Ryan; Ma, Fangrui; Low, Soo Jen; Kim, Jaehyoung; Zhang, Min; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Nehrenberg, Derrick; Hua, Kunjie; Kachman, Stephen D; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Walter, Jens; Peterson, Daniel A; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host genetic factors combine to shape this complex ecosystem are largely unknown and require systematic study. Here we examined factors that affect microbiota composition in a large (n = 645) mouse advanced intercross line originating from a cross between C57BL/6J and an ICR-derived outbred line (HR). Quantitative pyrosequencing of the microbiota defined a core measurable microbiota (CMM) of 64 conserved taxonomic groups that varied quantitatively across most animals in the population. Although some of this variation can be explained by litter and cohort effects, individual host genotype had a measurable contribution. Testing of the CMM abundances for cosegregation with 530 fully informative SNP markers identified 18 host quantitative trait loci (QTL) that show significant or suggestive genome-wide linkage with relative abundances of specific microbial taxa. These QTL affect microbiota composition in three ways; some loci control individual microbial species, some control groups of related taxa, and some have putative pleiotropic effects on groups of distantly related organisms. These data provide clear evidence for the importance of host genetic control in shaping individual microbiome diversity in mammals, a key step toward understanding the factors that govern the assemblages of gut microbiota associated with complex diseases. PMID:20937875

  10. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60–5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22–22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive. PMID:26078860

  11. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  12. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  14. Feasibility study for fuel-grade-ethanol complex, Kennewick, Washington. Volume V of V. Environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Included in this volume are: ethyl alcohol production draft environmental impact statement, prevention of significant deterioration permit application, Hover Industrial Park draft environmental impact statement, and environmental permit application. (MHR)

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  16. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  17. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  18. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  19. Potentiation and antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin effects in a complex environmental mixture.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; O'Keefe, P W; Lipinskas, T

    1993-04-01

    There is increasing need to understand the toxicity of complex environmental mixtures. The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site is a complex mixture that contains over 100 organic compounds, including 0.74 ppm 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Mice congenic at the Ah locus were used to evaluate several toxic effects of the OPL, including immune function and hepatic enzyme induction. OPL toxicity was compared with that of pure TCDD in both C57BL/6J Ahb/b and congenic C57BL/6 Ahd/d (B6.D2) mice. Mice were given single oral doses of up to 2 g OPL/kg or 100 micrograms TCDD/kg, immunized, and evaluated after 7 days. The TCDD equivalent of the OPL was determined to be 3.9 and 5.0 ppm in C57BL/6J and B6.D2 mice, respectively. This is six times the TCDD content. The Ah phenotype-dependent response ratio was calculated by dividing the dose required to cause an effect in the B6.D2 strain by the dose causing the same effect in the C57BL/6J strain. Ratios based on both ED50s and the lowest observed adverse effect levels were used to determine whether each adverse effect was Ah phenotype-dependent, the extent to which TCDD contributed to the effect, whether there were interactive effects between the AhR ligands and nonligands and if they were additive, antagonistic, or synergistic, and whether the response was predictable based on the known chemical composition of the mixture. It was concluded that the non-TCDD component potentiated TCDD immune suppression, and possibly thymic atrophy, through AhR mechanisms. In contrast, this analysis indicated that the non-TCDD component of the OPL antagonized the ability of the TCDD component to induce hepatic AHH activity whereas OPL hepatomegaly was caused primarily by the non-TCDD component of the OPL. This study demonstrates that the toxicity of mixtures containing TCDD may not be accurately predicted based on the TCDD content alone and that this approach could be useful in the toxicologic

  20. The structure and processes of the Siberian Traps sub-volcanic complex and consequences for end-Permian environmental crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, H.; Polozov, A. G.; Planke, S.

    2013-12-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the key processes that initiated the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses varies considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (30-80 meters) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was in the 103 to 104 Gt range.

  1. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  2. 40 CFR 65.14 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 65.14 Section 65.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED... Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Air Quality and Radiation Control, Forbes Field,...

  3. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  4. Modeling for planetary boundaries: a network analysis of representations of complex human-environmental interactions in integrated global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Fetzer, Ingo; Cornell, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework is an approach to global sustainability that emphasises non-linear threshold behavior in anthropogenically perturbed Earth system processes. However, knowledge about the characteristics and positions of thresholds, and the scope for management of the boundaries is not well established. Global integrated models can help to improve this understanding, by reflecting the complex feedbacks between human and environmental systems. This study analyses the current state of integrated models with regard to the main processes identified as 'critical Earth system processes' in the planetary boundaries framework, and identifies gaps and suggests priorities for future improvements. Our approach involves creating a common ontology of model descriptions, and performing a network analysis on the state of system integration in models. The distinct clusters of specific biophysical and social-economic systems obviously has enabled progress in those specific areas of global change, but it now constrains analysis of important human-driven Earth system dynamics. The modeling process therefore has to be improved through technical integration, scientific gap-filling, and also changes in scientific institutional dynamics. Combined, this can advance model potentials that may help us to find sustainable pathways within planetary boundaries.

  5. An approach toward quantification of organic compounds in complex environmental samples using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-07

    Quantitative analysis of individual compounds in complex mixtures using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) is complicated by differences in the ionization efficiencies of analyte molecules in the mixture, resulting in signal suppression during ionization. However, the ability to obtain concentration estimates of compounds in an environmental sample is important for data interpretation and comparison. We introduce an approach for estimating mass concentrations of analytes observed in a multicomponent mixture by HR-ESI-MS, without prior separation. The approach relies on a calibration of the instrument using appropriate standards added to the mixture of studied analytes. An illustration of how the proposed calibration can be applied in practice is provided for aqueous extracts of isoprene photooxidation organic aerosol, with multifunctional organic acids standards. We show that the observed ion sensitivities in ESI-MS are positively correlated with the “adjusted mass,” defined as a product of the molecular mass and the H/C ratio in the molecule (adjusted mass = H/C x molecular mass). The correlation of the observed ESI sensitivity with adjusted mass is justified by considering trends of the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds that affect ionization in the positive ion mode, i.e., gas-phase basicity, polarizability, and molecular size.

  6. Comparing HPLC-ESI-ITMS and UPLC-ESI-OA-TOF-MS in Characterizing Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs in Complex Environmental Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the challenges of characterizing emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices (e.g., biosolids, sewage, or wastewater) are the co-eluting interferences. For example, surfactants, fats, and humic acids, can be preferentially ionized instead of the analyte(s) of in...

  7. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  9. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of the K-792 Switchyard Complex at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2009-12-01

    future land use to industriallcornmercial activities. Where the need for LUCs below 10 ft bgs is not warranted, this is so stated and explained. Once all actions associated with the DVS for Zone 1 and Zone 2 are completed and the data support it, there will be a re-evaluation with EPA and TDEC for the restriction on excavation below 10 ft. The DVS process and the preparation of this report included visual and physical inspections of the property and adjacent properties, a detailed records search, sampling and analysis of soils, radiological walkover surveys, and a risk evaluation. Resources evaluated as part of the records search included Federal Government records, title documents, aerial photographs that may reflect prior uses, and interviews with current and former employees 1 involved in the operations on the real property to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed of. In addition, radiological surveys of Bldgs. K-791-B and K-796-A were conducted to assess the buildings radiological condition. Soil vapor sampling and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) swipe sampling also were conducted within the buildings. Based on the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) review of the existing information, including discussions and interviews referenced herein, and evaluation of the data gathered in preparation of the environmental baseline survey (EBS) for the K-792 Switchyard Complex, DOE recommends the following: Due to the uncertainty associated with the nature of the on-site groundwater and the need to evaluate and possibly address groundwater in the future, DOE recommends that the transfer of the K-792 Switchyard Complex be achieved by a covenant deferral per the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Sect. 120(h)(3)(c). Land use restrictions associated with the

  10. 75 FR 26269 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Public Alert and Warning Program's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Act (NEPA) by providing a framework to address the potential environmental impacts of these projects... order for more complex projects to comply with NEPA. Authority: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

  11. Interdisciplinary Environmental Education: Communicating and Applying Energy Efficiency for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Russill, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates that interdisciplinary alliances on environmental education projects can effectively address the gap between complex environmental problems in the real world and disciplinary curricula in a university. We describe an alliance between an advanced communication course and a general science course wherein we addressed…

  12. Developing a qPCR method to quantify AhR-PCP-DNA complex for detection of environmental trace-level PCP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Pang, Xiaoqian; Chaisuwan, Nuanapa

    2011-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely-used aseptic or biocide, is known as an environmental toxicant involved in endocrine disruption even at a trace level. In order to reliably and efficiently quantify environmental trace-quantity PCP, this study developed a novel PCP detection method using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). DNA probe with AhR binding sites was synthesized by PCR before added into AhR-PCP complex. After AhR-PCP-DNA complex was digested with exonuclease, copy number of DNA probe was determined using fluorescence qPCR. To calculate PCP concentration in samples, a standard curve (PCP concentration versus Ct value) was constructed and the detection range was 10(-13) to 10(-9) M. PCP detection limit was 0.0089 ppt for the AhR-PCP-DNA complex assay and 8.8780 ppm for high performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating that the method developed in this study is more sensitive. These results suggest that AhR-PCP-DNA complex method may be successfully applicable in detection and quantification of environmental trace-level PCP. PMID:21503612

  13. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  14. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  15. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  16. Patterns of Address in Dili Tetum, East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-van Klinken, Catharina; Hajek, John

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a detailed description of patterns of address in Dili Tetum today. It outlines the complexities of the address system and points to considerable variation in its evolving present-day use. We find, amongst other things, that a speaker may use a range of address strategies even to the same addressee, and that the use of…

  17. A Socioeconomic Analysis of Environmental Concern: Case of the Four Corners Electric Power Complex. Bulletin No. 626.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Clyde; And Others

    Recently American attention has focused on the problems of pollution and environmental protection. Focusing on the Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region, this study determined which socioeconomic characteristics were associated with concern for environmental quality as measured by willingness to pay for pollution abatement. Sample…

  18. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  19. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX EXTRACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Unidentified Organic Compounds. For target analytes, standards are purchased, extraction and clean-up procedures are optimized, and mass spectra and retention times for the chromatographic separation are obtained for comparison to the target compounds in environmental sample ...

  20. Isothermal titration calorimetry method for determination of cyclodextrin complexation thermodynamics between artemisinin and naproxen under varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Illapakurthy, Ashok C; Wyandt, Christy M; Stodghill, Steven P

    2005-02-01

    A novel isothermal titration calorimetry method was used to determine the complexation thermodynamics for hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin with artemisinin and naproxen at varying temperature and pH. The new method is very useful for studying complexation reactions between cyclodextrin and drugs with poor solubility and all the thermodynamic parameters of the cyclodextrin complexation were determined. The analysis of the thermodynamic data reveals involvement of hydrophobic bonding in the cyclodextrin complexes studied. The data also reveals the presence of enthalpy-entropy compensation in the system and provide information as to the orientation of the drug molecule inside the cyclodextrin cavity. From the thermodynamic parameters for dissociation of HPBCD complexes of artemisinin and naproxen at pH 2 it is concluded that the complexation is primarily driven by enthalpy with entropic assistance at all temperatures studied. From the dissociation studies of HPBCD complexes of naproxen at pH 10 it is concluded that the complexation is predominantly driven by entropy and moderately by enthalpy at lower temperatures and by enthalpy with entropic assistance at higher temperatures. PMID:15661505

  1. 18 CFR 380.11 - Environmental decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, environmental considerations will be addressed at..., or environmental impact statements, and any supplements in the record of the proceeding. (c... application without performing an environmental impact statement or without undertaking environmental......

  2. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  3. Addressing psychosocial aspects of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kimberly; Klinnert, Mary; Bender, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) negatively affects patients and their families. Pruritus, scratching, and sleep problems are common complaints linked to disturbed quality of life. Treatment is complex, and nonadherence rates are high. This article reviews the effect of AD on patients and their families and intervention strategies that have some success in improving quality of life. A treatment model for addressing the psychosocial effect of moderate to severe AD within a multidisciplinary setting is suggested herein. PMID:20670820

  4. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  5. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  6. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  7. STATE TRANSITION7-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Modulated by Changing Environmental Conditions, and Its Absence Triggers Remodeling of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Trompelt, Kerstin; Barth, Johannes; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Xue, Huidan; Clowez, Sophie; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions. PMID:25858915

  8. In vitro assays for assessment of androgenic and estrogenic activity in defined mixtures and complex environmental samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eflluents from sources such as waste water treatment plants and animal feeding operations invariably contain complex mixtures of chemicals. Recent research on effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US have linked morphological alterations in fish with in vitro androgenic ...

  9. Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex mixtures of synthetic and natural androgens and estrogens, and many other non-steroidal components are commonly released to the aquatic environment from anthropogenic sources. It is important to understand the potential interactive (i.e., additive, synergistic, antagonist...

  10. Heme-copper-dioxygen complexes: toward understanding ligand-environmental effects on the coordination geometry, electronic structure, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Halime, Zakaria; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T; Qayyum, Munzarin F; Mondal, Biplab; Gandhi, Thirumanavelan; Puiu, Simona C; Chufán, Eduardo E; Sarjeant, Amy A N; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2010-04-19

    The nature of the ligand is an important aspect of controlling the structure and reactivity in coordination chemistry. In connection with our study of heme-copper-oxygen reactivity relevant to cytochrome c oxidase dioxygen-reduction chemistry, we compare the molecular and electronic structures of two high-spin heme-peroxo-copper [Fe(III)O(2)(2-)Cu(II)](+) complexes containing N(4) tetradentate (1) or N(3) tridentate (2) copper ligands. Combining previously reported and new resonance Raman and EXAFS data coupled to density functional theory calculations, we report a geometric structure and more complete electronic description of the high-spin heme-peroxo-copper complexes 1 and 2, which establish mu-(O(2)(2-)) side-on to the Fe(III) and end-on to Cu(II) (mu-eta(2):eta(1)) binding for the complex 1 but side-on/side-on (mu-eta(2):eta(2)) mu-peroxo coordination for the complex 2. We also compare and summarize the differences and similarities of these two complexes in their reactivity toward CO, PPh(3), acid, and phenols. The comparison of a new X-ray structure of mu-oxo complex 2a with the previously reported 1a X-ray structure, two thermal decomposition products respectively of 2 and 1, reveals a considerable difference in the Fe-O-Cu angle between the two mu-oxo complexes ( angleFe-O-Cu = 178.2 degrees in 1a and angleFe-O-Cu = 149.5 degrees in 2a). The reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of an exogenous nitrogen-donor axial base leads to the formation of a distinctive low-temperature-stable, low-spin heme-dioxygen-copper complex (2b), but under the same conditions, the addition of an axial base to 1 leads to the dissociation of the heme-peroxo-copper assembly and the release of O(2). 2b reacts with phenols performing H-atom (e(-) + H(+)) abstraction resulting in O-O bond cleavage and the formation of high-valent ferryl [Fe(IV)=O] complex (2c). The nature of 2c was confirmed by a comparison of its spectroscopic features and reactivity with those of an independently prepared

  11. Short-Term Environmental Enrichment Enhances Adult Neurogenesis, Vascular Network and Dendritic Complexity in the Hippocampus of Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beauquis, Juan; Roig, Paulina; De Nicola, Alejandro F.; Saravia, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    Background Several brain disturbances have been described in association to type 1 diabetes in humans. In animal models, hippocampal pathological changes were reported together with cognitive deficits. The exposure to a variety of environmental stimuli during a certain period of time is able to prevent brain alterations and to improve learning and memory in conditions like stress, aging and neurodegenerative processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored the modulation of hippocampal alterations in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice by environmental enrichment. In diabetic mice housed in standard conditions we found a reduction of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, decreased dendritic complexity in CA1 neurons and a smaller vascular fractional area in the dentate gyrus, compared with control animals in the same housing condition. A short exposure -10 days- to an enriched environment was able to enhance proliferation, survival and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, to recover dendritic tree length and spine density of pyramidal CA1 neurons and to increase the vascular network of the dentate gyrus in diabetic animals. Conclusions/Significance The environmental complexity seems to constitute a strong stimulator competent to rescue the diabetic brain from neurodegenerative progression. PMID:21085588

  12. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  13. Accretionary Complexes: Recorders of Plate Tectonism and Environmental Conditions Through Time on Earth and Possibly Those Early Noachian (Hadean-equivalent) in Age on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Anderson, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, highlighted in Japan, North America, Europe, and Greenland, accretionary complexes comprehensively record information compiled while the oceanic crust is en route from the mid-oceanic ridge to the subduction zone, spanning hundreds of millions of years. At the zone, oceanic crustal materials are stacked along thrust faults and/or subducted to be eventually recycled into the mantle. The surviving accretionary-complex materials include Ocean Plate Stratigraphy (OPS). The ideal succession of the OPS (from oldest to youngest) is mid-ocean ridge basalt, pelagic sediment including radiolarian chert, hemipelagic sediment including siliceous shale, and trench turbidite deposits. Therefore, accretionary complexes often record diverse environmental conditions from deep- to shallow-marine environments, including those perturbed by magmatic, impact, and possibly extrasolar events. Stratigraphic, impact-crater, paleotectonic, and magnetic-anomaly information point to Early Noachian (Hadean-equivalent) Martian geologic terrains; they are extremely ancient environmental records compared to those destroyed on Earth due to differences in planetary mass and evolutional states. Such record a dynamic phase of the evolution of Mars, including interacting ocean, landmass, and atmosphere, as well as possible plate tectonism during an operating dynamo. A candidate accretionary complex and nearby outcrops of steeply dipping beds comprising olistostrome-like blocks, nearby and in the Claritas rise, respectively, may be key evidence of major crustal shortening related to plate tectonism, in addition to being extremely ancient environmental records. Claritas rise is a rugged promontory about 250 km across, which forms the northwest part of an extremely ancient and large mountain range, Thaumasia highlands, with a length nearing 2,400 km, or approximating that of the Himalayas. Future investigation of the ancient Martian basement, which includes geochemical analyses for possible OPS

  14. The plight of the Marsh Arabs, an environmental and human rights crisis: an application of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Newman, Susan Dunreath

    2007-01-01

    Saddam Hussein's calculated destruction of the marshes of southern Iraq had an overwhelming impact on the marsh ecosystem, the physical environment, and its inhabitants. Hussein succeeded in disrupting the 5000-year-old culture of the Marsh Arabs, severely affecting the health and well-being of this unique culture. Complexity science provides a foundation that supports an appreciation of the effects that changes in environment and climate have on health. Application of a complexity model provides guidance for understanding the intricate networks of connectivity among the components of the ecological system of the marshes of Southern Iraq that is necessary for restoration efforts.

  15. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  16. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  17. Interactions of habitat complexity and environmental characteristics with macrobenthic community structure at multiple spatial scales in the northeastern Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Arny L.; Feder, Howard M.

    2014-04-01

    Spatial trends in macrobenthic communities from the northeastern Chukchi Sea are evaluated to understand how ecological processes influencing macrofauna differ between small and large scales. Macrobenthos was sampled with a van Veen grab in a mesoscale study (distances ~10-200 km) in 1986 and in a midscale study (distances ~2-20 km) in 2008-2010. Common field and laboratory methods allowed for a direct comparison of the data sets. Environmental characteristics influencing spatial structures of macrobenthic communities varied with the scale of sampling. Midscale variations of macrofaunal community structure in the 2008-2010 study were associated with the local topographic variations resulting in an enhanced carbon deposition and a greater biological production; total density increased with the increasing water depth and organic carbon. Mesoscale environmental gradients in the 1986 study, reflecting physical dynamics, water mass movements, and oceanographic conditions, were associated with an inshore to offshore faunal gradient as density declined with greater water depth. Differences in environmental and biological community relationships between scales included shifts in the regression relationships between water depth and macrobenthic density with declining density at the mesoscale and the increasing density with greater depth at the midscale. Biomass declined more sharply with increased bottom-water temperature in the midscale study than in the mesoscale investigation. Multivariate analyses demonstrated similar shifts in the relationship between biotic summary measures and water depth. Increased benthic production is noted in other areas of the Chukchi Sea in association with topographic variations, and such variations may be predictive of increased benthic production. Ecologically significant changes in relationships of environmental and biological gradients between spatial scales indicate the need for small-scale sampling to detect long-term change in marine

  18. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    SciTech Connect

    Holzemer, Michael J.; Hart, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  19. In Vitro Assays for Assessment of Androgenic and Estrogenic Activity of Defined Mixtures and Complex Environmental Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point sources of endocrine active compounds to aquatic environments such as waste water treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, and animal feeding operations invariably contain complex mixtures of chemicals. The current study investigates the use of targeted in vitro assays des...

  20. Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic and natural steroidal androgens and estrogens and many other non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in aquatic environments. It is important to understand the potential interactive effects of these mixtures to properly assess their r...

  1. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments.

  2. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments. PMID:26628027

  3. THE POWER TO DETECT A DIFFERENCE: DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE REQUIREMENTS FOR EVALUATION OF REPRODUCTIVE/DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological assessment of environmentally-realistic complex mixtures of drinking-water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are needed to address concerns raised by some epidemiological studies showing associations between exposure to chemically disinfected water and adverse reproduc...

  4. Complexation of labile aluminium species by chelating resins Iontosorb--a new method for Al environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2005-09-01

    The utilization of chelating ion-exchange by the method based on binding strength and kinetic discrimination for aluminium fractionation was studied. Two chelating cellulose resins, Iontosorb Oxin (IO) and Iontosorb Salicyl (IS), were used for the determination of quickly reacting labile aluminium species. The possibilities of aluminium fractionation on these chelating resins were investigated by a solid phase extraction technique. The study of the pH (2.5-6.0) influence on the Al complexation by both resins indicates that at low pH the IS has lower sorption capacity but better adsorptive kinetic properties than IO. The optimal resin complexation time for reactive Al species was experimentally found after aluminium sorption study at pH 4.0 in synthetic solutions containing some inorganic and organic ligands, which simulate the composition of analysed acid soil and water samples. The negative influence of sulphate and iron on the Al complexation by IS resin was found and investigated. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the aluminium quantification.

  5. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  6. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  7. Oxidative stress and hypermethylation induced by exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to complex environmental mixtures of river water from Cubatão do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuzinatto, Cristiane Funghetto; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress and hypermethylation through lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation, respectively, in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to environmental complex mixture of water from Cubatão do Sul River throughout the year. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DNA methylation was quantified by the rate of 5-methyldeoxycytosine (m(5)dC) formation. In all studied sites, the river water samples caused metabolic changes in O. niloticus. MDA formation rates were significantly different when compared to the negative control (except for samples from Site 1 during spring 2010, summer 2011 and fall 2011). All samples (except Site 1, spring 2010) induced increases in the m(5)dC formation rates, and at the end of the study, the values were near the values found in the positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5mg/L). The results showed that samples of environmental complex mixtures of water from Cubatão do Sul River are capable of inducing high levels of oxidative damage and hypermethylation in O. niloticus.

  8. Oxidative stress and hypermethylation induced by exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to complex environmental mixtures of river water from Cubatão do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuzinatto, Cristiane Funghetto; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress and hypermethylation through lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation, respectively, in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to environmental complex mixture of water from Cubatão do Sul River throughout the year. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DNA methylation was quantified by the rate of 5-methyldeoxycytosine (m(5)dC) formation. In all studied sites, the river water samples caused metabolic changes in O. niloticus. MDA formation rates were significantly different when compared to the negative control (except for samples from Site 1 during spring 2010, summer 2011 and fall 2011). All samples (except Site 1, spring 2010) induced increases in the m(5)dC formation rates, and at the end of the study, the values were near the values found in the positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5mg/L). The results showed that samples of environmental complex mixtures of water from Cubatão do Sul River are capable of inducing high levels of oxidative damage and hypermethylation in O. niloticus. PMID:25638525

  9. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  10. Contractor report to the Department of Energy on opportunities for integration of environmental management activities across the complex (predecisional draft). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program faces significant technical and financial challenges in cleaning up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production and research and development, while facing an uncertain future in obtaining the needed funding to perform this work. Many of these requirements, including State and Federal regulations and negotiated agreements, continue to be a significant contributor to EM program costs and schedules. Historically, the sites have managed their programs focusing on their individual site`s needs. While this approach maximized successes at individual sites, it has resulted in a more costly program than if more integration across the DOE system occurred. In July 1996, the DOE Assistant Secretary for EM, Al Alm, chartered a contractor led effort to perform complex-wide integration in support of the ten-year plan process to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives to meet the EM mission. This report documents opportunities for waste and nuclear materials management integration activities in six areas: transuranic (TRU) waste, mixed low-level waste (MLLW), low-level waste (LLW), environmental restoration (ER), high-level waste (HLW), and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The opportunities represent technically defensible solutions which reduce cost, accelerate schedules, and result in no significant increase in risk.

  11. Chemical and biological reduction of Mn (III)-pyrophosphate complexes: Potential importance of dissolved Mn (III) as an environmental oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Joel E.; Luther, George W., III; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1995-03-01

    Dissolved Mn (III) is a strong oxidant which could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments, but little is known about this form of Mn. Mn(III) was shown to form a stable complex with pyrophosphate which is easily measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry. The Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complex was produced at concentrations of 5 μM to 10 mM Mn at neutral pH. Inorganic electron donors, Fe(II) and sulfide, abiotically reduced Mn(III)-pyrophosphate in seconds with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and near 1:2 reductant:Mn (III), respectively. Shewanella putrefaciens strain MR-1 catalyzed the reduction of Mn(III)-pyrophosphate with formate or lactate as electron donors. Reduction of Mn(III) catalyzed by MR-1 was inhibited under aerobic conditions but only slightly under anaerobic conditions upon addition of the alternate electron acceptor, nitrate. MR-1 catalyzed reduction was also inhibited by metabolic inhibitors including formaldehyde, tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2- n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), but not antimycin A. When formate or lactate served as electron donor for Mn(III) reduction, carbon oxidation to CO 2 was coupled to the respiration of Mn (III). Using the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the TCA-insoluble fraction of culture extracts, it was shown that Mn (III) reduction was coupled to protein synthesis in MR-1. These data indicate that Mn (III) complexes may be produced under conditions found in aquatic environments and that the reduction of Mn(III) can be coupled to the cycling of Fe, S, and C.

  12. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  13. Addressing the Complexities of Evaluating Interdisciplinary Multimedia Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Steven; Howard, Bruce C.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Hong, Namsoo S.; Shia, Regina

    This study was a summative evaluation of Astronomy Village[R]: Investigating the Solar System[TM]. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Astronomy Village is designed to teach students fundamental concepts in life, earth, and physical science by having them investigate cutting-edge questions related to the solar system. In Astronomy Village…

  14. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  15. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  16. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  17. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  18. Environmental effects on the structure of metal ion-DOTA complexes: An ab initio study of radiopharmaceutical metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Colvin, M E

    2006-02-10

    Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the differences between the important radiopharmaceutical metals yttrium (Y) and indium (In) bound by DOTA and modified DOTA molecules. Energies were calculated at the MP2/6-31+G(d)//HF/6-31G(d) levels, using effective core potentials on the Y and In ions. Although the minimum energy structures obtained are similar for both metal ion-DOTA complexes, changes in coordination and local environment significantly affect the geometries and energies of these complexes. Coordination by a single water molecule causes a change in the coordination number and a change in the position of the metal ion in In-DOTA; but, Y-DOTA is hardly affected by water coordination. When one of the DOTA carboxylates is replaced by an amide, the coordination energy for the amide arm shows a large variation between the Y and In ions. Optimizations including water and guandinium moieties to approximate the effects of antibody binding indicate a large energy cost for the DOTA-chelated In to adopt the ideal conformation for antibody binding.

  19. Remote sensing of environmental particulate pollutants - Optical methods for determinations of size distribution and complex refractive index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    A unifying approach, based on a generalization of Pearson's differential equation of statistical theory, is proposed for both the representation of particulate size distribution and the interpretation of radiometric measurements in terms of this parameter. A single-parameter gamma-type distribution is introduced, and it is shown that inversion can only provide the dimensionless parameter, r/ab (where r = particle radius, a = effective radius, b = effective variance), at least when the distribution vanishes at both ends. The basic inversion problem in reconstructing the particle size distribution is analyzed, and the existing methods are reviewed (with emphasis on their capabilities) and classified. A two-step strategy is proposed for simultaneously determining the complex refractive index and reconstructing the size distribution of atmospheric particulates.

  20. The effects of turbidity, prey density and environmental complexity on the feeding of juvenile Murray cod Maccullochella peelii.

    PubMed

    Allen-Ankins, S; Stoffels, R J; Pridmore, P A; Vogel, M T

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile Murray cod Maccullochella peelii exhibited a type II functional response while preying on blackworms Lumbriculus variegatus, and the parameters of the type II model did not differ significantly between clear (0 NTU) and turbid (150 NTU) treatments. Further experiments showed that vision may not be necessary for prey detection and capture by juvenile M. peelii; consumption of inanimate prey was not significantly different between light and dark (<1 × 10(-4) µE m(-2) s(-1)) trials. These results imply that the sensory physiology of M. peelii is well adapted to a turbid visual environment. In addition, habitat complexity increased the food consumption rate of juvenile M. peelii, perhaps by relaxing innate predator avoidance behaviours that depress foraging in more open environments. PMID:22220898

  1. Applications in environmental bioinorganic: Nutritional and ultrastructural evaluation and calculus of thermodynamic and structural properties of metal-oxalate complexes.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Terezinha Alves; Bertoli, Alexandre Carvalho; dos Santos Pires, Maíra; Carvalho, Ruy; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Nunes, Janaira Santana; Bastos, Ana Rosa Ribeiro; de Freitas, Matheus Puggina

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known by its toxicity both for animals and plants. In order to evaluate its toxicity, plants of Brachiaria brizantha were cultivated on nutritive solution of Hoagland during 90 days and submitted to different concentrations of Pb. The content of macro and micronutrients was evaluated and there was a reduction on root content of Ca, besides the lowest dosages of Pb had induced an increase of N, S, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. The cell ultrastructure of leaves and roots were analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Among the main alterations occurred there were invaginations on cell walls, the presence of crystals on the root cells, accumulation of material on the interior of cells and vacuolar compartmentalization. On the leaves the degradation of chloroplasts was observed, as well as the increase of vacuoles. Structures for the formation of oxalate crystals were proposed through molecular modeling and thermodynamic stability. Calculi suggest the formation of highly stable metal-oxalate complexes.

  2. Brightly phosphorescent, environmentally responsive hydrogels containing a water-soluble three-coordinate gold(I) complex.

    PubMed

    Marpu, Sreekar; Hu, Zhibing; Omary, Mohammad A

    2010-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive phosphorescent hydrogel microspheres have been synthesized by incorporating a water-soluble phosphorescent Au(I) complex, Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)], TPPTS = tris(3,3',3''-trisulfonatophenyl)phosphine, into the polymer network of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). Remarkable sensitization of the Au-centered emission takes place in the resulting phosphorescent hydrogels (by up to 2 orders of magnitude!) compared to that of the gold complex alone in pure water. Results of pH- and temperature-dependent luminescence titrations show that the sensitization is further magnified at physiological conditions, which is desirable for biomedical applications that will include bioimaging and drug delivery. The physical properties of PNIPAM microgels are not negatively impacted by the presence of the gold luminophore, as the colloidal crystallinity and phase transition properties remain intact. Phosphorescent microspheres have been further cross-linked by covalently bonding to neighboring particles, leading to brightly phosphorescent/high-water-content crystalline hydrogel networks with more stable crystallinity vs microgel soft crystals. These gel networks exhibit the same green phosphorescence seen in the hydrogel microspheres and pure Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)] aqueous solutions with a broad unstructured profile and peak maximum at ∼525 nm. Dehydration leads to further emission sensitization and gradual blue shifts that can be fine-tuned to ultimately reach a turquoise emission at ∼490 nm in the freeze-dried form of the gel, corresponding to the emission of single crystals of Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)], in agreement with the photoinduced Jahn-Teller distorted excited state model we reported earlier. Remarkable sensitivity to temperature and pH takes place in the emission enhancement with particularly favorable results at physiological conditions. The work herein represents a unique example of a stimulus-responsive phosphorescent hydrogel from a transition metal-based as

  3. Brightly phosphorescent, environmentally responsive hydrogels containing a water-soluble three-coordinate gold(I) complex.

    PubMed

    Marpu, Sreekar; Hu, Zhibing; Omary, Mohammad A

    2010-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive phosphorescent hydrogel microspheres have been synthesized by incorporating a water-soluble phosphorescent Au(I) complex, Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)], TPPTS = tris(3,3',3''-trisulfonatophenyl)phosphine, into the polymer network of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). Remarkable sensitization of the Au-centered emission takes place in the resulting phosphorescent hydrogels (by up to 2 orders of magnitude!) compared to that of the gold complex alone in pure water. Results of pH- and temperature-dependent luminescence titrations show that the sensitization is further magnified at physiological conditions, which is desirable for biomedical applications that will include bioimaging and drug delivery. The physical properties of PNIPAM microgels are not negatively impacted by the presence of the gold luminophore, as the colloidal crystallinity and phase transition properties remain intact. Phosphorescent microspheres have been further cross-linked by covalently bonding to neighboring particles, leading to brightly phosphorescent/high-water-content crystalline hydrogel networks with more stable crystallinity vs microgel soft crystals. These gel networks exhibit the same green phosphorescence seen in the hydrogel microspheres and pure Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)] aqueous solutions with a broad unstructured profile and peak maximum at ∼525 nm. Dehydration leads to further emission sensitization and gradual blue shifts that can be fine-tuned to ultimately reach a turquoise emission at ∼490 nm in the freeze-dried form of the gel, corresponding to the emission of single crystals of Na(8)[Au(TPPTS)(3)], in agreement with the photoinduced Jahn-Teller distorted excited state model we reported earlier. Remarkable sensitivity to temperature and pH takes place in the emission enhancement with particularly favorable results at physiological conditions. The work herein represents a unique example of a stimulus-responsive phosphorescent hydrogel from a transition metal-based as

  4. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  5. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  6. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  7. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  8. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  9. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  10. Assessing Understanding of Complex Causal Networks Using an Interactive Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Assessing people's understanding of the causal relationships found in large-scale complex systems may be necessary for addressing many critical social concerns, such as environmental sustainability. Existing methods for assessing systems thinking and causal understanding frequently use the technique of cognitive causal mapping. However, the…

  11. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  12. Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems." It…

  13. Human-impacted areas of France are environmental reservoirs of the Pseudallescheria boydii/Scedosporium apiospermum species complex.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, Amandine; Schuliar, Gaëlle; Leto, Julie; Sitterlé, Emilie; Landry, David; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Kobi, Abdessamad; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giraud, Sandrine

    2015-04-01

    Species of the Pseudallescheria boydii/Scedosporium apiospermum complex (PSC) are emerging fungal pathogens able to chronically colonize the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). As P. boydii was found more frequently colonizing the lungs of CF patients in France than in other European countries in a previous report, the present study was conducted in order to clarify distribution of PSC species in France and to characterize their natural habitat. The highest densities of PSC isolates were found in human-impacted areas, i.e. agricultural areas, fluids obtained from wastewater treatment plants, playgrounds and industrial areas. PSC was not detected from soil samples collected in forests. Most PSC culture-positive soil samples exhibited a pH range of 6-8. Scedosporium dehoogii, the most abundant species, was detected in all human-impacted area types except vineyards, whereas Scedosporium aurantiacum was mostly found in agricultural areas. Pseudallescheria boydii and S. apiospermum were predominantly isolated from seashores and playgrounds respectively. Pseudallescheria minutispora was found only once from a playground. This study highlights potential sources of contamination of the patients, especially in the CF context.

  14. Does Early Environmental Complexity Influence Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Chicken Hippocampus and “Prefrontal” Caudolateral Nidopallium?

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Brantsæter, Margrethe; Østby, Gunn C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    In adult chickens, the housing system influences hippocampal morphology and neurochemistry. However, no work has been done investigating the effects of the early life environment on chicken brain development. In the present study, we reared 67 commercial laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in two environments that differed in the degree of complexity (aviary or cage system). These two groups were further divided into two age groups. At 20 weeks of age, 18 aviary-reared birds and 15 cage-reared birds were humanely euthanized and their brains dissected. At 24 weeks of age, a further 16 brains from aviary-reared birds and 18 brains from cage-reared birds were collected. These brains were prepared for immunohistochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine, in the hippocampus and the caudolateral nidopallium (NCL). There were no differences between the treatment groups in TH staining intensity in the hippocampus or the NCL. In the medial hippocampus, the right hemisphere had higher TH staining intensity compared to the left hemisphere. The opposite was true for the NCL, with the left hemisphere being more strongly stained compared to the right hemisphere. The present study supports the notion that the hippocampus is functionally lateralized, and our findings add to the body of knowledge on adult neural plasticity of the avian brain. PMID:26904550

  15. The ichnologic record of the continental invertebrate invasion: evolutionary trends in environmental expansion, ecospace utilization, and behavioral complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Genise, J.F.; Taylor, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    Palaeozoic or early Mesozoic. A stationary deep unfauna, the Camborygma ichnoguild, was developed in Triassic transitional alluvial-lacustrinbe deposits. Terrestrial environments hosted the rise of complex social behavioral patterns, as suggested by the probable presence of hymenopteran and isopteran nests in Triassic paleosols. An increase in diversity of trace fossils is detected in Triassic-Jurassic eolian deposits, where the ichnofauna displays more varied behavioral patterns than their Paleozoic counterparts. Also, a mobile, intermediate-depth, deposit-feeding infauna, the Vagorichnus ichnoguild, was established in deep lake environments during the Jurassic. In contrast to Paleozoic permanent subaqueous assemblages typified by surface trails, Jurassic ichnocoenoses are dominated by infaunal burrows. High density of infaunal deposit-feeding traces of the Planolites ichnoguild caused major disruption of lacustrine sedimentary fabrics during the Cretaceous. Most insect mouthpart classes, functional feeding groups, and dietary guilds were established by the end of the Cretaceous. Diversification of modern insects is recorded by the abundance and complexity of structures produced by wasps, bees, dung-beetles, and termites in Cretaceous-Tertiary paleosols. The increase in bioturbation migrated from fluvial and lake-margin settings to permanent subaqueous lacustrine environments through time.

  16. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  17. Environmental constraints underpin the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of nifH in the Yellowstone geothermal complex.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W

    2011-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a keystone process in many ecosystems, providing bioavailable forms of fixed nitrogen for members of the community. In the present study, degenerate primers targeting the nitrogenase iron protein-encoding gene (nifH) were designed and employed to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that underpin the distribution and diversity of nifH as a proxy for nitrogen-fixing organisms in the geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. nifH was detected in 57 of the 64 YNP springs examined, which varied in pH from 1.90 to 9.78 and temperature from 16°C to 89°C. This suggested that the distribution of nifH in YNP is widespread and is not constrained by pH and temperature alone. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis of nifH recovered from 13 different geothermal spring environments indicated that the phylogeny exhibits evidence for both geographical and ecological structure. Model selection indicated that the phylogenetic relatedness of nifH assemblages could be best explained by the geographic distance between sampling sites. This suggests that nifH assemblages are dispersal limited with respect to the fragmented nature of the YNP geothermal spring environment. The second highest ranking explanatory variable for predicting the phylogenetic relatedness of nifH assemblages was spring water conductivity (a proxy for salinity), suggesting that salinity may constrain the distribution of nifH lineages in geographically isolated YNP spring ecosystems. In summary, these results indicate a widespread distribution of nifH in YNP springs, and suggest a role for geographical and ecological factors in constraining the distribution of nifH lineages in the YNP geothermal complex.

  18. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to solve complex nano EHS problems by the UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Malasarn, Davin; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Haiyuan; Miller, Robert J; Keller, Arturo A; Nisbet, Roger M; Harthorn, Barbara H; Godwin, Hilary A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Liu, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge; Cohen, Yoram; Mädler, Lutz; Holden, Patricia A; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre E

    2013-05-27

    UC CEIN was established with funding from the US National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2008 with the mission to study the impact of nanotechnology on the environment, including the identification of hazard and exposure scenarios that take into consideration the unique physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Since its inception, the Center has made great progress in assembling a multidisciplinary team to develop the scientific underpinnings, research, knowledge acquisition, education and outreach that is required for assessing the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment. In this essay, the development of the infrastructure, protocols, and decision-making tools that are required to effectively integrate complementary scientific disciplines allowing knowledge gathering in a complex study area that goes beyond the traditional safety and risk assessment protocols of the 20th century is outlined. UC CEIN's streamlined approach, premised on predictive hazard and exposure assessment methods, high-throughput discovery platforms and environmental decision-making tools that consider a wide range of nano/bio interfaces in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, demonstrates the implementation of a 21st-century approach to the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment.

  19. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  20. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  1. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  4. Contextual influences on environmental concerns cross-nationally: A multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, as environmental conditions are recognized as some of the most important problems facing the world. Research examining this globalization of environmental concern shown in public opinion surveys emphasizes the importance of context yet is currently underspecified. To address this gap, this research uses a multi-level, cross-national study to examine individual-level and country-level influences on three measures of environmental concern: environmental threat awareness, environmental efficacy, and willingness to pay. At the individual level, education, age, and gender affect environmental concerns. At the national level, economic, political, and environmental factors affect environmental concerns. Importantly, contextual factors differ in their effects depending on the dimension of environmental concern measured. Results from cross-level interactions for education confirm these complexities across these measures, supporting a dimensionality argument. The importance of the measurement of environmental concern shown in this research is emphasized for future cross-national scholarship. PMID:23017919

  5. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  6. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  7. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    complex organic mixture. Based on the ED50's of OPL- and TCDD-induced cleft palate and hydronephrosis in the C57BL/6J strain, the OPL had TCDD equivalence of 6.6 and 10.5 ppm, respectively. These values compare closely with the chemical analysis of 3 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    complex organic mixture. Based on the ED50's of OPL- and TCDD-induced cleft palate and hydronephrosis in the C57BL/6J strain, the OPL had TCDD equivalence of 6.6 and 10.5 ppm, respectively. These values compare closely with the chemical analysis of 3 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2767349

  9. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  10. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  11. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  12. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  13. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  14. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Environmental Biosciences Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative

  16. Environmental Biosciences First Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2003-09-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  17. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  18. Environmental complexity and biodiversity: the multi-layered evolutionary history of a log-dwelling velvet worm in Montane Temperate Australia.

    PubMed

    Bull, James K; Sands, Chester J; Garrick, Ryan C; Gardner, Michael G; Tait, Noel N; Briscoe, David A; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies provide a framework for understanding the importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors in shaping patterns of biodiversity through identifying past and present microevolutionary processes that contributed to lineage divergence. Here we investigate population structure and diversity of the Onychophoran (velvet worm) Euperipatoides rowelli in southeastern Australian montane forests that were not subject to Pleistocene glaciations, and thus likely retained more forest cover than systems under glaciation. Over a ~100 km transect of structurally-connected forest, we found marked nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA genetic structuring, with spatially-localised groups. Patterns from mtDNA and nuclear data broadly corresponded with previously defined geographic regions, consistent with repeated isolation in refuges during Pleistocene climatic cycling. Nevertheless, some E. rowelli genetic contact zones were displaced relative to hypothesized influential landscape structures, implying more recent processes overlying impacts of past environmental history. Major impacts at different timescales were seen in the phylogenetic relationships among mtDNA sequences, which matched geographic relationships and nuclear data only at recent timescales, indicating historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Five major E. rowelli phylogeographic groups were identified, showing substantial but incomplete reproductive isolation despite continuous habitat. Regional distinctiveness, in the face of lineages abutting within forest habitat, could indicate pre- and/or postzygotic gene flow limitation. A potentially functional phenotypic character, colour pattern variation, reflected the geographic patterns in the molecular data. Spatial-genetic patterns broadly match those in previously-studied, co-occurring low-mobility organisms, despite a variety of life histories. We suggest that for E. rowelli, the complex topography and history of the region has led to

  19. Epigenetic response to environmental stress: Assembly of BRG1-G9a/GLP-DNMT3 repressive chromatin complex on Myh6 promoter in pathologically stressed hearts.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei; Li, Wei; Yang, Jin; Shang, Ching; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Cheng, Wei; Hang, Calvin T; Cheng, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, Chen-Hao; Wong, Johnson; Xiong, Yiqin; Zhao, Mingming; Drakos, Stavros G; Ghetti, Andrea; Li, Dean Y; Bernstein, Daniel; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-07-01

    Chromatin structure is determined by nucleosome positioning, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. How chromatin modifications are coordinately altered under pathological conditions remains elusive. Here we describe a stress-activated mechanism of concerted chromatin modification in the heart. In mice, pathological stress activates cardiomyocytes to express Brg1 (nucleosome-remodeling factor), G9a/Glp (histone methyltransferase), and Dnmt3 (DNA methyltransferase). Once activated, Brg1 recruits G9a and then Dnmt3 to sequentially assemble repressive chromatin-marked by H3K9 and CpG methylation-on a key molecular motor gene (Myh6), thereby silencing Myh6 and impairing cardiac contraction. Disruption of Brg1, G9a or Dnmt3 erases repressive chromatin marks and de-represses Myh6, reducing stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1-G9a/GLP-DNMT3 complex is also activated; its level correlates with H3K9/CpG methylation, Myh6 repression, and cardiomyopathy. Our studies demonstrate a new mechanism of chromatin assembly in stressed hearts and novel therapeutic targets for restoring Myh6 and ventricular function. The stress-induced Brg1-G9a-Dnmt3 interactions and sequence of repressive chromatin assembly on Myh6 illustrates a molecular mechanism by which the heart epigenetically responds to environmental signals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26952936

  20. Environmental Complexity and Biodiversity: The Multi-Layered Evolutionary History of a Log-Dwelling Velvet Worm in Montane Temperate Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Gardner, Michael G.; Tait, Noel N.; Briscoe, David A.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies provide a framework for understanding the importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors in shaping patterns of biodiversity through identifying past and present microevolutionary processes that contributed to lineage divergence. Here we investigate population structure and diversity of the Onychophoran (velvet worm) Euperipatoides rowelli in southeastern Australian montane forests that were not subject to Pleistocene glaciations, and thus likely retained more forest cover than systems under glaciation. Over a ~100 km transect of structurally-connected forest, we found marked nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA genetic structuring, with spatially-localised groups. Patterns from mtDNA and nuclear data broadly corresponded with previously defined geographic regions, consistent with repeated isolation in refuges during Pleistocene climatic cycling. Nevertheless, some E. rowelli genetic contact zones were displaced relative to hypothesized influential landscape structures, implying more recent processes overlying impacts of past environmental history. Major impacts at different timescales were seen in the phylogenetic relationships among mtDNA sequences, which matched geographic relationships and nuclear data only at recent timescales, indicating historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Five major E. rowelli phylogeographic groups were identified, showing substantial but incomplete reproductive isolation despite continuous habitat. Regional distinctiveness, in the face of lineages abutting within forest habitat, could indicate pre- and/or postzygotic gene flow limitation. A potentially functional phenotypic character, colour pattern variation, reflected the geographic patterns in the molecular data. Spatial-genetic patterns broadly match those in previously-studied, co-occurring low-mobility organisms, despite a variety of life histories. We suggest that for E. rowelli, the complex topography and history of the region has led to

  1. Diseases and partial mortality in Montastraea annularis species complex in reefs with differing environmental conditions (NW Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico).

    PubMed

    Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Maldonado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa Elisa

    2005-01-25

    We documented the prevalence of diseases, syndromes and partial mortality in colonies of the Montastraea annularis species complex on 3 reefs, and tested the assumption that a higher prevalence of these parameters occurs when reefs are closer to point-sources of pollution. One reef was isolated from the impact of local factors with the exception of fishing, 1 potentially influenced by local industrial pollutants, and 1 influenced by local urban pollution. Two reefs were surveyed in 1996 and again in 2001 and 1 in 1998 and again in 2001. In 2001, colonies on all reefs had a high prevalence of the yellow-band syndrome and a relatively high degree of recent partial mortality, while the prevalence of black-band and white-plague diseases was low although a new sign, that we named the thin dark line, had relatively high prevalence in all reefs. As no direct relationship was found between disease prevalence and local environmental quality, our results open the possibility that regional and/or global factors may already be playing an important role in the prevalence of coral disease in the Caribbean, and contradict the theory that coral disease prevalence is primarily related to local environmental degradation. Reasons that may partially explain these findings are the high level of potential pathogen connectivity within the Caribbean as a result of its circulation patterns coupled to the large land-derived pollutants and pathogens input into this Mediterranean sea, together with the surface water warming effects which stress corals and enhance pathogen activity.

  2. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  3. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  4. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  5. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. 75 FR 12736 - Notice of Reopening of Comment Period for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... (75 FR 3730) on January 22, 2010, for the Silver Strand Training Complex (SSTC) Draft Environmental... published January 22, 2010, at 75 FR 3730 is reopened. Comments are due by March 30, 2010. ADDRESSES... the Silver Strand Training Complex AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  9. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  10. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  11. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  12. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  13. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-17

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  14. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  15. Rapid ionic liquid-based ultrasound assisted dual magnetic microextraction to preconcentrate and separate cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol complex from environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    A rapid and innovative microextraction technique named as, ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dual magnetic microextraction (IL-UA-DMME) was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of trace cadmium from environmental and biological samples, prior to analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The proposed method has many obvious advantages, including evading the use of organic solvents and achieved high extraction yields by the combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and magnetic mediated-solid phase extraction (MM-SPE). In this approach ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6] play an important role to extract the cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol (Cd-TAR) complex from acid digested sample solutions and ultrasonic irradiation was applied to assist emulsification. After then, dispersed small amount of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in sample solutions to salvaged the IL and complete phase separation was attained. Some analytical parameters that influencing the efficiency of proposed (IL-UA-DMME) method, such as pH, volume of IL, ligand concentration, ultra-sonication time, amount of Fe3O4 MNPs, sample volume and matrix effect were optimized. Limit of detection (LOD) and enrichment factor (EF) of the method under optimal experimental conditions were found to be 0.40μgL(-1) and 100, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of 50μgL(-1) Cd was 4.29%. The validity and accuracy of proposed method, was assessed to analyzed certified reference materials of fortified lake water TMDA-54.4, SPS-WW2 waste water, spinach leaves 1570a and also checked by standard addition method. The obtained values showed good agreement with the certified values and sufficiently high recovery were found in the range of 98.1-101% for Cd. The proposed method was facile, rapid and successfully applied for the determination of Cd in environmental and different biological samples. PMID

  16. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. S.; Reed, J. M.; Lacey, J. H.; Francke, A.; Leng, M. J.; Levkov, Z.; Wagner, B.

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the analysis of diatoms as a proxy for Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in Lake Ohrid at a higher resolution than in previous studies. While Lake Ohrid has the potential to be sensitive to water temperature change, the data demonstrate a highly complex diatom response, probably comprising a direct response to temperature-induced lake productivity in some phases and an indirect response to temperature-related lake stratification or mixing and epilimnetic nutrient availability in others. The data also demonstrate the possible influence of physical limnological (e.g. the influence of wind stress on stratification or mixing) and chemical processes (e.g. the influence of catchment dynamics on nutrient input) in mediating the complex response of diatoms. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300-11 800 cal yr BP), the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low lake productivity, linked to low water temperature. Although the subsequent slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula during the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800-10 600 cal yr BP) suggests climate warming and enhanced stratification, diatom concentration remains as low as during the Lateglacial, suggesting that water temperature increase was muted across this major transition. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600-8200 cal yr BP) is characterised by a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high water-temperature-induced productivity between ca. 10 600-10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500-8200 cal yr BP and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200-9500 cal yr BP. During the middle Holocene (ca. 8200-2600 cal yr BP), when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for

  17. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturdated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Perkins, J. R. Nimmo, J. R. Pittman

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space.

  18. vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of clonal complex CC17 in clinical and environmental samples in a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Elhani, Dalèle; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Ben Hassan, Meriem; Asli Mohamed, Selim; Ben Said, Laila; Mahjoub, Aouini; Ben Slama, Karim; Jemli, Boutheina; Bellaj, Ridha; Barguellil, Farouk; Torres, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-eight vancomycin (VA)-resistant enterococci isolated from different patients (n = 16) and also from the environment (n = 12) were recovered in a Tunisian military hospital during 2012-2013. The mechanisms of resistance to VA and to other antibiotics as well as the presence of esp and hyl virulence genes were determined in these isolates by PCR, being their clonal relationship analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VA resistance mechanisms detected were as follows (species-patient/environment): vanA (Enterococcus faecium, 13/5), vanC1 (Enterococcus gallinarum, 3/0), and vanC2 (Enterococcus casseliflavus, 0/7). Most of the VA-resistant enterococci presented a multiresistance phenotype and harbored different resistance genes (erm(B), tet(M), tet(L), ant(6)-Ia, aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa, and catA). The PFGE revealed the presence of 3 clones (A, B, C) and 1 closely related pattern (A1) among the 13 vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of patients showing 11 of them the A-A1 patterns. The clone A was also detected in all 5 environmental vanA-containing E. faecium isolates. Strains did not contain esp or hyl virulence genes. Multilocus sequence typing was performed in 4 E. faecium isolates representative of the 4 detected pulsotypes (A, A1, B, and C), and 2 different sequence types were identified (ST18 and ST80), both of them included in clonal complex CC17. These strains contained the IS16 element and showed ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance. VA resistance could be an emerging problem in Tunisia, and this is one of the first cases described so far in this country.

  19. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  20. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  1. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  2. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    CIPAHs during e-waste recycling operations. Dioxin-like toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) for CIPAHs and PAHs in samples were calculated on the basis of relative potencies reported for CIPAHs and PAHs. The highest mean TEQ concentrations of CIPAHs (518 pg-TEQ/g) were found for workshop-floor dust, followed by leaves (361 pg-TEQ/g), electronic shredder waste (308 pg-TEQ/g), soil from the chemical industrial complex (146 pg-TEQ/g), and soil from the sites of the e-waste recycling facility (92.3 pg-TEQ/g). With one exception, the floor dust samples, the TEQ concentrations of CIPAHs found in multiple environmental matrices in this study were higher than the TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the same samples reported in our earlier study.

  3. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  4. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  5. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  6. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  7. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  8. Environmental Nutrition: A New Frontier for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Food systems must operate within environmental constraints to avoid disastrous consequences for the biosphere. Such constraints must also take into account nutritional quality and health outcomes. Given the intrinsic relationships between the environmental sciences and nutritional sciences, it is imperative that public health embraces environmental nutrition as the new frontier of research and practice and begins a concerted focus on the new discipline of environmental nutrition, which seeks to comprehensively address the sustainability of food systems. We provide an overview to justify our proposition, outline a research and practice agenda for environmental nutrition, and explore how the complex relationships within food systems that affect public health could be better understood through the environmental nutrition model.

  9. Environmental Fundamentals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit presents materials to develop some of the basic knowledge necessary for grasping the complex processes associated with environmental relationships. It is divided into five topics: (1) Basic Needs for Life--the biological necessities of plants and animals; (2) Food Web--the interactions between organisms; (3) Observational Skills--ways…

  10. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  11. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  12. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  13. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  14. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  18. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  20. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…