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Sample records for address complex problems

  1. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  2. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    PubMed

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  3. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  4. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  5. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiek, Arnim; Foley, Rider W.; Guston, David H.

    2012-09-01

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  6. Addressing problems in complete dentures.

    PubMed

    LaBarre, Eugene; Giusti, Lola; Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela

    2007-10-01

    The authors have compiled a set of solutions to the most common issues influencing the success of complete denture cases. A brief review and discussion of occlusal vertical dimension is presented, followed by a troubleshooting guide to problems such as inadequate retention and stability, discomfort, and other problems affecting treatment outcome.

  7. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  8. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  9. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  10. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  11. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  12. Addressing the Curriculum Problem in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a "missing term". The paper then…

  13. Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem through Evolutionary Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    M FILE Cun ARI Research Note 87-04 -- w CM o> < i Q < ADDRESSING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM THROUGH EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION David B...TITLE raid SubMII«; ’ 1 Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem 1 Through Evolutionary...1 Optimizing the " travelling salesman" problem continues to

  14. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  15. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  16. Time Management: Addressing and Assessing Classroom Participation Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Time Management Addressing and Assessing Classroom Participation Problems Cary A. Balser Abstract While research shows that technology in...the classroom has costs, in econometrics (as in other technical courses) computer use is very nearly a necessary condition. Therefore, I used a...undergraduate institution with a clear focus on STEM, technology in the classroom is very nearly necessitated by the content in many technical courses

  17. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  18. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  19. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2016-07-12

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  20. Addressing the clinical needs of problem drug user patients

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Antoinette; West, Imara I.; Graves, Meredith C.; Atkins, David C.; Maynard, Charles; Bumgardner, Kristin; Donovan, Dennis; Ries, Richard; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Illicit drug use is a serious public health problem associated with significant co-occurring medical disorders, mental disorders, and social problems. Yet most individuals with drug use disorders have never been treated, though they often seek medical treatment in primary care. The purpose of the present study was to examine baseline characteristics of persons presenting in primary care across a range of problem drug use severity to identify their clinical needs. Methods We examined socio-demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, drug use severity, social and legal problems, and service utilization for 868 patients with drug problems recruited from primary care clinics in a safety-net medical setting. Based on Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) results, individuals were categorized as having low, intermediate, or substantial/severe drug use severity. Results Patients with substantial/severe drug use severity had serious drug use (opiates, stimulants, sedatives, intravenous drug use), high levels of homelessness (50%), psychiatric comorbidity (69%), arrests for serious crimes (24%), and frequent use of expensive emergency department and inpatient hospitals. Patients with low drug use severity were primarily users of marijuana with little reported use of other drugs, less psychiatric co-morbidity, and more stable lifestyles. Patients with intermediate drug use severity fell in-between the substantial/severe and low drug use severity subgroups on most variables. Conclusions Patients with highest drug use severity are likely to require specialized psychiatric and substance abuse care in addition to ongoing medical care that is equipped to address the consequences of severe/substantial drug use including intravenous drug use. Because of their milder symptoms, patients with low drug use severity may benefit from a collaborative care model that integrates psychiatric and substance abuse care in the primary care setting. Patients

  1. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-02

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible.

  2. SIMS: addressing the problem of heterogeneity in databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, Yigal

    1997-02-01

    The heterogeneity of remotely accessible databases -- with respect to contents, query language, semantics, organization, etc. -- presents serious obstacles to convenient querying. The SIMS (single interface to multiple sources) system addresses this global integration problem. It does so by defining a single language for describing the domain about which information is stored in the databases and using this language as the query language. Each database to which SIMS is to provide access is modeled using this language. The model describes a database's contents, organization, and other relevant features. SIMS uses these models, together with a planning system drawing on techniques from artificial intelligence, to decompose a given user's high-level query into a series of queries against the databases and other data manipulation steps. The retrieval plan is constructed so as to minimize data movement over the network and maximize parallelism to increase execution speed. SIMS can recover from network failures during plan execution by obtaining data from alternate sources, when possible. SIMS has been demonstrated in the domains of medical informatics and logistics, using real databases.

  3. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  4. Training Social Workers and Human Service Professionals to Address the Complex Financial Needs of Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Hopkins, Karen; Osteen, Philip; Callahan, Christine; Hageman, Sally; Ko, Jungyai

    2017-01-01

    In social work and other community-based human services settings, clients often present with complex financial problems. As a need for more formal training is beginning to be addressed, evaluation of existing training is important, and this study evaluates outcomes from the Financial Stability Pathway (FSP) project. Designed to prepare…

  5. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  6. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  7. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  8. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  9. An Address on the Population Problem: Address to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    In this speech, Robert McNamara examines the background of the world population problem, analyzes its current trends, evaluates the measures available to deal with it, and suggests actions governments and others can take to help solve it. It now appears that significant fertility decline may have begun in developing countries. Data seem to…

  10. A phenomenographic study of the ability to address complex socio-technical systems via variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Garcia, John A.

    Sometimes engineers fail when addressing the inherent complexity of socio-technical systems because they lack the ability to address the complexity of socio-technical systems. Teaching undergraduate engineering students how to address complex socio-technical systems, has been an educational endeavor at different levels ranging from kindergarten to post-graduate education. The literature presents different pedagogical strategies and content to reach this goal. However, there are no existing empirically-based assessments guided by a learning theory. This may be because at the same time explanations of how the skill is developed are scarce. My study bridges this gap, and I propose a developmental path for the ability to address the complex socio-technical systems via Variation Theory, and according to the conceptual framework provided by Variation Theory, my research question was "What are the various ways in which engineers address complex socio-technical systems?" I chose the research approach of phenomenography to answer my research question. I also chose to use a blended approach, Marton's approach for finding the dimensions of variation, and the developmental approach (Australian) for finding a hierarchical relationship between the dimensions. Accordingly, I recruited 25 participants with different levels of experience with addressing complex socio-technical systems and asked them all to address the same two tasks: A design of a system for a county, and a case study in a manufacturing firm. My outcome space is a nona-dimensional (nine) developmental path for the ability to address the complexity in socio-technical systems, and I propose 9 different ways of experiencing the complexity of a socio-technical system. The findings of this study suggest that the critical aspects that are needed to address the complexity of socio-technical systems are: being aware of the use of models, the ecosystem around, start recognizing different boundaries, being aware of time as a

  11. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  12. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  13. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of…

  14. Addressing the access problem for patients with serious mental illness who require tertiary medical care.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Flint, Alastair J

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence to suggest that people with serious mental illness (SMI) have lower access to tertiary care than patients without SMI, particularly when care is complex. Barriers are present at the level of the individual, providers, and the health care system. High levels of co-morbidity and the associated health care costs, along with a growing focus on facilitating equal access to quality care for all, urges health care systems to address existing gaps. Some interventions have been successful at improving access to primary care for patients with SMI, but relatively little research has focused on access to complex interventions. This paper summarizes the scope of the problem regarding access to complex tertiary medical care among people with SMI. Barriers are discussed and potential solutions are proposed. Policies and programs must be developed, implemented, and evaluated to determine cost-effectiveness and impact on outcomes.

  15. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of SOLVE: addressing psychosocial problems at work.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Gold, David; Caborn, Joannah

    2008-01-01

    The International Labour Organization (ILO) has developed a workplace intervention known as SOLVE, aimed at reducing the incidence of psychosocial problems related to job stress, workplace violence, tobacco use, drug and alcohol abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Although this ILO intervention is widely implemented, this article reports the first attempt to empirically assess its effectiveness. Using pre- and posttests of knowledge related to the course content gathered from 268 individuals in 7 countries who attended 1 of 15 SOLVE courses, analyses show that participant learning significantly improved as a function of attending the training. Knowledge gains were consistent regardless of course attended, language used to deliver the training program, and country in which the training took place. Implications of the SOLVE program are discussed, and future steps for further intervention development and assessment are recommended.

  17. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  18. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  19. Addressing critical astrophysical problems with NASA's small explorer (SMEX) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Ribas, Ignasi

    The Small Explorer (SMEX) program of NASA was initiated during the late 1980s to provide frequent, cost-effective opportunities to carry out sharply focused and relatively space science missions. The SMEX program together with the Mid-size Explorer (MIDEX) program were timely reactions to the increasingly long development times and cost over-runs for a number of large space missions during the previous decades. SMEX spacecrafts are typically 180 to 250 kg with orbit-averaged power consumptions of 50-200 watts. Frequently innovative or novel technologies and instrumentation are employed to achieve important results. The current cost cap (which includes cost of launch vehicle, development and operations) is 75M (Fiscal Year 2000 US). For comparison, the cost cap of the MIDEX mission is $135M. Both SMEX and MIDEX are solicited Principal Investigator (PI) missions that are peer-reviewed before selection. The SMEX program is supported by the NASA's Office of Space Research (OSS) and a wide spectrum of science is addressed. The themes include Origin and Evolution of Stars and Planets, the Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and the Sun-Earth Connection. Within these major themes, the missions may also focus on fundamental laws of physics as they relate to astrophysics and cosmology. So far, seven SMEX missions have been flown or are approved for flight within one or two years. In this paper, the past, current, and possible future SMEX missions are discussed and evaluated. Some highlights and important scientific returns from the current and approved missions are also included.

  20. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  1. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  2. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  3. Addressing the problem of interruptability in the construction of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Morgenthaler, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Large scale space missions of the near future will depend upon successful multi-launch coordination and construction in the space environment. One of the main challenges is how to accomplish a valid global analysis of a construction project with the intent of improving safety, reducing overall mission cost, and total construction time. These three items are dependent on the interruptability of the project, which is the ability of the project to recover from unplanned interruptions; such as failure of the launch vehicle; sudden, on-orbit, crew illness; or damage from a space debris impact on the partially completed space structure. A new method for addressing and analyzing this type of problem is being developed. The method is called Program Interruptability and Risk Evaluation Technique, or PIRET. PIRET has been developed in order to model and analyze potential interruptability concerns of the construction of the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), although PIRET is applicable to any complex, multi-launch structural assembly. This paper is a progress report on the continuing research of the NASA Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado, Boulder into this area of space construction interruptability. The paper will define the problem of interruptability, will diagram the PIRET approach to space construction, will share results from a preliminary PIRET analysis of SSF, and will show that PIRET is a useful tool for modelling space construction interruptability.

  4. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  5. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  6. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  7. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  8. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  9. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application"…

  10. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  11. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One…

  12. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  13. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  14. Addressing Possible Problems of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    The ways in which potential problems in terms of validity were addressed by a beginning researcher conducting research into teacher attitudes are described. The researcher, a doctoral candidate, studied the beliefs, attitudes, and values of four experienced high school biology teachers. Principles and practices of research were set into place…

  15. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  16. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  17. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  18. Fractal applications to complex crustal problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Complex scale-invariant problems obey fractal statistics. The basic definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects with a characteristic linear dimension greater than r satisfies the relation N = about r exp -D where D is the fractal dimension. Fragmentation often satisfies this relation. The distribution of earthquakes satisfies this relation. The classic relationship between the length of a rocky coast line and the step length can be derived from this relation. Power law relations for spectra can also be related to fractal dimensions. Topography and gravity are examples. Spectral techniques can be used to obtain maps of fractal dimension and roughness amplitude. These provide a quantitative measure of texture analysis. It is argued that the distribution of stress and strength in a complex crustal region, such as the Alps, is fractal. Based on this assumption, the observed frequency-magnitude relation for the seismicity in the region can be derived.

  19. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  20. The Guarding Problem - Complexity and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, T. V. Thirumala; Krishna, D. Sai; Rangan, C. Pandu

    Let G = (V, E) be the given graph and G R = (V R ,E R ) and G C = (V C ,E C ) be the sub graphs of G such that V R ∩ V C = ∅ and V R ∪ V C = V. G C is referred to as the cops region and G R is called as the robber region. Initially a robber is placed at some vertex of V R and the cops are placed at some vertices of V C . The robber and cops may move from their current vertices to one of their neighbours. While a cop can move only within the cops region, the robber may move to any neighbour. The robber and cops move alternatively. A vertex v ∈ V C is said to be attacked if the current turn is the robber's turn, the robber is at vertex u where u ∈ V R , (u,v) ∈ E and no cop is present at v. The guarding problem is to find the minimum number of cops required to guard the graph G C from the robber's attack. We first prove that the decision version of this problem when G R is an arbitrary undirected graph is PSPACE-hard. We also prove that the complexity of the decision version of the guarding problem when G R is a wheel graph is NP-hard. We then present approximation algorithms if G R is a star graph, a clique and a wheel graph with approximation ratios H(n 1), 2 H(n 1) and left( H(n1) + 3/2 right) respectively, where H(n1) = 1 + 1/2 + ... + 1/n1 and n 1 = ∣ V R ∣.

  1. The complex problem of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Holmes, Jo; Peters, Lisa; Cooper, Karen; Rowson, Matthew; Basketter, David A

    2005-08-01

    There exists within the population subsets of individuals who display heightened skin reactivity to materials the majority find tolerable. In a series of investigations, we have examined interrelationships between many of the endpoints associated with the term 'sensitive skin'. In the most recent work, 58 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.5% menthol and 1.0% capsaicin on the nasolabial fold, unoccluded, with sensory reactions recorded at 2.5 min, 5 min and 8 min after application. Urticant susceptibility was evaluated with 1 m benzoic acid and 125 mM trans-cinnamic acid applied to the volar forearm for 20 min. A 2 x 23-h patch test was also conducted using 0.1% and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.3% and 0.6% cocamidopropyl betaine and 0.1% and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to determine irritant susceptibility. As found in previous studies, increased susceptibility to one endpoint was not predictive of sensitivity to another. In our experience, nasolabial stinging was a poor predictor of general skin sensitivity. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify in the normal population individuals who, coincidentally, are more generally sensitive to a range of non-immunologic adverse skin reactions. Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed.

  2. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, M. Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  3. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  4. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  5. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the Practice Framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, and multi-component interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence-base for occupation-centered sleep interventions in order to improve the health and quality of life of the older adult. PMID:24844879

  6. Decomposing a complex design problem using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multidisciplinary. Before the design of such complex systems can begin, much time and money are invested in determining the possible couplings among the participating subsystems and their parts. For designs based on existing concepts, like commercial aircraft design, the subsystems and their couplings are usually well-established. However, for designs based on novel concepts, like large space platforms, the determination of the subsystems, couplings, and participating disciplines is an important task. Moreover, this task must be repeated as new information becomes available or as the design specifications change. Determining the subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. The design manager must know how to divide the design work among the design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. The resulting subsystems must be ordered into a hierarchical structure before the planning documents and milestones of the design project are set. The success of a design project often depends on the wise choice of design variables, constraints, objective functions, and the partitioning of these among the design teams. Very few tools are available to aid the design manager in determining the hierarchical structure of a design problem and assist in making these decisions.

  7. Unpacking complexity in the analysis of environmental and geologic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Pinet, P.R. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    In order to understand or to make policy decisions about environmental issues, it is imperative that the only complexity of the problem be unpacked, that is its causes and effects be separated into a natural hierarchical scheme. Unpacking complexity separates the elements that affect natural systems into primary, secondary, and tertiary factors. Primary factors are universal in the sense that they operate in a fundamental way anywhere on the globe where the system is present. Secondary factors interact with the primary elements to infuse regional characteristics into the system. Local (site-specific) factors impose a tertiary level of complexity that operates on small spatial scales. The utility of this technique will be demonstrated by several examples: the origin of an Atlantic-type continental margin, a beach-erosion study, and a groundwater investigation. The appraisal of environmental problems on a truly global scale involves the evaluation of the primary elements of the system, and a de-emphasis of the secondary and tertiary factors which are inappropriate to the scale of the study. On the other hand, policy decisions regarding a regional coastal-erosion problem or the management of a large watershed require that primary and secondary elements be addressed, and that tertiary factors be put aside. Moreover, assessing the nature of erosion at a specific beach or managing a local tract of woodland must include a consideration of all causes and effects that occur at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. This hierarchical analysis applies to temporal scales as well. For example, solutions to beach-erosion or deforestation problems are very different when considering causes and effects over years, decades, centuries, or millennia.

  8. A pilot study of a primary prevention curriculum to address preschool behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

    2013-10-01

    Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption.

  9. Addressing the Intersecting Problems of Opioid Misuse and Chronic Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Denisco, Richard A.; Chandler, Redonna K.; Compton, Wilson M.

    2012-01-01

    Misuse of prescription opioid medications has continued as a major public health problem in the United States. Review of major epidemiologic data bases shows that the prevalence of opioid misuse rose markedly through the 1990’s and the early part of the current decade. In this same period of time the number of prescriptions for chronic non-cancer pain increased markedly, and the intersection of these two public health problems remains a concern. Further, despite some leveling off of the overall rate of prescription opioid misuse in the past several years, surveillance data show high and increasing mortality associated with these drugs. Analysis of the 2006 National Survey of Drug Use and Health indicates the increasing prevalence of prescription opioid misuse is associated more with an increase in the general availability of these medications than misuse of the medications by those who were directly prescribed them. National Institute on Drug Abuse initiatives to address the prescription opioid problem include programs to stimulate research in the basic and clinical sciences, and education of physicians and other health personnel. PMID:18837638

  10. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  11. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; ...

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  12. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  13. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  14. Solving Nonlinear Optimization Problems of Real Functions in Complex Variables by Complex-Valued Iterative Methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen

    2016-12-28

    Much research has been devoted to complex-variable optimization problems due to their engineering applications. However, the complex-valued optimization method for solving complex-variable optimization problems is still an active research area. This paper proposes two efficient complex-valued optimization methods for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems of real functions in complex variables, respectively. One solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with linear equality constraints. Another solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with both linear equality constraints and an ℓ₁-norm constraint. Theoretically, we prove the global convergence of the proposed two complex-valued optimization algorithms under mild conditions. The proposed two algorithms can solve the complex-valued optimization problem completely in the complex domain and significantly extend existing complex-valued optimization algorithms. Numerical results further show that the proposed two algorithms have a faster speed than several conventional real-valued optimization algorithms.

  15. Managing Complex Problems in Rangeland Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of rangelands, and natural resources in general, has become increasingly complex. There is an atmosphere of increasing expectations for conservation efforts associated with a variety of issues from water quality to endangered species. We argue that many current issues are complex by their...

  16. Complex partial status epilepticus: a recurrent problem.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O C; Walker, M C; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with complex partial status epilepticus were identified retrospectively from a specialist neurology hospital. Seventeen patients experienced recurrent episodes of complex partial status epilepticus, often occurring at regular intervals, usually over many years, and while being treated with effective anti-epileptic drugs. No unifying cause for the recurrences, and no common epilepsy aetiologies, were identified. In spite of the frequency of recurrence and length of history, none of the patients showed any marked evidence of cognitive or neurological deterioration. Complex partial status epilepticus is more common than is generally recognised, should be differentiated from other forms of non-convulsive status, and is often difficult to treat. PMID:8021671

  17. Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2005-01-01

    The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

  18. Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)

  19. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  20. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  1. Multigrid Methods for Aerodynamic Problems in Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Work has been directed at the development of efficient multigrid methods for the solution of aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including the development of computational methods for the solution of both inviscid and viscous transonic flow problems. The emphasis is on problems of complex, three-dimensional geometry. The methods developed are based upon finite-volume approximations to both the Euler and the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The methods are developed for use on multi-block grids using diagonalized implicit multigrid methods to achieve computational efficiency. The work is focused upon aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including advanced engine inlets.

  2. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  3. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  4. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and…

  5. Preparing for Complexity and Wicked Problems through Transformational Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukawa, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As the information environment becomes increasingly complex and challenging, Library and Information Studies (LIS) education is called upon to nurture innovative leaders capable of managing complex situations and "wicked problems." While disciplinary expertise remains essential, higher levels of mental complexity and adaptive…

  6. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  7. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  8. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  9. Modeling Complex Chemical Systems: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas in complex gas mixtures are at the heart of numerous contemporary technologies. They typically contain dozens to hundreds of species, involved in hundreds to thousands of reactions. Chemists and physicists have always been interested in what are now called chemical reduction techniques (CRT's). The idea of such CRT's is that they reduce the number of species that need to be considered explicitly without compromising the validity of the model. This is usually achieved on the basis of an analysis of the reaction time scales of the system under study, which identifies species that are in partial equilibrium after a given time span. The first such CRT that has been widely used in plasma physics was developed in the 1960's and resulted in the concept of effective ionization and recombination rates. It was later generalized to systems in which multiple levels are effected by transport. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in tools for chemical reduction and reaction pathway analysis. An example of the latter is the PumpKin tool. Another trend is that techniques that have previously been developed in other fields of science are adapted as to be able to handle the plasma state of matter. Examples are the Intrinsic Low Dimension Manifold (ILDM) method and its derivatives, which originate from combustion engineering, and the general-purpose Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In this contribution we will provide an overview of the most common reduction techniques, then critically assess the pros and cons of the methods that have gained most popularity in recent years. Examples will be provided for plasmas in argon and carbon dioxide.

  10. The Advantages of Structural Equation Modeling to Address the Complexity of Spatial Reference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro S.; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis; Silva, Joana; Takashima, Akihiko; Sousa, Nuno; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Costa, Patrício S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive performance is a complex process influenced by multiple factors. Cognitive assessment in experimental animals is often based on longitudinal datasets analyzed using uni- and multi-variate analyses, that do not account for the temporal dimension of cognitive performance and also do not adequately quantify the relative contribution of individual factors onto the overall behavioral outcome. To circumvent these limitations, we applied an Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) to analyze the Morris water maze (MWM) test in a complex experimental design involving four factors: stress, age, sex, and genotype. Outcomes were compared with a traditional Mixed-Design Factorial ANOVA (MDF ANOVA). Results: In both the MDF ANOVA and ALT models, sex, and stress had a significant effect on learning throughout the 9 days. However, on the ALT approach, the effects of sex were restricted to the learning growth. Unlike the MDF ANOVA, the ALT model revealed the influence of single factors at each specific learning stage and quantified the cross interactions among them. In addition, ALT allows us to consider the influence of baseline performance, a critical and unsolved problem that frequently yields inaccurate interpretations in the classical ANOVA model. Discussion: Our findings suggest the beneficial use of ALT models in the analysis of complex longitudinal datasets offering a better biological interpretation of the interrelationship of the factors that may influence cognitive performance. PMID:26955327

  11. Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World A Monograph by MAJ Donald Erickson United States...Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...proposes a model for the development of an operational reconnaissance force and explores its development and conceptual usage in World War II and the

  12. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  13. Portrayal as a Way of Addressing Problems in Communicating Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Melvin E.

    Program portrayal is one way of addressing the need for increased descriptive capability in evaluation research. Portrayal supplements traditional reporting by utilizing subjective, anecdotal, or impressionistic information, in an appropriately communicable form, to enrich the description of program transactions, settings, and outcomes. It is…

  14. Using State Merging and State Pruning to Address the Path Explosion Problem Faced by Symbolic Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    the number of possible paths within a program grows exponentially with respect to loops and conditionals. New techniques are needed to address the path...increasing the code coverage. Each algorithm is tested over 66 of the GNU COREUTILS utilities. State merging combined with state pruning outperforms...30 3.6.1 GNU COREUTILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.7 Performance Metrics

  15. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  16. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  17. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  18. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  19. Making Sense of Complex Problems: A Resource for Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    of key challenges that military design teams encounter, and describes lessons, strategies , and approaches used by military leaders to optimize the...operational settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Planning teams, Design teams, Army Design Methodology, Best practices, Strategies ...address these unfamiliar problems.1 The resource offers practical tips, strategies , and examples designed to support planning teams and their leaders

  20. GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    review the status of OCX development and DOD’s efforts to field M- code signal capability. This report addresses (1) the extent to which DOD is...meeting cost, schedule, and performance requirements for OCX; (2) the progress DOD is making in delivering M- code capable MGUE by the end of fiscal year...2017; and (3) the challenges DOD faces in synchronizing the development of GPS III, OCX, and MGUE to deploy M- code . To conduct this work, GAO

  1. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  2. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  3. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  4. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  5. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  6. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  7. The Life You Save May Be Your Own: New Jersey Addresses Prevention of Adolescent Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    New Jersey's governor describes his state's response to the problems and needs of adolescents by creating the School-Based Youth Services Program. The program involves schools and community agencies in the provision of comprehensive services to teenagers, including mental health and family counseling, health services, and other interventions. (AF)

  8. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  9. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  10. Dyspareunia: a complex problem requiring a selective approach.

    PubMed

    Walid, Mohammad Sami; Heaton, Richard L

    2009-09-01

    Dyspareunia frequently has a multifactorial aetiology. The problem with the term is that it is not specific enough and does not allow for proper discussion of the very important problem of pain with sexual intercourse, a problem that can be very disturbing to a couple's relationship. We present two cases of patients who had multiple potential anatomic reasons for dyspareunia. The clinical picture, treatment strategy and the complex nature of deep penetration pain was discussed. We also proposed a new way of defining dyspareunia to allow a more adequate way of studying and discussing the problem.

  11. From problem solving to problem definition: scrutinizing the complex nature of clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-02-01

    In medical education, we have tended to present problems as being singular, stable, and solvable. Problem solving has, therefore, drawn much of medical education researchers' attention. This focus has been important but it is limited in terms of preparing clinicians to deal with the complexity of the 21st century healthcare system in which they will provide team-based care for patients with complex medical illness. In this paper, we use the Soft Systems Engineering principles to introduce the idea that in complex, team-based situations, problems usually involve divergent views and evolve with multiple solution iterations. As such we need to shift the conversation from (1) problem solving to problem definition, and (2) from a problem definition derived exclusively at the level of the individual to a definition derived at the level of the situation in which the problem is manifested. Embracing such a focus on problem definition will enable us to advocate for novel educational practices that will equip trainees to effectively manage the problems they will encounter in complex, team-based healthcare.

  12. New technologies address the problem areas of coiled-tubing cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Coiled-tubing cementing has been practiced successfully on the Alaskan North Slope for several years. This paper discusses the special problems faced when this technology was applied to offshore U.S. gulf coast operations. The innovative solutions and procedures developed to improve the economic and technical success of coiled-tubing cementing are also discussed. Comparative laboratory and computer studies, as well as field case histories, will be presented to show the economic merit of this technology.

  13. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  14. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health.

  15. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  16. Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

  17. Particle swarm optimization for complex nonlinear optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Alex; Famelis, Ioannis Th.; Tsitouras, Charalambos

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the application of a technique belonging to evolutionary computation, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), to complex nonlinear optimization problems. To be more specific, a PSO optimizer is setup and applied to the derivation of Runge-Kutta pairs for the numerical solution of initial value problems. The effect of critical PSO operational parameters on the performance of the proposed scheme is thoroughly investigated.

  18. Extended variational theory of complex rays in heterogeneous Helmholtz problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Ladeveze, Pierre; Riou, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    In the past years, a numerical technique method called Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) has been developed for vibration problems in medium frequency. It is a Trefftz Discontinuous Galerkin method which uses plane wave functions as shape functions. However this method is only well developed in homogeneous case. In this paper, VTCR is extended to the heterogeneous Helmholtz problem by creating a new base of shape functions. Numerical examples give a scope of the performances of such an extension of VTCR.

  19. Inverse Spectral Problems for Tridiagonal N by N Complex Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseinov, Gusein Sh.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, the concept of generalized spectral function is introduced for finite-order tridiagonal symmetric matrices (Jacobi matrices) with complex entries. The structure of the generalized spectral function is described in terms of spectral data consisting of the eigenvalues and normalizing numbers of the matrix. The inverse problems from generalized spectral function as well as from spectral data are investigated. In this way, a procedure for construction of complex tridiagonal matrices having real eigenvalues is obtained.

  20. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise.

  1. Identification of critical substorm-expansion-phase phenomena: Problems addressable with GEM observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Understanding the physics of the substorm process is currently a crucial topic in magnetospheric physics. Fundamental to this understanding is the determination of what phenomena occur in the magnetosphere during the expansion phase, where these phenomena occur, and how they propagate during the expansion phase. Satellite observations have given researchers important point measurements of what happens; however there is potential for enhancing the use of ground-based observations to study the substorm phenomena. Such enhanced use of ground-based measurements is already taking place as part of the GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) boundary-layer campaign and is planned to continue throughout the tail/substorm campaign. This report identifies expansion-phase phenomena observed locally within the nightside magnetosphere and from the ground, believed to be of fundamental importance for understanding large-scale substorm processes. The phenomena observed in situ are related to the phenomena observed from the ground. The primary goal is to identify outstanding questions that could be addressed during the GEM tail/substorm campaign using ground-based data from GEM observing periods in coordination with available satellite observations.

  2. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  3. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  4. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  5. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  6. Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.

    1997-12-05

    We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.

  7. EEG activity during the performance of complex mental problems.

    PubMed

    Jausovec, N; Jausovec, K

    2000-04-01

    This study investigated differences in cognitive processes related to problem complexity. It was assumed that these differences would be reflected in respondents' EEG activity--spectral power and coherence. A second issue of the study was to compare differences between the lower (alpha(1) = 7.9-10.0 Hz), and upper alpha band (alpha(2) = 10.1-12.9 Hz). In the first experiment two well-defined problems with two levels of complexity were used. Only minor differences in EEG power and coherence measures related to problem complexity were observed. In the second experiment divergent production problems resembling tasks on creativity tests were compared with dialectic problems calling for creative solutions. Differences in EEG power measures were mainly related to the form of problem presentation (figural/verbal). In contrast, coherence was related to the level of creativity needed to solve a problem. Noticeable increased intra- and interhemispheric cooperation between mainly the far distant brain regions was observed in the EEG activity of respondents while solving the dialectic problems. These results are explained by the more intense involvement of the long cortico-cortical fiber system in creative thinking. Differences between the lower and upper alpha band were significant for the power and coherence measures. In Experiment 2, fewer differences were observed in power measures in the upper alpha band than in the lower alpha band. A reverse pattern was observed for the coherence measures. These results hint to a functional independence of the two alpha bands, however, they do not allow to draw firm conclusions about their functional meanings. The study showed that it is unlikely that individuals solve well- and ill-defined problems by employing similar cognitive strategies.

  8. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  9. Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-06-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

  10. Addressing the problem of glass thickness variation in the indirect slumping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Wellnhofer, Christoph; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The indirect hot slumping technology is being developed at Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) for the manufacturing of lightweight astronomical X-ray telescopes. It consists of a thermal shaping process to replicate the figure of a suitable mould into segments of X-ray mirror shells made by glass. Several segments are aligned and mounted into elemental modules, a number of which is then assembled together to form the telescope. To obtain mirror segments of high optical quality, the realization of the slumping thermal cycle itself is of fundamental importance, but also the starting materials, primarily the mould and the glass foils, play a major role. This paper will review the MPE approach in the slumping technology development and will then concentrate on the glass, with particular regards to the problem of thickness variation.

  11. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use.

  12. What kind of curriculum can better address community needs? Problems arisen by hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Haeri, A; Hemmati, P; Yaman, H

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems arisen by conventional curricula, the guidelines for development of an appropriate educational model for 21st century, and the advantages and disadvantages of the last two curricular models. The medical education literature published from 1995 through 2002 of four reputable journals in medical education were searched (Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First the possibly best articles were identified. During the second screening process 76 of 180 articles were found to be highly relevant to our questions. A review of the chosen articles revealed a concept map which starts from currently applied hypothetical-deductive reasoning (HDR)-based curricula in many medical schools all around the world. Results revelaed that continuing cyclical process might be time consuming, enhance burden of faculty and might be stressful for students involved. Current issues in health care system are possibly attributable to current HDR-based curricular models including PBL. Advantages of reiterative PBL theory can not be denied, but it appears that its limited application should be mainly seen in some academic classes to develop some generic transferable skills simultaneously with other teaching methods. Therefore vast application of HDR in clinical settings is not recommended according to our study. However the relationships demonstrated between factors and outcomes mentioned in the concept map can be used to run some new studies to test some hypotheses.

  13. Reducing underage and young adult drinking: how to address critical drinking problems during this developmental period.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health.

  14. Estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark P; Haig, Susan M; Ballou, Jonathan D; Steel, E Ashley

    2017-04-07

    Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of F = 0.25 and F = 0.125, allowing for quantification of Pr(I|k): the probability of observing pedigree I given the fraction of known parents (k). We developed analytical expressions under simplifying assumptions that define properties and behavior of inbreeding rate estimators for varying values of k. We demonstrated that inbreeding is overestimated if Pr(I|k) is not taken into consideration and that bias is primarily influenced by k. By contrast, our new estimator, incorporating Pr(I|k), is unbiased over a wide range of values of k that may be observed in empirical studies. Stochastic computer simulations that allowed complex inter- and intra-generational inbreeding produced similar results. We illustrate the effects that accounting for Pr(I|k) can have in empirical data by revisiting published analyses of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Our results demonstrate that incomplete pedigrees are not barriers for quantifying inbreeding in wild populations. Application of our approach will permit a better understanding of the role that inbreeding plays in the dynamics of populations of threatened and endangered species and may help refine our understanding of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the wild.

  15. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

  16. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  17. Olae: A Bayesian Performance Assessment for Complex Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    Olae is a computer system for assessing student knowledge of physics, and Newtonian mechanics in particular, using performance data collected while students solve complex problems. Although originally designed as a stand-alone system, it has also been used as part of the Andes intelligent tutoring system. Like many other performance assessment…

  18. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  20. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  1. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  2. Complexity and efficient approximability of two dimensional periodically specified problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    The authors consider the two dimensional periodic specifications: a method to specify succinctly objects with highly regular repetitive structure. These specifications arise naturally when processing engineering designs including VLSI designs. These specifications can specify objects whose sizes are exponentially larger than the sizes of the specification themselves. Consequently solving a periodically specified problem by explicitly expanding the instance is prohibitively expensive in terms of computational resources. This leads one to investigate the complexity and efficient approximability of solving graph theoretic and combinatorial problems when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications. They prove the following results: (1) several classical NP-hard optimization problems become NEXPTIME-hard, when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications; (2) in contrast, several of these NEXPTIME-hard problems have polynomial time approximation algorithms with guaranteed worst case performance.

  3. How Humans Solve Complex Problems: The Case of the Knapsack Problem

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Carsten; Bossaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Life presents us with problems of varying complexity. Yet, complexity is not accounted for in theories of human decision-making. Here we study instances of the knapsack problem, a discrete optimisation problem commonly encountered at all levels of cognition, from attention gating to intellectual discovery. Complexity of this problem is well understood from the perspective of a mechanical device like a computer. We show experimentally that human performance too decreased with complexity as defined in computer science. Defying traditional economic principles, participants spent effort way beyond the point where marginal gain was positive, and economic performance increased with instance difficulty. Human attempts at solving the instances exhibited commonalities with algorithms developed for computers, although biological resource constraints–limited working and episodic memories–had noticeable impact. Consistent with the very nature of the knapsack problem, only a minority of participants found the solution–often quickly–but the ones who did appeared not to realise. Substantial heterogeneity emerged, suggesting why prizes and patents, schemes that incentivise intellectual discovery but discourage information sharing, have been found to be less effective than mechanisms that reveal private information, such as markets. PMID:27713516

  4. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  5. [Problems of protecting complex inventions in the field of microbiology].

    PubMed

    Korovkin, V I

    1978-01-01

    Some problems are discussed which are connected with the protection of inventions in the field of microbiology when the invention is complex. The rights of the author are determined when a method and a product are to be protected at the same time. The additional juridical protection of a microbial strain is not necessary. The complex protection of a microbial strain and the method of its utilization is recommended in certain cases since it might prevent conflicts which arise upon the parallel juridical protection of a strain and the method of its utilization.

  6. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  7. Complexity of hierarchically and 1-dimensional periodically specified problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Radhakrishnan, V.

    1995-08-23

    We study the complexity of various combinatorial and satisfiability problems when instances are specified using one of the following specifications: (1) the 1-dimensional finite periodic narrow specifications of Wanke and Ford et al. (2) the 1-dimensional finite periodic narrow specifications with explicit boundary conditions of Gale (3) the 2-way infinite1-dimensional narrow periodic specifications of Orlin et al. and (4) the hierarchical specifications of Lengauer et al. we obtain three general types of results. First, we prove that there is a polynomial time algorithm that given a 1-FPN- or 1-FPN(BC)specification of a graph (or a C N F formula) constructs a level-restricted L-specification of an isomorphic graph (or formula). This theorem along with the hardness results proved here provides alternative and unified proofs of many hardness results proved in the past either by Lengauer and Wagner or by Orlin. Second, we study the complexity of generalized CNF satisfiability problems of Schaefer. Assuming P {ne} PSPACE, we characterize completely the polynomial time solvability of these problems, when instances are specified as in (1), (2),(3) or (4). As applications of our first two types of results, we obtain a number of new PSPACE-hardness and polynomial time algorithms for problems specified as in (1), (2), (3) or(4). Many of our results also hold for O(log N) bandwidth bounded planar instances.

  8. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  9. When Time Makes a Difference: Addressing Ergodicity and Complexity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The detection of complexity in behavioral outcomes often requires an estimation of their variability over a prolonged time spectrum to assess processes of stability and transformation. Conventional scholarship typically relies on time-independent measures, "snapshots", to analyze those outcomes, assuming that group means and their…

  10. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  11. Addressing the Complexity of Writing Development: Toward an Ecological Model of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Elizabeth; Roozen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article offers one potential response to Yancey's (1999) call for a fourth wave of writing assessment able to capture writing development in all of its complexity. Based on an ecological perspective of literate development that situates students' growth as writers across multiple engagements with writing, including those outside of school,…

  12. The bright side of being blue: Depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Paul W.; Thomson, J. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Depression ranks as the primary emotional problem for which help is sought. Depressed people often have severe, complex problems, and rumination is a common feature. Depressed people often believe that their ruminations give them insight into their problems, but clinicians often view depressive rumination as pathological because it is difficult to disrupt and interferes with the ability to concentrate on other things. Abundant evidence indicates that depressive rumination involves the analysis of episode-related problems. Because analysis is time consuming and requires sustained processing, disruption would interfere with problem-solving. The analytical rumination (AR) hypothesis proposes that depression is an adaptation that evolved as a response to complex problems and whose function is to minimize disruption of rumination and sustain analysis of complex problems. It accomplishes this by giving episode-related problems priority access to limited processing resources, by reducing the desire to engage in distracting activities (anhedonia), and by producing psychomotor changes that reduce exposure to distracting stimuli. Because processing resources are limited, the inability to concentrate on other things is a tradeoff that must be made to sustain analysis of the triggering problem. The AR hypothesis is supported by evidence from many levels, including genes, neurotransmitters and their receptors, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neuroenergetics, pharmacology, cognition and behavior, and the efficacy of treatments. In addition, we address and provide explanations for puzzling findings in the cognitive and behavioral genetics literatures on depression. In the process, we challenge the belief that serotonin transmission is low in depression. Finally, we discuss implications of the hypothesis for understanding and treating depression. PMID:19618990

  13. The symptom matrix: Using a formalism-based approach to address complex syndromes systematically.

    PubMed

    Skillen, Jennifer D

    2016-12-01

    Complex rheumatological syndromes such as Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's Syndrome and many connective tissue disorders can be a challenge to classify and diagnose, due to their wide-ranging signs and symptoms, not all of which will necessarily be present in all patients. This can result in difficulties for the clinician, patient and researcher if signs and symptoms are either overlooked or are incorrectly included in the nosology or classification of diseases. This article presents a formalism-based approach to describing syndromes. This approach offers a more systematic way of representing signs and symptoms, to aid in diagnosis and classification of complex, heterogeneous and little understood syndromes. To illustrate this approach, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome - Hypermobility Type is used as a worked example. This approach can also be applied to other syndromes in both clinical and educational settings, to assist with research, diagnosis, choice of treatment or intervention and nosology revision.

  14. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Oxman, Andrew D; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option

  15. Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: Incorporating a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum Model to Address Psychosocial Complexity.

    PubMed

    Shugar, Andrea

    2016-11-28

    Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.

  16. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  17. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority—up to 90%—of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  18. Complexity and approximability of certain bicriteria location problems

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Ravi, S.S.; Marathe, M.V.

    1995-10-01

    We investigate the complexity and approximability of some location problems when two distance values are specified for each pair of potential sites. These problems involve the selection of a specified number of facilities (i.e. a placement of a specified size) to minimize a function of one distance metric subject to a budget constraint on the other distance metric. Such problems arise in several application areas including statistical clustering, pattern recognition and load-balancing in distributed systems. We show that, in general, obtaining placements that are near-optimal with respect to the first distance metric is NP-hard even when we allow the budget constraint on the second distance metric to be violated by a constant factor. However, when both the distance metrics satisfy the triangle inequality, we present approximation algorithms that produce placements which are near-optimal with respect to the first distance metric while violating the budget constraint only by a small constant factor. We also present polynomial algorithms for these problems when the underlying graph is a tree.

  19. Intelligent Tutoring for Diagnostic Problem Solving in Complex Dynamic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    tre cOllecti0n Of ormtio. n he r n tmt or er e Of this C ,ollectof of inorma o. Icluding suggeiont for reducing tis burden. to Watiington N _dgar i...AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Intelligent Tutoring for Diagnostic Problem Solving in Complex Dynamic Systems C : N00014-87-K-0482 6. AUTHOR(S) PE...Chronister, Sally Cohen, Ed Crowther, Kelly Deyoe, Suzanne Dilley, Brenda Downs, Janet Fath, Dick Henneman , Patty Jones, Merrick Kossack, Steve Krosner

  20. Coordinating complex problem-solving among distributed intelligent agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    A process-oriented control model is described for distributed problem solving. The model coordinates the transfer and manipulation of information across independent networked applications, both intelligent and conventional. The model was implemented using SOCIAL, a set of object-oriented tools for distributing computing. Complex sequences of distributed tasks are specified in terms of high level scripts. Scripts are executed by SOCIAL objects called Manager Agents, which realize an intelligent coordination model that routes individual tasks to suitable server applications across the network. These tools are illustrated in a prototype distributed system for decision support of ground operations for NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

  1. Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Tasse, C.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as STEFCAL and peeling can be understood as special cases of this, and place them in the context of the general formalism. Finally, we present an implementation and some applied results of COHJONES, another specialized direction-dependent calibration algorithm derived from the formalism.

  2. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  3. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Medford, Andrew J; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K

    2017-03-06

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  4. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-01-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations. PMID:28262694

  5. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-03-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  6. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  7. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  8. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  9. Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Robert E

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges.

  10. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-01-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making. PMID:24141795

  11. Addressing the Antibiotic Resistance Problem with Probiotics: Reducing the Risk of Its Double-Edged Sword Effect

    PubMed Central

    Imperial, Ivan C. V. J.; Ibana, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that requires our attention. Indiscriminate antibiotic use is a major contributor in the introduction of selective pressures in our natural environments that have significantly contributed in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The use of probiotics in lieu of antibiotic therapy to address certain health conditions in both animals and humans may alleviate these antibiotic-mediated selective pressures. Probiotic use is defined as the actual application of live beneficial microbes to obtain a desired outcome by preventing diseased state or improving general health. Multiple studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of probiotic use in the health of both livestock and humans. As such, probiotics consumption is gaining popularity worldwide. However, concerns have been raised in the use of some probiotics strains that carry antibiotic resistance genes themselves, as they have the potential to pass the antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, with the current public health concern on antibiotic resistance globally, in this review, we underscore the need to screen probiotic strains that are used in both livestock and human applications to assure their safety and mitigate their potential in significantly contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in our natural environments. PMID:28018315

  12. Sporothrix schenckii complex and sporotrichosis, an emerging health problem.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Everardo; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocío; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Ruiz-Baca, Estela; Villagómez-Castro, Julio C; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Toriello, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, now named the S. schenckii species complex, has largely been known as the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, which is an acute or chronic subcutaneous mycosis of humans and other mammals. Gene sequencing has revealed the following species in the S. schenckii complex: Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. The increasing number of reports of Sporothrix infection in immunocompromised patients, mainly the HIV-infected population, suggests sporotrichosis as an emerging global health problem concomitant with the AIDS pandemic. Molecular studies have demonstrated a high level of intraspecific variability. Components of the S. schenckii cell wall that act as adhesins and immunogenic inducers, such as a 70-kDa glycoprotein, are apparently specific to this fungus. The main glycan peptidorhamnomannan cell wall component is the only O-linked glycan structure known in S. schenckii. It contains an α-mannobiose core followed by one α-glucuronic acid unit, which may be mono- or di-rhamnosylated. The oligomeric structure of glucosamine-6-P synthase has led to a significant advance in the development of antifungals targeted to the enzyme's catalytic domain in S. schenckii.

  13. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  14. A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Steck, R; Epari, D R; Schuetz, M A

    2010-07-01

    The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research team, fostering long term relationships and opening up opportunities for continuing collaboration. However, for these collaborations to be successful there are pitfalls to be avoided. Limited time and funding can lead to attempts to answer clinical challenges with highly complex research projects characterised by a large number of "clinical" factors being introduced in the hope that the research outcomes will be more clinically relevant. As a result, the complexity of such studies and variability of its outcomes may lead to difficulties in drawing scientifically justified and clinically useful conclusions. Consequently, we stress that it is the basic science researcher and the clinician's obligation to be mindful of the limitations and challenges of such multi-factorial research projects. A systematic step-by-step approach to address clinical research questions with limited, but highly targeted and well defined research projects provides the solid foundation which may lead to the development of a longer term research program for addressing more challenging clinical problems. Ultimately, we believe that it is such models, encouraging the vital collaboration between clinicians and researchers for the work on targeted, well defined research projects, which will result in answers to the important clinical challenges of today.

  15. Inverse Problems in Complex Models and Applications to Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The inference of the subsurface earth structure and properties requires the integration of different types of data, information and knowledge, by combined processes of analysis and synthesis. To support the process of integrating information, the regular concept of data inversion is evolving to expand its application to models with multiple inner components (properties, scales, structural parameters) that explain multiple data (geophysical survey data, well-logs, core data). The probabilistic inference methods provide the natural framework for the formulation of these problems, considering a posterior probability density function (PDF) that combines the information from a prior information PDF and the new sets of observations. To formulate the posterior PDF in the context of multiple datasets, the data likelihood functions are factorized assuming independence of uncertainties for data originating across different surveys. A realistic description of the earth medium requires modeling several properties and structural parameters, which relate to each other according to dependency and independency notions. Thus, conditional probabilities across model components also factorize. A common setting proceeds by structuring the model parameter space in hierarchical layers. A primary layer (e.g. lithology) conditions a secondary layer (e.g. physical medium properties), which conditions a third layer (e.g. geophysical data). In general, less structured relations within model components and data emerge from the analysis of other inverse problems. They can be described with flexibility via direct acyclic graphs, which are graphs that map dependency relations between the model components. Examples of inverse problems in complex models can be shown at various scales. At local scale, for example, the distribution of gas saturation is inferred from pre-stack seismic data and a calibrated rock-physics model. At regional scale, joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data is applied

  16. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  17. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  18. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  19. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: A simple yet complex problem

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz; Nagarekha, D.; Hegade, Ganapati; Marutheesh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complex and significant problems in anesthesia practice, with growing trend toward ambulatory and day care surgeries. This review focuses on pathophysiology, pharmacological prophylaxis, and rescue therapy for PONV. We searched the Medline and PubMed database for articles published in English from 1991 to 2014 while writing this review using “postoperative nausea and vomiting, PONV, nausea-vomiting, PONV prophylaxis, and rescue” as keywords. PONV is influenced by multiple factors which are related to the patient, surgery, and pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthesia factors. The risk of PONV can be assessed using a scoring system such as Apfel simplified scoring system which is based on four independent risk predictors. PONV prophylaxis is administered to patients with medium and high risks based on this scoring system. Newer drugs such as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (aprepitant) are used along with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3) receptor antagonist, corticosteroids, anticholinergics, antihistaminics, and butyrophenones for PONV prophylaxis. Combination of drugs from different classes with different mechanism of action are administered for optimized efficacy in adults with moderate risk for PONV. Multimodal approach with combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological prophylaxis along with interventions that reduce baseline risk is employed in patients with high PONV risk. PMID:27746521

  20. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  1. The Influence of Prior Experience and Process Utilization in Solving Complex Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Paula; Wedman, John

    By using ill-structured problems and examining problem- solving processes, this study was conducted to explore the nature of solving complex, multistep problems, focusing on how prior knowledge, problem-solving process utilization, and analogical problem solving are related to success. Twenty-four college students qualified to participate by…

  2. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  3. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  4. A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye

    2016-08-01

    Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.

  5. A Radio Model: A Community Strategy To Address the Problems and Needs of Mexican American Women Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena

    Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…

  6. On the computational complexity of the reticulate cophylogeny reconstruction problem.

    PubMed

    Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Charleston, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The cophylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimal cost explanations of differences between evolutionary histories of ecologically linked groups of biological organisms. We present a proof that shows that the general problem of reconciling evolutionary histories is NP-complete and provide a sharp boundary where this intractability begins. We also show that a related problem, that of finding Pareto optimal solutions, is NP-hard. As a byproduct of our results, we give a framework by which meta-heuristics can be applied to find good solutions to this problem.

  7. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  8. Strategies for addressing adherence problems in patients with serious and persistent mental illness: recommendations from the expert consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Weiden, Peter J; Sajatovic, Martha; Scott, Jan; Carpenter, Daniel; Ross, Ruth; Docherty, John P

    2010-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication can have devastating consequences for patients with serious mental illness. The literature review and recommendations in this article are reprinted from The Expert Consensus Guideline Series: Adherence Problems in Patients with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness, published in 2009. The expert consensus survey (39 questions, 521 options) on adherence problems in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was completed by 41 experts in 2008. This article first reviews the literature on interventions aimed at improving adherence. It then presents the experts' recommendations for targeting factors that can contribute to nonadherence and relates them to the literature. The following psychosocial/programmatic and pharmacologic interventions were rated first line for specific problems that can lead to nonadherence: ongoing symptom/ side-effect monitoring for persistent symptoms or side effects; services targeting logistic problems; medication monitoring/environmental supports (e.g., Cognitive Adaptation Training, assertive community treatment) for lack of routines or cognitive deficits; and adjusting the dose or switching to a different oral antipsychotic for persistent side effects (also high second-line for persistent symptoms). Among pharmacologic interventions, the experts gave high second-line ratings to switching to a long-acting antipsychotic when lack of insight, substance use, persistent symptoms, logistic problems, lack of routines, or lack of family/ social support interfere with adherence and to simplifying the treatment regimen when logistic problems, lack of routines, cognitive deficits, or lack of family/social support interfere with adherence. Psychosocial/programmatic interventions that received high second-line ratings in a number of situations included medication monitoring/environmental supports, patient psychoeducation, more frequent and/or longer visits if possible, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family-focused therapy

  9. Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

  10. THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

  11. The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Dori B; Schreiber, Merritt; Klomp, Richard W; Hoover, Michele; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Perez, Jon

    2006-10-01

    The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

  12. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems—univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  13. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  14. A Demonstration of the Universal Problem-Solving Approach to Address Children's Inappropriate Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Berlin, Rebecca A.; Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a universal intervention during teacher-identified routines that were characterized by significant classwide problem behavior. Six Head Start classrooms (seven groups of children, with one classroom divided into two groups) received two workshops and two coaching sessions on universal Positive…

  15. Generalized Householder transformations for the complex symmetric eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, J. H.; Lubasch, M.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2013-08-01

    We present an intuitive and scalable algorithm for the diagonalization of complex symmetric matrices, which arise from the projection of pseudo-Hermitian and complex scaled Hamiltonians onto a suitable basis set of "trial" states. The algorithm diagonalizes complex and symmetric (non-Hermitian) matrices and is easily implemented in modern computer languages. It is based on generalized Householder transformations and relies on iterative similarity transformations T → T' = Q T T Q, where Q is a complex and orthogonal, but not unitary, matrix, i.e. Q T = Q -1 but Q + ≠ Q -1. We present numerical reference data to support the scalability of the algorithm. We construct the generalized Householder transformations from the notion that the conserved scalar product of eigenstates Ψ n and Ψ m of a pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanical Hamiltonian can be reformulated in terms of the generalized indefinite inner product ∫ d x Ψ n ( x, t) Ψ m ( x, t), where the integrand is locally defined, and complex conjugation is avoided. A few example calculations are described which illustrate the physical origin of the ideas used in the construction of the algorithm.

  16. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, A. K.; Biletskiy, M. T.; Ratov, B. T.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate.

  17. Complexity of the Generalized Mover’s Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    problem by workers in the robotics fields and in artificial intellegence , (for example [Nilson, 69], [Paul, 72], (Udupa, 77], [Widdoes, 74], [Lozano-Perez...Nilsson, "A mobile automation: An application of artificial intelligence techniques," Proceedings TJCAI-69, 509-520, 1969. . -7-- -17- C. O’Dunlaing, M

  18. Exploiting Explicit and Implicit Structure in Complex Optimization Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    for minimizing implicitly defined functions resulting from applying decomposition , relaxation and/or dualization techniques to complex real-world...Fariba Fahroo Reporting Period: 16 June 2011 to 15 June 2014 Accomplishments: Decomposition techniques are often the best choice for solving large...publications [11], [13], [14], [3] and [5]. The decomposition type of approach involves minimizing a nonsmooth objective function with special

  19. Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Gore, Dana M; Kothari, Anita R

    2013-01-08

    Although extensive research shows that the social determinants of health influence the distribution and course of chronic diseases, there is little programming in public health that addresses the social determinants as a disease prevention strategy. This paper discusses different types of health promotion initiatives and differentiates them based on whether they attempt to impact intermediate (environmental) determinants of health or structural determinants of health. We argue for the importance of programming targeted at the structural determinants as opposed to programming targeted solely at the immediate environment. Specifically, the former has more potential to create significant improvements in health, contribute to long-term social change and increase health equity. We urge public health leaders to take this distinction into consideration during public health program planning, and to build capacity in the public health workforce to tackle structural mechanisms that lead to poor health and health inequities.

  20. Complex emotions, complex problems: understanding the experiences of perinatal depression among new mothers in urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari; Manderson, Lenore; Astbury, Jill

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we explore how Javanese women identify and speak of symptoms of depression in late pregnancy and early postpartum and describe their subjective accounts of mood disorders. The study, conducted in the East Java region of Indonesia in 2000, involved in-depth interviews with a subgroup of women (N = 41) who scored above the cutoff score of 12/13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy, at six weeks postpartum, or on both occasions. This sample was taken from a larger cohort study (N cohort = 488) researching the sociocultural factors that contribute to women's emotional well-being in early motherhood. The women used a variety of Indonesian and Javanese terms to explain their emotional states during pregnancy and in early postpartum, some of which coincided with the feelings described on the EPDS and others of which did not. Women attributed their mood variations to multiple causes including: premarital pregnancy, chronic illness in the family, marital problems, lack of support from partners or family networks, their husband's unemployment, and insufficient family income due to giving up their own paid work. We argue for the importance of understanding the context of childbearing in order to interpret the meaning of depression within complex social, cultural, and economic contexts.

  1. The Bright Side of Being Blue: Depression as an Adaptation for Analyzing Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul W.; Thomson, J. Anderson, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is the primary emotional condition for which help is sought. Depressed people often report persistent rumination, which involves analysis, and complex social problems in their lives. Analysis is often a useful approach for solving complex problems, but it requires slow, sustained processing, so disruption would interfere with problem…

  2. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  3. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-03-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.

  4. On the Complexity of the Asymmetric VPN Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothvoß, Thomas; Sanità, Laura

    We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric Virtual Private Network (textsc{Vpn}) problem with arbitrary concave costs. We even show the stronger result, that there is always a tree solution of cost at most 2·OPT and that a tree solution of (expected) cost at most 49.84·OPT can be determined in polynomial time.

  5. Navigating complex decision spaces: Problems and paradigms in sequential choice

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Doing so is difficult when the consequences of an action follow a delay. This introduces the problem of temporal credit assignment. When feedback follows a sequence of decisions, how should the individual assign credit to the intermediate actions that comprise the sequence? Research in reinforcement learning provides two general solutions to this problem: model-free reinforcement learning and model-based reinforcement learning. In this review, we examine connections between stimulus-response and cognitive learning theories, habitual and goal-directed control, and model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. We then consider a range of problems related to temporal credit assignment. These include second-order conditioning and secondary reinforcers, latent learning and detour behavior, partially observable Markov decision processes, actions with distributed outcomes, and hierarchical learning. We ask whether humans and animals, when faced with these problems, behave in a manner consistent with reinforcement learning techniques. Throughout, we seek to identify neural substrates of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. The former class of techniques is understood in terms of the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in the basal ganglia. The latter is understood in terms of a distributed network of regions including the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobes cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Not only do reinforcement learning techniques have a natural interpretation in terms of human and animal behavior, but they also provide a useful framework for understanding neural reward valuation and action selection. PMID:23834192

  6. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  7. Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further deaths. The Investigate Maternal Deaths and Act (IMDA) approach was designed to address these deficiencies and is comprised of four components; identification of maternal deaths; investigation of factors contributing to the deaths; recommendations for action drawn up by multiple stakeholders and monitoring of progress through existing systems. Methods A pilot was conducted in one district of Zambia. Maternal deaths occurring over a period of twelve months were identified and investigated. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with family, focus group discussions and hospital records. The information was summarized and presented at eleven data sharing meetings to key decision makers, during which recommendations for action were drawn up. An output indicator to monitor progress was included in the routine performance assessment tool. High impact interventions were identified using frequency analysis. Results A total of 56 maternal deaths were investigated. Poor communication, existing risk factors, a lack of resources and case management issues were the broad categories under which contributing factors were assigned. Sixty three recommendations were drawn up by key decision-makers of which two thirds were implemented by the end of the pilot period. Potential high impact actions were related to management of AIDS and pregnancy, human resources, referral mechanisms, birth planning at household level and availability of safe blood. Conclusion In resource constrained settings the IMDA

  8. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  9. Problem-oriented stereo vision quality evaluation complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorchuk, D.; Gusamutdinova, N.; Konovalenko, I.; Ershov, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an original low cost hardware setting for efficient testing of stereo vision algorithms. The method uses a combination of a special hardware setup and mathematical model and is easy to construct, precise in applications of our interest. For a known scene we derive its analytical representation, called virtual scene. Using a four point correspondence between the scene and virtual one we compute extrinsic camera parameters, and project virtual scene on the image plane, which is the ground truth for depth map. Another result, presented in this paper, is a new depth map quality metric. Its main purpose is to tune stereo algorithms for particular problem, e.g. obstacle avoidance.

  10. Nonlinear problems of complex natural systems: Sun and climate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bershadskii, A

    2013-01-13

    The universal role of the nonlinear one-third subharmonic resonance mechanism in generation of strong fluctuations in complex natural dynamical systems related to global climate is discussed using wavelet regression detrended data. The role of the oceanic Rossby waves in the year-scale global temperature fluctuations and the nonlinear resonance contribution to the El Niño phenomenon have been discussed in detail. The large fluctuations in the reconstructed temperature on millennial time scales (Antarctic ice core data for the past 400,000 years) are also shown to be dominated by the one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to the Earth's precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. The effects of galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are also discussed.

  11. Private property rights and selective private forest conservation: could a Nordic hybrid policy address a United States problem?

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia's current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  12. Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine: Addressing the Vexing Problem of Persistent Muscle Atrophy in the Chronically Torn Human Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent muscle atrophy in the chronically torn rotator cuff is a significant obstacle for treatment and recovery. Large atrophic changes are predictive of poor surgical and nonsurgical outcomes and frequently fail to resolve even following functional restoration of loading and rehabilitation. New insights into the processes of muscle atrophy and recovery gained through studies in developmental biology combined with the novel tools and strategies emerging in regenerative medicine provide new avenues to combat the vexing problem of muscle atrophy in the rotator cuff. Moving these treatment strategies forward likely will involve the combination of surgery, biologic/cellular agents, and physical interventions, as increasing experimental evidence points to the beneficial interaction between biologic therapies and physiologic stresses. Thus, the physical therapy profession is poised to play a significant role in defining the success of these combinatorial therapies. This perspective article will provide an overview of the developmental biology and regenerative medicine strategies currently under investigation to combat muscle atrophy and how they may integrate into the current and future practice of physical therapy. PMID:26847008

  13. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  14. The solution of the optimization problem of small energy complexes using linear programming methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Director, L. B.

    2016-11-01

    Linear programming methods were used for solving the optimization problem of schemes and operation modes of distributed generation energy complexes. Applicability conditions of simplex method, applied to energy complexes, including installations of renewable energy (solar, wind), diesel-generators and energy storage, considered. The analysis of decomposition algorithms for various schemes of energy complexes was made. The results of optimization calculations for energy complexes, operated autonomously and as a part of distribution grid, are presented.

  15. Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Z.; Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)

  16. Beyond pure parasystole: promises and problems in modeling complex arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, M; Glass, L; Rosengarten, M D; Goldberger, A L

    1989-08-01

    The dynamics of pure parasystole, a cardiac arrhythmia in which two competing pacemakers fire independently, have recently been fully characterized. This model is now extended in an attempt to account for the more complex dynamics occurring with modulated parasystole, in which there exists nonlinear interaction between the sinus node and the ectopic ventricular focus. Theoretical analysis of modulated parasystole reveals three types of dynamics: entrainment, quasiperiodicity, and chaos. Rhythms associated with quasiperiodicity obey a set of rules derived from pure parasystole. This model is applied to the interpretation of continuous electrocardiographic data sets from three patients with complicated patterns of ventricular ectopic activity. We describe several new statistical properties of these records, related to the number of intervening sinus beats between ectopic events, that are essential in characterizing the dynamics and testing mathematical models. Detailed comparison between data and theory in these cases show substantial areas of agreement as well as potentially important discrepancies. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamics of the heartbeat in normal and pathological conditions.

  17. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  18. Dusty (complex) plasmas: recent developments, advances, and unsolved problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey

    The area of dusty (complex) plasma research is a vibrant subfield of plasma physics that be-longs to frontier research in physical sciences. This area is intrinsically interdisciplinary and encompasses astrophysics, planetary science, atmospheric science, magnetic fusion energy sci-ence, and various applied technologies. The research in dusty plasma started after two major discoveries in very different areas: (1) the discovery by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1980 of the radial spokes in Saturn's B ring, and (2) the discovery of the early 80's growth of contaminating dust particles in plasma processing. Dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the universe; examples are proto-planetary and solar nebulae, molecular clouds, supernovae explosions, interplanetary medium, circumsolar rings, and asteroids. Within the solar system, we have planetary rings (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter), Martian atmosphere, cometary tails and comae, dust clouds on the Moon, etc. Close to the Earth, there are noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes, which are clouds of tiny (charged) ice particles that are formed in the summer polar mesosphere at the altitudes of about 82-95 km. Dust and dusty plasmas are also found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations. Dust also turns out to be common in labo-ratory plasmas, such as in the processing of semiconductors and in tokamaks. In processing plasmas, dust particles are actually grown in the discharge from the reactive gases used to form the plasmas. An example of the relevance of industrial dusty plasmas is the growth of silicon microcrystals for improved solar cells in the future. In fact, nanostructured polymorphous sili-con films provide solar cells with high and time stable efficiency. These nano-materials can also be used for the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integration circuits, display devices, single elec-tron devices, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and others. In microelectronic industries, dust has to be

  19. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Regulations. Date cc: Attachment ROBERT L. MANESS, Colonel, USAF Commander FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ADDRESSING CONSTRUCTION...effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004. The USEPA

  20. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  1. Students' Problem-Solving in a Complex Technology-Based Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomala, Jyrki; Alamaki, Ari; Alajaaski, Jarkko

    The goals of this study were to investigate problem-solving in a context that requires a rich interaction among social, motivational, and cognitive processes and to compare the effects of the mediated and discovery models of learning on students' problem-solving processes in the complex technology-based learning environment. Subjects were 88…

  2. Percentages: The Effect of Problem Structure, Number Complexity and Calculation Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy; Price, Beth; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki; Gvozdenko, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    This study reports how the difficulty of simple worded percentage problems is affected by the problem structure and the complexity of the numbers involved. We also investigate which methods students know. Results from 677 Year 8 and 9 students are reported. Overall the results indicate that more attention needs to be given to this important topic.…

  3. A Real-Life Case Study of Audit Interactions--Resolving Messy, Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Vivien; Fearnley, Stella; Hines, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Real-life accounting and auditing problems are often complex and messy, requiring the synthesis of technical knowledge in addition to the application of generic skills. To help students acquire the necessary skills to deal with these problems effectively, educators have called for the use of case-based methods. Cases based on real situations (such…

  4. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  5. The Ethnology of Traditional and Complex Societies. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Andrei

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This guide focuses on the ethnology of traditional and complex societies. Part I, Simple and Complex Societies, includes three sections: (1) Introduction: Anthropologists…

  6. Quantum computational complexity of the N-representability problem: QMA complete.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Kai; Christandl, Matthias; Verstraete, F

    2007-03-16

    We study the computational complexity of the N-representability problem in quantum chemistry. We show that this problem is quantum Merlin-Arthur complete, which is the quantum generalization of nondeterministic polynomial time complete. Our proof uses a simple mapping from spin systems to fermionic systems, as well as a convex optimization technique that reduces the problem of finding ground states to N representability.

  7. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  8. Computer Technology and Complex Problem Solving: Issues in the Study of Complex Cognitive Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R.; Zech, Linda K.; Biswas, Gautam; Noser, Tom; Bateman, Helen; Bransford, John; Crews, Thaddeus; Moore, Allison; Nathan, Mitchell; Owens, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Examines mathematics problem solving in a computer software environment using graphical representations of the results of simulations with adolescent students. Discusses the strengths and limitations of inferring goals and plans, the use of verbal protocols, and ways for computer-based learning environments to scaffold acquisition of domain…

  9. Eigenfunction Expansions for Coupled Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Problems in Complex Physical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.

    2016-09-01

    This lecture offers an updated review on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), with focus on handling complex geometries, coupled problems, and nonlinear convection-diffusion, so as to illustrate some new application paradigms. Special emphasis is given to demonstrating novel developments, such as a single domain reformulation strategy that simplifies the treatment of complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in handling multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in dealing with strongly convective formulations, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Representative application examples are then provided that employ recent extensions on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), and a few numerical results are reported to illustrate the convergence characteristics of the proposed eigenfunction expansions.

  10. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  11. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  12. Molecular paleoecology: using gene regulatory analysis to address the origins of complex life cycles in the late Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ewan F; Moy, Vanessa N; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C; Morris, Robert L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous grazing drove the exploitation of the pelagos by metazoan eggs and embryos, and eventually larvae. The alternative hypothesis predicts that early bilaterians were holopelagic, and new adult stages were added on when these holopelagic forms began to feed on the benthos. The former hypothesis predicts that the larvae of protostomes and deuterostomes are not homologous, with the implication that larval-specific structures, including the apical organ, are the products of convergent evolution, whereas the latter hypothesis predicts homology of larvae, specifically homology of the apical organ. We show that in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the transcription factors NK2.1 and HNF6 are necessary for the correct spatial expression profiles of five different cilia genes. All of these genes are expressed exclusively in the apical plate after the mesenchyme-blastula stage in cells that also express NK2.1 and HNF6. In addition, abrogation of SpNK2.1 results in embryos that lack the apical tuft. However, in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, NK2.1 and HNF6 are not expressed in any cells that also express these same five cilia genes. Nonetheless, like the sea urchin, the gastropod expresses both NK2.1 and FoxA around the stomodeum and foregut, and FoxA around the proctodeum. As we detected no similarity in the development of the apical tuft between the sea urchin and the abalone, these molecular data are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of mobile, macrophagous metazoans drove the evolution of complex life cycles multiple times independently in the late Precambrian.

  13. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs.

  14. A knowledge-based tool for multilevel decomposition of a complex design problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Although much work has been done in applying artificial intelligence (AI) tools and techniques to problems in different engineering disciplines, only recently has the application of these tools begun to spread to the decomposition of complex design problems. A new tool based on AI techniques has been developed to implement a decomposition scheme suitable for multilevel optimization and display of data in an N x N matrix format.

  15. Classical and Quantum Complexity of the Sturm-Liouville Eigenvalue Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-03

    study of a nonlin- ear continuous problem was done in [20] for ordinary differential equations with polynomial speedups over the classical settings. The...multivariate approximation, and ordinary differential equations . Tight bit query complexity bounds are known for a number of such problems, see [14, 15, 16...Linear Algebra, SIAM, Philadelphia. [12] Gary, H. (1965), Computing Eigenvalues of Ordinary Differential Equations with Finite Differences, Mathematics

  16. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  17. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  18. [Mediative behavior therapy in complex behavioral problems. Illustrative cases from a psychogeriatric nursing home].

    PubMed

    Geelen, R; Bleijenberg, G

    1999-04-01

    An application in a psychogeriatric nursing home. This article describes the application of mediative behaviour therapy in a psychogeriatric nursing home. Behavioural interventions carried out by the nursing team addressed a variety of problems: quarreling between an institutionalised woman and her visiting husband, complaining about this staff by the husband to team members of another department, and the patient who let herself drop on the floor about once a week. Special regard is given to the analysis of the problems, the learning of appropriate responses by team members, as well as changing their cognitions and emotions about the problem behaviours. A meaningful reduction of the problem behaviours and of the burden experienced by team members was achieved.

  19. On the Critical Behaviour, Crossover Point and Complexity of the Exact Cover Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shumow, Daniel; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Research into quantum algorithms for NP-complete problems has rekindled interest in the detailed study a broad class of combinatorial problems. A recent paper applied the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm to the Exact Cover problem for 3-sets (EC3), and provided an empirical evidence that the algorithm was polynomial. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the characteristics of the exact cover problem. We present the annealing approximation applied to EC3, which gives an over-estimate of the phase transition point. We also identify empirically the phase transition point. We also study the complexity of two classical algorithms on this problem: Davis-Putnam and Simulated Annealing. For these algorithms, EC3 is significantly easier than 3-SAT.

  20. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  1. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  2. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  3. Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving: Concept, Implementation, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Holt, Daniel V.; Goldhammer, Frank; Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills are essential to successfully deal with environments that change dynamically and involve a large number of interconnected and partially unknown causal influences. The increasing importance of such skills in the 21st century requires appropriate assessment and intervention methods, which in turn rely on adequate…

  4. Differential Relations between Facets of Complex Problem Solving and Students' Immigration Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnleitner, Philipp; Brunner, Martin; Keller, Ulrich; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the assessment of complex problem solving (CPS) has received increasing attention in the context of international large-scale assessments, its fairness in regard to students' cultural background has gone largely unexplored. On the basis of a student sample of 9th-graders (N = 299), including a representative number of immigrant students (N…

  5. Assessment of Complex Problem Solving: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herde, Christoph Nils; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) is seen as a cross-curricular 21st century skill that has attracted interest in large-scale-assessments. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, CPS was assessed all over the world to gain information on students' skills to acquire and apply knowledge while dealing with nontransparent…

  6. Calculating Probabilistic Distance to Solution in a Complex Problem Solving Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Leigh Ann; Rivers, Kelly; Harris, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    In complex problem solving domains, correct solutions are often comprised of a combination of individual components. Students usually go through several attempts, each attempt reflecting an individual solution state that can be observed during practice. Classic metrics to measure student performance over time rely on counting the number of…

  7. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  8. Eighth-Grade Students Defining Complex Problems: The Effectiveness of Scaffolding in a Multimedia Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a multimedia learning environment called "Pollution Solution" on eighth-grade students' ability to define a complex problem. Sixty students from four earth science classes taught by the same teacher in a New York City public school were included in the sample for this study. The classes…

  9. Small-Group Problem-Based Learning as a Complex Adaptive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennin, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Small-group problem-based learning (PBL) is widely embraced as a method of study in health professions schools and at many different levels of education. Complexity science provides a different lens with which to view and understand the application of this method. It presents new concepts and vocabulary that may be unfamiliar to practitioners of…

  10. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  11. Application of the complex scaling method in solving three-body Coulomb scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskas, R.

    2017-03-01

    The three-body scattering problem in Coulombic systems is a widespread, yet unresolved problem using the mathematically rigorous methods. In this work this long-term challenge has been undertaken by combining distorted waves and Faddeev–Merkuriev equation formalisms in conjunction with the complex scaling technique to overcome the difficulties related with the boundary conditions. Unlike the common belief, it is demonstrated that the smooth complex scaling method can be applied to solve the three-body Coulomb scattering problem in a wide energy region, including the fully elastic domain and extending to the energies well beyond the atom ionization threshold. A newly developed method is used to study electron scattering on the ground states of hydrogen and positronium atoms as well as a {e}++{{H}}({n}=1)\\rightleftarrows {{p}}+{Ps}({n}=1) reaction. Where available, obtained results are compared with the experimental data and theoretical predictions, proving the accuracy and efficiency of the newly developed method.

  12. The complex variable reproducing kernel particle method for elasto-plasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Cheng, Yumin

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM), using complex variable theory, the complex variable reproducing kernel particle method (CVRKPM) is discussed in this paper. The advantage of the CVRKPM is that the correction function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with one-dimensional basis function when the shape function is formed. Then the CVRKPM is applied to solve two-dimensional elasto-plasticity problems. The Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain the discretized system equation, the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions. And then, the CVRKPM for two-dimensional elasto-plasticity problems is formed, the corresponding formulae are obtained, and the Newton-Raphson method is used in the numerical implementation. Three numerical examples are given to show that this method in this paper is effective for elasto-plasticity analysis.

  13. Social and ethical dimension of the natural sciences, complex problems of the age, interdisciplinarity, and the contribution of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develaki, Maria

    2008-09-01

    In view of the complex problems of this age, the question of the socio-ethical dimension of science acquires particular importance. We approach this matter from a philosophical and sociological standpoint, looking at such focal concerns as the motivation, purposes and methods of scientific activity, the ambivalence of scientific research and the concomitant risks, and the conflict between research freedom and external socio-political intervention. We then point out the impediments to the effectiveness of cross-disciplinary or broader meetings for addressing these complex problems and managing the associated risks, given the difficulty in communication between experts in different fields and non-experts, difficulties that education is challenged to help resolve. We find that the social necessity of informed decision-making on the basis of cross-disciplinary collaboration is reflected in the newer curricula, such as that of Greece, in aims like the acquisition of cross-subject knowledge and skills, and the ability to make decisions on controversial issues involving value conflicts. The interest and the reflections of the science education community in these matters increase its—traditionally limited—contribution to the theoretical debate on education and, by extension, the value of science education in the education system.

  14. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  15. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  16. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  17. Analysis of elastoplasticity problems using an improved complex variable element-free Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Min; Liu, Chao; Bai, Fu-Nong; Peng, Miao-Juan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, based on the conjugate of the complex basis function, a new complex variable moving least-squares approximation is discussed. Then using the new approximation to obtain the shape function, an improved complex variable element-free Galerkin (ICVEFG) method is presented for two-dimensional (2D) elastoplasticity problems. Compared with the previous complex variable moving least-squares approximation, the new approximation has greater computational precision and efficiency. Using the penalty method to apply the essential boundary conditions, and using the constrained Galerkin weak form of 2D elastoplasticity to obtain the system equations, we obtain the corresponding formulae of the ICVEFG method for 2D elastoplasticity. Three selected numerical examples are presented using the ICVEFG method to show that the ICVEFG method has the advantages such as greater precision and computational efficiency over the conventional meshless methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11171208 and U1433104).

  18. Analysis and formulation of a class of complex dynamic optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswaran, Shivakumar

    The Direct Transcription approach, also known as the direct simultaneous approach, is a widely used solution strategy for the solution of dynamic optimization problems involving differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Direct transcription refers to the procedure of approximating the infinite dimensional problem by a finite dimensional one, which is then solved using a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver tailored to large-scale problems. Systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) can also be handled by spatially discretizing the PDEs to convert them to a system of DAEs. The objective of this thesis is firstly to ensure that direct transcription using Radau collocation is provably correct, and secondly to widen the applicability of the direct simultaneous approach to a larger class of dynamic optimization and optimal control problems (OCPs). This thesis aims at addressing these issues using rigorous theoretical tools and/or characteristic examples, and at the same time use the results for solving large-scale industrial applications to realize the benefits. The first part of this work deals with the analysis of convergence rates for direct transcription of unconstrained and final-time equality constrained optimal control problems. The problems are discretized using collocation at Radau points. Convergence is analyzed from an NLP/matrix-algebra perspective, which enables the prediction of the conditioning of the direct transcription NLP as the mesh size becomes finer. Several convergence results are presented along with tests on numerous example problems. These convergence results lead to an adjoint estimation procedure given the Lagrange multipliers for the large-scale NLP. The work also reveals the role of process control concepts such as controllability on the convergence analysis, and provides a very important link between control and optimization inside the framework of dynamic optimization. As an effort to extend the applicability of the direct

  19. Criteria for assessing problem solving and decision making in complex environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1993-01-01

    Training crews to cope with unanticipated problems in high-risk, high-stress environments requires models of effective problem solving and decision making. Existing decision theories use the criteria of logical consistency and mathematical optimality to evaluate decision quality. While these approaches are useful under some circumstances, the assumptions underlying these models frequently are not met in dynamic time-pressured operational environments. Also, applying formal decision models is both labor and time intensive, a luxury often lacking in operational environments. Alternate approaches and criteria are needed. Given that operational problem solving and decision making are embedded in ongoing tasks, evaluation criteria must address the relation between those activities and satisfaction of broader task goals. Effectiveness and efficiency become relevant for judging reasoning performance in operational environments. New questions must be addressed: What is the relation between the quality of decisions and overall performance by crews engaged in critical high risk tasks? Are different strategies most effective for different types of decisions? How can various decision types be characterized? A preliminary model of decision types found in air transport environments will be described along with a preliminary performance model based on an analysis of 30 flight crews. The performance analysis examined behaviors that distinguish more and less effective crews (based on performance errors). Implications for training and system design will be discussed.

  20. Generalized CNF satisfiability, local reductions and complexity of succinctly specified problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Radhakrishnan, V.

    1995-02-01

    We, study the complexity and efficient approximability of various decision, counting and optimization problems when instances are specified using (1) the 1-dimensional finite periodic narrow specifications of Wanke, (2) the 2-way infinite 1-dimensional narrow periodic (sometimes called dynamic) specifications of Karp and Orlin et al., and (3) the hierarchical specification language of Lengauer et al. We outline how generalized CNF satisfiability problems and local reductions can be used to obtain both hardness and easiness results for a number of decision, counting, optimization and approximate optimization problems when instances are specified as in (1), (2) or (3). As corollaries we obtain a number of new PSPACE-hardness and {number_sign}PSPACE-hardness,9 results and a number of new polynomial time approximation algorithms for natural PSPACE-hard optimization problems. In particular assuming P {ne} PSPACE, we characterize completely the complexities of the generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) of Schaefer [Sc78], when instances are specified as in (1), (2) or (3).

  1. The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.

  2. Extending XCS with Cyclic Graphs for Scalability on Complex Boolean Problems.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Browne, Will N; Zhang, Mengjie

    2015-09-25

    A main research direction in the field of evolutionary machine learning is to develop a scalable classifier system to solve high-dimensional problems. Recently work has begun on autonomously reusing learned building blocks of knowledge to scale from low-dimensional problems to high-dimensional ones. An XCS-based classifier system, known as XCSCFC, has been shown to be scalable, through the addition of expression tree-like code fragments, to a limit beyond standard learning classifier systems. XCSCFC is especially beneficial if the target problem can be divided into a hierarchy of subproblems and each of them is solvable in a bottom-up fashion. However, if the hierarchy of subproblems is too deep, then XCSCFC becomes impractical because of the needed computational time and thus eventually hits a limit in problem size. A limitation in this technique is the lack of a cyclic representation, which is inherent in finite state machines (FSMs). However, the evolution of FSMs is a hard task owing to the combinatorially large number of possible states, connections, and interaction. Usually this requires supervised learning to minimize inappropriate FSMs, which for high-dimensional problems necessitates subsampling or incremental testing. To avoid these constraints, this work introduces a state-machine-based encoding scheme into XCS for the first time, termed XCSSMA. The proposed system has been tested on six complex Boolean problem domains: multiplexer, majority-on, carry, even-parity, count ones, and digital design verification problems. The proposed approach outperforms XCSCFA (an XCS that computes actions) and XCSF (an XCS that computes predictions) in three of the six problem domains, while the performance in others is similar. In addition, XCSSMA evolved, for the first time, compact and human readable general classifiers (i.e., solving any n-bit problems) for the even-parity and carry problem domains, demonstrating its ability to produce scalable solutions using a

  3. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  4. Human Problem Solving in Dynamic Environments. Understanding and Supporting Operators in Large-Scale, Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) Richard L. Henneman and William B. Rouse MDA903-2- C -Ol45 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM...n measure Qf c Rlity. The literature review [ Henneman and I’ Rouse 1986] also suggested that an appropriate dependent measure of complexity is the... Henneman , R.L., and W.B. Rouse. Measures of human performance in fault diagnosis tasks. j= Kansactions on Sysems, Man and C .7Xkiat i’. its, SMC-14, (1):99

  5. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-06

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load.

  6. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. PMID:25652466

  7. Spatio-Temporal Complexity and Large-Scale Structures in Problems of Continuum Mechanic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-15

    TEMPORAL COMPLEXITY & LARGE SCALE STRUCTURES IN PROBLEMS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS" (U) 61103D 3484/D7 (URI) 6. AUTHOR(S) Drs. Basil Nicolaenko, Dieter...orbits on-the attractor. We have applied our method to two experimental data sets from Taylor-Couette flows . 14. SUBJECT TERMS -WS.-UMBER OF PAGES’ 14 S...8217 .. . .,16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19., SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OFA. OF REPORT OF THIS

  8. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T. N.

    2004-09-01

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a 'reduction to computation' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wavefunction can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  10. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  11. Migration of levonorgestrel IUS in a patient with complex medical problems: what should be done?

    PubMed

    Soleymani Majd, Hooman; El Hamamy, Essam; Chandrasekar, Ramya; Ismail, Lamiese

    2009-03-01

    Patients with complex medical problems should be counselled about the need for highly effective contraception. As failure resulting in pregnancy, could cause significant morbidity and mortality. The LNG-IUS has gained great popularity and generally has a low side effect profile; however, perforation of the uterus and migration of the device is a potentially serious complication known to be associated with its use. The current accepted management is removal of the device from the abdominal cavity in order to prevent further morbidity. However this is not always a simple matter in patients who have complex medical problems and who are deemed unfit for surgery. Each time the patient comes for renewal of the contraceptive method, clinicians need to reassess the risks and benefits. This is particularly relevant in patients who have complex medical problems where special attention needs to be given, not only to immediate risks but also to long-term ones. Careful individualised counselling and consideration are paramount and perhaps it would have been prudent to discuss vasectomy with this patient and her husband (as the first line of contraception), as this may have avoided the ensuing complications arising from the chosen method.

  12. On the Fractality of Complex Networks: Covering Problem, Algorithms and Ahlfors Regularity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qin; Xi, Lifeng; Chen, Jin; Wang, Songjing; Bao, Liulu; Yu, Zhouyu; Zhao, Luming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the fractality of complex network by investigating three dimensions with respect to minimum box-covering, minimum ball-covering and average volume of balls. The first two dimensions are calculated through the minimum box-covering problem and minimum ball-covering problem. For minimum ball-covering problem, we prove its NP-completeness and propose several heuristic algorithms on its feasible solution, and we also compare the performance of these algorithms. For the third dimension, we introduce the random ball-volume algorithm. We introduce the notion of Ahlfors regularity of networks and prove that above three dimensions are the same if networks are Ahlfors regular. We also provide a class of networks satisfying Ahlfors regularity. PMID:28128289

  13. On the Fractality of Complex Networks: Covering Problem, Algorithms and Ahlfors Regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qin; Xi, Lifeng; Chen, Jin; Wang, Songjing; Bao, Liulu; Yu, Zhouyu; Zhao, Luming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the fractality of complex network by investigating three dimensions with respect to minimum box-covering, minimum ball-covering and average volume of balls. The first two dimensions are calculated through the minimum box-covering problem and minimum ball-covering problem. For minimum ball-covering problem, we prove its NP-completeness and propose several heuristic algorithms on its feasible solution, and we also compare the performance of these algorithms. For the third dimension, we introduce the random ball-volume algorithm. We introduce the notion of Ahlfors regularity of networks and prove that above three dimensions are the same if networks are Ahlfors regular. We also provide a class of networks satisfying Ahlfors regularity.

  14. You Need to Know: There Is a Causal Relationship between Structural Knowledge and Control Performance in Complex Problem Solving Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Natassia; Beckmann, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between structural knowledge, control performance and fluid intelligence in a complex problem solving (CPS) task. 75 participants received either complete, partial or no information regarding the underlying structure of a complex problem solving task, and controlled the task to reach specific goals.…

  15. Robust non-parametric tests for complex-repeated measures problems in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Brombin, Chiara; Midena, Edoardo; Salmaso, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    The NonParametric Combination methodology (NPC) of dependent permutation tests allows the experimenter to face many complex multivariate testing problems and represents a convincing and powerful alternative to standard parametric methods. The main advantage of this approach lies in its flexibility in handling any type of variable (categorical and quantitative, with or without missing values) while at the same time taking dependencies among those variables into account without the need of modelling them. NPC methodology enables to deal with repeated measures, paired data, restricted alternative hypotheses, missing data (completely at random or not), high-dimensional and small sample size data. Hence, NPC methodology can offer a significant contribution to successful research in biomedical studies with several endpoints, since it provides reasonably efficient solutions and clear interpretations of inferential results. Pesarin F. Multivariate permutation tests: with application in biostatistics. Chichester-New York: John Wiley &Sons, 2001; Pesarin F, Salmaso L. Permutation tests for complex data: theory, applications and software. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &Sons, 2010. We focus on non-parametric permutation solutions to two real-case studies in ophthalmology, concerning complex-repeated measures problems. For each data set, different analyses are presented, thus highlighting characteristic aspects of the data structure itself. Our goal is to present different solutions to multivariate complex case studies, guiding researchers/readers to choose, from various possible interpretations of a problem, the one that has the highest flexibility and statistical power under a set of less stringent assumptions. MATLAB code has been implemented to carry out the analyses.

  16. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  17. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  18. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  19. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  20. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  1. Two heads are better than one: Australian tobacco control experts' and mental health change champions' consensus on addressing the problem of high smoking rates among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Della; Lawn, Sharon; Coveney, John

    2016-04-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the beliefs of Australian experts in tobacco control and change champions working in mental health and tobacco cessation, and to identify measures for addressing the problem of high smoking rates for people with mental illness. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants' views, and the Delphi technique was used to achieve consensus on ways in which the problem would be best addressed. Results This consensus centred on the need for leadership within the mental health system. The problem was reconceptualised from being solely the responsibility of the mental health sector into an issue that requires the combined resources of a partnership and shared leadership between government and non-government services, public health leaders, policy makers and people with mental illness and their families. Conclusions Collaboration would raise the priority of the issue, reduce the debilitating effect of stigma and discrimination within the mental health sector and would place smoking reduction firmly on the political and public agenda. A recovery-orientated focus would increase the skill base and be inclusive of workers, families and carers of people with mental illness who face smoking issues on a daily basis. Reconceptualising this as an issue that would benefit from cooperation and partnerships would disrupt the notion that the problem is solely the responsibility of the mental health sector. What is known about the topic? Rates of smoking have remained high for people with mental illness despite population-wide public health strategies successfully reducing smoking rates in the general population. For people with mental illness, the benefits of quitting smoking for both their mental and physical health are overshadowed by concerns about the complexity of their needs. There is a lack of knowledge about how smoking cessation support can be improved to increase success rates in smokers with

  2. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  3. Hybrid binary GA-EDA algorithms for complex “black-box” optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopov, E.

    2017-02-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have proved their efficiency solving many complex optimization problems. GAs can be also applied for “black-box” problems, because they realize the “blind” search and do not require any specific information about features of search space and objectives. It is clear that a GA uses the “Trial-and-Error” strategy to explorer search space, and collects some statistical information that is stored in the form of genes in the population. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA) have very similar realization as GAs, but use an explicit representation of search experience in the form of the statistical probabilities distribution. In this study we discus some approaches for improving the standard GA performance by combining the binary GA with EDA. Finally, a novel approach for the large-scale global optimization is proposed. The experimental results and comparison with some well-studied techniques are presented and discussed.

  4. On complex roots of an equation arising in the oblique derivative problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, A. B.; Sherstyukov, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the eigenvalue problem for the Laplace operator in a disc under the condition that the oblique derivative vanishes on the disc boundary. In a famous article by V.A. Il’in and E.I. Moiseev (Differential equations, 1994) it was found, in particular, that the root of any equation of the form with the Bessel function Jn (μ) determines the eigenvalue λ = μ 2 of the problem. In our work we correct the information about the location of eigenvalues. It is specified explicit view of the corner, containing all the eigenvalues. It is shown that all the nonzero roots of the equation are simple and given a refined description of the set of their localization on the complex plane. To prove these facts we use the partial differential equations methods and also methods of entire functions theory.

  5. [Present-day problems of complex hygienic evaluation of drinking water use].

    PubMed

    Tulakin, A V; Novikov, Iu V; Tsyplakova, G V; Ampleeva, G P; Shukelaĭt', A B

    2005-01-01

    The authors offer substantiated methodical approaches to complex evaluation of the sanitary reliability of drinking water supply systems. They recommend not only evaluating drinking water quality, but also assessing the sanitary state of water sources (catchment areas), the reliability of water preparation and transportation, the standards of water supply and the reliability of production laboratory control. A range of complex hygienic studies have demonstrated that the problems of Voronezh interurban reservoir as a water source are caused by its multi-purpose use. Under these conditions insufficient hygienic efficiency of the conventional water preparation schemes and low sanitary reliability of water transportation systems favors negative influence of water factor on population mortality. The offered methodical approaches give the systematic idea of factors that determine drinking water quality. Operative administrative decisions concerning hygienic safety of public water use may be made with these methodical approaches taken into consideration.

  6. A complexity analysis of space-bounded learning algorithms for the constraint satisfaction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bayardo, R.J. Jr.; Miranker, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Learning during backtrack search is a space-intensive process that records information (such as additional constraints) in order to avoid redundant work. In this paper, we analyze the effects of polynomial-space-bounded learning on runtime complexity of backtrack search. One space-bounded learning scheme records only those constraints with limited size, and another records arbitrarily large constraints but deletes those that become irrelevant to the portion of the search space being explored. We find that relevance-bounded learning allows better runtime bounds than size-bounded learning on structurally restricted constraint satisfaction problems. Even when restricted to linear space, our relevance-bounded learning algorithm has runtime complexity near that of unrestricted (exponential space-consuming) learning schemes.

  7. Convergent validity of the aberrant behavior checklist and behavior problems inventory with people with complex needs.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems inventory (BPI) and the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) for individuals presenting with multiple complex behavior problems. Data were collected from 69 children and adults with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior living in residential establishments. MANCOVA analyses showed that individuals with elevated BPI stereotyped behavior subscale scores had higher scores on ABC lethargy and stereotypy subscales, while those with elevated BPI aggressive/destructive behavior subscale scores obtained higher scores on ABC irritability, stereotypy and hyperactivity subscales. Multiple regression analyses showed a corresponding pattern of results in the prediction of ABC subscale scores by BPI subscale scores. Exploratory factor analysis of the BPI data suggested a six-factor solution with an aggressive/destructive behavior factor, four factors relating to stereotypy, and one related to stereotypy and self-injury. These results, discussed with reference to Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404], support the existence of relationships between specific subscales of the two instruments in addition to an overall association between total scores related to general severity of behavioral disturbance.

  8. The anatomical problem posed by brain complexity and size: a potential solution.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the field of neuroanatomy has evolved considerably but unraveling the extraordinary structural and functional complexity of the brain seems to be an unattainable goal, partly due to the fact that it is only possible to obtain an imprecise connection matrix of the brain. The reasons why reaching such a goal appears almost impossible to date is discussed here, together with suggestions of how we could overcome this anatomical problem by establishing new methodologies to study the brain and by promoting interdisciplinary collaboration. Generating a realistic computational model seems to be the solution rather than attempting to fully reconstruct the whole brain or a particular brain region.

  9. The anatomical problem posed by brain complexity and size: a potential solution

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the field of neuroanatomy has evolved considerably but unraveling the extraordinary structural and functional complexity of the brain seems to be an unattainable goal, partly due to the fact that it is only possible to obtain an imprecise connection matrix of the brain. The reasons why reaching such a goal appears almost impossible to date is discussed here, together with suggestions of how we could overcome this anatomical problem by establishing new methodologies to study the brain and by promoting interdisciplinary collaboration. Generating a realistic computational model seems to be the solution rather than attempting to fully reconstruct the whole brain or a particular brain region. PMID:26347617

  10. A new approach to the solution of boundary value problems involving complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubbert, P. E.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.; Sidwell, K. W.; Rowe, W. S.; Samant, S. S.; Sengupta, G.; Weatherill, W. H.; Burkhart, R. H.; Woo, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for solving certain types of boundary value problems about complex configurations is presented. Numerical algorithms from such diverse fields as finite elements, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, discrete Fourier analysis, and integral equations are combined to take advantage of the memory, speed and architecture of current and emerging supercomputers. Although the approach has application to many branches of computational physics, the present effort is concentrated in areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) such as steady nonlinear aerodynamics, time harmonic unsteady aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. The most significant attribute of the approach is that it can handle truly arbitrary boundary geometries and eliminates the difficult task of generating surface fitted grids.

  11. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  12. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  14. Spatially addressable chemoselective C-terminal ligation of an intein fusion protein from a complex mixture to a hydrazine-terminated surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Marinakos, Stella M; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-02-15

    Protein immobilization on surfaces is useful in many areas of research, including biological characterization, antibody purification, and clinical diagnostics. A critical limitation in the development of protein microarrays and heterogeneous protein-based assays is the enormous amount of work and associated costs in the purification of proteins prior to their immobilization onto a surface. Methods to address this problem would simplify the development of interfacial diagnostics that use a protein as the recognition element. Herein, we describe an approach for the facile, site-specific immobilization of proteins on a surface without any preprocessing or sample purification steps that ligates an intein fusion protein at its C-terminus by reaction with a hydrazine group presented by a surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology can directly immobilize a protein directly from cell lysate onto a protein-resistant surface. This methodology is also compatible with soft lithography and inkjet printing so that one or more proteins can be patterned on a surface without the need for purification.

  15. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maurice

    1928-01-01

    Conditions which experience has proved conducive to mental disturbance considered.—Suggestions as to their treatment.—A weakened inhibition, rather than any positive condition, is probably the most important factor in the production of the exhaustion psycho-neuroses or psychoses. This view is supported by the prophylactic value of giving for prolonged periods small doses of bromide to hypersensitive children or to highly-strung persons exposed to stress or tropical climate, etc.—Pavlov's work on the conditioned reflexes in dogs quoted in support of the author's clinical experience: Pavlov states that bromides should not be regarded as sedatives, diminishing the excitability of the central nervous system, but as simply regulating the nervous system by strengthening the intensity of internal inhibition. This agrees with the author's clinical experience, as small doses of bromide taken regularly over a period of many years do not diminish the mental powers but in fact increase them. Question of sleeplessness considered with regard to the way in which sedatives act. Most of these do not act as so-called “sleeping draughts”; research may ultimately show that their action is to strengthen a weakened inhibition and that sleep is only a secondary benefit.—Value of sedatives before and after surgical operation. Importance of toxæmia in the production of mental disorder; insomnia often precedes a toxic process and permits it to become active. The theory of weakened inhibition explains many problems; e.g., why certain brilliant children or adults break down and why at first there is no interference with their normal mental activity which only becomes involved as sleep and other bodily functions become affected; why a toxæmia may affect the nervous system of certain people; why a breakdown may follow over-stimulation or occur with advancing years; why some persons relapse when certain treatment is discontinued; why treatment should at times be continuous, and why

  18. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  19. SVD-GFD scheme to simulate complex moving body problems in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Yu, P.; Yeo, K. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-03-01

    The present paper presents a hybrid meshfree-and-Cartesian grid method for simulating moving body incompressible viscous flow problems in 3D space. The method combines the merits of cost-efficient and accurate conventional finite difference approximations on Cartesian grids with the geometric freedom of generalized finite difference (GFD) approximations on meshfree grids. Error minimization in GFD is carried out by singular value decomposition (SVD). The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) form of the Navier-Stokes equations on convecting nodes is integrated by a fractional-step projection method. The present hybrid grid method employs a relatively simple mode of nodal administration. Nevertheless, it has the geometrical flexibility of unstructured mesh-based finite-volume and finite element methods. Boundary conditions are precisely implemented on boundary nodes without interpolation. The present scheme is validated by a moving patch consistency test as well as against published results for 3D moving body problems. Finally, the method is applied on low-Reynolds number flapping wing applications, where large boundary motions are involved. The present study demonstrates the potential of the present hybrid meshfree-and-Cartesian grid scheme for solving complex moving body problems in 3D.

  20. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    stakeholders in developing and implementing policy on renewable fuels standards and ethanol production targets for the U.S. In Microeconomics students learn cost-benefit analysis and other concepts by applying economics principles to the corn ethanol problem. Following the disciplinary activities, students are asked to reconsider the central corn ethanol problem and evaluate it from a sustainability perspective. Assessment is ongoing, although initial results suggest that undergraduate students have difficulty integrating knowledge across multiple disciplines when evaluating a complex sustainability problem. Based on our initial assessment, we are exploring ways to modify the corn ethanol module as well as fine-tune the assessment instruments to provide the most effective outcomes possible. Because there are commonly institutional barriers to team teaching and other methods of cross-disciplinary instruction, we are recruiting faculty from additional disciplines to adapt and implement the corn ethanol module as a way of integrating sustainability concepts across the curriculum. Our goal is to teach complex, trans-disciplinary problem-solving and have students explore ways in which sustainability issues must be addressed through the application of concepts from the environmental and social sciences, public policy, and economics.

  1. Exploring the complexity of inquiry learning in an open-ended problem space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jody

    Data-gathering and problem identification are key components of scientific inquiry. However, few researchers have studied how students learn these skills because historically this required a time-consuming, complicated method of capturing the details of learners' data-gathering processes. Nor are classroom settings authentic contexts in which students could exhibit problem identification skills parallel to those involved in deconstructing complex real world situations. In this study of middle school students, because of my access to an innovative technology, I simulated a disease outbreak in a virtual community as a complicated, authentic problem. As students worked through the curriculum in the virtual world, their time-stamped actions were stored by the computer in event-logs. Using these records, I tracked in detail how the student scientists made sense of the complexity they faced and how they identified and investigated the problem using science-inquiry skills. To describe the degree to which students' data collection narrowed and focused on a specific disease over time, I developed a rubric and automated the coding of records in the event-logs. I measured the ongoing development of the students' "systematicity" in investigating the disease outbreak. I demonstrated that coding event-logs is an effective yet non-intrusive way of collecting and parsing detailed information about students' behaviors in real time in an authentic setting. My principal research question was "Do students who are more thoughtful about their inquiry prior to entry into the curriculum demonstrate increased systematicity in their inquiry behavior during the experience, by narrowing the focus of their data-gathering more rapidly than students who enter with lower levels of thoughtfulness about inquiry?" My sample consisted of 403 middle-school students from public schools in the US who volunteered to participate in the River City Project in spring 2008. Contrary to my hypothesis, I found

  2. Modelling Ill-Structured Problem Solving with Schema Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Philip

    This study assesses the ability of schema theory to address ill-structured problems without becoming unwieldy. Prior to addressing the study proper, the paper reviews the literature on memory for complex phenomena, ill-structured problems, expert-novice differences, administration as problem solving, and assessment of complex learning outcomes.…

  3. Combined Parameter and State Estimation Problem in a Complex Domain: RF Hyperthermia Treatment Using Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermeo Varon, L. A.; Orlande, H. R. B.; Eliçabe, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    The particle filter methods have been widely used to solve inverse problems with sequential Bayesian inference in dynamic models, simultaneously estimating sequential state variables and fixed model parameters. This methods are an approximation of sequences of probability distributions of interest, that using a large set of random samples, with presence uncertainties in the model, measurements and parameters. In this paper the main focus is the solution combined parameters and state estimation in the radiofrequency hyperthermia with nanoparticles in a complex domain. This domain contains different tissues like muscle, pancreas, lungs, small intestine and a tumor which is loaded iron oxide nanoparticles. The results indicated that excellent agreements between estimated and exact value are obtained.

  4. Communication: overcoming the root search problem in complex quantum trajectory calculations.

    PubMed

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J

    2014-01-28

    Three new developments are presented regarding the semiclassical coherent state propagator. First, we present a conceptually different derivation of Huber and Heller's method for identifying complex root trajectories and their equations of motion [D. Huber and E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 5302 (1987)]. Our method proceeds directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and therefore allows various generalizations of the formalism. Second, we obtain an analytic expression for the semiclassical coherent state propagator. We show that the prefactor can be expressed in a form that requires solving significantly fewer equations of motion than in alternative expressions. Third, the semiclassical coherent state propagator is used to formulate a final value representation of the time-dependent wavefunction that avoids the root search, eliminates problems with caustics and automatically includes interference. We present numerical results for the 1D Morse oscillator showing that the method may become an attractive alternative to existing semiclassical approaches.

  5. Diagnostic and management problems in a complex case of connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Yeap, S S; Deighton, C M; Powell, R J; Read, R C; Finch, R G

    1995-12-01

    A 28-year-old Nigerian woman presented with persistent pyrexia, marked pruritus, eosinophilia, myalgias, flitting arthralgias, serositis and massive splenomegaly. Intensive investigation for an infective or neoplastic aetiology proved negative. Empirical treatment for helminthic infections and tuberculosis was unhelpful. Although there were no specific clues to suggest an underlying connective tissue disease, a trial of steriods and azathioprine was introduced, with no obvious response. Her condition deteriorated to a point where it was decided that intravenous immunosuppressive therapy was needed and subsequently, her condition improved remarkably. This patient illustrates the problems in the diagnosis and management of complex disorders, particularly when classical tests for connective tissue diseases are absent. Also, we would like to report that marked pruritus can be associated with connective tissue disease.

  6. Perfect absorption in Schrödinger-like problems using non-equidistant complex grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmüller, Markus; Weinmüller, Michael; Rohland, Jonathan; Scrinzi, Armin

    2017-03-01

    Two non-equidistant grid implementations of infinite range exterior complex scaling are introduced that allow for perfect absorption in the time dependent Schrödinger equation. Finite element discrete variables discretizations provide as efficient absorption as the corresponding finite elements discretizations. This finding is at variance with results reported in literature [L. Tao et al., Phys. Rev. A 48, 063419 (2009)]. For finite differences, a new class of generalized Q-point schemes for non-equidistant grids is derived. Convergence of absorption is exponential ∼ Δx Q - 1 and numerically robust. Local relative errors ≲10-9 are achieved in a standard problem of strong-field ionization.

  7. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts.

  8. Class II major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining: progress, problems, and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vollers, Sabrina S; Stern, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    The use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers in the detection and analysis of antigen-specific T cells has become more widespread since its introduction 11 years ago. Early challenges in the application of tetramer staining to CD4+ T cells centred around difficulties in the expression of various class II MHC allelic variants and the detection of low-frequency T cells in mixed populations. As many of the technical obstacles to class II MHC tetramer staining have been overcome, the focus has returned to uncertainties concerning how oligomer valency and T-cell receptor/MHC affinity affect tetramer binding. Such issues have become more important with an increase in the number of studies relying on direct ex vivo analysis of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. In this review we discuss which problems in class II MHC tetramer staining have been solved to date, and which matters remain to be considered. PMID:18251991

  9. Communication: Overcoming the root search problem in complex quantum trajectory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2014-01-28

    Three new developments are presented regarding the semiclassical coherent state propagator. First, we present a conceptually different derivation of Huber and Heller's method for identifying complex root trajectories and their equations of motion [D. Huber and E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 5302 (1987)]. Our method proceeds directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and therefore allows various generalizations of the formalism. Second, we obtain an analytic expression for the semiclassical coherent state propagator. We show that the prefactor can be expressed in a form that requires solving significantly fewer equations of motion than in alternative expressions. Third, the semiclassical coherent state propagator is used to formulate a final value representation of the time-dependent wavefunction that avoids the root search, eliminates problems with caustics and automatically includes interference. We present numerical results for the 1D Morse oscillator showing that the method may become an attractive alternative to existing semiclassical approaches.

  10. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  11. Seeing around a Ball: Complex, Technology-Based Problems in Calculus with Applications in Science and Engineering-Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A complex technology-based problem in visualization and computation for students in calculus is presented. Strategies are shown for its solution and the opportunities for students to put together sequences of concepts and skills to build for success are highlighted. The problem itself involves placing an object under water in order to actually see…

  12. An Investigation of the Interrelationships between Motivation, Engagement, and Complex Problem Solving in Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Law, Victor; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Ge, Xun; Miller, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Digital game-based learning, especially massively multiplayer online games, has been touted for its potential to promote student motivation and complex problem-solving competency development. However, current evidence is limited to anecdotal studies. The purpose of this empirical investigation is to examine the complex interplay between learners'…

  13. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  14. Enhancements of evolutionary algorithm for the complex requirements of a nurse scheduling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tein, Lim Huai; Ramli, Razamin

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, nurse scheduling is a noticeable problem that is affected by the global nurse turnover crisis. The more nurses are unsatisfied with their working environment the more severe the condition or implication they tend to leave. Therefore, the current undesirable work schedule is partly due to that working condition. Basically, there is a lack of complimentary requirement between the head nurse's liability and the nurses' need. In particular, subject to highly nurse preferences issue, the sophisticated challenge of doing nurse scheduling is failure to stimulate tolerance behavior between both parties during shifts assignment in real working scenarios. Inevitably, the flexibility in shifts assignment is hard to achieve for the sake of satisfying nurse diverse requests with upholding imperative nurse ward coverage. Hence, Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is proposed to cater for this complexity in a nurse scheduling problem (NSP). The restriction of EA is discussed and thus, enhancement on the EA operators is suggested so that the EA would have the characteristic of a flexible search. This paper consists of three types of constraints which are the hard, semi-hard and soft constraints that can be handled by the EA with enhanced parent selection and specialized mutation operators. These operators and EA as a whole contribute to the efficiency of constraint handling, fitness computation as well as flexibility in the search, which correspond to the employment of exploration and exploitation principles.

  15. Fibromyalgia and disability adjudication: No simple solutions to a complex problem

    PubMed Central

    Harth, Manfred; Nielson, Warren R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjudication of disability claims related to fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome can be a challenging and complex process. A commentary published in the current issue of Pain Research & Management makes suggestions for improvement. The authors of the commentary contend that: previously and currently used criteria for the diagnosis of FM are irrelevant to clinical practice; the opinions of family physicians should supersede those of experts; there is little evidence that trauma can cause FM; no formal instruments are necessary to assess disability; and many FM patients on or applying for disability are exaggerating or malingering, and tests of symptoms validity should be used to identify malingerers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the assertions made by Fitzcharles et al. METHODS: A narrative review of the available research literature was performed. RESULTS: Available diagnostic criteria should be used in a medicolegal context; family physicians are frequently uncertain about FM and/or biased; there is considerable evidence that trauma can be a cause of FM; it is essential to use validated instruments to assess functional impairment; and the available tests of physical effort and symptom validity are of uncertain value in identifying malingering in FM. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence does not support many of the suggestions presented in the commentary. Caution is advised in adopting simple solutions for disability adjudication in FM because they are generally incompatible with the inherently complex nature of the problem. PMID:25479149

  16. Addressing the identification problem in age-period-cohort analysis: a tutorial on the use of partial least squares and principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Krämer, Nicole; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-07-01

    In the analysis of trends in health outcomes, an ongoing issue is how to separate and estimate the effects of age, period, and cohort. As these 3 variables are perfectly collinear by definition, regression coefficients in a general linear model are not unique. In this tutorial, we review why identification is a problem, and how this problem may be tackled using partial least squares and principal components regression analyses. Both methods produce regression coefficients that fulfill the same collinearity constraint as the variables age, period, and cohort. We show that, because the constraint imposed by partial least squares and principal components regression is inherent in the mathematical relation among the 3 variables, this leads to more interpretable results. We use one dataset from a Taiwanese health-screening program to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze the trends in body heights with 3 continuous variables for age, period, and cohort. We then use another dataset of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality rates for Taiwanese men to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze tables with aggregated data. We use the second dataset to show the relation between the intrinsic estimator, a recently proposed method for the age-period-cohort analysis, and partial least squares regression. We also show that the inclusion of all indicator variables provides a more consistent approach. R code for our analyses is provided in the eAppendix.

  17. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  18. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  19. Subspace Iteration Method for Complex Eigenvalue Problems with Nonsymmetric Matrices in Aeroelastic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Lung, Shun-fat

    2009-01-01

    Modern airplane design is a multidisciplinary task which combines several disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, flight controls, and sometimes heat transfer. Historically, analytical and experimental investigations concerning the interaction of the elastic airframe with aerodynamic and in retia loads have been conducted during the design phase to determine the existence of aeroelastic instabilities, so called flutter .With the advent and increased usage of flight control systems, there is also a likelihood of instabilities caused by the interaction of the flight control system and the aeroelastic response of the airplane, known as aeroservoelastic instabilities. An in -house code MPASES (Ref. 1), modified from PASES (Ref. 2), is a general purpose digital computer program for the analysis of the closed-loop stability problem. This program used subroutines given in the International Mathematical and Statistical Library (IMSL) (Ref. 3) to compute all of the real and/or complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues of the Hessenberg matrix. For high fidelity configuration, these aeroelastic system matrices are large and compute all eigenvalues will be time consuming. A subspace iteration method (Ref. 4) for complex eigenvalues problems with nonsymmetric matrices has been formulated and incorporated into the modified program for aeroservoelastic stability (MPASES code). Subspace iteration method only solve for the lowest p eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. In general, the selection of p is ranging from 10 for wing flutter analysis to 50 for an entire aircraft flutter analysis. The application of this newly incorporated code is an experiment known as the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) which was designed by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California to research aeroelastic instabilities. Specifically, this experiment was used to study an instability

  20. Can fuzzy logic bring complex problems into focus? Modeling imprecise factors in environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.

    2004-06-14

    In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in resolving some of the conflict, divisiveness

  1. Accurate gradient approximation for complex interface problems in 3D by an improved coupling interface method

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Yu-Chen; Chern, I-Liang; Chang, Chien C.

    2014-10-15

    Most elliptic interface solvers become complicated for complex interface problems at those “exceptional points” where there are not enough neighboring interior points for high order interpolation. Such complication increases especially in three dimensions. Usually, the solvers are thus reduced to low order accuracy. In this paper, we classify these exceptional points and propose two recipes to maintain order of accuracy there, aiming at improving the previous coupling interface method [26]. Yet the idea is also applicable to other interface solvers. The main idea is to have at least first order approximations for second order derivatives at those exceptional points. Recipe 1 is to use the finite difference approximation for the second order derivatives at a nearby interior grid point, whenever this is possible. Recipe 2 is to flip domain signatures and introduce a ghost state so that a second-order method can be applied. This ghost state is a smooth extension of the solution at the exceptional point from the other side of the interface. The original state is recovered by a post-processing using nearby states and jump conditions. The choice of recipes is determined by a classification scheme of the exceptional points. The method renders the solution and its gradient uniformly second-order accurate in the entire computed domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the second order accuracy of the presently proposed method in approximating the gradients of the original states for some complex interfaces which we had tested previous in two and three dimensions, and a real molecule ( (1D63)) which is double-helix shape and composed of hundreds of atoms.

  2. What Does (and Doesn't) Make Analogical Problem Solving Easy? A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, Todd; Evans, Patricia; van Rooij, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Solving new problems can be made easier if one can build on experiences with other problems one has already successfully solved. The ability to exploit earlier problem-solving experiences in solving new problems seems to require several cognitive sub-abilities. Minimally, one needs to be able to retrieve relevant knowledge of earlier solved…

  3. Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine; Brandt, Carol; Scott, Brigitte; Douglas, Sarah; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda; Vernon, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    The ill-structured nature of design problems makes them particularly challenging for problem-based learning. Studio-based learning (SBL), however, has much in common with problem-based learning and indeed has a long history of use in teaching students to solve design problems. The purpose of this ethnographic study of an industrial design class,…

  4. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings – a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  5. Effectiveness in learning complex problem solving and salivary ion indices of psychological stress and activation.

    PubMed

    Richter, P; Hinton, J W; Reinhold, S

    1998-11-01

    Following Hinton et al. (1992, Biol. Psychol. 33, 63-71) and Richter et al. (1995, Biol. Psychol. 39, 131-142) ionic concentration of [K+] in unstimulated saliva was predicted to rise with perceived challenge, while lowered [Na+] was expected when experiencing psychological stress (PS). Subjects had to learn an engaging complex problem-solving 'game', via positive and negative feed-back on three 'games' lasting 2.5-3.0 h overall. Comparisons were made between three groups: (1) high success; (2) partial success ('strugglers'); and (3) total failure to learn. Saliva was sampled after resting and after each of three 'games'. Successful learners had a significant rise in [K+] on the first 'game' followed by a significant fall, consistent with task-challenge reaction followed by fast autonomic adaptation with successful learning. The 'strugglers' [Na+] fell significantly over the 'games', indicating mineralocorticoid-induced PS response of Na+ reabsorption. The 'total failure' subjects had generally significantly higher [K+] than the successful ones, showing raised tonic sympathetic relative to parasympathetic activity--this outcome being interpreted from interference theories. The 'failures' also had significantly higher tonic [Na+] on 'games'--indicating low PS as predicted from McGrath's (1976) theory.

  6. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Information complexity-based regularization parameter selection for solution of ill conditioned inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmanov, A. M.; Gribok, A. V.; Bozdogan, H.; Hines, J. W.; Uhrig, R. E.

    2002-04-01

    We propose an information complexity-based regularization parameter selection method for solution of ill conditioned inverse problems. The regularization parameter is selected to be the minimizer of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) distance between the unknown data-generating distribution and the fitted distribution. The KL distance is approximated by an information complexity criterion developed by Bozdogan. The method is not limited to the white Gaussian noise case. It can be extended to correlated and non-Gaussian noise. It can also account for possible model misspecification. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on a test problem from Hansen's regularization tools.

  7. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  8. World, We Have Problems: Simulation for Large Complex, Risky Projects, and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Prior to a spacewalk during the NASA STS/129 mission in November 2009, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) correspondent William Harwood reported astronauts, "were awakened again", as they had been the day previously. Fearing something not properly connected was causing a leak, the crew, both on the ground and in space, stopped and checked everything. The alarm proved false. The crew did complete its work ahead of schedule, but the incident reminds us that correctly connecting hundreds and thousands of entities, subsystems and systems, finding leaks, loosening stuck valves, and adding replacements to very large complex systems over time does not occur magically. Everywhere major projects present similar pressures. Lives are at - risk. Responsibility is heavy. Large natural and human-created disasters introduce parallel difficulties as people work across boundaries their countries, disciplines, languages, and cultures with known immediate dangers as well as the unexpected. NASA has long accepted that when humans have to go where humans cannot go that simulation is the sole solution. The Agency uses simulation to achieve consensus, reduce ambiguity and uncertainty, understand problems, make decisions, support design, do planning and troubleshooting, as well as for operations, training, testing, and evaluation. Simulation is at the heart of all such complex systems, products, projects, programs, and events. Difficult, hazardous short and, especially, long-term activities have a persistent need for simulation from the first insight into a possibly workable idea or answer until the final report perhaps beyond our lifetime is put in the archive. With simulation we create a common mental model, try-out breakdowns of machinery or teamwork, and find opportunity for improvement. Lifecycle simulation proves to be increasingly important as risks and consequences intensify. Across the world, disasters are increasing. We anticipate more of them, as the results of global warming

  9. Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…

  10. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  11. The Average Network Flow Problem: Shortest Path and Minimum Cost Flow Formulations, Algorithms, Heuristics, and Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    38 2.4 Computational Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.5 Transportation Mode Selection...allowing the decision maker to tradeoff increases in the value obtained versus the number of arcs used. 9. Computational complexity proofs for the MASP... computational complexity , and transportation mode selection. Chapter 3 is a tutorial on Value Focused Thinking for Supply Chain Applications

  12. Does Visualization Enhance Complex Problem Solving? The Effect of Causal Mapping on Performance in the Computer-Based Microworld Tailorshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Hammon, Stephanie; von Grundherr, Michael; Funke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Causal mapping is often recognized as a technique to support strategic decisions and actions in complex problem situations. Such drawing of causal structures is supposed to particularly foster the understanding of the interaction of the various system elements and to further encourage holistic thinking. It builds on the idea that humans make use…

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Educational Contexts--Something beyond "g": Concept, Assessment, Measurement Invariance, and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Molnar, Gyongyver; Fischer, Andreas; Funke, Joachim; Csapo, Beno

    2013-01-01

    Innovative assessments of cross-curricular competencies such as complex problem solving (CPS) have currently received considerable attention in large-scale educational studies. This study investigated the nature of CPS by applying a state-of-the-art approach to assess CPS in high school. We analyzed whether two processes derived from cognitive…

  14. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  15. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  16. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  17. Rigged or rigorous? Partnerships for research and evaluation of complex social problems: Lessons from the field of violence against women and girls.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Michau, Lori; Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Borland, Rosilyne; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    There is growing demand for robust evidence to address complex social phenomena such as violence against women and girls (VAWG). Research partnerships between scientists and non-governmental or international organizations (NGO/IO) are increasingly popular, but can pose challenges, including concerns about potential conflicts of interest. Drawing on our experience collaborating on VAWG research, we describe challenges and contributions that NGO/IO and academic partners can make at different stages of the research process and the effects that collaborations can have on scientific inquiry. Partners may struggle with differing priorities and misunderstandings about roles, limitations, and intentions. Benefits of partnerships include a shared vision of study goals, differing and complementary expertise, mutual respect, and a history of constructive collaboration. Our experience suggests that when investigating multi-faceted social problems, instead of 'rigging' study results, research collaborations can strengthen scientific rigor and offer the greatest potential for impact in the communities we seek to serve.

  18. A Novel Approach to Mission-Level Engineering of Complex Systems of Systems: Addressing Integration and Interoperability Shortfalls by Interrogating the Interstitials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-17

    components on nodes, interconnections on edges) and emphasizes the components on the nodes. Figure 2 illustrates a simple system of two sensors (node A...other types of modeling – DoDAF views (OV-1, OV- 2 ), SysML Context Diagrams, UML Use Case Diagrams, etc. In fact, any model that depicts entities of...simulation, and analysis tools and processes for integrating a complex, adaptive System of Systems . Mr. Garrett was recognized by the International

  19. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  20. Pupils' Problem-Solving Processes in a Complex Computerized Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomala, Jyrki; Alajaaski, Jarkko

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that examined fifth-grade Finnish pupils' problem-solving processes in a LEGO/Logo technology-based learning environment. Results indicate that learning model and gender account for group differences in problem solving processes, and are interpreted as supporting the validity of discovery learning. (Author/LRW)

  1. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  2. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge…

  3. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  4. A new approach for analyzing average time complexity of population-based evolutionary algorithms on unimodal problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianshi; He, Jun; Sun, Guangzhong; Chen, Guoliang; Yao, Xin

    2009-10-01

    In the past decades, many theoretical results related to the time complexity of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) on different problems are obtained. However, there is not any general and easy-to-apply approach designed particularly for population-based EAs on unimodal problems. In this paper, we first generalize the concept of the takeover time to EAs with mutation, then we utilize the generalized takeover time to obtain the mean first hitting time of EAs and, thus, propose a general approach for analyzing EAs on unimodal problems. As examples, we consider the so-called (N + N) EAs and we show that, on two well-known unimodal problems, leadingones and onemax , the EAs with the bitwise mutation and two commonly used selection schemes both need O(n ln n + n(2)/N) and O(n ln ln n + n ln n/N) generations to find the global optimum, respectively. Except for the new results above, our approach can also be applied directly for obtaining results for some population-based EAs on some other unimodal problems. Moreover, we also discuss when the general approach is valid to provide us tight bounds of the mean first hitting times and when our approach should be combined with problem-specific knowledge to get the tight bounds. It is the first time a general idea for analyzing population-based EAs on unimodal problems is discussed theoretically.

  5. A New Approach to Address Complexities in Single-Well Push-Pull Test Data: Application of a Multi-Species Reactive Transport Model to Estimate Biogeochemical Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeshaw, T.; Phanikumar, M. S.; McGuire, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to interrogate the subsurface is important for improving flow and transport models and for developing a quantitative understanding of the nature of interactions between surface water, the vadose zone and groundwater. Push-pull tests are a popular technique to investigate aquifer properties, chemical transformation rates and microbial reaction kinetics in situ. Earlier studies have interpreted push-pull test data using approximate analytical solutions that may or may not be able to describe complexities in the data. Here we describe the application of a new reactive transport model (PPTEST) to analyze push-pull test data from several sites in the United States. The model has the ability to describe an arbitrary number of species, Monod / Michelis-Menten kinetics, sorption, and reaction lag times as well as a user-defined reaction module that can be used to support additional functionality (e.g. mobile-immobile or residence-time distribution modeling). We use the model to describe the observed breakthrough data for tracer and reactive components and demonstrate its use in testing hypotheses related to the complex set of processes operating in the subsurface environment.

  6. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  7. A Study of Theory U and Its Application to a Complex Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    examples of large organizations employing systems thinking to solve problems exhibiting dynamic complexity with the help of coaching contracts with SoL... Coaching programs for about 200 government agency executive officers from 2003 to 2006. SoL supports the agency’s leaders to transform their...the MCH-101 was too busy, and thus tried to escape or just react only in superficial ways.  The MSQ wanted to develop a proposal to solve the MCH

  8. Solving Hard Computational Problems Efficiently: Asymptotic Parametric Complexity 3-Coloring Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Martín H., José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to “efficiently” solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter . Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: , making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. PMID:23349711

  9. Solving hard computational problems efficiently: asymptotic parametric complexity 3-coloring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Martín H, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α∈N. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2(-(k+1)), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results.

  10. Extension of the tridiagonal reduction (FEER) method for complex eigenvalue problems in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.; Mann, F. I.

    1978-01-01

    As in the case of real eigenvalue analysis, the eigensolutions closest to a selected point in the eigenspectrum were extracted from a reduced, symmetric, tridiagonal eigenmatrix whose order was much lower than that of the full size problem. The reduction process was effected automatically, and thus avoided the arbitrary lumping of masses and other physical quantities at selected grid points. The statement of the algebraic eigenvalue problem admitted mass, damping, and stiffness matrices which were unrestricted in character, i.e., they might be real, symmetric or nonsymmetric, singular or nonsingular.

  11. Complexity and approximability for a problem of intersecting of proximity graphs with minimum number of equal disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobylkin, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    Computational complexity and approximability are studied for the problem of intersecting of a set of straight line segments with the smallest cardinality set of disks of fixed radii r > 0 where the set of segments forms straight line embedding of possibly non-planar geometric graph. This problem arises in physical network security analysis for telecommunication, wireless and road networks represented by specific geometric graphs defined by Euclidean distances between their vertices (proximity graphs). It can be formulated in a form of known Hitting Set problem over a set of Euclidean r-neighbourhoods of segments. Being of interest computational complexity and approximability of Hitting Set over so structured sets of geometric objects did not get much focus in the literature. Strong NP-hardness of the problem is reported over special classes of proximity graphs namely of Delaunay triangulations, some of their connected subgraphs, half-θ6 graphs and non-planar unit disk graphs as well as APX-hardness is given for non-planar geometric graphs at different scales of r with respect to the longest graph edge length. Simple constant factor approximation algorithm is presented for the case where r is at the same scale as the longest edge length.

  12. The Complex Relationship between Students' Critical Thinking and Epistemological Beliefs in the Context of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyytinen, Heidi; Holma, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2014-01-01

    The study utilized a multi-method approach to explore the connection between critical thinking and epistemological beliefs in a specific problem-solving situation. Data drawn from a sample of ten third-year bioscience students were collected using a combination of a cognitive lab and a performance task from the Collegiate Learning Assessment…

  13. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  14. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  15. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  16. Analogize This! The Politics of Scale and the Problem of Substance in Complexity-Based Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Noah R.

    2012-01-01

    In light of recent enthusiasm in composition studies (and in the social sciences more broadly) for complexity theory and ecology, this article revisits the debate over how much composition studies can or should align itself with the natural sciences. For many in the discipline, the science debate--which was ignited in the 1970s, both by the…

  17. The Species Problem and the Value of Teaching and the Complexities of Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Discussions on species taxa directly refer to a range of complex biological phenomena. Given these phenomena, biologists have developed and continue to appeal to a series of species concepts and do not have a clear definition for it as each species concept tells us part of the story or helps the biologists to explain and understand a subset of…

  18. Simplifying the model of a complex heat-transfer system for solving the relay control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilin, A. A.; Bukreev, V. G.

    2014-09-01

    A method for approximating the high-dimensionality model of a complex heat-transfer system with time delay by a nonlinear second-order differential equation is proposed. The modeling results confirming adequacy of the nonlinear properties of the reduced and initial models and their correspondence to the controlled plant actual data are presented.

  19. Foucault as Complexity Theorist: Overcoming the Problems of Classical Philosophical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olssen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the affinities and parallels between Foucault's Nietzschean view of history and models of complexity developed in the physical sciences in the twentieth century. It claims that Foucault's rejection of structuralism and Marxism can be explained as a consequence of his own approach which posits a radical ontology whereby the…

  20. Integral Solution for Diffraction Problems Involving Conducting Surfaces with Complex Geometries. 1. Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    involving conducting surfaces with complex geometries. I. Theory Mohamed F. El-Hewle and Richard 1. Cook Franh !. Seiler Research Laboratory, U.S. Air...can be generalized to a surface of an arbi- mittance are then employed with the new geometry- and trary coordinate function as follows. At a surface

  1. ETD QA CORE TEAM: AN ELOQUENT SOLUTION TO A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD QA CORE TEAM: AN ELOQUENT SOLUTION TO A COMPLEX PROBLEMThomas J. Hughes, QA and Records Manager, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC 27709

    ETD is the largest health divis...

  2. Dynamic Modeling as a Cognitive Regulation Scaffold for Developing Complex Problem-Solving Skills in an Educational Massively Multiplayer Online Game Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving…

  3. A new multi-frequency approach based on Padé approximants for the treatment of transient dynamics problems with the variational theory of complex rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouzaud, C.; Gatuingt, F.; Hervé, G.; Dorival, O.

    2017-03-01

    Frequency-based methods were set up in order to circumvent the limits of classical finite element methods in fast dynamic simulations due to discretizations. In this approach the dynamic loading was shifted in the frequency domain by FFT, then treated by the Variational Theory of Complex Rays, and then the time response was reconstructed through an IFFT. This strategy proved to be very efficient due to the CPU VTCR very low cost. However in the case of a large loading spectrum this frequency-by-frequency approach could seriously degrade the computational performances of the strategy. This paper addresses this point by proposing the use of Padé approximants in order to limit the number of frequencies at which the response should be calculated. Padé approximation is applied to the overall VTCR system based on its frequency dependency. Finally, as simulations on a simple academic case and on a civil engineering structure show, this method is found to be very efficient for interpolating the frequency response functions of a complex structure. This is a key point to preserve the efficiency of the complete VTCR strategy for transient dynamic problems.

  4. Simulations for Complex Fluid Flow Problems from Berkeley Lab's Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.

  5. Outcomes, moderators, and mediators of empathic-emotion recognition training for complex conduct problems in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark Richard; Cauchi, Avril Jessica; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Hawes, David John; Brennan, John

    2012-10-30

    Impairments in emotion recognition skills are a trans-diagnostic indicator of early mental health problems and may be responsive to intervention. We report on a randomized controlled trial of "Emotion-recognition-training" (ERT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with N=195 mixed diagnostic children (mean age 10.52 years) referred for behavioral/emotional problems measured at pre- and 6 months post-treatment. We tested overall outcomes plus moderation and mediation models, whereby diagnostic profile was tested as a moderator of change. ERT had no impact on the group as a whole. Diagnostic status of the child did not moderate outcomes; however, levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderated outcomes such that children with high CU traits responded less well to TAU, while ERT produced significant improvements in affective empathy and conduct problems in these children. Emotion recognition training has potential as an adjunctive intervention specifically for clinically referred children with high CU traits, regardless of their diagnostic status.

  6. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species.

  7. One Problem, Many Solutions: Simple Statistical Approaches Help Unravel the Complexity of the Immune System in an Ecological Context

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many tactics to solve a complex problem. One challenge facing ecological immunologists is the question of how these many dimensions of immune function can be synthesized to facilitate meaningful interpretations and conclusions. We tackle this challenge by employing and comparing several statistical methods, which we used to test assumptions about how multiple aspects of immune function are related at different organizational levels. We analyzed three distinct datasets that characterized 1) species, 2) subspecies, and 3) among- and within-individual level differences in the relationships among multiple immune indices. Specifically, we used common principal components analysis (CPCA) and two simpler approaches, pair-wise correlations and correlation circles. We also provide a simple example of how these techniques could be used to analyze data from multiple studies. Our findings lead to several general conclusions. First, relationships among indices of immune function may be consistent among some organizational groups (e.g. months over the annual cycle) but not others (e.g. species); therefore any assumption of consistency requires testing before further analyses. Second, simple statistical techniques used in conjunction with more complex multivariate methods give a clearer and more robust picture of immune function than using complex statistics alone. Moreover, these simpler approaches have potential for analyzing comparable data from multiple studies, especially as the field of ecological immunology moves towards greater methodological standardization. PMID:21526186

  8. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: IS IT A PROBLEM OF COMPLEX MOTOR PROGRAMMING?*

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Sumant; Mukundan, C.R.; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY 44 subjects with Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and 40 normals were compared using an experimental paradigm involving recording of the bereitschaftspotential. A decreased onset latency and increased amplitude was found in the OCD sample as compared to normals. A neurophysiological substrate for the bereitschaftspotential has been proposed. The implications of these findings in OCD as compared to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and for a focal neuro-physiological dysfunction have also been discussed. The findings of this study implicate a dysfunction in complex motor programming in OCD, with the possibility of this dysfunction being in the prefrontal area. PMID:21927207

  9. Infinite-range exterior complex scaling as a perfect absorber in time-dependent problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, Armin

    2010-05-15

    We introduce infinite range exterior complex scaling (irECS) which provides for complete absorption of outgoing flux in numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with strong infrared fields. This is demonstrated by computing high harmonic spectra and wave-function overlaps with the exact solution for a one-dimensional model system and by three-dimensional calculations for the H atom and an Ne atom model. We lay out the key ingredients for correct implementation and identify criteria for efficient discretization.

  10. Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.

  11. Wolves, dogs, rearing and reinforcement: complex interactions underlying species differences in training and problem-solving performance.

    PubMed

    Frank, Harry

    2011-11-01

    Frank and Frank et al. (1982-1987) administered a series of age-graded training and problem-solving tasks to samples of Eastern timber wolf (C. lupus lycaon) and Alaskan Malamute (C. familiaris) pups to test Frank's (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 53:389-399, 1980) model of the evolution of information processing under conditions of natural and artificial selection. Results confirmed the model's prediction that wolves should perform better than dogs on problem-solving tasks and that dogs should perform better than wolves on training tasks. Further data collected at the University of Connecticut in 1983 revealed a more complex and refined picture, indicating that species differences can be mediated by a number of factors influencing wolf performance, including socialization regimen (hand-rearing vs. mother-rearing), interactive effects of socialization on the efficacy of both rewards and punishments, and the flexibility to select learning strategies that experimenters might not anticipate.

  12. Content-Adaptive Finite Element Mesh Generation of 3-D Complex MR Volumes for Bioelectromagnetic Problems.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Kim, T-S; Cho, M; Lee, S

    2005-01-01

    In studying bioelectromagnetic problems, finite element method offers several advantages over other conventional methods such as boundary element method. It allows truly volumetric analysis and incorporation of material properties such as anisotropy. Mesh generation is the first requirement in the finite element analysis and there are many different approaches in mesh generation. However conventional approaches offered by commercial packages and various algorithms do not generate content-adaptive meshes, resulting in numerous elements in the smaller volume regions, thereby increasing computational load and demand. In this work, we present an improved content-adaptive mesh generation scheme that is efficient and fast along with options to change the contents of meshes. For demonstration, mesh models of the head from a volume MRI are presented in 2-D and 3-D.

  13. An unstructured-grid software system for solving complex aerodynamic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Parikh, Paresh

    1995-01-01

    A coordinated effort has been underway over the past four years to elevate unstructured-grid methodology to a mature level. The goal of this endeavor is to provide a validated capability to non-expert users for performing rapid aerodynamic analysis and design of complex configurations. The Euler component of the system is well developed, and is impacting a broad spectrum of engineering needs with capabilities such as rapid grid generation and inviscid flow analysis, inverse design, interactive boundary layers, and propulsion effects. Progress is also being made in the more tenuous Navier-Stokes component of the system. A robust grid generator is under development for constructing quality thin-layer tetrahedral grids, along with a companion Navier-Stokes flow solver. This paper presents an overview of this effort, along with a perspective on the present and future status of the methodology.

  14. Effective descriptions of complex quantum systems: path integrals and operator ordering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckern, U.; Gruber, M. J.; Schwab, P.

    2005-09-01

    [Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion ofhis 80th birthday]We study certain aspects of the effective, occasionally called collective, description of complex quantum systems within the framework of the path integral formalism, in which the environment is integrated out. Generalising the standard Feynman-Vernon Caldeira-Leggett model to include a non-linear coupling between particle and environment, and considering a particular spectral density of the coupling, a coordinate-dependent mass (or velocity-dependent potential) is obtained. The related effective quantum theory, which depends on the proper discretisation of the path integral, is derived and discussed. As a result, we find that in general a simple effective low-energy Hamiltonian, in which only the coordinate-dependent mass enters, cannot be formulated. The quantum theory of weakly coupled superconductors and the quantum dynamics of vortices in Josephson junction arrays are physical examples where these considerations, in principle, are of relevance.

  15. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  16. A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the

  17. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  18. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.

  19. On the Parameterized Complexity of Some Optimization Problems Related to Multiple-Interval Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Minghui

    We show that for any constant t ≥ 2, K -Independent Set and K-Dominating Set in t-track interval graphs are W[1]-hard. This settles an open question recently raised by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. We also give an FPT algorithm for K-Clique in t-interval graphs, parameterized by both k and t, with running time max { t O(k), 2 O(klogk) } ·poly(n), where n is the number of vertices in the graph. This slightly improves the previous FPT algorithm by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. Finally, we use the W[1]-hardness of K-Independent Set in t-track interval graphs to obtain the first parameterized intractability result for a recent bioinformatics problem called Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR). We show that MSR-d is W[1]-hard for any constant d ≥ 4 when the parameter is either the total length of the strips, or the total number of adjacencies in the strips, or the number of strips in the optimal solution.

  20. Combination Therapies for Lysosomal Storage Diseases: A Complex Answer to a Simple Problem

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Shannon L

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of 40–50 rare monogenic disorders that result in disrupted lysosomal function and subsequent lysosomal pathology. Depending on the protein or enzyme deficiency associated with each disease, LSDs affect an array of organ systems and elicit a complex set of secondary disease mechanisms that make many of these disorders difficult to fully treat. The etiology of most LSDs is known and the innate biology of lysosomal enzymes favors therapeutic intervention, yet most attempts at treating LSDs with enzyme replacement strategies fall short of being curative. Even with the advent of more sophisticated approaches, like substrate reduction therapy, pharmacologic chaperones, gene therapy or stem cell therapy, comprehensive treatments for LSDs have yet to be achieved. Given the limitations with individual therapies, recent research has focused on using a combination approach to treat LSDs. By coupling protein-, cell-, and gene- based therapies with small molecule drugs, researchers have found greater success in eradicating the clinical features of disease. This review seeks to discuss the positive and negatives of singular therapies used to treat LSDs, and discuss how, in combination, studies have demonstrated a more holistic benefit on pathological and functional parameters. By optimizing routes of delivery, therapeutic timing, and targeting secondary disease mechanisms, combination therapy represents the future for LSD treatment. PMID:27491211

  1. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  2. Application of a low order panel method to complex three-dimensional internal flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the ability of a low order panel method to predict complex three-dimensional internal flow fields was made. The computer code VSAERO was used as a basis for the evaluation. Guidelines for modeling internal flow geometries were determined and the effects of varying the boundary conditions and the use of numerical approximations on the solutions accuracy were studied. Several test cases were run and the results were compared with theoretical or experimental results. Modeling an internal flow geometry as a closed box with normal velocities specified on an inlet and exit face provided accurate results and gave the user control over the boundary conditions. The values of the boundary conditions greatly influenced the amount of leakage an internal flow geometry suffered and could be adjusted to eliminate leakage. The use of the far-field approximation to reduce computation time influenced the accuracy of a solution and was coupled with the values of the boundary conditions needed to eliminate leakage. The error induced in the influence coefficients by using the far-field approximation was found to be dependent on the type of influence coefficient, the far-field radius, and the aspect ratio of the panels.

  3. BioDMET: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation tool for assessing proposed solutions to complex biological problems.

    PubMed

    Graf, John F; Scholz, Bernhard J; Zavodszky, Maria I

    2012-02-01

    We developed a detailed, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for calculating the distribution of pharmaceutical agents in the various tissues and organs of a human or animal as a function of time. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) represent the circulation of body fluids through organs and tissues at the macroscopic level, and the biological transport mechanisms and biotransformations within cells and their organelles at the molecular scale. Each major organ in the body is modeled as composed of one or more tissues. Tissues are made up of cells and fluid spaces. The model accounts for the circulation of arterial and venous blood as well as lymph. Since its development was fueled by the need to accurately predict the pharmacokinetic properties of imaging agents, BioDMET is more complex than most PBPK models. The anatomical details of the model are important for the imaging simulation endpoints. Model complexity has also been crucial for quickly adapting the tool to different problems without the need to generate a new model for every problem. When simpler models are preferred, the non-critical compartments can be dynamically collapsed to reduce unnecessary complexity. BioDMET has been used for imaging feasibility calculations in oncology, neurology, cardiology, and diabetes. For this purpose, the time concentration data generated by the model is inputted into a physics-based image simulator to establish imageability criteria. These are then used to define agent and physiology property ranges required for successful imaging. BioDMET has lately been adapted to aid the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Given a range of built-in features and its inherent flexibility to customization, the model can be used to study a variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic problems such as the effects of inter-individual differences and disease-states on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing optimization, and inter

  4. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  5. The Cauchy Problem in Local Spaces for the Complex Ginzburg-Landau EquationII. Contraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginibre, J.; Velo, G.

    We continue the study of the initial value problem for the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (with a > 0, b > 0, g>= 0) in initiated in a previous paper [I]. We treat the case where the initial data and the solutions belong to local uniform spaces, more precisely to spaces of functions satisfying local regularity conditions and uniform bounds in local norms, but no decay conditions (or arbitrarily weak decay conditions) at infinity in . In [I] we used compactness methods and an extended version of recent local estimates [3] and proved in particular the existence of solutions globally defined in time with local regularity of the initial data corresponding to the spaces Lr for r>= 2 or H1. Here we treat the same problem by contraction methods. This allows us in particular to prove that the solutions obtained in [I] are unique under suitable subcriticality conditions, and to obtain for them additional regularity properties and uniform bounds. The method extends some of those previously applied to the nonlinear heat equation in global spaces to the framework of local uniform spaces.

  6. L.E.A.D.: A Framework for Evidence Gathering and Use for the Prevention of Obesity and Other Complex Public Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi; Green, Lawrence W.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a comprehensive, systems-oriented framework designed to improve the use of a wide variety of evidence sources to address population-wide obesity problems. The L.E.A.D. framework (for "Locate" the evidence, "Evaluate" the evidence, "Assemble" the evidence, and inform "Decisions"),…

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  9. A comparison of two approaches for teaching complex, authentic mathematics problems to adolescents in remedial math classes.

    PubMed

    Bottge, B A; Hasselbring, T S

    1993-05-01

    Two groups of adolescents with learning difficulties in mathematics were compared on their ability to generate solutions to a contextualized problem after being taught problem-solving skills under two conditions, one involving standard word problems, the other involving a contextualized problem on videodisc. All problems focused on adding and subtracting fractions in relation to money and linear measurement. Both groups of students improved their performance on solving word problems, but students in the contextualized problem group did significantly better on the contextualized problem posttest and were able to use their skills in two transfer tasks that followed instruction.

  10. "No more amputations": a complex scientific problem and a challenge for effective preventive strategy implementation on vascular field.

    PubMed

    Kolossváry, Endre; Farkas, Katalin; Colgan, Mary P; Edmonds, Michael; Fitzgerald, Hannah P; Fox, Martin; Pécsvárady, Zsolt; Wautrecht, Jean C; Catalano, Mariella

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb vascular amputations represent serious problem in the vascular care. As a consequence of critical limb ischemia, often associated with diabetes, it is highly critical to health care service aiming at prevention of limb loss. Understanding of the nature and complexity of amputation scenario is paramount for the effective preventive strategy planning and implementation. Amputation incidence and data of the trends show high variability in the international reports. Variability is also remarkable in a more granular, regional comparison. Different calculation methods for incidence fraction, varying epidemiological, demographic features of the populations, different socio-economic, cultural backgrounds and disparity in vascular care are the main factors contributing to this variability in reports. Lower limb amputations can be considered as a valuable healthcare quality indicator with some limitations. One of these limitations is the lower actionability that corresponds to the reduced ability of health care providers to intervene influencing the burden of amputations. Lower limb vascular amputations represent a lifetime risk, therefore not only the effective revascularization is to be achieved but the importance of the early recognition of peripheral arterial disease, no delay in referral to special vascular care, effective vascular risk prevention and collaboration in multidisciplinary teams should be also emphasized.

  11. Supporting Shared Decision-making for Children's Complex Behavioral Problems: Development and User Testing of an Option Grid™ Decision Aid.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Erin R; Boucher, Elizabeth A; Daviss, William B; Elwyn, Glyn

    2017-04-11

    There is a lack of research to guide collaborative treatment decision-making for children who have complex behavioral problems, despite the extensive use of mental health services in this population. We developed and pilot-tested a one-page Option Grid™ patient decision aid to facilitate shared decision-making for these situations. An editorial team of parents, child psychiatrists, researchers, and other stakeholders developed the scope and structure of the decision aid. Researchers included information about a carefully chosen number of psychosocial and pharmacological treatment options, using descriptions based on the best available evidence. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 18), we conducted user testing with four parents and four clinical prescribers and field testing with four parents, four clinical prescribers, and two clinic administrators. The researchers coded and synthesized the interview responses using mixed inductive and deductive methods. Parents, clinicians, and administrators felt the Option Grid had significant value, although they reported that additional training and other support would be required in order to successfully implement the Option Grid and achieve shared decision-making in clinical practice.

  12. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  13. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  16. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  17. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...

  18. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  19. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  20. Problems of Assessing the New Curricula Being Introduced in African Countries. Keynote address for the Annual Meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment (9th, Malawi, Blantyre, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boma, A. N.

    The state of the art of assessment is viewed in light of practical and realistic options. The classical terminologies of achievement, validity, reliability, internal and external assessment, prediction, and formative and summative evaluation, are often referred to in the address, with the realization that those presenting later papers would not be…

  1. Robust Decision Making: The Cognitive and Computational Modeling of Team Problem Solving for Decision Making under Complex and Dynamic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-14

    when solving a variety of hard numerical problems. Identification of the impact of team structure on problem solving behavior under changing conditions...of the algorithm also performed well as an optimization algorithm when solving a variety of hard numerical problems. Identification of the impact of...algorithm also performed well as an optimization algorithm when solving a variety of hard numerical problems. Identification of the impact of team structure

  2. Cognitive Analysis of U.S. and Chinese Students' Mathematical Performance on Tasks Involving Computation, Simple Problem Solving, and Complex Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa

    1995-01-01

    This document is 7th in the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education monograph series. The mathematical performance of (n=250) U.S. 6th-grade students from both private and public schools and (n=425) Chinese 6th-graders from both key and common schools was examined on multiple-choice tasks assessing computation and simple problem solving, and…

  3. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  4. The Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving and How It Is Influenced by Students' Information and Communication Technology Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Kretzschmar, André; Müller, Jonas C.; Spinath, Birgit; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The 21st-century work environment places strong emphasis on nonroutine transversal skills. In an educational context, complex problem solving (CPS) is generally considered an important transversal skill that includes knowledge acquisition and its application in new and interactive situations. The dynamic and interactive nature of CPS requires a…

  5. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  6. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  7. Addressing ketamine bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    The rise in ketamine misuse means more health professionals will need to diagnose, refer and treat ketamine bladder syndrome. Prevention and raising awareness of the problem among multidisciplinary teams will help limit damage to the bladder as well as making treatment and management more effective.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  10. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned.

  11. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  12. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  13. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  14. Providing Formative Assessment to Students Solving Multipath Engineering Problems with Complex Arrangements of Interacting Parts: An Intelligent Tutor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak

    2016-01-01

    Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…

  15. Training Preschool Children to Use Visual Imagining as a Problem-Solving Strategy for Complex Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisamore, April N.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that verbally sophisticated individuals engage in a series of precurrent behaviors (e.g., covert intraverbal behavior, grouping stimuli, visual imagining) to solve problems such as answering questions (Palmer, 1991; Skinner, 1953). We examined the effects of one problem solving strategy--visual imagining--on increasing…

  16. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  17. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  18. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  19. The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill acquisition by means of computer-simulated problem solving.

    PubMed

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2005-03-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram, while information in the integrated format condition was integrated in the circuit diagram. It was hypothesized that learners in the integrated format would achieve better test results than the learners in the split-source format. Equivalent-test problem and transfer-test problem performance were studied. Transfertest scores confirmed the hypothesis, though no differences were found on the equivalent-test scores.

  20. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  1. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  2. Transdisciplinary weed research: new leverage on challenging weed problems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transdisciplinary Weed Research (TWR) is a promising path to more effective management of challenging weed problems. We define TWR as an integrated process of inquiry and action that addresses complex weed problems in the context of broader efforts to improve economic, environmental and social aspec...

  3. Advising a Bus Company on Number of Needed Buses: How High-School Physics Students' Deal With a "Complex Problem"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Hadzibegovic, Zalkida

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, international project PISA evaluates 15-year old students in solving problems that include "decision taking", "analysis and design of systems" and "trouble-shooting". This article presents the results of a pilot research conducted with 215 students from first to fourth grade of a high school in Sarajevo…

  4. The Management of Cognitive Load During Complex Cognitive Skill Acquisition by Means of Computer-Simulated Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram, while information in the integrated format condition…

  5. The Application of Linguistics to the Problem of Teaching Pupils to Translate Complex Latin Sentences Into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Harry

    1968-01-01

    Remedies are suggested for difficulties encountered in Latin to English translations by pupils in the fourth and fifth forms of English Grammar schools. Reading skills proficiency is seen as a prerequisite for effective translation, and stave analysis is suggested as a method of solving the problem of gross error in pupils' translations of complex…

  6. Retrospective Discourse Discussions: How Teacher Talk Enables One Novice Literacy Teacher to Make Sense of Complex Teaching Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Linda S.; Voorhees, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a retrospective discourse discussions approach that was developed in a graduate literacy education course. This method represents a reconceptualization of supervising and coaching graduate students where meanings are constructed, problems are reframed, and beginning professionals can develop more nuanced…

  7. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  8. The Use of the Solihull Approach with Children with Complex Neurodevelopmental Difficulties and Sleep Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laura; Newell, Reetta

    2013-01-01

    The following article introduces the Solihull Approach, a structured framework for intervention work with families (Douglas, "Solihull resource pack; the first five years." Cambridge: Jill Rogers Associates, 2001) and aims to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach in working with school-age children with complex neurodevelopmental…

  9. A 3D Interface-Enriched Generalized Finite Element Method for Weakly Discontinuous Problems with Complex Internal Geometries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-04

    c l e i n f o Article history: Received 24 July 2011 Received in revised form 14 November 2011 Accepted 27 December 2011 Available online 4 January...2012 Keywords: GFEM/XFEM Weak discontinuity Convection–diffusion equation Heat transfer problem Convergence study Heterogeneous materials a b s t r a c ...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 previously presented in [30

  10. Experiences with explicit finite-difference schemes for complex fluid dynamics problems on STAR-100 and CYBER-203 computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Rudy, D. H.; Drummond, J. P.; Harris, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Several two- and three-dimensional external and internal flow problems solved on the STAR-100 and CYBER-203 vector processing computers are described. The flow field was described by the full Navier-Stokes equations which were then solved by explicit finite-difference algorithms. Problem results and computer system requirements are presented. Program organization and data base structure for three-dimensional computer codes which will eliminate or improve on page faulting, are discussed. Storage requirements for three-dimensional codes are reduced by calculating transformation metric data in each step. As a result, in-core grid points were increased in number by 50% to 150,000, with a 10% execution time increase. An assessment of current and future machine requirements shows that even on the CYBER-205 computer only a few problems can be solved realistically. Estimates reveal that the present situation is more storage limited than compute rate limited, but advancements in both storage and speed are essential to realistically calculate three-dimensional flow.

  11. TRAINING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO USE VISUAL IMAGINING AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY FOR COMPLEX CATEGORIZATION TASKS

    PubMed Central

    Kisamore, April N; Carr, James E; LeBlanc, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that verbally sophisticated individuals engage in a series of precurrent behaviors (e.g., covert intraverbal behavior, grouping stimuli, visual imagining) to solve problems such as answering questions (Palmer, 1991; Skinner, 1953). We examined the effects of one problem solving strategy—visual imagining—on increasing responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Participants were 4 typically developing preschoolers between the ages of 4 and 5 years. Visual imagining training was insufficient to produce a substantial increase in target responses. It was not until the children were prompted to use the visual imagining strategy that a large and immediate increase in the number of target responses was observed. The number of prompts did not decrease until the children were given a rule describing the use of the visual imagining strategy. Within-session response patterns indicated that none of the children used visual imagining prior to being prompted to do so and that use of the strategy continued after introduction of the rule. These results were consistent for 3 of 4 children. Within-session response patterns suggested that the 4th child occasionally imagined when prompted to do so, but the gains were not maintained. The results are discussed in terms of Skinner's analysis of problem solving and the development of visual imagining. PMID:21709783

  12. Advances in the Theory of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    An exhaustive and comprehensive review on the theory of complex networks would imply nowadays a titanic task, and it would result in a lengthy work containing plenty of technical details of arguable relevance. Instead, this chapter addresses very briefly the ABC of complex network theory, visiting only the hallmarks of the theoretical founding, to finally focus on two of the most interesting and promising current research problems: the study of dynamical processes on transportation networks and the identification of communities in complex networks.

  13. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  14. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  15. Self-adaptive difference method for the effective solution of computationally complex problems of boundary layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenauer, W.; Daeubler, H. G.; Glotz, G.; Gruening, J.

    1986-01-01

    An implicit difference procedure for the solution of equations for a chemically reacting hypersonic boundary layer is described. Difference forms of arbitrary error order in the x and y coordinate plane were used to derive estimates for discretization error. Computational complexity and time were minimized by the use of this difference method and the iteration of the nonlinear boundary layer equations was regulated by discretization error. Velocity and temperature profiles are presented for Mach 20.14 and Mach 18.5; variables are velocity profiles, temperature profiles, mass flow factor, Stanton number, and friction drag coefficient; three figures include numeric data.

  16. Inverse problem of the multislice method in retrieving projected complex potentials from the exit-wave function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang; Jin, Chuanhong

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a new algorithm that retrieves the projected potentials from the EW of object. This algorithm is based on the traditional multislice method which involves the convolution operation in calculation. The retrieved potential is complex including both the electrostatic and absorptive components. Tests with the simulated exit waves of a 200 K InP crystal prove the algorithm effective for objects in wide thickness range. For thick specimen where dynamical electron diffraction prevails, the retrieved potential could present structure and chemical information of object by completely mapping an atom's scattering potential during interaction with incident electrons.

  17. Complex angular momenta approach for scattering problems in the presence of both monopoles and short range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    I analyze the quantum mechanical scattering off a topological defect (such as a Dirac monopole) as well as a Yukawa-like potential(s) representing the typical effects of strong interactions. This system, due to the presence of a short-range potential, can be analyzed using the powerful technique of the complex angular momenta which, so far, has not been employed in the presence of monopoles (nor of other topological solitons). Due to the fact that spatial spherical symmetry is achieved only up to internal rotations, the partial wave expansion becomes very similar to the Jacob-Wick helicity amplitudes for particles with spin. However, since the angular-momentum operator has an extra "internal" contribution, fixed cuts in the complex angular momentum plane appear. Correspondingly, the background integral in the Regge formula does not decrease for large values of |cos θ | (namely, large values of the Mandelstam variable s ). Hence, the experimental observation of this kind of behavior could be a direct signal of nontrivial topological structures in strong interactions. The possible relations of these results with the soft Pomeron are shortly analyzed.

  18. You Can't Get There From Here! Problems and Potential Solutions in Developing New Classes of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    The explosion of capabilities and new products within the sphere of Information Technology (IT) has fostered widespread, overly optimistic opinions regarding the industry, based on common but unjustified assumptions of quality and correctness of software. These assumptions are encouraged by software producers and vendors, who at this late date have not succeeded in finding a way to overcome the lack of an automated, mathematically sound way to develop correct systems from requirements. NASA faces this dilemma as it envisages advanced mission concepts that involve large swarms of small spacecraft that will engage cooperatively to acheve science goals. Such missions entail levels of complexity that beg for new methods for system development far beyond today's methods, which are inadequate for ensuring correct behavior of large numbers of interacting intelligent mission elements. New system development techniques recently devised through NASA-led research will offer some innovative approaches to achieving correctness in complex system development, including autonomous swarm missions that exhibit emergent behavior, as well as general software products created by the computing industry.

  19. Theoretical, spectroscopic, and mechanistic studies on transition-metal dinitrogen complexes: implications to reactivity and relevance to the nitrogenase problem.

    PubMed

    Studt, Felix; Tuczek, Felix

    2006-09-01

    Dinitrogen complexes of transition metals exhibit different binding geometries of N2 (end-on terminal, end-on bridging, side-on bridging, side-on end-on bridging), which are investigated by spectroscopy and DFT calculations, analyzing their electronic structure and reactivity. For comparison, a bis(mu-nitrido) complex, where the N--N bond has been split, has been studied as well. Most of these systems are highly covalent, and have strong metal-nitrogen bonds. In the present review, particular emphasis is put on a consideration of the activation of the coordinated dinitrogen ligand, making it susceptible to protonation, reactions with electrophiles or cleavage. In this context, theoretical, structural, and spectroscopic data giving informations on the amount of charge on the N2 unit are presented. The orbital interactions leading to a charge transfer from the metals to the dinitrogen ligand and the charge distribution within the coordinated N2 group are analyzed. Correlations between the binding mode and the observed reactivity of N2 are discussed.

  20. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  1. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  2. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  3. The evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  4. Towards efficient uncertainty quantification in complex and large-scale biomechanical problems based on a Bayesian multi-fidelity scheme.

    PubMed

    Biehler, Jonas; Gee, Michael W; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2015-06-01

    In simulation of cardiovascular processes and diseases patient-specific model parameters, such as constitutive properties, are usually not easy to obtain. Instead of using population mean values to perform "patient-specific" simulations, thereby neglecting the inter- and intra-patient variations present in these parameters, these uncertainties have to be considered in the computational assessment. However, due to limited computational resources and several shortcomings of traditional uncertainty quantification approaches, parametric uncertainties, modeled as random fields, have not yet been considered in patient-specific, nonlinear, large-scale, and complex biomechanical applications. Hence, the purpose of this study is twofold. First, we present an uncertainty quantification framework based on multi-fidelity sampling and Bayesian formulations. The key feature of the presented method is the ability to rigorously exploit and incorporate information from an approximate, low fidelity model. Most importantly, response statistics of the corresponding high fidelity model can be computed accurately even if the low fidelity model provides only a very poor approximation. The approach merely requires that the low fidelity model and the corresponding high fidelity model share a similar stochastic structure, i.e., dependence on the random input. This results in a tremendous flexibility in choice of the approximate model. The flexibility and capabilities of the framework are demonstrated by performing uncertainty quantification using two patient-specific, large-scale, nonlinear finite element models of abdominal aortic aneurysms. One constitutive parameter of the aneurysmatic arterial wall is modeled as a univariate three-dimensional, non-Gaussian random field, thereby taking into account inter-patient as well as intra-patient variations of this parameter. We use direct Monte Carlo to evaluate the proposed method and found excellent agreement with this reference solution

  5. Ultrasonic simulation—Imagine3D and SimScan: Tools to solve the inverse problem for complex turbine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, H. D.; Ciorau, P.; Owen, D.; Hazelton, T.; Dunning, G.

    2000-05-01

    Two ultrasonic simulation packages: Imagine 3D and SIMSCAN have specifically been developed to solve the inverse problem for blade root and rotor steeple of low-pressure turbine. The software was integrated with the 3D drawing of the inspected parts, and with the dimensions of linear phased-array probes. SIMSCAN simulates the inspection scenario in both optional conditions: defect location and probe movement/refracted angle range. The results are displayed into Imagine 3-D, with a variety of options: rendering, display 1:1, grid, generated UT beam. The results are very useful for procedure developer, training and to optimize the phased-array probe inspection sequence. A spreadsheet is generated to correlate the defect coordinates with UT data (probe position, skew and refracted angle, UT path, and probe movement). The simulation models were validated during experimental work with phased-array systems. The accuracy in probe position is ±1 mm, and the refracted/skew angle is within ±0.5°. Representative examples of phased array focal laws/probe movement for a specific defect location, are also included.

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  7. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  8. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  9. A Need to Address Illiteracy Problems in the Military Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    To determine the effects of deficient reading skills in the military service, researchers met with military and civilian officials from four recruit training centers, major research activities personnel, and the commands accountable for education and training. Next, questionnaires were sent to fifteen recruit training centers to obtain data on the…

  10. A Decision Aid for Addressing Supervisor Span of Control Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    34 SNALRT 2880 2880 2880 9 20 30 <- SAMMO 2880 1440 720 3 21 6 SMAINT 1440 1440 1440 5 22 40 "" SMED 1440 1440 1440 5 23 20 , TASK LIBRARY FOR THREE...5 22 60 SMED 1440 1440 1440 5 23 20 TASK LIBRARY FOR FOUR LAUNCHER PLATOON MOVE 1440 480 240 7 1 8 2 1 3 50 4 3 -------------_ 5 57 m 6 1 •7 1 8 50 9...2880 2880 9 20 30 SAMMO 2880 720 360 3 21 6 SMAINT 1440 1440 1440 5 22 80 SMED 1440 1440 1440 5 23 20 TASK LIBRARY FOR FIVE LAUNCHER PLATOON MOVE 1440

  11. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  12. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  13. Addressing Problems with Scene-Based Wave Front Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C

    2003-08-05

    Scene-Based Wave Front Sensing uses the correlation between successive subimages to determine phase aberrations which blur digital images. Adaptive Optics technology uses deformable mirrors to correct for these phase aberrations and make the images clearer. The correlation between temporal subimages gives tip-tilt information. If these images do not have identical image content, tip-tilt estimations may be incorrect. Motion detection is necessary to help avoid errors initiated by dynamic subimage content. In this document, I will discuss why edge detection fails as a motion detection method on low resolution images and how thresholding the normalized variance of individual pixels is successful for motion detection.

  14. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  15. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  16. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  17. A simple thermodynamic model for quantitatively addressing cooperativity in multicomponent self-assembly processes--part 1: Theoretical concepts and application to monometallic coordination complexes and bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hamacek, Josef; Borkovec, Michal; Piguet, Claude

    2005-09-05

    A thermodynamic model has been developed for quantitatively estimating cooperativity in supramolecular polymetallic [M(m)L(n)] assemblies, as the combination of two simple indexes measuring intermetallic (I(c)MM) and interligand (I(c)LL) interactions. The usual microscopic intermolecular metal-ligand affinities (f(i)(M,L)) and intermetallic interaction parameters (uMM), adapted to the description of successive intermolecular binding of metal ions to a preorganized receptor, are completed with interligand interactions (uLL) and effective concentrations (c(eff)), accounting for the explicit free energy associated with the aggregation of the ligands forming the receptor. Application to standard monometallic pseudo-octahedral complexes [M(L)(n)(H2O)(6 - n)] (M = Co, Ni, Hf, L = ammonia, fluoride, imidazole, n = 1-6) systematically shows negative cooperativity (uLL < 1), which can be modulated by the electronic structures, charges, and sizes of the entering ligands and of the metal ions. Extension to the self-assembly of more sophisticated bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites is discussed, together with the origin of the positively cooperative formation of [Eu2(L3)3].

  18. Refugees and Migrants: Problems and Program Responses. A Look at the Causes and Consequences of Today's Major International Population Flows, and at the Ford Foundation's New Programs to Address the Problems of Refugees and Migrants in the United States and Elsewhere in the World. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The paper reflects the Ford Foundation's emphasis since 1980 on long-term problems of refugees and migrants across national borders, and the desire of the Foundation staff to strengthen the long-term capacity of key institutions and communities to cope with population flows. Focus is first on the consequences of migrant flows for sending and…

  19. Addressable and Color-Tunable Piezophotonic Light-Emitting Stripes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Chen, Li; Hao, Jianhua; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-03-15

    Piezophotonic light-emitting devices have great potential for future microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to the added functionality provided by the electromechanical transduction coupled with the ability of light emission. Piezophotonic light-emitting source based on Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3 )O3 -PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) bulk is severely restricted by many challenges, such as high voltage burden, low integration density, and micromanufacturing complexity. Developing chip-integrated devices or incorporating such photonic components onto a Si platform is highly sought after in this field. In this work, the authors overcome the abovementioned problems by introducing single-crystal PMN-PT thin films on Si as central active elements. Taking advantage of mature microfabrication techniques, arrays of PMN-PT actuators with small footprints and low operation voltages have been implemented. Each actuator can be individually addressed, generating local deformation to trigger piezophotonic luminescence from ZnS:Mn thin films. Moreover, the authors have realized continuous and reversible color manipulation of piezophotonic luminescence on a bilayer film of ZnS:Cu,Al/ZnS:Mn. The color tunability promises an extra degree of freedom and distinctly suggests its great potential in developing a more compact and colorful piezophotonic light sources and displays related applications together with the "single pixel" addressability.

  20. Outcomes-Based Authentic Learning, Portfolio Assessment, and a Systems Approach to "Complex Problem-Solving": Related Pillars for Enhancing the Innovative Role of PBL in Future Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve "active learning" approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and…

  1. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  2. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  3. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  4. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  5. The Problems with "Noise Numbers" for Wind Farm Noise Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Human perception responds primarily to sound character rather than sound level. Wind farms are unique sound sources and exhibit special audible and inaudible characteristics that can be described as modulating sound or as a tonal complex. Wind farm compliance measures based on a specified noise number alone will fail to address problems with noise…

  6. Developing and Validating a Conceptual Model of Recurring Problems in Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Christiano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent problems in medical teaching clinic are common and difficult to address because of complex interpersonal dynamics. To minimize this difficulty, we developed a conceptual model that simplifies problems and identifies the root cause of tension between groups in clinic. We used recursive analysis and modeling of the data from a larger…

  7. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  8. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  9. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  10. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  11. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  12. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  13. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  14. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  15. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  16. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  17. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  18. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  19. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  20. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  1. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  4. Helping Teachers Address Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Children are natural learners, but they need to have their internal, intrinsic motivation to be lifelong learners reinforced. In today's media-driven, pressure cooker world, children don't always know how to engage in the complex play that leads to deeper learning. They often need adult intervention to help them move from simplistic, repetitive…

  5. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  6. Addressing palliative care clinician burnout in organizations: a workforce necessity, an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Krista L; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Christine S; Shanafelt, Tait D; Kamal, Arif H; Bull, Janet H; Tilburt, Jon C; Swetz, Keith M

    2017-02-11

    Clinician burnout reduces the capacity for providers and health systems to deliver timely, high quality, patient-centered care and increases the risk that clinicians will leave practice. This is especially problematic in hospice and palliative care: patients are often frail, elderly, vulnerable and complex; access to care is often outstripped by need; and demand for clinical experts will increase as palliative care further integrates into usual care. Efforts to mitigate and prevent burnout currently focus on individual clinicians. However, analysis of the problem of burnout should be expanded to include both individual- and systems-level factors as well as solutions; comprehensive interventions must address both. As a society, we hold organizations responsible for acting ethically, especially when it relates to deployment and protection of valuable and constrained resources. We should similarly hold organizations responsible for being ethical stewards of the resource of highly trained and talented clinicians through comprehensive programs to address burnout.

  7. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  8. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  9. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  13. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  14. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  15. A Correlational Study Assessing the Relationships among Information Technology Project Complexity, Project Complication, and Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The specific problem addressed in this study was the low success rate of information technology (IT) projects in the U.S. Due to the abstract nature and inherent complexity of software development, IT projects are among the most complex projects encountered. Most existing schools of project management theory are based on the rational systems…

  16. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  17. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  18. Access inequalities addressed by audit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) protects disabled people from discrimination in access to services, facilities and goods as well as in education and employment. All hospitals have an inherent duty to enable access to services but this will now be enshrined in law. As the health sector has most contact with disability, it may be expected that most hospitals would already be in a good position to comply with the Act, especially one treating many patients with disability. However we identified many problems in a rehabilitation hospital setting by means of a simple access audit in March 2004. Recommendations were set out and by March 2005 considerable improvements had been made costing Pound 100,000. Although many necessary changes will be expensive, not all problems identified require costly correction. Many simply involve a change in staff attitudes and practices. We recommend that all hospitals start to identify the changes needed under the Act by means of a simple access audit that can be carried out by hospital staff with no specialist equipment.

  19. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Stochastic Control of Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Maroulas, Vasileios; Xiong, Professor Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of subsystems that interact with each other and the environment. We treat the stochastic control problem as a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution is an optimal control policy that minimizes the average cost criterion for the entire system. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value in deriving online an optimal control policy in complex systems.

  20. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.