Science.gov

Sample records for address complex problems

  1. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  2. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  3. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  4. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  5. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  6. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  8. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  9. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  10. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  11. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  12. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  13. Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Collier, Kate L.; Grossberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

  14. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  15. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  16. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  17. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2009-09-01

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  18. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-12

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  19. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-11

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  20. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  1. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  2. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  3. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  4. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  5. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  6. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  7. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  8. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  9. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  10. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of anatomy and…

  11. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  12. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  13. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  14. [Collections of pathogenic viruses for addressing general biologic problems].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A

    2007-01-01

    Development of the theory and practice of building and maintenance of collections of reference cultures of pathogens strains is actual in conservation of a biodiversity, and as for maintenance with standardized superfine starting materials fundamental and applied researches in fields of microbiology, an immunology, biotechnology, ecology, and biosafety. Various approaches to taxonomy of viruses, and also definition of concepts "strain" and "species" are discussed in the article. Formulations of the concepts most conforming to museum collections activity are given. The methodology of collecting pathogens, including fifteen-year experience of maintenance of the National collection of hemorrhagic fever viruses belonging to group I of pathogenicity, is summarized. The systemic approach is suggested as a basis of methodology of collecting. Selection of pathogen species and their specific strains according to purpose and on the basis of complex study of their biological and other characteristics, as well as standardization and unification of methods of pathogens maintenance and preparing on their basis working materials, diagnostic kits and other preparations, create a real basis of optimization, unification and continuity of the subsequent applied researches. The offer about formation at the state level of a new independent direction--pathogens collecting with establishment of federal centers based on pathogens' classes has been made. PMID:18277545

  15. Addressing health concerns of pregnant African American women using the lens of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Sims, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant African American women are at higher risk for multiple complex health issues, including depression, than their European American counterparts (Canady, Bullen, Holzman, Broman, & Tian, 2008; Martin et al, 2011; Mathews & MacDorman, 2007; Orr, Blazer, & James, 2006; Segre, Losch, & O'Hara, 2006). Various strategies must be used to address depression through preventive care and promotion of access to appropriate mental health services. Nurses and other health care providers need to examine the relationships between the multifactorial problems to improve the health and well-being of pregnant African American women and their unborn children. This article presents a case study demonstrating the use of complexity science theory to understand and prevent poor health outcomes for pregnant African American women with depression and their unborn children. PMID:26050422

  16. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  17. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

  18. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  19. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  20. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  1. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  2. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  3. Selecting model complexity in learning problems

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, K.L.; Kumar, P.R.

    1993-10-01

    To learn (or generalize) from noisy data, one must resist the temptation to pick a model for the underlying process that overfits the data. Many existing techniques solve this problem at the expense of requiring the evaluation of an absolute, a priori measure of each model`s complexity. We present a method that does not. Instead, it uses a natural, relative measure of each model`s complexity. This method first creates a pool of ``simple`` candidate models using part of the data and then selects from among these by using the rest of the data.

  4. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  5. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  6. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  7. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  8. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  9. Fractal applications to complex crustal problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Complex scale-invariant problems obey fractal statistics. The basic definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects with a characteristic linear dimension greater than r satisfies the relation N = about r exp -D where D is the fractal dimension. Fragmentation often satisfies this relation. The distribution of earthquakes satisfies this relation. The classic relationship between the length of a rocky coast line and the step length can be derived from this relation. Power law relations for spectra can also be related to fractal dimensions. Topography and gravity are examples. Spectral techniques can be used to obtain maps of fractal dimension and roughness amplitude. These provide a quantitative measure of texture analysis. It is argued that the distribution of stress and strength in a complex crustal region, such as the Alps, is fractal. Based on this assumption, the observed frequency-magnitude relation for the seismicity in the region can be derived.

  10. Complex energies and the polyelectronic Stark problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themelis, Spyros I.; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2000-12-01

    The problem of computing the energy shifts and widths of ground or excited N-electron atomic states perturbed by weak or strong static electric fields is dealt with by formulating a state-specific complex eigenvalue Schrödinger equation (CESE), where the complex energy contains the field-induced shift and width. The CESE is solved to all orders nonperturbatively, by using separately optimized N-electron function spaces, composed of real and complex one-electron functions, the latter being functions of a complex coordinate. The use of such spaces is a salient characteristic of the theory, leading to economy and manageability of calculation in terms of a two-step computational procedure. The first step involves only Hermitian matrices. The second adds complex functions and the overall computation becomes non-Hermitian. Aspects of the formalism and of computational strategy are compared with those of the complex absorption potential (CAP) method, which was recently applied for the calculation of field-induced complex energies in H and Li. Also compared are the numerical results of the two methods, and the questions of accuracy and convergence that were posed by Sahoo and Ho (Sahoo S and Ho Y K 2000 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33 2195) are explored further. We draw attention to the fact that, because in the region where the field strength is weak the tunnelling rate (imaginary part of the complex eigenvalue) diminishes exponentially, it is possible for even large-scale nonperturbative complex eigenvalue calculations either to fail completely or to produce seemingly stable results which, however, are wrong. It is in this context that the discrepancy in the width of Li 1s22s 2S between results obtained by the CAP method and those obtained by the CESE method is interpreted. We suggest that the very-weak-field regime must be computed by the golden rule, provided the continuum is represented accurately. In this respect, existing one-particle semiclassical formulae seem

  11. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  12. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  13. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  14. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  15. The Guarding Problem - Complexity and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, T. V. Thirumala; Krishna, D. Sai; Rangan, C. Pandu

    Let G = (V, E) be the given graph and G R = (V R ,E R ) and G C = (V C ,E C ) be the sub graphs of G such that V R ∩ V C = ∅ and V R ∪ V C = V. G C is referred to as the cops region and G R is called as the robber region. Initially a robber is placed at some vertex of V R and the cops are placed at some vertices of V C . The robber and cops may move from their current vertices to one of their neighbours. While a cop can move only within the cops region, the robber may move to any neighbour. The robber and cops move alternatively. A vertex v ∈ V C is said to be attacked if the current turn is the robber's turn, the robber is at vertex u where u ∈ V R , (u,v) ∈ E and no cop is present at v. The guarding problem is to find the minimum number of cops required to guard the graph G C from the robber's attack. We first prove that the decision version of this problem when G R is an arbitrary undirected graph is PSPACE-hard. We also prove that the complexity of the decision version of the guarding problem when G R is a wheel graph is NP-hard. We then present approximation algorithms if G R is a star graph, a clique and a wheel graph with approximation ratios H(n 1), 2 H(n 1) and left( H(n1) + 3/2 right) respectively, where H(n1) = 1 + 1/2 + ... + 1/n1 and n 1 = ∣ V R ∣.

  16. The complex problem of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Holmes, Jo; Peters, Lisa; Cooper, Karen; Rowson, Matthew; Basketter, David A

    2005-08-01

    There exists within the population subsets of individuals who display heightened skin reactivity to materials the majority find tolerable. In a series of investigations, we have examined interrelationships between many of the endpoints associated with the term 'sensitive skin'. In the most recent work, 58 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.5% menthol and 1.0% capsaicin on the nasolabial fold, unoccluded, with sensory reactions recorded at 2.5 min, 5 min and 8 min after application. Urticant susceptibility was evaluated with 1 m benzoic acid and 125 mM trans-cinnamic acid applied to the volar forearm for 20 min. A 2 x 23-h patch test was also conducted using 0.1% and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.3% and 0.6% cocamidopropyl betaine and 0.1% and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to determine irritant susceptibility. As found in previous studies, increased susceptibility to one endpoint was not predictive of sensitivity to another. In our experience, nasolabial stinging was a poor predictor of general skin sensitivity. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify in the normal population individuals who, coincidentally, are more generally sensitive to a range of non-immunologic adverse skin reactions. Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed. PMID:16033403

  17. Addressing antimicrobial resistance in China: policy implementation in a complex context.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiulan; Liang, Xiaoyun; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotics in treating bacterial infections is decreasing in China because of the widespread development of resistant organisms. Although China has enacted a number of regulations to address this problem, but the impact is very limited. This paper investigates the implementation of these regulations through the lens of complex adaptive systems (CAS). It presents the findings from reviews of relevant policy documents and published papers. The paper identifies different types of agent and explores their interaction with regard to the use of antibiotics and their responses to changes of the regulations. It focuses particularly on the impact of perverse financial incentives on overall patterns of use of antibiotics. Implications for the possibilities of nonlinear results, interactive relationships, and new pathways of policy implementation are discussed. The paper concludes that policy-makers need to better understand the objectives, incentives and potential adaptive behaviors of the agents when they implement interventions to improve antibiotic use and reduce the risk of emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:27267876

  18. Decomposing a complex design problem using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multidisciplinary. Before the design of such complex systems can begin, much time and money are invested in determining the possible couplings among the participating subsystems and their parts. For designs based on existing concepts, like commercial aircraft design, the subsystems and their couplings are usually well-established. However, for designs based on novel concepts, like large space platforms, the determination of the subsystems, couplings, and participating disciplines is an important task. Moreover, this task must be repeated as new information becomes available or as the design specifications change. Determining the subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. The design manager must know how to divide the design work among the design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. The resulting subsystems must be ordered into a hierarchical structure before the planning documents and milestones of the design project are set. The success of a design project often depends on the wise choice of design variables, constraints, objective functions, and the partitioning of these among the design teams. Very few tools are available to aid the design manager in determining the hierarchical structure of a design problem and assist in making these decisions.

  19. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  20. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  1. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  2. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  3. Managing Complex Problems in Rangeland Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of rangelands, and natural resources in general, has become increasingly complex. There is an atmosphere of increasing expectations for conservation efforts associated with a variety of issues from water quality to endangered species. We argue that many current issues are complex by their...

  4. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  5. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  6. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  7. The problem of motivating teaching staff in a complex amalgamation.

    PubMed

    Kenrick, M A

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses some of the problems brought about by the merger of a number of schools of nursing into a new complex amalgamation. A very real concern in the new colleges of nursing and midwifery in the United Kingdom is the effect of amalgamation on management systems and staff morale. The main focus of this paper is the motivation of staff during this time of change. There is currently a lack of security amongst staff and in many instances the personal job satisfaction of nurse teachers and managers of nurse education has been reduced, which has made the task of motivating staff difficult. Hence, two major theories of motivation and the implications of these theories for managers of nurse education are discussed. The criteria used for the selection of managers within the new colleges, leadership styles and organizational structures are reviewed. The amalgamations have brought about affiliation with higher-education institutions. Some problems associated with these mergers and the effects on the motivation of staff both within the higher-education institutions and the nursing colleges are outlined. Strategies for overcoming some of the problems are proposed including job enlargement, job enrichment, potential achievement rewards and the use of individual performance reviews which may be useful for assessing the ability of all staff, including managers, in the new amalgamations. PMID:8258610

  8. Complex partial status epilepticus: a recurrent problem.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O C; Walker, M C; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with complex partial status epilepticus were identified retrospectively from a specialist neurology hospital. Seventeen patients experienced recurrent episodes of complex partial status epilepticus, often occurring at regular intervals, usually over many years, and while being treated with effective anti-epileptic drugs. No unifying cause for the recurrences, and no common epilepsy aetiologies, were identified. In spite of the frequency of recurrence and length of history, none of the patients showed any marked evidence of cognitive or neurological deterioration. Complex partial status epilepticus is more common than is generally recognised, should be differentiated from other forms of non-convulsive status, and is often difficult to treat. PMID:8021671

  9. Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)

  10. Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2005-01-01

    The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

  11. Multigrid Methods for Aerodynamic Problems in Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Work has been directed at the development of efficient multigrid methods for the solution of aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including the development of computational methods for the solution of both inviscid and viscous transonic flow problems. The emphasis is on problems of complex, three-dimensional geometry. The methods developed are based upon finite-volume approximations to both the Euler and the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The methods are developed for use on multi-block grids using diagonalized implicit multigrid methods to achieve computational efficiency. The work is focused upon aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including advanced engine inlets.

  12. Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-05-01

    We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.

  13. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  14. Preparing for Complexity and Wicked Problems through Transformational Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukawa, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As the information environment becomes increasingly complex and challenging, Library and Information Studies (LIS) education is called upon to nurture innovative leaders capable of managing complex situations and "wicked problems." While disciplinary expertise remains essential, higher levels of mental complexity and adaptive…

  15. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  16. Minimum structural controllability problems of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongli; Zhang, Siying

    2016-02-01

    Controllability of complex networks has been one of the attractive research areas for both network and control community, and has yielded many promising and significant results in minimum inputs and minimum driver vertices. However, few studies have been devoted to studying the minimum controlled vertex set through which control over the network with arbitrary structure can be achieved. In this paper, we prove that the minimum driver vertices driven by different inputs are not sufficient to ensure the full control of the network when the associated graph contains the inaccessible strongly connected component which has perfect matching and propose an algorithm to identify a minimum controlled vertex set for network with arbitrary structure using convenient graph and mathematical tools. And the simulation results show that the controllability of network is correlated to the number of inaccessible strongly connected components which have perfect matching and these results promote us to better understand the relationship between the network's structural characteristics and its control.

  17. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  18. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  19. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  20. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  1. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  2. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  3. The Advantages of Structural Equation Modeling to Address the Complexity of Spatial Reference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro S.; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis; Silva, Joana; Takashima, Akihiko; Sousa, Nuno; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Costa, Patrício S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive performance is a complex process influenced by multiple factors. Cognitive assessment in experimental animals is often based on longitudinal datasets analyzed using uni- and multi-variate analyses, that do not account for the temporal dimension of cognitive performance and also do not adequately quantify the relative contribution of individual factors onto the overall behavioral outcome. To circumvent these limitations, we applied an Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) to analyze the Morris water maze (MWM) test in a complex experimental design involving four factors: stress, age, sex, and genotype. Outcomes were compared with a traditional Mixed-Design Factorial ANOVA (MDF ANOVA). Results: In both the MDF ANOVA and ALT models, sex, and stress had a significant effect on learning throughout the 9 days. However, on the ALT approach, the effects of sex were restricted to the learning growth. Unlike the MDF ANOVA, the ALT model revealed the influence of single factors at each specific learning stage and quantified the cross interactions among them. In addition, ALT allows us to consider the influence of baseline performance, a critical and unsolved problem that frequently yields inaccurate interpretations in the classical ANOVA model. Discussion: Our findings suggest the beneficial use of ALT models in the analysis of complex longitudinal datasets offering a better biological interpretation of the interrelationship of the factors that may influence cognitive performance. PMID:26955327

  4. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  5. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  6. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  7. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  8. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  9. Emergent Science: Solving complex science problems via collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Wilson, B. D.; Lynnes, C.; Conover, H.

    2009-12-01

    The recent advances in Cyberinfrastructure have democratized the use of computational and data resources. These resources together with new social networking and collaboration technologies, present an unprecedented opportunity to impact the science process. These advances can move the science process from “circumspect science” -- where scientists publish only when the project is complete, publish only the final results, seldom publish things that did not work, and communicate results with each other using paper technology -- to “open science” -- where scientists can share and publish every element in their research, from the data used as input, workflows used to analyze these data sets, possibly failed experiments, and the final results. Open science can foster novel ways of social collaboration in science. We are already seeing the impact of social collaboration in our daily lives. A simple example is the use of reviews posted online by other consumers while evaluating whether to buy a product or not. This phenomenon has been well documented and is referred by many names such as Smart Mobs, Wisdom of Crowds, Wikinomics, Crowd sourcing, We-Think and swarm collaboration. Similar social collaborations during the science process can lead to “emergent science”. We define "emergent science" as way complex science problems can be solved and new research directions forged out of a multiplicity of relatively simple collaborative interactions. There are, however, barriers that prevent social collaboration within the science process. Some of these barriers are technical such as lack of science collaboration platforms and the others are social. The success of any collaborative platform has to take into account the incentives or motivation for the scientists to participate. This presentation will address obstacles facing emergent science and will suggest possible solutions required to build a critical mass.

  10. Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

  11. On the Complexity of Rearrangement Problems under the Breakpoint Distance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We study the complexity of rearrangement problems in the generalized breakpoint model of Tannier et al. and settle several open questions. We improve the algorithm for the median problem and show that it is equivalent to the problem of finding maximum cardinality nonbipartite matching (under linear reduction). On the other hand, we prove that the more general small phylogeny problem is NP-hard. Surprisingly, we show that it is already NP-hard (or even APX-hard) for a quartet phylogeny. We also show that in the unichromosomal and the multilinear breakpoint model the halving problem is NP-hard, refuting the conjecture of Tannier et al. Interestingly, this is the first problem that is harder in the breakpoint model than in the double cut and join or reversal models. PMID:24200391

  12. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  13. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  14. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  15. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  16. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  17. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  18. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  19. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  20. Particle swarm optimization for complex nonlinear optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Alex; Famelis, Ioannis Th.; Tsitouras, Charalambos

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the application of a technique belonging to evolutionary computation, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), to complex nonlinear optimization problems. To be more specific, a PSO optimizer is setup and applied to the derivation of Runge-Kutta pairs for the numerical solution of initial value problems. The effect of critical PSO operational parameters on the performance of the proposed scheme is thoroughly investigated.

  1. Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.

    1997-12-05

    We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.

  2. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  3. Monitoring hypoxia: approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Janssen, Felix; He, Yunchang; Holtappels, Moritz; Konovalov, Sergey; Prien, Ralf; Rehder, Gregor; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    , and proved highly suitable to resolve oxygen intrusions into highly stratified systems and hence, to identify and localize processes in complex redoxclines. We also present an example of novel technology applied in the Baltic Sea, which would be highly suitable for the Black Sea. The time series recordings of the profiling instrumentation platform GODESS in the Gotland Basin allowed a thorough characterization of oscillating redoxclines as temporally dynamic, three-dimensional systems. Stand-alone static moorings equipped with optical oxygen sensors, current meters, and turbidity sensors allowed to resolve fast oxygen fluctuations at the sediment-water interface due to, e.g., internal waves and Ekman pumping on the Crimean shelf and identified the formation of seasonal (summer) hypoxia as an highly dynamic process on the north-western Black Sea shelf. This comprehensive study within the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and land-locked water bodies", www.hypox.net) was able to address many aspects of hypoxia, e.g., in the Black Sea, and revealed the vital need for dedicated oxygen monitoring programs to adequately address the risk of hypoxia formation and ecosystem response. The challenge in any kind of monitoring is to choose the appropriate approach and technology that is suited to resolve the temporal and spatial scales on which the phenomenon occurs.

  4. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  5. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  6. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  7. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. PMID:25439245

  8. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  9. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

  10. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  11. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  12. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  13. Addressing behavior problems among school-aged children: traditional and controversial approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M L

    1997-08-01

    Managing children's behaviors is primarily the responsibility of parents, but pediatricians can help parents be more effective managers, especially when the child involved is presenting a particular challenge. Such help can range from providing reading material and brief counseling to referring the family to mental health clinicians. First, the pediatrician must be able to identify and judge the severity of the problems to refer appropriately. Behavioral interventions, commonly based on the principles of behavior modification with an emphasis on improving the positive and reinforcing aspects of parent-child relationships, can be effective. In addition, pediatricians need to be aware of unconventional therapies in the categories of dietary and exercise interventions. They need to know what motivates parents to seek such therapies, how to judge the efficacy of these approaches, and how to help parents become better-informed consumers. PMID:9255992

  14. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

  15. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  16. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field. PMID:24796867

  17. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  18. Complexity and efficient approximability of two dimensional periodically specified problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    The authors consider the two dimensional periodic specifications: a method to specify succinctly objects with highly regular repetitive structure. These specifications arise naturally when processing engineering designs including VLSI designs. These specifications can specify objects whose sizes are exponentially larger than the sizes of the specification themselves. Consequently solving a periodically specified problem by explicitly expanding the instance is prohibitively expensive in terms of computational resources. This leads one to investigate the complexity and efficient approximability of solving graph theoretic and combinatorial problems when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications. They prove the following results: (1) several classical NP-hard optimization problems become NEXPTIME-hard, when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications; (2) in contrast, several of these NEXPTIME-hard problems have polynomial time approximation algorithms with guaranteed worst case performance.

  19. What kind of curriculum can better address community needs? Problems arisen by hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Haeri, A; Hemmati, P; Yaman, H

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems arisen by conventional curricula, the guidelines for development of an appropriate educational model for 21st century, and the advantages and disadvantages of the last two curricular models. The medical education literature published from 1995 through 2002 of four reputable journals in medical education were searched (Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First the possibly best articles were identified. During the second screening process 76 of 180 articles were found to be highly relevant to our questions. A review of the chosen articles revealed a concept map which starts from currently applied hypothetical-deductive reasoning (HDR)-based curricula in many medical schools all around the world. Results revelaed that continuing cyclical process might be time consuming, enhance burden of faculty and might be stressful for students involved. Current issues in health care system are possibly attributable to current HDR-based curricular models including PBL. Advantages of reiterative PBL theory can not be denied, but it appears that its limited application should be mainly seen in some academic classes to develop some generic transferable skills simultaneously with other teaching methods. Therefore vast application of HDR in clinical settings is not recommended according to our study. However the relationships demonstrated between factors and outcomes mentioned in the concept map can be used to run some new studies to test some hypotheses. PMID:17622019

  20. Addressing the issue of cataloging and making chiropractic literature accessible: Part I: Defining the problem.

    PubMed

    Curl, D D; Antovich, T J

    1990-06-01

    Health science journals are a principle source of new knowledge for chiropractors, chiropractic faculty and students. Regrettably, clinically or educationally relevant articles (appearing in the nearly 20,000 journals annually) are often overlooked due to access difficulties. Innovations are needed to assist the reader to select articles relevant to chiropractic and reduce the time spent sorting through the volumes of literature. A review of the literature shows there is a trend toward database management for cataloging and accessibility of other, nonchiropractic, literature. Most notable of these is an endeavor by National Technical Information Service, commonly referred to as MEDLARS (Medline). It is interesting to note that a computer-assisted library database program does not exist on any chiropractic campus. This is in contrast with the trend on campuses of other health care fields. Manual search strategies within the chiropractic literature are time consuming, subject to a high failure rate, and even if the search produces citations, there is no assurance the journal can be accessed unless a chiropractic campus is nearby. Furthermore, difficulties exist when a chiropractic literature search is attempted in any computerized database, e.g., MEDLARS (Medline). Journals/articles that are unique to chiropractic (national, international or on the state level) are not specifically included in these computerized databases. Aside from these difficulties, there exists the problem of finding those articles that contain valid and relevant information from among those that are less valid or informative. PMID:2198323

  1. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  2. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  4. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  5. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  6. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  7. Complexity and approximability of quantified and stochastic constraint satisfaction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, H. B.; Stearns, R. L.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-01-01

    Let D be an arbitrary (not necessarily finite) nonempty set, let C be a finite set of constant symbols denoting arbitrary elements of D, and let S be an arbitrary finite set of finite-arity relations on D. We denote the problem of determining the satisfiability of finite conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and symbols in C) by SAT(S) (by SAT{sub c}(S)). Here, we study simultaneously the complexity of and the existence of efficient approximation algorithms for a number of variants of the problems SAT(S) and SAT{sub c}(S), and for many different D, C, and S. These problem variants include decision and optimization problems, for formulas, quantified formulas stochastically-quantified formulas. We denote these problems by Q-SAT(S), MAX-Q-SAT(S), S-SAT(S), MAX-S-SAT(S) MAX-NSF-Q-SAT(S) and MAX-NSF-S-SAT(S). The main contribution is the development of a unified predictive theory for characterizing the the complexity of these problems. Our unified approach is based on the following basic two basic concepts: (i) strongly-local replacements/reductions and (ii) relational/algebraic representability. Let k {ge} 2. Let S be a finite set of finite-arity relations on {Sigma}{sub k} with the following condition on S: All finite arity relations on {Sigma}{sub k} can be represented as finite existentially-quantified conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and constant symbols in C), Then we prove the following new results: (1) The problems SAT(S) and SAT{sub c}(S) are both NQL-complete and {le}{sub logn}{sup bw}-complete for NP. (2) The problems Q-SAT(S), Q-SAT{sub c}(S), are PSPACE-complete. Letting k = 2, the problem S-SAT(S) and S-SAT{sub c}(S) are PSPACE-complete. (3) {exists} {epsilon} > 0 for which approximating the problems MAX-Q-SAT(S) within {epsilon} times optimum is PSPACE-hard. Letting k =: 2, {exists} {epsilon} > 0 for which approximating the problems MAX-S-SAT(S) within {epsilon} times optimum is PSPACE-hard. (4

  8. COMPLEXITY&APPROXIMABILITY OF QUANTIFIED&STOCHASTIC CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, H. B.; Marathe, M. V.; Stearns, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Let D be an arbitrary (not necessarily finite) nonempty set, let C be a finite set of constant symbols denoting arbitrary elements of D, and let S and T be an arbitrary finite set of finite-arity relations on D. We denote the problem of determining the satisfiability of finite conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and symbols in C) by SAT(S) (by SATc(S).) Here, we study simultaneously the complexity of decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. We present simple yet general techniques to characterize simultaneously, the complexity or efficient approximability of a number of versions/variants of the problems SAT(S), Q-SAT(S), S-SAT(S),MAX-Q-SAT(S) etc., for many different such D,C ,S, T. These versions/variants include decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. Our unified approach is based on the following two basic concepts: (i) strongly-local replacements/reductions and (ii) relational/algebraic represent ability. Some of the results extend the earlier results in [Pa85,LMP99,CF+93,CF+94O]u r techniques and results reported here also provide significant steps towards obtaining dichotomy theorems, for a number of the problems above, including the problems MAX-&-SAT( S), and MAX-S-SAT(S). The discovery of such dichotomy theorems, for unquantified formulas, has received significant recent attention in the literature [CF+93,CF+94,Cr95,KSW97

  9. The bright side of being blue: Depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Paul W.; Thomson, J. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Depression ranks as the primary emotional problem for which help is sought. Depressed people often have severe, complex problems, and rumination is a common feature. Depressed people often believe that their ruminations give them insight into their problems, but clinicians often view depressive rumination as pathological because it is difficult to disrupt and interferes with the ability to concentrate on other things. Abundant evidence indicates that depressive rumination involves the analysis of episode-related problems. Because analysis is time consuming and requires sustained processing, disruption would interfere with problem-solving. The analytical rumination (AR) hypothesis proposes that depression is an adaptation that evolved as a response to complex problems and whose function is to minimize disruption of rumination and sustain analysis of complex problems. It accomplishes this by giving episode-related problems priority access to limited processing resources, by reducing the desire to engage in distracting activities (anhedonia), and by producing psychomotor changes that reduce exposure to distracting stimuli. Because processing resources are limited, the inability to concentrate on other things is a tradeoff that must be made to sustain analysis of the triggering problem. The AR hypothesis is supported by evidence from many levels, including genes, neurotransmitters and their receptors, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neuroenergetics, pharmacology, cognition and behavior, and the efficacy of treatments. In addition, we address and provide explanations for puzzling findings in the cognitive and behavioral genetics literatures on depression. In the process, we challenge the belief that serotonin transmission is low in depression. Finally, we discuss implications of the hypothesis for understanding and treating depression. PMID:19618990

  10. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  11. Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

    2012-01-01

    Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

  12. When Time Makes a Difference: Addressing Ergodicity and Complexity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The detection of complexity in behavioral outcomes often requires an estimation of their variability over a prolonged time spectrum to assess processes of stability and transformation. Conventional scholarship typically relies on time-independent measures, "snapshots", to analyze those outcomes, assuming that group means and their…

  13. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  14. Complexity and Approximation of a Geometric Local Robot Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonorden, Olaf; Degener, Bastian; Kempkes, Barbara; Pietrzyk, Peter

    We introduce a geometric multi-robot assignment problem. Robots positioned in a Euclidean space have to be assigned to treasures in such a way that their joint strength is sufficient to unearth a treasure with a given weight. The robots have a limited range and thus can only be assigned to treasures in their proximity. The objective is to unearth as many treasures as possible. We investigate the complexity of several variants of this problem and show whether they are in {mathcal P} or are mathcal{ NP}-complete. Furthermore, we provide a distributed and local constant-factor approximation algorithm using constant-factor resource augmentation for the two-dimensional setting with {mathcal O}(log^*n) communication rounds.

  15. Coordinating complex problem-solving among distributed intelligent agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    A process-oriented control model is described for distributed problem solving. The model coordinates the transfer and manipulation of information across independent networked applications, both intelligent and conventional. The model was implemented using SOCIAL, a set of object-oriented tools for distributing computing. Complex sequences of distributed tasks are specified in terms of high level scripts. Scripts are executed by SOCIAL objects called Manager Agents, which realize an intelligent coordination model that routes individual tasks to suitable server applications across the network. These tools are illustrated in a prototype distributed system for decision support of ground operations for NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

  16. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  17. Tool for evaluating research implementation challenges: A sense-making protocol for addressing implementation challenges in complex research settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many challenges arise in complex organizational interventions that threaten research integrity. This article describes a Tool for Evaluating Research Implementation Challenges (TECH), developed using a complexity science framework to assist research teams in assessing and managing these challenges. Methods During the implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of organizational interventions to reduce resident falls in eight nursing homes, we inductively developed, and later codified the TECH. The TECH was developed through processes that emerged from interactions among research team members and nursing home staff participants, including a purposive use of complexity science principles. Results The TECH provided a structure to assess challenges systematically, consider their potential impact on intervention feasibility and fidelity, and determine actions to take. We codified the process into an algorithm that can be adopted or adapted for other research projects. We present selected examples of the use of the TECH that are relevant to many complex interventions. Conclusions Complexity theory provides a useful lens through which research procedures can be developed to address implementation challenges that emerge from complex organizations and research designs. Sense-making is a group process in which diverse members interpret challenges when available information is ambiguous; the groups’ interpretations provide cues for taking action. Sense-making facilitates the creation of safe environments for generating innovative solutions that balance research integrity and practical issues. The challenges encountered during implementation of complex interventions are often unpredictable; however, adoption of a systematic process will allow investigators to address them in a consistent yet flexible manner, protecting fidelity. Research integrity is also protected by allowing for appropriate adaptations to intervention protocols that

  18. Investigating hypoxia in aquatic environments: diverse approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; Boltacheva, N.; Çağatay, M. N.; Dale, A. W.; Etiope, G.; Erdem, Z.; Geraga, M.; Gilli, A.; Gomoiu, M. T.; Hall, P. O. J.; Hansson, D.; He, Y.; Holtappels, M.; Kirf, M. K.; Kononets, M.; Konovalov, S.; Lichtschlag, A.; Livingstone, D. M.; Marinaro, G.; Mazlumyan, S.; Naeher, S.; North, R. P.; Papatheodorou, G.; Pfannkuche, O.; Prien, R.; Rehder, G.; Schubert, C. J.; Soltwedel, T.; Sommer, S.; Stahl, H.; Stanev, E. V.; Teaca, A.; Tengberg, A.; Waldmann, C.; Wehrli, B.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we synthesize the new knowledge on oxygen and oxygen-related phenomena in aquatic systems, resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and land-locked water bodies", www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analysed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and in Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems are discussed. Geologically-driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale submicromolar oxygen distributions were resolved. Existing multi-decadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales not resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where natural and anthropogenic hypoxia overlap. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on microbially-mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of

  19. Investigating hypoxia in aquatic environments: diverse approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; Boltacheva, N.; Çagatay, M. N.; Dale, A. W.; Etiope, G.; Erdem, Z.; Geraga, M.; Gilli, A.; Gomoiu, M. T.; Hall, P. O. J.; Hansson, D.; He, Y.; Holtappels, M.; Kirf, M. K.; Kononets, M.; Konovalov, S.; Lichtschlag, A.; Livingstone, D. M.; Marinaro, G.; Mazlumyan, S.; Naeher, S.; North, R. P.; Papatheodorou, G.; Pfannkuche, O.; Prien, R.; Rehder, G.; Schubert, C. J.; Soltwedel, T.; Sommer, S.; Stahl, H.; Stanev, E. V.; Teaca, A.; Tengberg, A.; Waldmann, C.; Wehrli, B.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated

  20. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority-up to 90%-of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  1. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority—up to 90%—of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  2. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  3. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  4. Gold(I) biscarbene complexes derived from vascular-disrupting combretastatin A-4 address different targets and show antimetastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Julienne K; Biersack, Bernhard; Kalie, Hussein; Andronache, Ion C; Kaps, Leonard; Schuppan, Detlef; Sasse, Florenz; Schobert, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Gold N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes are an emerging class of anticancer drugs. We present a series of gold(I) biscarbene complexes with NHC ligands derived from the plant metabolite combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) that retain its vascular-disrupting effect, yet address different cellular and protein targets. Unlike CA-4, these complexes did not interfere with tubulin, but with the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial and cancer cells. For the highly metastatic 518A2 melanoma cell line this effect was accompanied by a marked accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and a suppression of active prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase-2. Despite these mechanistic differences the complexes were as strongly antivascular as CA-4 both in vitro in tube formation assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and in vivo as to blood vessel disruption in the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The antiproliferative effect of the new gold biscarbene complexes in a panel of six human cancer cell lines was impressive, with low sub-micromolar IC50 values (72 h) even against CA-4-refractory HT-29 colon and multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. In preliminary studies with a mouse melanoma xenograft model the complexes led to significant decreases in tumor volume while being very well tolerated. PMID:24648184

  5. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-10-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

  6. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-01-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making. PMID:24141795

  7. The 2003 ASBMB-Avanti Award in Lipids Address: Applications of novel synthetic lipids to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Robert

    2004-05-01

    This paper is an overview of the 2003 Avanti Award in Lipids address that was presented by Robert Bittman at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Annual Meeting held in San Diego, CA in conjunction with meetings of five other FASEB Societies, April 15, 2003. The theme of the lecture is: "How can the chemical synthesis of unnatural lipids provide insights into problems ranging from cell biology to biophysics?" The following examples are presented: (1) novel ceramide analogs as experimental anticancer agents, (2) photoactivatable sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs as probes of protein targets of this bioactive lipid, (3) a 13C-enriched cerebroside as a quantitative probe of glycosphingolipid (GSL) transbilayer distribution in bilayers with and without sphingomyelin, (4) cis and trans unsaturated sphingomyelin analogs as modulators of the existence of cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) that may facilitate fusion of alphaviruses with target membranes, (5) ceramide as an indirect enhancer of the permeabilization of membranes induced by cholesterol-specific cytolysins, (6) fluorescent GSL analogs of widely disparate structure as probes of the molecular features responsible for the selective internalization of GSLs in caveolae of living mammalian cells, (7) enantiomeric lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs as probes of receptor subtypes that mediate LPA signaling, and (8) phosphonocholine analogs of the antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 as tools for discerning the primary targets that are critical for cytotoxic activity in tumor cells. PMID:15081855

  8. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  9. Inverse Problems in Complex Models and Applications to Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The inference of the subsurface earth structure and properties requires the integration of different types of data, information and knowledge, by combined processes of analysis and synthesis. To support the process of integrating information, the regular concept of data inversion is evolving to expand its application to models with multiple inner components (properties, scales, structural parameters) that explain multiple data (geophysical survey data, well-logs, core data). The probabilistic inference methods provide the natural framework for the formulation of these problems, considering a posterior probability density function (PDF) that combines the information from a prior information PDF and the new sets of observations. To formulate the posterior PDF in the context of multiple datasets, the data likelihood functions are factorized assuming independence of uncertainties for data originating across different surveys. A realistic description of the earth medium requires modeling several properties and structural parameters, which relate to each other according to dependency and independency notions. Thus, conditional probabilities across model components also factorize. A common setting proceeds by structuring the model parameter space in hierarchical layers. A primary layer (e.g. lithology) conditions a secondary layer (e.g. physical medium properties), which conditions a third layer (e.g. geophysical data). In general, less structured relations within model components and data emerge from the analysis of other inverse problems. They can be described with flexibility via direct acyclic graphs, which are graphs that map dependency relations between the model components. Examples of inverse problems in complex models can be shown at various scales. At local scale, for example, the distribution of gas saturation is inferred from pre-stack seismic data and a calibrated rock-physics model. At regional scale, joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data is applied

  10. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  11. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  12. The Influence of Prior Experience and Process Utilization in Solving Complex Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Paula; Wedman, John

    By using ill-structured problems and examining problem- solving processes, this study was conducted to explore the nature of solving complex, multistep problems, focusing on how prior knowledge, problem-solving process utilization, and analogical problem solving are related to success. Twenty-four college students qualified to participate by…

  13. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we…

  14. A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye

    2016-08-01

    Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.

  15. The Interfacial Interaction Problem in Complex Multiple Porosity Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Arriaga, Mario-Cesar

    2003-04-01

    Many productive reservoirs (oil, gas, water, geothermal) are associated to natural fracturing. Fault zones and fractures act as open networks for fluid and energy flow from depth. Their petrophysical parameters are heterogeneous and randomly distributed, conforming extremely complex natural systems. Here, the simultaneous heat and mass flows are coupled to the deformation of thermoporoelastic rocks. The system's volume is divided into N interacting continua, each one occupying a region of space Vn wrapped by a surface Sn (n=1,N). The mass flow is represented by: ∂/∂t ∫ Vn ρf φdV + ∫ Sn F⃗M ṡ n⃗dS = ∫ Vn qMdV (3) Taking into account a non-isothermal process the coupled equation of energy is: ∂/∂t ∫ Vn [φρf hf + (1 - φ)ρrhr]dV + ∫ Sn F⃗E ṡ n⃗dS = ∫ Vn qEdV (4) Where t means time, φ is porosity, ρf, ρr are fluid and rock densities, F⃗M and F⃗E are total mass and energy flows, qM and qE are volumetric mass and energy extracted or injected into Vn, hf and hr are specific enthalpies for fluid and rock respectively. Rock deformation is coupled through the equation: ∇⃗ ṡ (ρf/μK ṡ ∇⃗pφ)Vn = φ (Dtρf + ρf/VφdVφ/dt)Vn (5) K is the absolute permeability tensor, μ means dynamic fluid viscosity, Dt is a total derivative, pφ is pore pressure and Vφ is the volume of pores in Vn. The N media interact with each other, every one has its own parameters and its own interporosity flow. Modelling these coupled phenomena requires to average highly contrasting physical properties, independently of the method used in the solution of equations. A lot of attention has been devoted to develop realistic numerical models to describe flows in reservoirs under exploitation. But to the best of our knowledge very little attention has been focused on the problem of interfacial interaction and averaging petrophysical parameters in multiple porosity reservoirs.

  16. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  17. Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

  18. THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

  19. Nuclear three-body problem in the complex energy plane: Complex-scaling Slater method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruppa, A. T.; Papadimitriou, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The physics of open quantum systems is an interdisciplinary area of research. The nuclear "openness" manifests itself through the presence of the many-body continuum representing various decay, scattering, and reaction channels. As the radioactive nuclear beam experimentation extends the known nuclear landscape toward the particle drip lines, the coupling to the continuum space becomes exceedingly more important. Of particular interest are weakly bound and unbound nuclear states appearing around particle thresholds. Theories of such nuclei must take into account their open quantum nature. Purpose: To describe open quantum systems, we introduce a complex-scaling (CS) approach in the Slater basis. We benchmark it with the complex-energy Gamow shell model (GSM) by studying energies and wave functions of the bound and unbound states of the two-neutron halo nucleus 6He viewed as an α +n+n cluster system. Methods: Both CS and GSM approaches are applied to a translationally invariant Hamiltonian with the two-body interaction approximated by the finite-range central Minnesota force. In the CS approach, we use the Slater basis, which exhibits the correct asymptotic behavior at large distances. To extract particle densities from the back-rotated CS solutions, we apply the Tikhonov regularization procedure, which minimizes the ultraviolet numerical noise. Results: We show that the CS-Slater method is both accurate and efficient. Its equivalence to the GSM approach has been demonstrated numerically for both energies and wave functions of 6He. One important technical aspect of our calculation was to fully retrieve the correct asymptotic behavior of a resonance state from the complex-scaled (square-integrable) wave function. While standard applications of the inverse complex transformation to the complex-rotated solution provide unstable results, the stabilization method fully reproduces the GSM benchmark. We also propose a method to determine the smoothing

  20. Teaching Problem Solving; the Effect of Algorithmic and Heuristic Problem Solving Training in Relation to Task Complexity and Relevant Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, L.

    Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…

  1. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems.

    PubMed

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Rubin, Joshua B; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems-univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  2. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems—univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  3. Problems in processing multizonal video information at specialized complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamis, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    Architectural requirements of a minicomputer-based specialized complex for automated digital analysis of multizonal video data are examined. The logic structure of multizonal video data and the complex mathematical provision required for the analysis of such data are described. The composition of the specialized complex, its operating system, and the required set of peripheral devices are discussed. It is noted that although much of the analysis can be automated, the operator-computer dialog mode is essential for certain stages of the analysis.

  4. A Radio Model: A Community Strategy To Address the Problems and Needs of Mexican American Women Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena

    Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…

  5. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  6. On the complexity of some quadratic Euclidean 2-clustering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kel'manov, A. V.; Pyatkin, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Some problems of partitioning a finite set of points of Euclidean space into two clusters are considered. In these problems, the following criteria are minimized: (1) the sum over both clusters of the sums of squared pairwise distances between the elements of the cluster and (2) the sum of the (multiplied by the cardinalities of the clusters) sums of squared distances from the elements of the cluster to its geometric center, where the geometric center (or centroid) of a cluster is defined as the mean value of the elements in that cluster. Additionally, another problem close to (2) is considered, where the desired center of one of the clusters is given as input, while the center of the other cluster is unknown (is the variable to be optimized) as in problem (2). Two variants of the problems are analyzed, in which the cardinalities of the clusters are (1) parts of the input or (2) optimization variables. It is proved that all the considered problems are strongly NP-hard and that, in general, there is no fully polynomial-time approximation scheme for them (unless P = NP).

  7. Using fuzzy operators to address the complexity in decision making of water resources redistribution in two neighboring river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2010-06-01

    This paper emphasizes the use of fuzzy sets for incorporating objective and subjective uncertainties to address coevolutionary alignment of a suite of water resources redistribution alternatives in a transboundary channel-reservoir system. The highlighted decision making complexity arises from the interactions between two neighboring water systems (i.e., the Tseng-Wen and Kao-Ping River Basins, South Taiwan) where a pending diversion plan has been under intensive debate for over a decade. While the local stakeholders make uncertain science linked with uncertain politics resulting in endless delay of the diversion plan, the environmental advocacy groups stress the increasing concern of loss of biological integrity due to changes of land use when sharing water resources across the boundary. Consequently, there is a need to generate a novel integration that enables us to consider a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, and transfer pipelines within the basin and bring out the connectivity via diversion between these two neighboring river basins under uncertainty. To explore the managerial implications with varying risk perception and risk attitude, four types of fuzzy operators tailored for the fuzzy multi-objective decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of possible trade-offs among those alternatives. These trade-offs in the multi-objective evaluation context are constrained by physical, chemical, socioeconomic, managerial, and technical factors reflecting the needs for adaptive water resources management. Findings indicates that the use of fuzzy operators is instructive, which could provide unique guidance for enlightening the potential barriers in sustainable water resources management at the regional scale.

  8. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  9. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  10. Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

  11. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, A. K.; Biletskiy, M. T.; Ratov, B. T.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate.

  12. [Problems of formal organizational structure of industrial health care complexes].

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, C

    1978-01-01

    The author formulates the thesis that the description of organizational structure of industrial health care complex calls for isolation of the following aspects:--structure of territorial links--systemof organizational units and divisions--organization of basic functions--structure of management--structure of supervision of middle and lowe-level personnel--composition of health care complex council--system of accessibility ranges. Each of the above aspects has been considered on the basis of operative rules of law, using organizational analysis methods. PMID:745544

  13. Client-Centered Problem-Solving Networks in Complex Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Charles; Hanna, Michael

    Employees in different kinds of organizations were surveyed for their perceptions of their companies' client and operational problem-solving networks. The individuals came from a manufacturing firm, a community college, a telephone company, a farmers' cooperative, and a hospital. Interviews were conducted with those people reporting numerous…

  14. The Teaching-Upbringing Complex: Experience, Problems, Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul'fov, B. Z.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the teaching-upbringing complex (UVK), a new type of Soviet school that attempts to deal with raising and educating children in an integrated manner. Stresses combining required subjects with students' special interests to encourage student achievement and teacher involvement. Concentrates on the development of self-expression and…

  15. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  16. The Bright Side of Being Blue: Depression as an Adaptation for Analyzing Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul W.; Thomson, J. Anderson, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is the primary emotional condition for which help is sought. Depressed people often report persistent rumination, which involves analysis, and complex social problems in their lives. Analysis is often a useful approach for solving complex problems, but it requires slow, sustained processing, so disruption would interfere with problem…

  17. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-03-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  18. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  19. On the Complexity of the Asymmetric VPN Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothvoß, Thomas; Sanità, Laura

    We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric Virtual Private Network (textsc{Vpn}) problem with arbitrary concave costs. We even show the stronger result, that there is always a tree solution of cost at most 2·OPT and that a tree solution of (expected) cost at most 49.84·OPT can be determined in polynomial time.

  20. Problem-oriented stereo vision quality evaluation complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorchuk, D.; Gusamutdinova, N.; Konovalenko, I.; Ershov, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an original low cost hardware setting for efficient testing of stereo vision algorithms. The method uses a combination of a special hardware setup and mathematical model and is easy to construct, precise in applications of our interest. For a known scene we derive its analytical representation, called virtual scene. Using a four point correspondence between the scene and virtual one we compute extrinsic camera parameters, and project virtual scene on the image plane, which is the ground truth for depth map. Another result, presented in this paper, is a new depth map quality metric. Its main purpose is to tune stereo algorithms for particular problem, e.g. obstacle avoidance.

  1. On the problem of constructing a modern, economic radiotelescope complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, A. F.; Sokolov, A. G.; Poperechenko, B. A.; Polyak, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria for comparing and planning the technical and economic characteristics of large parabolic reflector antenna systems and other types used in radioastronomy and deep space communications are discussed. The experience gained in making and optimizing a series of highly efficient parabolic antennas in the USSR is reviewed. Several ways are indicated for further improving the complex characteristics of antennas similar to the original TNA-1500 64m radio telescope. The suggestions can be applied in planning the characteristics of radiotelescopes which are now being built, in particular, the TNA-8000 with a diameter of 128 m.

  2. Assessing Complex Problem-Solving Skills and Knowledge Assembly Using Web-Based Hypermedia Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada

    This research project studied the effects of hierarchical versus heterarchical hypermedia structures of Web-based case representations on complex problem-solving skills and knowledge assembly in problem-centered learning environments in order to develop a system or model that informs the design of Web-based cases for ill-structured problems across…

  3. Complex multipole beam approach to electromagnetic scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittra, Raj; Boag, Amir

    1994-03-01

    A novel approach to reducing the matrix size associated with the Method of Moments (MoM) solution of the problem of electromagnetic scattering from arbitrary shaped closed bodies is presented in this paper. The key step in this approach is to represent the scattered field in terms of a series of beams produced by multipole sources resemble the Gabor basis functions. By utilizing the properties of the Gabor series, guidelines for selecting the orders as well as locations of the multipole sources are developed. It is shown that the present approach not only reduces the number of unknowns, but also generates a generalized impedance matrix with a banded structure and a low condition number. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing the numerical results with those derived by using the method of moments.

  4. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  5. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  6. Dusty (complex) plasmas: recent developments, advances, and unsolved problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey

    The area of dusty (complex) plasma research is a vibrant subfield of plasma physics that be-longs to frontier research in physical sciences. This area is intrinsically interdisciplinary and encompasses astrophysics, planetary science, atmospheric science, magnetic fusion energy sci-ence, and various applied technologies. The research in dusty plasma started after two major discoveries in very different areas: (1) the discovery by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1980 of the radial spokes in Saturn's B ring, and (2) the discovery of the early 80's growth of contaminating dust particles in plasma processing. Dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the universe; examples are proto-planetary and solar nebulae, molecular clouds, supernovae explosions, interplanetary medium, circumsolar rings, and asteroids. Within the solar system, we have planetary rings (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter), Martian atmosphere, cometary tails and comae, dust clouds on the Moon, etc. Close to the Earth, there are noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes, which are clouds of tiny (charged) ice particles that are formed in the summer polar mesosphere at the altitudes of about 82-95 km. Dust and dusty plasmas are also found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations. Dust also turns out to be common in labo-ratory plasmas, such as in the processing of semiconductors and in tokamaks. In processing plasmas, dust particles are actually grown in the discharge from the reactive gases used to form the plasmas. An example of the relevance of industrial dusty plasmas is the growth of silicon microcrystals for improved solar cells in the future. In fact, nanostructured polymorphous sili-con films provide solar cells with high and time stable efficiency. These nano-materials can also be used for the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integration circuits, display devices, single elec-tron devices, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and others. In microelectronic industries, dust has to be

  7. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  8. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  9. COMPONENT-BASED AND WHOLE-MIXTURE ASSESSMENTS IN ADDRESSING THE UNIDENTIFIED FRACTION OF COMPLEX MIXTURES: DRINKING WATER AS AN EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Component-Based and Whole-Mixtures Assessments in Addressing the Unidentified Fraction of Complex Mixtures: Drinking Water as an Example

    J. E. Simmons; L. K. Teuschler; C. Gennings; T. F. Speth; S. D. Richardson; R. J. Miltner; M. G. Narotsky; K. D. Schenck; G. Rice

  10. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  11. An Exploratory Framework for Handling the Complexity of Mathematical Problem Posing in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor; Koichu, Boris; Leikin, Roza; Berman, Avi

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces an exploratory framework for handling the complexity of students' mathematical problem posing in small groups. The framework integrates four facets known from past research: task organization, students' knowledge base, problem-posing heuristics and schemes, and group dynamics and interactions. In addition, it contains a new…

  12. Communities of Practice: A New Approach to Solving Complex Educational Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, J.; Linehan, P.; Rosser, M.

    2007-01-01

    Communities of Practice offer state agency personnel a promising approach for engaging stakeholder groups in collaboratively solving complex and, often, persistent problems in special education. Communities of Practice can help state agency personnel drive strategy, solve problems, promote the spread of best practices, develop members'…

  13. The Ethnology of Traditional and Complex Societies. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Andrei

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This guide focuses on the ethnology of traditional and complex societies. Part I, Simple and Complex Societies, includes three sections: (1) Introduction: Anthropologists…

  14. Complex Cervical Aortic Arch With Hypoplasia: A Simple Solution to a Complex Problem.

    PubMed

    Rajbanshi, Bijoy G; Gautam, Navin C; Pradhan, Sidhartha; Sharma, Apurb; Ghimire, Ram K; Joyce, Lyle D

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of a 6-year-old boy with a complex right-sided cervical aortic arch, with retroesophageal hypoplastic transverse arch, left subclavian artery arising from the Kommerell diverticulum of the descending aorta, and a vascular ring formed by the ductus ligament. An extraanatomic ascending-to-descending aorta bypass was done through a median sternotomy along with division of the ductus ligament, without any complications and good results. PMID:27343523

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Problem-Solving Intervention Addressing Barriers to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Behaviors in 3 Underserved Populations: Colorado, North Carolina, West Virginia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Leary, Janie M.; Vu, Maihan B.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; McMilin, Colleen R.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. Methods The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Results Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Conclusion Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction. PMID:24602586

  16. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life. PMID:24295099

  17. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  18. Re-imagining decision making: addressing a discrete social driver of HIV/AIDS through the lens of complexity science.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Moerschell, Linda; Mamabolo, Robert; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that decision making is a discrete social driver that can be associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Limpopo province in South Africa. The authors argue that complexity science can inform future research and interventions by presenting two decision making frameworks arising out of complexity science that have the potential to enable young people to better negotiate decision-making contexts whilst simultaneously opening spaces of dialogue that can mitigate the impact of HIV-risk in specific, punctuated contexts. The methodological design was prompted by findings from youth-oriented community engagement projects that include Communication Conversations and Sex & Relationships Education. The proposed methods have the potential to exploit the phenomenon of leadership emergence as a product of decision making at critical moments. This has the potential to promote the growth of home-grown leadership skill sets that make sense to young people and to enable them better manage their own health, thus reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual violence. PMID:25920986

  19. Analyzing elastoplastic large deformation problems with the complex variable element-free Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. M.; Liew, K. M.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2014-06-01

    Using the complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS) approximation, a complex variable element-free Galerkin (CVEFG) method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems is presented. This meshless method has higher computational precision and efficiency because in the CVMLS approximation, the trial function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function. For two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems, the Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain its equation system. The penalty method is used to impose essential boundary conditions. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVEFG method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems are derived. In comparison with the conventional EFG method, our study shows that the CVEFG method has higher precision and efficiency. For illustration purpose, a few selected numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the CVEFG method.

  20. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs. PMID:23656447

  1. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  2. Analogy as a strategy for supporting complex problem solving under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joel; Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2012-11-01

    Complex problem solving in naturalistic environments is fraught with uncertainty, which has significant impacts on problem-solving behavior. Thus, theories of human problem solving should include accounts of the cognitive strategies people bring to bear to deal with uncertainty during problem solving. In this article, we present evidence that analogy is one such strategy. Using statistical analyses of the temporal dynamics between analogy and expressed uncertainty in the naturalistic problem-solving conversations among scientists on the Mars Rover Mission, we show that spikes in expressed uncertainty reliably predict analogy use (Study 1) and that expressed uncertainty reduces to baseline levels following analogy use (Study 2). In addition, in Study 3, we show with qualitative analyses that this relationship between uncertainty and analogy is not due to miscommunication-related uncertainty but, rather, is primarily concentrated on substantive problem-solving issues. Finally, we discuss a hypothesis about how analogy might serve as an uncertainty reduction strategy in naturalistic complex problem solving. PMID:22815065

  3. On the Critical Behaviour, Crossover Point and Complexity of the Exact Cover Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shumow, Daniel; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Research into quantum algorithms for NP-complete problems has rekindled interest in the detailed study a broad class of combinatorial problems. A recent paper applied the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm to the Exact Cover problem for 3-sets (EC3), and provided an empirical evidence that the algorithm was polynomial. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the characteristics of the exact cover problem. We present the annealing approximation applied to EC3, which gives an over-estimate of the phase transition point. We also identify empirically the phase transition point. We also study the complexity of two classical algorithms on this problem: Davis-Putnam and Simulated Annealing. For these algorithms, EC3 is significantly easier than 3-SAT.

  4. To Live With Complexity: A Problem for Students--And for the Rest of Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Franklin L.

    1968-01-01

    In articles on student unrest, there is a great tendency to oversimplify the issues and to assume that the components and stakes are the same from Minnesota to Czechoslovakia. To understand this complex phenomenon, the following questions should be answered: How many different problems, of what orders of magnitude and intensity, need to be…

  5. Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving: Concept, Implementation, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Holt, Daniel V.; Goldhammer, Frank; Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills are essential to successfully deal with environments that change dynamically and involve a large number of interconnected and partially unknown causal influences. The increasing importance of such skills in the 21st century requires appropriate assessment and intervention methods, which in turn rely on adequate…

  6. Differential Relations between Facets of Complex Problem Solving and Students' Immigration Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnleitner, Philipp; Brunner, Martin; Keller, Ulrich; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the assessment of complex problem solving (CPS) has received increasing attention in the context of international large-scale assessments, its fairness in regard to students' cultural background has gone largely unexplored. On the basis of a student sample of 9th-graders (N = 299), including a representative number of immigrant students (N…

  7. Small-Group Problem-Based Learning as a Complex Adaptive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennin, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Small-group problem-based learning (PBL) is widely embraced as a method of study in health professions schools and at many different levels of education. Complexity science provides a different lens with which to view and understand the application of this method. It presents new concepts and vocabulary that may be unfamiliar to practitioners of…

  8. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  9. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  10. Calculating Probabilistic Distance to Solution in a Complex Problem Solving Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Leigh Ann; Rivers, Kelly; Harris, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    In complex problem solving domains, correct solutions are often comprised of a combination of individual components. Students usually go through several attempts, each attempt reflecting an individual solution state that can be observed during practice. Classic metrics to measure student performance over time rely on counting the number of…

  11. Quantum trajectories in complex space: one-dimensional stationary scattering problems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-04-21

    One-dimensional time-independent scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equation for the local approximate quantum trajectories near the stagnation point of the quantum momentum function is derived, and the first derivative of the quantum momentum function is related to the local structure of quantum trajectories. Exact complex quantum trajectories are determined for two examples by numerically integrating the equations of motion. For the soft potential step, some particles penetrate into the nonclassical region, and then turn back to the reflection region. For the barrier scattering problem, quantum trajectories may spiral into the attractors or from the repellers in the barrier region. Although the classical potentials extended to complex space show different pole structures for each problem, the quantum potentials present the same second-order pole structure in the reflection region. This paper not only analyzes complex quantum trajectories and the total potentials for these examples but also demonstrates general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials for one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems. PMID:18433189

  12. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  13. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witteveen, Loes; Put, Marcel; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversity of instruction strategies to accommodate the…

  14. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Yeatts, Karin B; Serre, Marc L

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  15. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  16. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  17. Social and ethical dimension of the natural sciences, complex problems of the age, interdisciplinarity, and the contribution of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develaki, Maria

    2008-09-01

    In view of the complex problems of this age, the question of the socio-ethical dimension of science acquires particular importance. We approach this matter from a philosophical and sociological standpoint, looking at such focal concerns as the motivation, purposes and methods of scientific activity, the ambivalence of scientific research and the concomitant risks, and the conflict between research freedom and external socio-political intervention. We then point out the impediments to the effectiveness of cross-disciplinary or broader meetings for addressing these complex problems and managing the associated risks, given the difficulty in communication between experts in different fields and non-experts, difficulties that education is challenged to help resolve. We find that the social necessity of informed decision-making on the basis of cross-disciplinary collaboration is reflected in the newer curricula, such as that of Greece, in aims like the acquisition of cross-subject knowledge and skills, and the ability to make decisions on controversial issues involving value conflicts. The interest and the reflections of the science education community in these matters increase its—traditionally limited—contribution to the theoretical debate on education and, by extension, the value of science education in the education system.

  18. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  19. Analysis and formulation of a class of complex dynamic optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswaran, Shivakumar

    The Direct Transcription approach, also known as the direct simultaneous approach, is a widely used solution strategy for the solution of dynamic optimization problems involving differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Direct transcription refers to the procedure of approximating the infinite dimensional problem by a finite dimensional one, which is then solved using a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver tailored to large-scale problems. Systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) can also be handled by spatially discretizing the PDEs to convert them to a system of DAEs. The objective of this thesis is firstly to ensure that direct transcription using Radau collocation is provably correct, and secondly to widen the applicability of the direct simultaneous approach to a larger class of dynamic optimization and optimal control problems (OCPs). This thesis aims at addressing these issues using rigorous theoretical tools and/or characteristic examples, and at the same time use the results for solving large-scale industrial applications to realize the benefits. The first part of this work deals with the analysis of convergence rates for direct transcription of unconstrained and final-time equality constrained optimal control problems. The problems are discretized using collocation at Radau points. Convergence is analyzed from an NLP/matrix-algebra perspective, which enables the prediction of the conditioning of the direct transcription NLP as the mesh size becomes finer. Several convergence results are presented along with tests on numerous example problems. These convergence results lead to an adjoint estimation procedure given the Lagrange multipliers for the large-scale NLP. The work also reveals the role of process control concepts such as controllability on the convergence analysis, and provides a very important link between control and optimization inside the framework of dynamic optimization. As an effort to extend the applicability of the direct

  20. Criteria for assessing problem solving and decision making in complex environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1993-01-01

    Training crews to cope with unanticipated problems in high-risk, high-stress environments requires models of effective problem solving and decision making. Existing decision theories use the criteria of logical consistency and mathematical optimality to evaluate decision quality. While these approaches are useful under some circumstances, the assumptions underlying these models frequently are not met in dynamic time-pressured operational environments. Also, applying formal decision models is both labor and time intensive, a luxury often lacking in operational environments. Alternate approaches and criteria are needed. Given that operational problem solving and decision making are embedded in ongoing tasks, evaluation criteria must address the relation between those activities and satisfaction of broader task goals. Effectiveness and efficiency become relevant for judging reasoning performance in operational environments. New questions must be addressed: What is the relation between the quality of decisions and overall performance by crews engaged in critical high risk tasks? Are different strategies most effective for different types of decisions? How can various decision types be characterized? A preliminary model of decision types found in air transport environments will be described along with a preliminary performance model based on an analysis of 30 flight crews. The performance analysis examined behaviors that distinguish more and less effective crews (based on performance errors). Implications for training and system design will be discussed.

  1. Effect of thermal stability/complex terrain on wind turbine model(s): a wind tunnel study to address complex atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guala, M.; Hu, S. J.; Chamorro, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent boundary layer measurements in both wind tunnel and in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer revealed in the last decade the significant contribution of the large scales of motions to both turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses, for a wide range of Reynolds number. These scales are known to grow throughout the logarithmic layer and to extend several boundary layer heights in the streamwise direction. Potentially, they are a source of strong unsteadiness in the power output of wind turbines and in the aerodynamic loads of wind turbine blades. However, the large scales in realistic atmospheric conditions deserves further study, with well controlled boundary conditions. In the atmospheric wind tunnel of the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, with a 16 m long test section and independently controlled incoming flow and floor temperatures, turbulent boundary layers in a range of stability conditions, from the stratified to the convective case, can be reproduced and monitored. Measurements of fluctuating temperature, streamwise and wall normal velocity components are simultaneously obtained by an ad hoc calibrated and customized triple-wire sensor. A wind turbine model with constant loading DC motor, constant tip speed ratio, and a rotor diameter of 0.128m is used to mimic a large full scale turbine in the atmospheric boundary layer. Measurements of the fluctuating voltage generated by the DC motor are compared with measurements of the blade's angular velocity by laser scanning, and eventually related to velocity measurements from the triple-wire sensor. This study preliminary explores the effect of weak stability and complex terrain (through a set of spanwise aligned topographic perturbations) on the large scales of the flow and on the fluctuations in the wind turbine(s) power output.

  2. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  3. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. PMID:25652466

  4. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. PMID:25652466

  5. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  6. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge and how students' explanations systematically vary across seven problem contexts (e.g. the movement of sand dunes, the formation of traffic jams, and diffusion in water). Using the Knowledge in Pieces epistemological perspective, I build a mini-theory of how students construct explanations about the behavior of complex systems. The mini-theory shows how advanced, "decentralized" explanations evolve from a variety of prior knowledge resources, which depend on specific features of the problem. A general emphasis on students' competences is exhibited through three strands of analysis: (1) a focus on moment-to-moment shifts in individuals' explanations in the direction of a normative understanding; (2) a comparison of explanations across the seven problem contexts in order to highlight variation in kinds of prior knowledge that are used; and (3) a concentration on the diversity within explanations that can be all considered examples of emergent thinking. First, I document cases of students' shifting explanations as they become less prototypically centralized (a more naive causality) and then become more prototypically decentralized over short time periods. The analysis illustrates the lines of continuity between these two ways of understanding and how change can occur during the process of students generating a progression of increasingly sophisticated transitional explanations. Second, I find a variety of students' understandings across the problem contexts, expressing both variation in their prior knowledge and how the nature of a specific domain influences reasoning. Certain problem contexts are easier or harder for students

  7. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2013-05-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists' behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists' problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  8. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  9. The markov-dubins problem with free terminal direction in a nonpositively curved cube complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Corte, Jason Thomson

    State complexes are nonpositively curved cube complexes that model the state spaces of reconfigurable systems. The problem of determining a strategy for reconfiguring the system from a given initial state to a given goal state is equivalent to that of finding a path between two points in the state complex. The additional requirement that allowable paths must have a prescribed initial direction and minimal turning radius determines a Markov-Dubins problem with free terminal direction (MDPFTD). Given a nonpositively curved, locally finite cube complex X, we consider the set of unit-speed paths which satisfy a certain smoothness condition in addition to the boundary conditions and curvature constraint that define a MDPFTD. We show that this set either contains a path of minimal length, or is empty. We then focus on the case that X is a surface with a nonpositively curved cubical structure. We show that any solution to a MDPFTD in X must consist of finitely many geodesic segments and arcs of constant curvature, and we give an algorithm for determining those solutions to the MDPFTD in X which are CL paths, that is, made up of an arc of constant curvature followed by a geodesic segment. Finally, under the assumption that the 1-skeleton of X is d-regular, we give sufficient conditions for a topological ray in X of constant curvature to be a rose curve or a proper ray.

  10. You Need to Know: There Is a Causal Relationship between Structural Knowledge and Control Performance in Complex Problem Solving Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Natassia; Beckmann, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between structural knowledge, control performance and fluid intelligence in a complex problem solving (CPS) task. 75 participants received either complete, partial or no information regarding the underlying structure of a complex problem solving task, and controlled the task to reach specific goals.…

  11. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  12. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  13. Low complexity interference alignment algorithms for desired signal power maximization problem of MIMO channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cong; Yang, Yunchuan; Yuan, Yaxiang

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the interference alignment (IA) solution for a K-user MIMO interference channel. Proper users' precoders and decoders are designed through a desired signal power maximization model with IA conditions as constraints, which forms a complex matrix optimization problem. We propose two low complexity algorithms, both of which apply the Courant penalty function technique to combine the leakage interference and the desired signal power together as the new objective function. The first proposed algorithm is the modified alternating minimization algorithm (MAMA), where each subproblem has closed-form solution with an eigenvalue decomposition. To further reduce algorithm complexity, we propose a hybrid algorithm which consists of two parts. As the first part, the algorithm iterates with Householder transformation to preserve the orthogonality of precoders and decoders. In each iteration, the matrix optimization problem is considered in a sequence of 2D subspaces, which leads to one dimensional optimization subproblems. From any initial point, this algorithm obtains precoders and decoders with low leakage interference in short time. In the second part, to exploit the advantage of MAMA, it continues to iterate to perfectly align the interference from the output point of the first part. Analysis shows that in one iteration generally both proposed two algorithms have lower computational complexity than the existed maximum signal power (MSP) algorithm, and the hybrid algorithm enjoys lower complexity than MAMA. Simulations reveal that both proposed algorithms achieve similar performances as the MSP algorithm with less executing time, and show better performances than the existed alternating minimization algorithm in terms of sum rate. Besides, from the view of convergence rate, simulation results show that the MAMA enjoys fastest speed with respect to a certain sum rate value, while hybrid algorithm converges fastest to eliminate interference.

  14. Complexity of analysis and verification problems for communicating automata and discrete dynamical systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, H. B.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Barrett, C. L.; Marathe, M. V.; Ravi, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    We identify several simple but powerful concepts, techniques, and results; and we use them to characterize the complexities of a number of basic problems II, that arise in the analysis and verification of the following models M of communicating automata and discrete dynamical systems: systems of communicating automata including both finite and infinite cellular automata, transition systems, discrete dynamical systems, and succinctly-specified finite automata. These concepts, techniques, and results are centered on the following: (1) reductions Of STATE-REACHABILITY problems, especially for very simple systems of communicating copies of a single simple finite automaton, (2) reductions of generalized CNF satisfiability problems [Sc78], especially to very simple communicating systems of copies of a few basic acyclic finite sequential machines, and (3) reductions of the EMPTINESS and EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION problems, for several kinds of regular set descriptors. For systems of communicating automata and transition systems, the problems studied include: all equivalence relations and simulation preorders in the Linear-time/Branching-time hierarchies of equivalence relations and simulation preorders of [vG90, vG93], both without and with the hiding abstraction. For discrete dynamical systems, the problems studied include the INITIAL and BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS (denoted IVPs and BVPs, respectively), for nonlinear difference equations over many different algebraic structures, e.g. all unitary rings, all finite unitary semirings, and all lattices. For succinctly specified finite automata, the problems studied also include the several problems studied in [AY98], e.g. the EMPTINESS, EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION, EQUIVALENCE and CONTAINMENT problems. The concepts, techniques, and results presented unify and significantly extend many of the known results in the literature, e.g. [Wo86, Gu89, BPT91, GM92, Ra92, HT94, SH+96, AY98, AKY99, RH93, SM73, Hu73, HRS76, HR78], for

  15. COMPLEXITY OF ANALYSIS & VERIFICATION PROBLEMS FOR COMMUNICATING AUTOMATA & DISCRETE DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    H. B. HUNT; D. J. ROSENKRANTS; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    We identify several simple but powerful concepts, techniques, and results; and we use them to characterize the complexities of a number of basic problems II, that arise in the analysis and verification of the following models M of communicating automata and discrete dynamical systems: systems of communicating automata including both finite and infinite cellular automata, transition systems, discrete dynamical systems, and succinctly-specified finite automata. These concepts, techniques, and results are centered on the following: (i) reductions Of STATE-REACHABILITY problems, especially for very simple systems of communicating copies of a single simple finite automaton, (ii) reductions of generalized CNF satisfiability problems [Sc78], especially to very simple communicating systems of copies of a few basic acyclic finite sequential machines, and (iii) reductions of the EMPTINESS and EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION problems, for several kinds of regular set descriptors. For systems of communicating automata and transition systems, the problems studied include: all equivalence relations and simulation preorders in the Linear-time/Branching-time hierarchies of equivalence relations and simulation preorders of [vG90, vG93], both without and with the hiding abstraction. For discrete dynamical systems, the problems studied include the INITIAL and BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS (denoted IVPs and BVPS, respectively), for nonlinear difference equations over many different algebraic structures, e.g. all unitary rings, all finite unitary semirings, and all lattices. For succinctly-specified finite automata, the problems studied also include the several problems studied in [AY98], e.g. the EMPTINESS, EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION, EQUIVALENCE and CONTAINMENT problems. The concepts, techniques, and results presented unify and significantly extend many of the known results in the literature, e.g. [Wo86, Gu89, BPT91, GM92, Ra92, HT94, SH+96, AY98, AKY99, RH93, SM73, Hu73, HRS76, HR78], for

  16. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  17. Using Brain Imaging to Track Problem Solving in a Complex State Space

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.; Schneider, Darryl W.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how behavioral and imaging data can be combined with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to track participants’ trajectories through a complex state space. Participants completed a problem-solving variant of a memory game that involved 625 distinct states, 24 operators, and an astronomical number of paths through the state space. Three sources of information were used for classification purposes. First, an Imperfect Memory Model was used to estimate transition probabilities for the HMM. Second, behavioral data provided information about the timing of different events. Third, multivoxel pattern analysis of the imaging data was used to identify features of the operators. By combining the three sources of information, an HMM algorithm was able to efficiently identify the most probable path that participants took through the state space, achieving over 80% accuracy. These results support the approach as a general methodology for tracking mental states that occur during individual problem-solving episodes. PMID:22209783

  18. Direct, inverse, and combined problems in complex engineered system modeling by artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhoff, Serge A.

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical findings and applications of artificial neural networks to modeling of complex engineered system response in the abnormal environments. The thermal fire impact on the industrial container for waste and fissile materials was investigated using model and experimental data. Solutions for the direct problem show that the generalization properties of neural network based model are significantly better than those for standard interpolation methods. Minimal amount of data required for good prediction of system response is estimated in computer experiments with MLP network. It was shown that Kohonen's self-organizing map with counterpropagation may also estimate local accuracy of regularized solution for inverse and combined problems. Feature space regions of partial correctness of the inverse model can be automatically extracted using adaptive clustering. Practical findings include time strategy recommendations for fire-safe services when industrial or transport accidents occur.

  19. A complexity analysis of space-bounded learning algorithms for the constraint satisfaction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bayardo, R.J. Jr.; Miranker, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Learning during backtrack search is a space-intensive process that records information (such as additional constraints) in order to avoid redundant work. In this paper, we analyze the effects of polynomial-space-bounded learning on runtime complexity of backtrack search. One space-bounded learning scheme records only those constraints with limited size, and another records arbitrarily large constraints but deletes those that become irrelevant to the portion of the search space being explored. We find that relevance-bounded learning allows better runtime bounds than size-bounded learning on structurally restricted constraint satisfaction problems. Even when restricted to linear space, our relevance-bounded learning algorithm has runtime complexity near that of unrestricted (exponential space-consuming) learning schemes.

  20. A boundary collocation meshfree method for the treatment of Poisson problems with complex morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghrati, Soheil; Mai, Weijie; Liang, Bowen; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    2015-01-01

    A new meshfree method based on a discrete transformation of Green's basis functions is introduced to simulate Poisson problems with complex morphologies. The proposed Green's Discrete Transformation Method (GDTM) uses source points that are located along a virtual boundary outside the problem domain to construct the basis functions needed to approximate the field. The optimal number of Green's functions source points and their relative distances with respect to the problem boundaries are evaluated to obtain the best approximation of the partition of unity condition. A discrete transformation technique together with the boundary point collocation method is employed to evaluate the unknown coefficients of the solution series via satisfying the problem boundary conditions. A comprehensive convergence study is presented to investigate the accuracy and convergence rate of the GDTM. We will also demonstrate the application of this meshfree method for simulating the conductive heat transfer in a heterogeneous materials system and the dissolved aluminum ions concentration in the electrolyte solution formed near a passive corrosion pit.

  1. The anatomical problem posed by brain complexity and size: a potential solution

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the field of neuroanatomy has evolved considerably but unraveling the extraordinary structural and functional complexity of the brain seems to be an unattainable goal, partly due to the fact that it is only possible to obtain an imprecise connection matrix of the brain. The reasons why reaching such a goal appears almost impossible to date is discussed here, together with suggestions of how we could overcome this anatomical problem by establishing new methodologies to study the brain and by promoting interdisciplinary collaboration. Generating a realistic computational model seems to be the solution rather than attempting to fully reconstruct the whole brain or a particular brain region. PMID:26347617

  2. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  3. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  4. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  5. SVD-GFD scheme to simulate complex moving body problems in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Yu, P.; Yeo, K. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-03-01

    The present paper presents a hybrid meshfree-and-Cartesian grid method for simulating moving body incompressible viscous flow problems in 3D space. The method combines the merits of cost-efficient and accurate conventional finite difference approximations on Cartesian grids with the geometric freedom of generalized finite difference (GFD) approximations on meshfree grids. Error minimization in GFD is carried out by singular value decomposition (SVD). The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) form of the Navier-Stokes equations on convecting nodes is integrated by a fractional-step projection method. The present hybrid grid method employs a relatively simple mode of nodal administration. Nevertheless, it has the geometrical flexibility of unstructured mesh-based finite-volume and finite element methods. Boundary conditions are precisely implemented on boundary nodes without interpolation. The present scheme is validated by a moving patch consistency test as well as against published results for 3D moving body problems. Finally, the method is applied on low-Reynolds number flapping wing applications, where large boundary motions are involved. The present study demonstrates the potential of the present hybrid meshfree-and-Cartesian grid scheme for solving complex moving body problems in 3D.

  6. Induction of mutation spectra by complex mixtures: approaches, problems, and possibilities.

    PubMed Central

    DeMarini, D M

    1994-01-01

    More complex environmental mixtures have been evaluated for mutagenic activity at the hisD3052 allele of Salmonella, primarily in strain TA98, than in any other target or mutation assay. Using colony probe hybridization to detect a common hot spot deletion, followed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, we have generated 10 mutation spectra from three classes of mixtures (i.e., urban air, cigarette smoke condensate, and municipal waste incinerator emissions). The mutation spectra are distinctly different among the three classes of mixtures; however, the spectra for samples within the same class of mixture are similar. In addition to the hot spot mutation, the mixtures induce complex mutations, which consist of a small deletion and a base substitution. These mutations suggest a mechanism involving misinsertion of a base opposite a DNA adduct followed by a slippage and mismatch. A role for DNA secondary structure also may be the basis for the mutational site specificity exhibited by the various mixtures. The results suggest that unique mutation spectra can be generated by different classes of complex mixtures and that such spectra are a consequence of the dominance of a particular chemical class or classes within the mixture. The problems associated with this type of research are discussed along with the potential value of mutation spectra as a tool for exposure and risk assessment. PMID:7821286

  7. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  8. Spatially Addressable Chemoselective C-terminal Ligation of an Intein Fusion Protein from a Complex Mixture to a Hydrazine-Terminated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Marinakos, Stella M.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces is useful in many areas of research, including biological characterization, antibody purification, and clinical diagnostics. A critical limitation in the development of protein microarrays and heterogeneous protein-based assays is the enormous work and associated costs in the purification of proteins prior to their immobilization on a surface; methods to address this problem would simplify the development of interfacial diagnostics that use a protein as the recognition element. Herein, we describe an approach for the facile, site-specific immobilization of proteins on a surface without any preprocessing or sample purification steps that ligates an intein fusion protein at its C-terminus by reaction with a hydrazine group presented by a surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology can directly immobilize a protein directly from cell lysate on to a protein-resistant surface. This methodology is also compatible with soft lithography and inkjet printing, so that one or more proteins can be patterned on a surface without need for purification. PMID:21142101

  9. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  10. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    stakeholders in developing and implementing policy on renewable fuels standards and ethanol production targets for the U.S. In Microeconomics students learn cost-benefit analysis and other concepts by applying economics principles to the corn ethanol problem. Following the disciplinary activities, students are asked to reconsider the central corn ethanol problem and evaluate it from a sustainability perspective. Assessment is ongoing, although initial results suggest that undergraduate students have difficulty integrating knowledge across multiple disciplines when evaluating a complex sustainability problem. Based on our initial assessment, we are exploring ways to modify the corn ethanol module as well as fine-tune the assessment instruments to provide the most effective outcomes possible. Because there are commonly institutional barriers to team teaching and other methods of cross-disciplinary instruction, we are recruiting faculty from additional disciplines to adapt and implement the corn ethanol module as a way of integrating sustainability concepts across the curriculum. Our goal is to teach complex, trans-disciplinary problem-solving and have students explore ways in which sustainability issues must be addressed through the application of concepts from the environmental and social sciences, public policy, and economics.

  12. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  13. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  14. Exploring the complexity of inquiry learning in an open-ended problem space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jody

    Data-gathering and problem identification are key components of scientific inquiry. However, few researchers have studied how students learn these skills because historically this required a time-consuming, complicated method of capturing the details of learners' data-gathering processes. Nor are classroom settings authentic contexts in which students could exhibit problem identification skills parallel to those involved in deconstructing complex real world situations. In this study of middle school students, because of my access to an innovative technology, I simulated a disease outbreak in a virtual community as a complicated, authentic problem. As students worked through the curriculum in the virtual world, their time-stamped actions were stored by the computer in event-logs. Using these records, I tracked in detail how the student scientists made sense of the complexity they faced and how they identified and investigated the problem using science-inquiry skills. To describe the degree to which students' data collection narrowed and focused on a specific disease over time, I developed a rubric and automated the coding of records in the event-logs. I measured the ongoing development of the students' "systematicity" in investigating the disease outbreak. I demonstrated that coding event-logs is an effective yet non-intrusive way of collecting and parsing detailed information about students' behaviors in real time in an authentic setting. My principal research question was "Do students who are more thoughtful about their inquiry prior to entry into the curriculum demonstrate increased systematicity in their inquiry behavior during the experience, by narrowing the focus of their data-gathering more rapidly than students who enter with lower levels of thoughtfulness about inquiry?" My sample consisted of 403 middle-school students from public schools in the US who volunteered to participate in the River City Project in spring 2008. Contrary to my hypothesis, I found

  15. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. Communication: Overcoming the root search problem in complex quantum trajectory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2014-01-28

    Three new developments are presented regarding the semiclassical coherent state propagator. First, we present a conceptually different derivation of Huber and Heller's method for identifying complex root trajectories and their equations of motion [D. Huber and E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 5302 (1987)]. Our method proceeds directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and therefore allows various generalizations of the formalism. Second, we obtain an analytic expression for the semiclassical coherent state propagator. We show that the prefactor can be expressed in a form that requires solving significantly fewer equations of motion than in alternative expressions. Third, the semiclassical coherent state propagator is used to formulate a final value representation of the time-dependent wavefunction that avoids the root search, eliminates problems with caustics and automatically includes interference. We present numerical results for the 1D Morse oscillator showing that the method may become an attractive alternative to existing semiclassical approaches.

  18. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  19. Validation Study of a Method for Assessing Complex Ill-Structured Problem Solving by Using Causal Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Ge, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The important but little understood problem that motivated this study was the lack of research on valid assessment methods to determine progress in higher-order learning in situations involving complex and ill-structured problems. Without a valid assessment method, little progress can occur in instructional design research with regard to designing…

  20. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  1. Seeing around a Ball: Complex, Technology-Based Problems in Calculus with Applications in Science and Engineering-Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A complex technology-based problem in visualization and computation for students in calculus is presented. Strategies are shown for its solution and the opportunities for students to put together sequences of concepts and skills to build for success are highlighted. The problem itself involves placing an object under water in order to actually see…

  2. An Investigation of the Interrelationships between Motivation, Engagement, and Complex Problem Solving in Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Law, Victor; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Ge, Xun; Miller, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Digital game-based learning, especially massively multiplayer online games, has been touted for its potential to promote student motivation and complex problem-solving competency development. However, current evidence is limited to anecdotal studies. The purpose of this empirical investigation is to examine the complex interplay between…

  3. An immersed boundary computational model for acoustic scattering problems with complex geometries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Yongsong; Liang, An; Jing, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    An immersed boundary computational model is presented in order to deal with the acoustic scattering problem by complex geometries, in which the wall boundary condition is treated as a direct body force determined by satisfying the non-penetrating boundary condition. Two distinct discretized grids are used to discrete the fluid domain and immersed boundary, respectively. The immersed boundaries are represented by Lagrangian points and the direct body force determined on these points is applied on the neighboring Eulerian points. The coupling between the Lagrangian points and Euler points is linked by a discrete delta function. The linearized Euler equations are spatially discretized with a fourth-order dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and temporal integrated with a low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme. A perfectly matched layer technique is applied to absorb out-going waves and in-going waves in the immersed bodies. Several benchmark problems for computational aeroacoustic solvers are performed to validate the present method. PMID:23145603

  4. Enhancements of evolutionary algorithm for the complex requirements of a nurse scheduling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tein, Lim Huai; Ramli, Razamin

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, nurse scheduling is a noticeable problem that is affected by the global nurse turnover crisis. The more nurses are unsatisfied with their working environment the more severe the condition or implication they tend to leave. Therefore, the current undesirable work schedule is partly due to that working condition. Basically, there is a lack of complimentary requirement between the head nurse's liability and the nurses' need. In particular, subject to highly nurse preferences issue, the sophisticated challenge of doing nurse scheduling is failure to stimulate tolerance behavior between both parties during shifts assignment in real working scenarios. Inevitably, the flexibility in shifts assignment is hard to achieve for the sake of satisfying nurse diverse requests with upholding imperative nurse ward coverage. Hence, Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is proposed to cater for this complexity in a nurse scheduling problem (NSP). The restriction of EA is discussed and thus, enhancement on the EA operators is suggested so that the EA would have the characteristic of a flexible search. This paper consists of three types of constraints which are the hard, semi-hard and soft constraints that can be handled by the EA with enhanced parent selection and specialized mutation operators. These operators and EA as a whole contribute to the efficiency of constraint handling, fitness computation as well as flexibility in the search, which correspond to the employment of exploration and exploitation principles.

  5. Fibromyalgia and disability adjudication: No simple solutions to a complex problem

    PubMed Central

    Harth, Manfred; Nielson, Warren R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjudication of disability claims related to fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome can be a challenging and complex process. A commentary published in the current issue of Pain Research & Management makes suggestions for improvement. The authors of the commentary contend that: previously and currently used criteria for the diagnosis of FM are irrelevant to clinical practice; the opinions of family physicians should supersede those of experts; there is little evidence that trauma can cause FM; no formal instruments are necessary to assess disability; and many FM patients on or applying for disability are exaggerating or malingering, and tests of symptoms validity should be used to identify malingerers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the assertions made by Fitzcharles et al. METHODS: A narrative review of the available research literature was performed. RESULTS: Available diagnostic criteria should be used in a medicolegal context; family physicians are frequently uncertain about FM and/or biased; there is considerable evidence that trauma can be a cause of FM; it is essential to use validated instruments to assess functional impairment; and the available tests of physical effort and symptom validity are of uncertain value in identifying malingering in FM. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence does not support many of the suggestions presented in the commentary. Caution is advised in adopting simple solutions for disability adjudication in FM because they are generally incompatible with the inherently complex nature of the problem. PMID:25479149

  6. Modelling Ill-Structured Problem Solving with Schema Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Philip

    This study assesses the ability of schema theory to address ill-structured problems without becoming unwieldy. Prior to addressing the study proper, the paper reviews the literature on memory for complex phenomena, ill-structured problems, expert-novice differences, administration as problem solving, and assessment of complex learning outcomes.…

  7. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  8. The Problem with Word Problems: Solving Word Problems in Math Requires a Complex Web of Skills. But There's No Reason Why it Can't Be Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2004-01-01

    Children need to combine reading, thinking, and computational skills to solve math word problems. The author provides some strategies that principals can share with their teachers to help students become proficient and advanced problem-solvers. They include creating a conducive classroom environment, providing daily mental math activities, making…

  9. Subspace Iteration Method for Complex Eigenvalue Problems with Nonsymmetric Matrices in Aeroelastic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Lung, Shu

    2009-01-01

    Modern airplane design is a multidisciplinary task which combines several disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, flight controls, and sometimes heat transfer. Historically, analytical and experimental investigations concerning the interaction of the elastic airframe with aerodynamic and in retia loads have been conducted during the design phase to determine the existence of aeroelastic instabilities, so called flutter .With the advent and increased usage of flight control systems, there is also a likelihood of instabilities caused by the interaction of the flight control system and the aeroelastic response of the airplane, known as aeroservoelastic instabilities. An in -house code MPASES (Ref. 1), modified from PASES (Ref. 2), is a general purpose digital computer program for the analysis of the closed-loop stability problem. This program used subroutines given in the International Mathematical and Statistical Library (IMSL) (Ref. 3) to compute all of the real and/or complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues of the Hessenberg matrix. For high fidelity configuration, these aeroelastic system matrices are large and compute all eigenvalues will be time consuming. A subspace iteration method (Ref. 4) for complex eigenvalues problems with nonsymmetric matrices has been formulated and incorporated into the modified program for aeroservoelastic stability (MPASES code). Subspace iteration method only solve for the lowest p eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. In general, the selection of p is ranging from 10 for wing flutter analysis to 50 for an entire aircraft flutter analysis. The application of this newly incorporated code is an experiment known as the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) which was designed by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California to research aeroelastic instabilities. Specifically, this experiment was used to study an instability

  10. Can fuzzy logic bring complex problems into focus? Modeling imprecise factors in environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.

    2004-06-14

    In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in resolving some of the conflict, divisiveness

  11. Accurate gradient approximation for complex interface problems in 3D by an improved coupling interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yu-Chen; Chern, I.-Liang; Chang, Chien C.

    2014-10-01

    Most elliptic interface solvers become complicated for complex interface problems at those “exceptional points” where there are not enough neighboring interior points for high order interpolation. Such complication increases especially in three dimensions. Usually, the solvers are thus reduced to low order accuracy. In this paper, we classify these exceptional points and propose two recipes to maintain order of accuracy there, aiming at improving the previous coupling interface method [26]. Yet the idea is also applicable to other interface solvers. The main idea is to have at least first order approximations for second order derivatives at those exceptional points. Recipe 1 is to use the finite difference approximation for the second order derivatives at a nearby interior grid point, whenever this is possible. Recipe 2 is to flip domain signatures and introduce a ghost state so that a second-order method can be applied. This ghost state is a smooth extension of the solution at the exceptional point from the other side of the interface. The original state is recovered by a post-processing using nearby states and jump conditions. The choice of recipes is determined by a classification scheme of the exceptional points. The method renders the solution and its gradient uniformly second-order accurate in the entire computed domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the second order accuracy of the presently proposed method in approximating the gradients of the original states for some complex interfaces which we had tested previous in two and three dimensions, and a real molecule (1D63) which is double-helix shape and composed of hundreds of atoms.

  12. Speed and Complexity Characterize Attention Problems in Children with Localization-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison; Terwilliger, Virginia; Scheller, Alexandra; Sepeta, Leigh; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Children with epilepsy (EPI) have a higher rate of ADHD (28–70%) than typically developing (TD) children (5–10%); however, attention is multidimensional. Thus, we aimed to characterize the profile of attention difficulties in children with epilepsy. Methods Seventy-five children with localization-related epilepsy ages 6–16 and 75 age-matched controls were evaluated using multimodal, multidimensional measures of attention including direct performance and parent ratings of attention as well as intelligence testing. We assessed group differences across attention measures, determined if parent rating predicted performance on attention measures, and examined if epilepsy characteristics were associated with attention skills. Results The EPI group performed worse than the TD group on timed and complex attention aspects of attention (p<.05), while performance on simple visual and simple auditory attention tasks was comparable. Children with EPI were 12 times as likely as TD children to have clinically elevated symptoms of inattention as rated by parents, but ratings were a weak predictor of attention performance. Earlier age of onset was associated with slower motor speed (p<.01), but no other epilepsy-related clinical characteristics were associated with attention skills. Significance This study clarifies the nature of the attention problems in pediatric epilepsy, which may be under recognized. Children with EPI had difficulty with complex attention and rapid response, not simple attention. As such, they may not exhibit difficulty until later in primary school when demands increase. Parent report with standard ADHD screening tools may underdetect these higher order attention difficulties. Thus, monitoring through direct neuropsychological performance is recommended. PMID:25940056

  13. Accurate gradient approximation for complex interface problems in 3D by an improved coupling interface method

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Yu-Chen; Chern, I-Liang; Chang, Chien C.

    2014-10-15

    Most elliptic interface solvers become complicated for complex interface problems at those “exceptional points” where there are not enough neighboring interior points for high order interpolation. Such complication increases especially in three dimensions. Usually, the solvers are thus reduced to low order accuracy. In this paper, we classify these exceptional points and propose two recipes to maintain order of accuracy there, aiming at improving the previous coupling interface method [26]. Yet the idea is also applicable to other interface solvers. The main idea is to have at least first order approximations for second order derivatives at those exceptional points. Recipe 1 is to use the finite difference approximation for the second order derivatives at a nearby interior grid point, whenever this is possible. Recipe 2 is to flip domain signatures and introduce a ghost state so that a second-order method can be applied. This ghost state is a smooth extension of the solution at the exceptional point from the other side of the interface. The original state is recovered by a post-processing using nearby states and jump conditions. The choice of recipes is determined by a classification scheme of the exceptional points. The method renders the solution and its gradient uniformly second-order accurate in the entire computed domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the second order accuracy of the presently proposed method in approximating the gradients of the original states for some complex interfaces which we had tested previous in two and three dimensions, and a real molecule ( (1D63)) which is double-helix shape and composed of hundreds of atoms.

  14. Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine; Brandt, Carol; Scott, Brigitte; Douglas, Sarah; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda; Vernon, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    The ill-structured nature of design problems makes them particularly challenging for problem-based learning. Studio-based learning (SBL), however, has much in common with problem-based learning and indeed has a long history of use in teaching students to solve design problems. The purpose of this ethnographic study of an industrial design class,…

  15. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings – a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  16. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students. PMID:22718667

  17. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  18. World, We Have Problems: Simulation for Large Complex, Risky Projects, and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Prior to a spacewalk during the NASA STS/129 mission in November 2009, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) correspondent William Harwood reported astronauts, "were awakened again", as they had been the day previously. Fearing something not properly connected was causing a leak, the crew, both on the ground and in space, stopped and checked everything. The alarm proved false. The crew did complete its work ahead of schedule, but the incident reminds us that correctly connecting hundreds and thousands of entities, subsystems and systems, finding leaks, loosening stuck valves, and adding replacements to very large complex systems over time does not occur magically. Everywhere major projects present similar pressures. Lives are at - risk. Responsibility is heavy. Large natural and human-created disasters introduce parallel difficulties as people work across boundaries their countries, disciplines, languages, and cultures with known immediate dangers as well as the unexpected. NASA has long accepted that when humans have to go where humans cannot go that simulation is the sole solution. The Agency uses simulation to achieve consensus, reduce ambiguity and uncertainty, understand problems, make decisions, support design, do planning and troubleshooting, as well as for operations, training, testing, and evaluation. Simulation is at the heart of all such complex systems, products, projects, programs, and events. Difficult, hazardous short and, especially, long-term activities have a persistent need for simulation from the first insight into a possibly workable idea or answer until the final report perhaps beyond our lifetime is put in the archive. With simulation we create a common mental model, try-out breakdowns of machinery or teamwork, and find opportunity for improvement. Lifecycle simulation proves to be increasingly important as risks and consequences intensify. Across the world, disasters are increasing. We anticipate more of them, as the results of global warming

  19. How Students Circumvent Problem-Solving Strategies that Require Greater Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the great diversity in problem-solving strategies used by students in solving a chemistry problem and discusses the relationship between these variables and different cognitive variables. Concludes that students try to circumvent certain problem-solving strategies by adapting flexible and stylistic innovations that render the cognitive…

  20. Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…

  1. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet the concept of multi-morbidity (the presence of >2 diseases) is a product of the design of health care systems which define health care need on the basis of disease status. So does the solution lie in an alternative model of healthcare? Discussion Strengthening generalist practice has been proposed as part of the solution to tackling multi-morbidity. Generalism is a professional philosophy of practice, deeply known to many practitioners, and described as expertise in whole person medicine. But generalism lacks the evidence base needed by policy makers and planners to support service redesign. The challenge is to fill this practice-research gap in order to critically explore if and when generalist care offers a robust alternative to management of this complex problem. We need practice-based evidence to fill this gap. By recognising generalist practice as a ‘complex intervention’ (intervening in a complex system), we outline an approach to evaluate impact using action-research principles. We highlight the implications for those who both commission and undertake research in order to tackle this problem. Summary Answers to the complex problem of multi-morbidity won’t come from doing more of the same. We need to change systems of care, and so the systems for generating evidence to support that care. This paper contributes to that work through outlining a process for generating practice-based evidence of generalist solutions to the complex problem of person-centred care for people with multi-morbidity. PMID:23919296

  2. New approach to the complex-action problem and its application to a nonperturbative study of superstring theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Nishimura, J.

    2002-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of a system whose action has an imaginary part are considered to be extremely difficult. We propose a new approach to this ``complex-action problem,'' which utilizes a factorization property of distribution functions. The basic idea is quite general, and it removes the so-called overlap problem completely. Here we apply the method to a nonperturbative study of superstring theory using its matrix formulation. In this particular example, the distribution function turns out to be positive definite, which allows us to reduce the problem even further. Our numerical results suggest an intuitive explanation for the dynamical generation of 4D space-time.

  3. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  4. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  5. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  6. Does Visualization Enhance Complex Problem Solving? The Effect of Causal Mapping on Performance in the Computer-Based Microworld Tailorshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Hammon, Stephanie; von Grundherr, Michael; Funke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Causal mapping is often recognized as a technique to support strategic decisions and actions in complex problem situations. Such drawing of causal structures is supposed to particularly foster the understanding of the interaction of the various system elements and to further encourage holistic thinking. It builds on the idea that humans make use…

  7. Complex Problem Solving in Educational Contexts--Something beyond "g": Concept, Assessment, Measurement Invariance, and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Molnar, Gyongyver; Fischer, Andreas; Funke, Joachim; Csapo, Beno

    2013-01-01

    Innovative assessments of cross-curricular competencies such as complex problem solving (CPS) have currently received considerable attention in large-scale educational studies. This study investigated the nature of CPS by applying a state-of-the-art approach to assess CPS in high school. We analyzed whether two processes derived from cognitive…

  8. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  9. Environmental Sensing of Expert Knowledge in a Computational Evolution System for Complex Problem Solving in Human Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Casey S.; Hill, Douglas P.; Moore, Jason H.

    The relationship between interindividual variation in our genomes and variation in our susceptibility to common diseases is expected to be complex with multiple interacting genetic factors. A central goal of human genetics is to identify which DNA sequence variations predict disease risk in human populations. Our success in this endeavour will depend critically on the development and implementation of computational intelligence methods that are able to embrace, rather than ignore, the complexity of the genotype to phenotype relationship. To this end, we have developed a computational evolution system (CES) to discover genetic models of disease susceptibility involving complex relationships between DNA sequence variations. The CES approach is hierarchically organized and is capable of evolving operators of any arbitrary complexity. The ability to evolve operators distinguishes this approach from artificial evolution approaches using fixed operators such as mutation and recombination. Our previous studies have shown that a CES that can utilize expert knowledge about the problem in evolved operators significantly outperforms a CES unable to use this knowledge. This environmental sensing of external sources of biological or statistical knowledge is important when the search space is both rugged and large as in the genetic analysis of complex diseases. We show here that the CES is also capable of evolving operators which exploit one of several sources of expert knowledge to solve the problem. This is important for both the discovery of highly fit genetic models and because the particular source of expert knowledge used by evolved operators may provide additional information about the problem itself. This study brings us a step closer to a CES that can solve complex problems in human genetics in addition to discovering genetic models of disease.

  10. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

  11. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  12. Introducing the Hero Complex and the Mythic Iconic Pathway of Problem Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Early research into the motivations behind problem gambling reflected separate paradigms of thought splitting our understanding of the gambler into divergent categories. However, over the past 25 years, problem gambling is now best understood to arise from biological, environmental, social, and psychological processes, and is now encapsulated…

  13. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge…

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  15. Addressing the complexity and diversity of agricultural plant volatiles: a call for the integration of laboratory- and field-based analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the sophistication and sensitivity of chemical instrumentation increases so do the number of applications. Correspondingly, new questions and opportunities for systems previously studied also arise. As with most plants, the emission of volatiles from agricultural products is complex and varies am...

  16. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  17. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  18. The vulnerability of rules in complex work environments: dynamism and uncertainty pose problems for cognition.

    PubMed

    Clewley, Richard; Stupple, Edward J N

    2015-01-01

    Many complex work environments rely heavily on cognitive operators using rules. Operators sometimes fail to implement rules, with catastrophic human, social and economic costs. Rule-based error is widely reported, yet the mechanisms of rule vulnerability have received less attention. This paper examines rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. We examined 'the stable approach criteria rule', which acts as a system defence during the approach to land. The study experimentally tested whether system state complexity influenced rule failure. The results showed increased uncertainty and dynamism led to increased likelihood of rule failure. There was also an interaction effect, indicating complexity from different sources can combine to further constrain rule-based response. We discuss the results in relation to recent aircraft accidents and suggest that 'rule-based error' could be progressed to embrace rule vulnerability, fragility and failure. This better reflects the influence that system behaviour and cognitive variety have on rule-based response. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we examined mechanisms of rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. The results suggest work scenarios featuring high uncertainty and dynamism constrain rule-based response, leading to rules becoming vulnerable, fragile or failing completely. This has significant implications for rule-intensive, safety critical work environments. PMID:25588754

  19. The Research of Solution to the Problems of Complex Task Scheduling Based on Self-adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; He, Yongxiang; Xue, Haidong; Chen, Leichen

    Traditional genetic algorithms (GA) displays a disadvantage of early-constringency in dealing with scheduling problem. To improve the crossover operators and mutation operators self-adaptively, this paper proposes a self-adaptive GA at the target of multitask scheduling optimization under limited resources. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional GA in evolutive ability to deal with complex task scheduling optimization.

  20. Solving hard computational problems efficiently: asymptotic parametric complexity 3-coloring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Martín H, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α∈N. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2(-(k+1)), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. PMID:23349711

  1. Extension of the tridiagonal reduction (FEER) method for complex eigenvalue problems in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.; Mann, F. I.

    1978-01-01

    As in the case of real eigenvalue analysis, the eigensolutions closest to a selected point in the eigenspectrum were extracted from a reduced, symmetric, tridiagonal eigenmatrix whose order was much lower than that of the full size problem. The reduction process was effected automatically, and thus avoided the arbitrary lumping of masses and other physical quantities at selected grid points. The statement of the algebraic eigenvalue problem admitted mass, damping, and stiffness matrices which were unrestricted in character, i.e., they might be real, symmetric or nonsymmetric, singular or nonsingular.

  2. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems. PMID:23128771

  3. Undergraduate Student Task Group Approach to Complex Problem Solving Employing Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, LeRoy D.

    A project formulated a computer simulation game for use as an instructional device to improve financial decision making. The author constructed a hypothetical firm, specifying its environment, variables, and a maximization problem. Students, assisted by a professor and computer consultants and having access to B5500 and B6700 facilities, held 16…

  4. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  5. The Complex Relationship between Students' Critical Thinking and Epistemological Beliefs in the Context of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyytinen, Heidi; Holma, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2014-01-01

    The study utilized a multi-method approach to explore the connection between critical thinking and epistemological beliefs in a specific problem-solving situation. Data drawn from a sample of ten third-year bioscience students were collected using a combination of a cognitive lab and a performance task from the Collegiate Learning Assessment…

  6. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  7. The Species Problem and the Value of Teaching and the Complexities of Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Discussions on species taxa directly refer to a range of complex biological phenomena. Given these phenomena, biologists have developed and continue to appeal to a series of species concepts and do not have a clear definition for it as each species concept tells us part of the story or helps the biologists to explain and understand a subset of…

  8. Foucault as Complexity Theorist: Overcoming the Problems of Classical Philosophical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olssen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the affinities and parallels between Foucault's Nietzschean view of history and models of complexity developed in the physical sciences in the twentieth century. It claims that Foucault's rejection of structuralism and Marxism can be explained as a consequence of his own approach which posits a radical ontology whereby the…

  9. ARC syndrome with complex renal problems: nephrocalcinosis, proximal and hyperkalemic distal RTA and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Malaki, Majid; Mandana, Rafeei; Ghaffari, Shamsi

    2012-07-01

    We present a female neonate with arthrogryposis, renal tubular abnormalities and cholestasis syndrome and complex renal structural and functional abnormalities that include medullary nephrocalcinosis, hydronephrosis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Fanconi syndrome, proximal and distal hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis, near-nephrotic range proteinuria, hypercalciuria and severe hypovitaminosis D. PMID:22805396

  10. ETD QA CORE TEAM: AN ELOQUENT SOLUTION TO A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD QA CORE TEAM: AN ELOQUENT SOLUTION TO A COMPLEX PROBLEMThomas J. Hughes, QA and Records Manager, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC 27709

    ETD is the largest health divis...

  11. Analogize This! The Politics of Scale and the Problem of Substance in Complexity-Based Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Noah R.

    2012-01-01

    In light of recent enthusiasm in composition studies (and in the social sciences more broadly) for complexity theory and ecology, this article revisits the debate over how much composition studies can or should align itself with the natural sciences. For many in the discipline, the science debate--which was ignited in the 1970s, both by the…

  12. INDUCTION OF MUTATION SPECTRA BY COMPLEX MIXTURES: APPROACHES, PROBLEMS, AND POSSIBILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    More complex environmental mixtures have been evaluated for mutagenic activity at the hisD3052 allele of Salmonella, primarily in strain TA98, than in any other mutation assay. Using colony probe hybridization to detect a common hotspot deletion, followed by PCR and DNA sequencin...

  13. Adapting a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program for HIV-Infected Preadolescents and Their Families: Youth, Families and Health Care Providers Coming Together to Address Complex Needs

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary; Block, Megan; Mellins, Claude; Traube, Dorian E.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Minott, Desiree; Miranda, Claudia; Petterson, Jennifer; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion program specifically designed to meet the needs of perinatally-infected preadolescents and their families. This project represents one of the first attempts to involve perinatally HIV-infected youth in HIV prevention efforts while simultaneously addressing their mental health and health care needs. The program, entitled CHAMP+ (Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project-Plus), focuses on: (1) the impact of HIV on the family; (2) loss and stigma associated with HIV disease; (3) HIV knowledge and understanding of health and medication protocols; (4) family communication about puberty, sexuality and HIV; (5) social support and decision making related to disclosure; and (6) parental supervision and monitoring related to sexual possibility situations, sexual risk taking behavior and management of youth health and medication. Findings from a preliminary evaluation of CHAMP+ with six families are presented along with a discussion of challenges related to feasibility and implementation within a primary health care setting for perinatally infected youth. PMID:20852676

  14. Dynamic Modeling as a Cognitive Regulation Scaffold for Developing Complex Problem-Solving Skills in an Educational Massively Multiplayer Online Game Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving and,…

  15. Simulations for Complex Fluid Flow Problems from Berkeley Lab's Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.

  16. Increased risk of preterm delivery in areas with cancer mortality problems from petrochemical complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2002-07-01

    The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers living elsewhere in Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI=1.04-1.34) for delivery of preterm infants in the petrochemically polluted region. The data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12176003

  17. Outcomes, moderators, and mediators of empathic-emotion recognition training for complex conduct problems in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark Richard; Cauchi, Avril Jessica; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Hawes, David John; Brennan, John

    2012-10-30

    Impairments in emotion recognition skills are a trans-diagnostic indicator of early mental health problems and may be responsive to intervention. We report on a randomized controlled trial of "Emotion-recognition-training" (ERT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with N=195 mixed diagnostic children (mean age 10.52 years) referred for behavioral/emotional problems measured at pre- and 6 months post-treatment. We tested overall outcomes plus moderation and mediation models, whereby diagnostic profile was tested as a moderator of change. ERT had no impact on the group as a whole. Diagnostic status of the child did not moderate outcomes; however, levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderated outcomes such that children with high CU traits responded less well to TAU, while ERT produced significant improvements in affective empathy and conduct problems in these children. Emotion recognition training has potential as an adjunctive intervention specifically for clinically referred children with high CU traits, regardless of their diagnostic status. PMID:22703720

  18. One Problem, Many Solutions: Simple Statistical Approaches Help Unravel the Complexity of the Immune System in an Ecological Context

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many tactics to solve a complex problem. One challenge facing ecological immunologists is the question of how these many dimensions of immune function can be synthesized to facilitate meaningful interpretations and conclusions. We tackle this challenge by employing and comparing several statistical methods, which we used to test assumptions about how multiple aspects of immune function are related at different organizational levels. We analyzed three distinct datasets that characterized 1) species, 2) subspecies, and 3) among- and within-individual level differences in the relationships among multiple immune indices. Specifically, we used common principal components analysis (CPCA) and two simpler approaches, pair-wise correlations and correlation circles. We also provide a simple example of how these techniques could be used to analyze data from multiple studies. Our findings lead to several general conclusions. First, relationships among indices of immune function may be consistent among some organizational groups (e.g. months over the annual cycle) but not others (e.g. species); therefore any assumption of consistency requires testing before further analyses. Second, simple statistical techniques used in conjunction with more complex multivariate methods give a clearer and more robust picture of immune function than using complex statistics alone. Moreover, these simpler approaches have potential for analyzing comparable data from multiple studies, especially as the field of ecological immunology moves towards greater methodological standardization. PMID:21526186

  19. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    PubMed

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. PMID:24975004

  20. Infinite-range exterior complex scaling as a perfect absorber in time-dependent problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, Armin

    2010-05-15

    We introduce infinite range exterior complex scaling (irECS) which provides for complete absorption of outgoing flux in numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with strong infrared fields. This is demonstrated by computing high harmonic spectra and wave-function overlaps with the exact solution for a one-dimensional model system and by three-dimensional calculations for the H atom and an Ne atom model. We lay out the key ingredients for correct implementation and identify criteria for efficient discretization.

  1. Efficient Three-Dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo for Complex Geometry Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of flowfields in the transition flow regime is notoriously difficult with high demands on computer resources (CPU time and storage) and user expertise/labor. This paper describes a new, efficient code which has been developed to simulate high Knudsen number flowfields in three dimensions about bodies of arbitrarily complex geometry. The algorithm has been tested over a wide range of conditions, from free molecular to near-continuum flow regimes, for slender and blunt bodies, for re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. A series of validation tests have been conducted using both wind-tunnel measurements and flight data.

  2. Agriculture and the energy-complexity spiral.

    PubMed

    Tainter, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The study of cultural complexity is entwined with ancestors myths from contemporary cosmology. Gowdy & Krall expose this mythology by arguing that complexity emerged from economic changes following cultivation. There is more, however, to the development of cultural complexity. Complexity can emerge from abundant energy or from addressing societal problems, which compels still further energy production. PMID:27562534

  3. An unstructured-grid software system for solving complex aerodynamic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Parikh, Paresh

    1995-01-01

    A coordinated effort has been underway over the past four years to elevate unstructured-grid methodology to a mature level. The goal of this endeavor is to provide a validated capability to non-expert users for performing rapid aerodynamic analysis and design of complex configurations. The Euler component of the system is well developed, and is impacting a broad spectrum of engineering needs with capabilities such as rapid grid generation and inviscid flow analysis, inverse design, interactive boundary layers, and propulsion effects. Progress is also being made in the more tenuous Navier-Stokes component of the system. A robust grid generator is under development for constructing quality thin-layer tetrahedral grids, along with a companion Navier-Stokes flow solver. This paper presents an overview of this effort, along with a perspective on the present and future status of the methodology.

  4. A HLL-Rankine-Hugoniot Riemann solver for complex non-linear hyperbolic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Capdeville

    2013-10-01

    We present a new HLL-type approximate Riemann solver that aims at capturing any isolated discontinuity without necessitating extensive characteristic analysis of governing partial differential equations. This property is especially attractive for complex hyperbolic systems with more than two equations. Following Linde's (2002) approach [6], we introduce a generic middle wave into the classical two-state HLL solver. The property of this third wave is typified by the way of a "strength indicator" that is derived from polynomial considerations. The polynomial that constitutes the basis of the procedure is made non-oscillatory by an adapted fourth-order WENO algorithm (CWENO4). This algorithm makes it possible to derive an expression for the strength indicator. According to the size of this latter parameter, the resulting solver (HLL-RH), either computes the multi-dimensional Rankine-Hugoniot equations if an isolated discontinuity appears in the Riemann fan, or asymptotically tends towards the two-state HLL solver if the solution is locally smooth. The asymptotic version of the HLL-RH solver is demonstrated to be positively conservative and entropy satisfying in its first-order multi-dimensional form provided that a relevant and not too restrictive CFL condition is considered; specific limitations of the conservative increments of the numerical solution and a suited entropy condition enable to maintain these properties in its high-order version. With a monotonicity-preserving algorithm for the time integration, the numerical method so generated, is third order in time and fourth-order accurate in space for the smooth part of the solution; moreover, the scheme is stable and accurate when capturing a shock wave, whatever the complexity of the underlying differential system. Extensive numerical tests for the one- and two-dimensional Euler equation of gas dynamics and comparisons with classical Godunov-type methods help to point out the potentialities and insufficiencies

  5. A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the

  6. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  7. On the Parameterized Complexity of Some Optimization Problems Related to Multiple-Interval Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Minghui

    We show that for any constant t ≥ 2, K -Independent Set and K-Dominating Set in t-track interval graphs are W[1]-hard. This settles an open question recently raised by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. We also give an FPT algorithm for K-Clique in t-interval graphs, parameterized by both k and t, with running time max { t O(k), 2 O(klogk) } ·poly(n), where n is the number of vertices in the graph. This slightly improves the previous FPT algorithm by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. Finally, we use the W[1]-hardness of K-Independent Set in t-track interval graphs to obtain the first parameterized intractability result for a recent bioinformatics problem called Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR). We show that MSR-d is W[1]-hard for any constant d ≥ 4 when the parameter is either the total length of the strips, or the total number of adjacencies in the strips, or the number of strips in the optimal solution.

  8. Application of a low order panel method to complex three-dimensional internal flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the ability of a low order panel method to predict complex three-dimensional internal flow fields was made. The computer code VSAERO was used as a basis for the evaluation. Guidelines for modeling internal flow geometries were determined and the effects of varying the boundary conditions and the use of numerical approximations on the solutions accuracy were studied. Several test cases were run and the results were compared with theoretical or experimental results. Modeling an internal flow geometry as a closed box with normal velocities specified on an inlet and exit face provided accurate results and gave the user control over the boundary conditions. The values of the boundary conditions greatly influenced the amount of leakage an internal flow geometry suffered and could be adjusted to eliminate leakage. The use of the far-field approximation to reduce computation time influenced the accuracy of a solution and was coupled with the values of the boundary conditions needed to eliminate leakage. The error induced in the influence coefficients by using the far-field approximation was found to be dependent on the type of influence coefficient, the far-field radius, and the aspect ratio of the panels.

  9. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  10. Combination Therapies for Lysosomal Storage Diseases: A Complex Answer to a Simple Problem.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Shannon L

    2016-06-01

    Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of 40-50 rare monogenic disorders that result in disrupted lysosomal function and subsequent lysosomal pathology. Depending on the protein or enzyme deficiency associated with each disease, LSDs affect an array of organ systems and elicit a complex set of secondary disease mechanisms that make many of these disorders difficult to fully treat. The etiology of most LSDs is known and the innate biology of lysosomal enzymes favors therapeutic intervention, yet most attempts at treating LSDs with enzyme replacement strategies fall short of being curative. Even with the advent of more sophisticated approaches, like substrate reduction therapy, pharmacologic chaperones, gene therapy or stem cell therapy, comprehensive treatments for LSDs have yet to be achieved. Given the limitations with individual therapies, recent research has focused on using a combination approach to treat LSDs. By coupling protein-, cell-, and gene- based therapies with small molecule drugs, researchers have found greater success in eradicating the clinical features of disease. This review seeks to discuss the positive and negatives of singular therapies used to treat LSDs, and discuss how, in combination, studies have demonstrated a more holistic benefit on pathological and functional parameters. By optimizing routes of delivery, therapeutic timing, and targeting secondary disease mechanisms, combination therapy represents the future for LSD treatment. PMID:27491211

  11. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  12. BioDMET: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation tool for assessing proposed solutions to complex biological problems.

    PubMed

    Graf, John F; Scholz, Bernhard J; Zavodszky, Maria I

    2012-02-01

    We developed a detailed, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for calculating the distribution of pharmaceutical agents in the various tissues and organs of a human or animal as a function of time. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) represent the circulation of body fluids through organs and tissues at the macroscopic level, and the biological transport mechanisms and biotransformations within cells and their organelles at the molecular scale. Each major organ in the body is modeled as composed of one or more tissues. Tissues are made up of cells and fluid spaces. The model accounts for the circulation of arterial and venous blood as well as lymph. Since its development was fueled by the need to accurately predict the pharmacokinetic properties of imaging agents, BioDMET is more complex than most PBPK models. The anatomical details of the model are important for the imaging simulation endpoints. Model complexity has also been crucial for quickly adapting the tool to different problems without the need to generate a new model for every problem. When simpler models are preferred, the non-critical compartments can be dynamically collapsed to reduce unnecessary complexity. BioDMET has been used for imaging feasibility calculations in oncology, neurology, cardiology, and diabetes. For this purpose, the time concentration data generated by the model is inputted into a physics-based image simulator to establish imageability criteria. These are then used to define agent and physiology property ranges required for successful imaging. BioDMET has lately been adapted to aid the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Given a range of built-in features and its inherent flexibility to customization, the model can be used to study a variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic problems such as the effects of inter-individual differences and disease-states on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing optimization, and inter

  13. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  14. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  15. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  16. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others. PMID:26982911

  17. Main problems and perspectives of the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings on the surface of complex-shaped components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.; Brovkova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The main methods for composite coating synthesis in the surface layer of complex-shaped workpiece with dissipative properties have been investigated in this study. The problem of their application can be solved by using low-temperature plasma of combined discharge. The plasma is formed directly around the treated surface, which allows the use of the maximum amount of energy transmitted by its ions for the synthesis process itself. The main mechanism is the synthesis of three-body recombination, in which surface structures are heated to temperatures that change the phase of their constituent atoms. As a result, the original structure of the surface layer of the workpiece is transformed into a composite structure consisting of nanoclusters of ∼ 50 ... 100 nm in size and an amorphous layer of particles which acts as binder, and gradient transition from the coating to the base material filling the microvoids.

  18. Complex modeling: a strategy and software program for combining multiple information sources to solve ill posed structure and nanostructure inverse problems.

    PubMed

    Juhás, Pavol; Farrow, Christopher L; Yang, Xiaohao; Knox, Kevin R; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-11-01

    A strategy is described for regularizing ill posed structure and nanostructure scattering inverse problems (i.e. structure solution) from complex material structures. This paper describes both the philosophy and strategy of the approach, and a software implementation, DiffPy Complex Modeling Infrastructure (DiffPy-CMI). PMID:26522405

  19. Numerical calculation of thermo-mechanical problems at large strains based on complex step derivative approximation of tangent stiffness matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzani, Daniel; Gandhi, Ashutosh; Tanaka, Masato; Schröder, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    In this paper a robust approximation scheme for the numerical calculation of tangent stiffness matrices is presented in the context of nonlinear thermo-mechanical finite element problems and its performance is analyzed. The scheme extends the approach proposed in Kim et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200:403-413, 2011) and Tanaka et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 269:454-470, 2014 and bases on applying the complex-step-derivative approximation to the linearizations of the weak forms of the balance of linear momentum and the balance of energy. By incorporating consistent perturbations along the imaginary axis to the displacement as well as thermal degrees of freedom, we demonstrate that numerical tangent stiffness matrices can be obtained with accuracy up to computer precision leading to quadratically converging schemes. The main advantage of this approach is that contrary to the classical forward difference scheme no round-off errors due to floating-point arithmetics exist within the calculation of the tangent stiffness. This enables arbitrarily small perturbation values and therefore leads to robust schemes even when choosing small values. An efficient algorithmic treatment is presented which enables a straightforward implementation of the method in any standard finite-element program. By means of thermo-elastic and thermo-elastoplastic boundary value problems at finite strains the performance of the proposed approach is analyzed.

  20. The Cauchy Problem in Local Spaces for the Complex Ginzburg-Landau EquationII. Contraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginibre, J.; Velo, G.

    We continue the study of the initial value problem for the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (with a > 0, b > 0, g>= 0) in initiated in a previous paper [I]. We treat the case where the initial data and the solutions belong to local uniform spaces, more precisely to spaces of functions satisfying local regularity conditions and uniform bounds in local norms, but no decay conditions (or arbitrarily weak decay conditions) at infinity in . In [I] we used compactness methods and an extended version of recent local estimates [3] and proved in particular the existence of solutions globally defined in time with local regularity of the initial data corresponding to the spaces Lr for r>= 2 or H1. Here we treat the same problem by contraction methods. This allows us in particular to prove that the solutions obtained in [I] are unique under suitable subcriticality conditions, and to obtain for them additional regularity properties and uniform bounds. The method extends some of those previously applied to the nonlinear heat equation in global spaces to the framework of local uniform spaces.

  1. L.E.A.D.: A Framework for Evidence Gathering and Use for the Prevention of Obesity and Other Complex Public Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi; Green, Lawrence W.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a comprehensive, systems-oriented framework designed to improve the use of a wide variety of evidence sources to address population-wide obesity problems. The L.E.A.D. framework (for "Locate" the evidence, "Evaluate" the evidence, "Assemble" the evidence, and inform "Decisions"),…

  2. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  3. Advancing our knowledge of the complexity and management of intimate partner violence and co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems in women

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Globally, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and insidious human rights problem with significant adverse physical health outcomes for women. Intimate partner violence has also been closely associated with poor mental health and substance use problems. However, little is known about the relationship among these co-occurring problems and how to best intervene or manage them. Here, we present findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses (where available) to highlight developments in understanding and managing the complex co-occurring problems of intimate partner violence and mental health and substance use in women. PMID:26097738

  4. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  5. Applications of dialectical behavior therapy to the treatment of complex trauma-related problems: when one case formulation does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy W; Rizvi, Shireen L; Harned, Melanie S

    2007-08-01

    In this article, the authors take the perspective that effective treatment of complex trauma-related problems requires, in the absence of empirically supported treatments, a reliance on theory, idiographic assessment, and empirically supported principles of change. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; M. M. Linehan, 1993) is used to demonstrate the applicability of this approach to the treatment of multiproblem, heterogeneous populations in general. Two case studies are presented that highlight the utility of DBT principles to complex trauma-related problems specifically. PMID:17721961

  6. Promoting Experimental Problem-solving Ability in Sixth-grade Students Through Problem-oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an intervention study in a complex domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of experimental problem-solving ability better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess students' abilities in a quasi-experimental intervention study utilizing a pretest/posttest control-group design (N = 340; average performing sixth-grade students). The treatment group received lessons on forest ecosystems consistent with the principle of education for sustainable development. This learning environment was expected to help students enhance their ecological knowledge and their theoretical and methodological experimental competencies. Two control groups received either the teachers' usual lessons on forest ecosystems or non-specific lessons on other science topics. We found that the treatment promoted specific components of experimental problem-solving ability (generating epistemic questions, planning two-factorial experiments, and identifying correct experimental controls). However, the observed effects were small, and awareness for aspects of higher ecological experimental validity was not promoted by the treatment.

  7. The Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving and How It Is Influenced by Students' Information and Communication Technology Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Kretzschmar, André; Müller, Jonas C.; Spinath, Birgit; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The 21st-century work environment places strong emphasis on nonroutine transversal skills. In an educational context, complex problem solving (CPS) is generally considered an important transversal skill that includes knowledge acquisition and its application in new and interactive situations. The dynamic and interactive nature of CPS requires a…

  8. The Benefit of Being Naïve and Knowing It: The Unfavourable Impact of Perceived Context Familiarity on Learning in Complex Problem Solving Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Jens F.; Goode, Natassia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that embedding a problem into a familiar context does not necessarily confer an advantage over a novel context in the acquisition of new knowledge about a complex, dynamic system. In fact, it has been shown that a semantically familiar context can be detrimental to knowledge acquisition. This has been described as the…

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  12. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  13. Problems of Assessing the New Curricula Being Introduced in African Countries. Keynote address for the Annual Meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment (9th, Malawi, Blantyre, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boma, A. N.

    The state of the art of assessment is viewed in light of practical and realistic options. The classical terminologies of achievement, validity, reliability, internal and external assessment, prediction, and formative and summative evaluation, are often referred to in the address, with the realization that those presenting later papers would not be…

  14. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  15. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  16. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  17. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  18. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  19. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  20. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  1. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  2. Training Preschool Children to Use Visual Imagining as a Problem-Solving Strategy for Complex Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisamore, April N.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that verbally sophisticated individuals engage in a series of precurrent behaviors (e.g., covert intraverbal behavior, grouping stimuli, visual imagining) to solve problems such as answering questions (Palmer, 1991; Skinner, 1953). We examined the effects of one problem solving strategy--visual imagining--on increasing…

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  4. Uniqueness of self-similar solutions to the Riemann problem for the Hopf equation with complex nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskii, A. G.; Chugainova, A. P.; Shargatov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    Solutions of the Riemann problem for a generalized Hopf equation are studied. The solutions are constructed using a sequence of non-overturning Riemann waves and shock waves with stable stationary and nonstationary structures.

  5. Making Visible the Complexities of Problem Solving: An Ethnographic Study of a General Chemistry Course in a Studio Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalainoff, Melinda Zapata

    Studio classrooms, designed such that laboratory and lecture functions can occur in the same physical space, have been recognized as a promising contributing factor in promoting collaborative learning in the sciences (NRC, 2011). Moreover, in designing for instruction, a critical goal, especially in the sciences and engineering, is to foster an environment where students have opportunities for learning problem solving practices (NRC, 2012a). However, few studies show how this type of innovative learning environment shapes opportunities for learning in the sciences, which is critical to informing future curricular and instructional designs for these environments. Even fewer studies show how studio environments shape opportunities to develop problem solving practices specifically. In order to make visible how the learning environment promotes problem solving practices, this study explores problem solving phenomena in the daily life of an undergraduate General Chemistry studio class using an ethnographic perspective. By exploring problem solving as a sociocultural process, this study shows how the instructor and students co-construct opportunities for learning in whole class and small group interactional spaces afforded in this studio environment and how the differential demands on students in doing problems requires re-conceptualizing what it means to "apply a concept".

  6. Can potentially useful dynamics to solve complex problems emerge from constrained chaos and/or chaotic itinerancy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Shigetoshi

    2003-09-01

    Complex dynamics including chaos in systems with large but finite degrees of freedom are considered from the viewpoint that they would play important roles in complex functioning and controlling of biological systems including the brain, also in complex structure formations in nature. As an example of them, the computer experiments of complex dynamics occurring in a recurrent neural network model are shown. Instabilities, itinerancies, or localization in state space are investigated by means of numerical analysis, for instance by calculating correlation functions between neurons, basin visiting measures of chaotic dynamics, etc. As an example of functional experiments with use of such complex dynamics, we show the results of executing a memory search task which is set in a typical ill-posed context. We call such useful dynamics "constrained chaos," which might be called "chaotic itinerancy" as well. These results indicate that constrained chaos could be potentially useful in complex functioning and controlling for systems with large but finite degrees of freedom typically observed in biological systems and may be such that working in a delicate balance between converging dynamics and diverging dynamics in high dimensional state space depending on given situation, environment and context to be controlled or to be processed.

  7. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. PMID:23869557

  10. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  11. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  12. Money, case complexity, and wait lists: perspectives on problems and solutions at children's mental health centers in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Reid, Graham J; Brown, Judith Belle

    2008-07-01

    Senior managers of children's mental health centers across Ontario, Canada were interviewed regarding the challenges and solutions of access and delivery of care. The central challenges--funding, case complexity, waitlists, staffing, and system integration--revealed a complex interplay between the policies and financing of children's mental health services and the provision of clinical services at the agency level and within the community. The desire for integration and collaboration was countered by competition for funding and service demands. A need for policies that allow for local solutions while providing leadership for sustained improvements in the ease and timeliness of access to care and effective clinical services emerged. PMID:18512157

  13. Electron-atom resonances: The complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for the 2P Be- shape resonance problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Liang, Liyuan; Yeager, Danny L.

    2015-02-01

    We propose and develop the complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom and electron-molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (MCSTEP) method developed and implemented by Yeager and co-workers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and attachment energies. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex-scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. The CMCSCF was developed and applied successfully to resonance problems earlier. We apply the CMCSTEP method to get 2P Be- shape resonance parameters using 14 s 11 p 5 d ,14 s 14 p 2 d , and 14 s 14 p 5 d basis sets with a 2 s 2 p 3 d complete active space. The obtained values of the resonance parameters are compared to previous results. Here CMCSTEP has been developed and used for a resonance problem. It appears to be among the most accurate and reliable techniques. Vertical ionization potentials and attachment energies in real space are typically within ±0.2 eV or better of excellent experimental results and full configuration-interaction calculations with a good basis set. We expect the same sort of agreement in complex space.

  14. Tangled Narratives and Wicked Problems: A Complex Case of Positioning and Politics in a Diverse School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…

  15. Advising a Bus Company on Number of Needed Buses: How High-School Physics Students' Deal With a "Complex Problem"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Hadzibegovic, Zalkida

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, international project PISA evaluates 15-year old students in solving problems that include "decision taking", "analysis and design of systems" and "trouble-shooting". This article presents the results of a pilot research conducted with 215 students from first to fourth grade of a high school in Sarajevo…

  16. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  17. The Management of Cognitive Load During Complex Cognitive Skill Acquisition by Means of Computer-Simulated Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram, while information in the integrated format condition…

  18. The Use of the Solihull Approach with Children with Complex Neurodevelopmental Difficulties and Sleep Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laura; Newell, Reetta

    2013-01-01

    The following article introduces the Solihull Approach, a structured framework for intervention work with families (Douglas, "Solihull resource pack; the first five years." Cambridge: Jill Rogers Associates, 2001) and aims to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach in working with school-age children with complex neurodevelopmental…

  19. The problem of the age and structural position of the Blyb metamorphic complex (Fore Range zone, Great Caucasus) granitoids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Latyshev, Anton; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    The Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) of the Fore Range zone is one of the most high-grade metamorphosed element of the Great Caucasus fold belt. Determination of the timing and the mechanism of formation of the Fore Range fold-thrust structures are not possible without investigation of the BMC located at the basement of its section. At the same time, the conceptions about its structure and age are outdated and need revision. Somin (2011) determined the age of the protolith and metamorphism of the Blyb complex as the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. We have recently shown that the BMC has not the dome, as previously thought, but nappe structure (Vidjapin, Kamzolkin, 2015), and is metamorphically coherent with the peak metamorphism pressures up to 22 kbar (Kamzolkin et al., 2015; Konilov et al., 2013). Considering the age and structure of the Blyb complex it is necessary to revise the age of granitoid intrusions and their relations with gneisses and schists, which constitute the main part of the section of the complex. Most authors (Gamkrelidze, Shengelia, 2007; Lavrischev, 2002; Baranov, 1967) adheres to Early Paleozoic age of intrusives, which is doubtful, considering the younger age of metamorphic rocks. We suppose, that the intrusive bodies broke through a BMC nappe structure during the exhumation of the complex (Perchuk, 1991) at the Devonian - Carboniferous boundary. Seemingly, the massive monzodiorites body (Lavrischev, 2002), intruding garnet-muscovite schists and amphibolite gneisses of the Blyb complex and cut by the Main Caucasian fault (MCF), are younger. Given the timing of termination of the MCF movement activity as the Middle Jurassic (Greater Caucasus..., 2005), their age should be in the Early Carboniferous - Middle Jurassic interval. At the same time, on the modern geological map (Lavrischev, 2002) monzodiorites body is assigned to the Middle Paleozoic. The study of the BMC granitoids and monzodiorites will help in determining of the mechanism and

  20. Transdisciplinary weed research: new leverage on challenging weed problems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transdisciplinary Weed Research (TWR) is a promising path to more effective management of challenging weed problems. We define TWR as an integrated process of inquiry and action that addresses complex weed problems in the context of broader efforts to improve economic, environmental and social aspec...

  1. The ecological validity of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure: predicting everyday problems in children with neuropsychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon R; Field, Alan R J; Andersen, Thorvald; Pestell, Carmela

    2011-08-01

    Despite its extensive use, the validity of the Rey Complex Figure in predicting everyday behavioral executive dysfunction displayed by children with various neuropsychological disorders is unknown. The copied figures of 263 children aged 6 to 17 years were rescored using an accuracy approach that measured visuospatial ability and three process approaches developed to measure executive functioning. Controlling for age and IQ, partial correlations between scores derived by all scoring methods and the parent ratings on an executive function inventory were zero. In contrast, all four scoring approaches were associated with parent ratings on questionnaires that indexed children's academic achievement, developmental status, and adaptive ability. The findings suggest that the ecological validity of the Rey Complex Figure for children with various central nervous system disorders is more associated with visual-motor integration skills than executive functioning. PMID:21957867

  2. TRAINING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO USE VISUAL IMAGINING AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY FOR COMPLEX CATEGORIZATION TASKS

    PubMed Central

    Kisamore, April N; Carr, James E; LeBlanc, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that verbally sophisticated individuals engage in a series of precurrent behaviors (e.g., covert intraverbal behavior, grouping stimuli, visual imagining) to solve problems such as answering questions (Palmer, 1991; Skinner, 1953). We examined the effects of one problem solving strategy—visual imagining—on increasing responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Participants were 4 typically developing preschoolers between the ages of 4 and 5 years. Visual imagining training was insufficient to produce a substantial increase in target responses. It was not until the children were prompted to use the visual imagining strategy that a large and immediate increase in the number of target responses was observed. The number of prompts did not decrease until the children were given a rule describing the use of the visual imagining strategy. Within-session response patterns indicated that none of the children used visual imagining prior to being prompted to do so and that use of the strategy continued after introduction of the rule. These results were consistent for 3 of 4 children. Within-session response patterns suggested that the 4th child occasionally imagined when prompted to do so, but the gains were not maintained. The results are discussed in terms of Skinner's analysis of problem solving and the development of visual imagining. PMID:21709783

  3. Experiences with explicit finite-difference schemes for complex fluid dynamics problems on STAR-100 and CYBER-203 computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Rudy, D. H.; Drummond, J. P.; Harris, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Several two- and three-dimensional external and internal flow problems solved on the STAR-100 and CYBER-203 vector processing computers are described. The flow field was described by the full Navier-Stokes equations which were then solved by explicit finite-difference algorithms. Problem results and computer system requirements are presented. Program organization and data base structure for three-dimensional computer codes which will eliminate or improve on page faulting, are discussed. Storage requirements for three-dimensional codes are reduced by calculating transformation metric data in each step. As a result, in-core grid points were increased in number by 50% to 150,000, with a 10% execution time increase. An assessment of current and future machine requirements shows that even on the CYBER-205 computer only a few problems can be solved realistically. Estimates reveal that the present situation is more storage limited than compute rate limited, but advancements in both storage and speed are essential to realistically calculate three-dimensional flow.

  4. Experiences with explicit finite-difference schemes for complex fluid dynamics problems on STAR-100 and CYBER-203 computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Rudy, D. H.; Drummond, J. P.; Harris, J. E.

    1982-08-01

    Several two- and three-dimensional external and internal flow problems solved on the STAR-100 and CYBER-203 vector processing computers are described. The flow field was described by the full Navier-Stokes equations which were then solved by explicit finite-difference algorithms. Problem results and computer system requirements are presented. Program organization and data base structure for three-dimensional computer codes which will eliminate or improve on page faulting, are discussed. Storage requirements for three-dimensional codes are reduced by calculating transformation metric data in each step. As a result, in-core grid points were increased in number by 50% to 150,000, with a 10% execution time increase. An assessment of current and future machine requirements shows that even on the CYBER-205 computer only a few problems can be solved realistically. Estimates reveal that the present situation is more storage limited than compute rate limited, but advancements in both storage and speed are essential to realistically calculate three-dimensional flow.

  5. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  6. Self-adaptive difference method for the effective solution of computationally complex problems of boundary layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenauer, W.; Daeubler, H. G.; Glotz, G.; Gruening, J.

    1986-01-01

    An implicit difference procedure for the solution of equations for a chemically reacting hypersonic boundary layer is described. Difference forms of arbitrary error order in the x and y coordinate plane were used to derive estimates for discretization error. Computational complexity and time were minimized by the use of this difference method and the iteration of the nonlinear boundary layer equations was regulated by discretization error. Velocity and temperature profiles are presented for Mach 20.14 and Mach 18.5; variables are velocity profiles, temperature profiles, mass flow factor, Stanton number, and friction drag coefficient; three figures include numeric data.

  7. You Can't Get There From Here! Problems and Potential Solutions in Developing New Classes of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    The explosion of capabilities and new products within the sphere of Information Technology (IT) has fostered widespread, overly optimistic opinions regarding the industry, based on common but unjustified assumptions of quality and correctness of software. These assumptions are encouraged by software producers and vendors, who at this late date have not succeeded in finding a way to overcome the lack of an automated, mathematically sound way to develop correct systems from requirements. NASA faces this dilemma as it envisages advanced mission concepts that involve large swarms of small spacecraft that will engage cooperatively to acheve science goals. Such missions entail levels of complexity that beg for new methods for system development far beyond today's methods, which are inadequate for ensuring correct behavior of large numbers of interacting intelligent mission elements. New system development techniques recently devised through NASA-led research will offer some innovative approaches to achieving correctness in complex system development, including autonomous swarm missions that exhibit emergent behavior, as well as general software products created by the computing industry.

  8. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  9. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  10. Comparative phylogeography clarifies the complexity and problems of continental distribution that drove A. R. Wallace to favor islands.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Brett R

    2016-07-19

    Deciphering the geographic context of diversification and distributional dynamics in continental biotas has long been an interest of biogeographers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Thirty years ago, the approach now known as comparative phylogeography was introduced in a landmark study of a continental biota. Here, I use a set of 455 studies to explore the current scope of continental comparative phylogeography, including geographic, conceptual, temporal, ecological, and genomic attributes. Geographically, studies are more frequent in the northern hemisphere, but the south is catching up. Most studies focus on a Quaternary timeframe, but the Neogene is well represented. As such, explanations for geographic structure and history include geological and climatic events in Earth history, and responses include vicariance, dispersal, and range contraction-expansion into and out of refugia. Focal taxa are biased toward terrestrial or semiterrestrial vertebrates, although plants and invertebrates are well represented in some regions. The use of various kinds of nuclear DNA markers is increasing, as are multiple locus studies, but use of organelle DNA is not decreasing. Species distribution models are not yet widely incorporated into studies. In the future, continental comparative phylogeographers will continue to contribute to erosion of the simple vicariance vs. dispersal paradigm, including exposure of the widespread nature of temporal pseudocongruence and its implications for models of diversification; provide new templates for addressing a variety of ecological and evolutionary traits; and develop closer working relationships with earth scientists and biologists in a variety of disciplines. PMID:27432953

  11. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  12. A quasi-optimal coarse problem and an augmented Krylov solver for the variational theory of complex rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, Louis; Gosselet, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) is an indirect Trefftz method designed to study systems governed by Helmholtz-like equations. It uses wave functions to represent the solution inside elements, which reduces the dispersion error compared to classical polynomial approaches but the resulting system is prone to be ill conditioned. This paper gives a simple and original presentation of the VTCR using the discontinuous Galerkin framework and it traces back the ill-conditioning to the accumulation of eigenvalues near zero for the formulation written in terms of wave amplitude. The core of this paper presents an efficient solving strategy that overcomes this issue. The key element is the construction of a search subspace where the condition number is controlled at the cost of a limited decrease of attainable precision. An augmented LSQR solver is then proposed to solve efficiently and accurately the complete system. The approach is successfully applied to different examples.

  13. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  14. Patterns of Address in Dili Tetum, East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-van Klinken, Catharina; Hajek, John

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a detailed description of patterns of address in Dili Tetum today. It outlines the complexities of the address system and points to considerable variation in its evolving present-day use. We find, amongst other things, that a speaker may use a range of address strategies even to the same addressee, and that the use of…

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed. PMID:25411986

  16. The Evolution of Complex Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  17. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  18. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  19. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  1. Using a MODFLOW grid, generated with GMS, to solve a transport problem with TOUGH2 in complex geological environments: The intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, A.; Cattaneo, L.; Marconi, D.; Delcroix, C.; Rossi, E. L.; Clemente, G.; Amoroso, C. G.; Lo Re, F.; Tozzato, E.

    2011-06-01

    The tides of the Venetian Lagoon generally vary between -0.5 and +0.7 m asl. Occasionally, they may reach a maximum of 1.5 m (acqua alta) and a minimum of -0.8 m asl (acqua bassa). Intertidal areas, called "barene," exist all along the coast of the Lagoon. These areas are characterized by canals that concentrate the flow of water (and the deposition of sands) during the rising and waning of the tides, and that inundate and drain the vegetated areas found between canals (where organic-rich clays are deposited). Therefore, since the area is subject to subsidence, in time, sand dykes (the original canals) become juxtaposed to clayey dykes (the original vegetated areas). In addition, the sands form a continuous hydrogeologic network within the clays, very similar to that of a vascular system that effectively drains the whole "barena" deposits. In order to be effective, measures for monitoring, confining, or remediating the transport of pollutants through this kind of environment must explicitly take into account the geologic complexity. The same complexity must be included in the numerical models that support remediation efforts. At the moment, there appears to be no off-the-shelf graphical interface that is able to manage such complexity for TOUGH2. To attempt to solve this problem we have used a calibrated USGS-MODFLOW model, of the barena of "Passo a Campalto" in the Venetian Lagoon, developed with the GMS graphical interface. The model is made of 42 layers, which, apart from the first layer, are 0.5 m thick; the first layer has the thickness distribution of a dump found on top of the barena deposit at Passo a Campalto. Each layer consists of 100×60 square cells, for a total of 252,000 cells, only about half of which are active. Using a FORTRAN routine, we translate this grid, with all the hydrogeologic boundary conditions, into a TOUGH2 input file, and we provide the additional necessary information for running a TOUGH2 simulation. The results are promising, in

  2. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  3. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  4. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  5. Customization of cutting blocks: Can this address the problem?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Frye, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    Recent literature has challenged the notion that neutral coronal alignment is a requirement for long-term survivorship of TKAs. However a preponderance of classic and contemporary evidence supports increased failure rates with malalignment, especially varus. Patient-specific custom cutting guides are an attractive alternative to traditional instrumentation and computer navigation in achieving accurate alignment of total knee arthroplasties. The logistical benefits include possible decreased operating room time, decreased turnover time, less time spent sterilizing and preparing trays, less inventory, less strain on surgical technicians and nurses, and no capital cost associated with computer navigation. Patient benefits include potentially less tourniquet time, less surgical exposure, no requirement of intramedullary canal preparation, and improved mechanical alignment, which may translate to increased implant longevity. Surgeon benefits include potentially more accurate landmark registration than computer navigation, more efficient surgery, decreased intraoperative stress due to less required decision making, and the ability to perform more surgeries due to time saved. PMID:23054623

  6. The "Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries" (PROVIDE) study: description of methods of an interventional study designed to explore complex biologic problems.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Petri, William A

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. PMID:25711607

  7. Addressing the particular recordkeeping needs of infertile Orthodox Jewish couples considering the use of donated eggs.

    PubMed

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2014-03-01

    Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more and more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. We report here on recordkeeping issues of possible future concern that should be addressed when Orthodox Jewish couples make use of donor eggs. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware. PMID:24446049

  8. A new modular approach to nanoassembly: stable and addressable DNA nanoconstructs via orthogonal click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Simon R; Hardiman, Claire; Shelbourne, Montserrat; Nandhakumar, Iris; Nordén, Bengt; Brown, Tom

    2012-10-23

    Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. PMID:22989197

  9. Design Problems for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Are there different kinds of design problems? Jonassen (2011) argued that problems vary in terms of structuredness, complexity, and context. On the structuredness and complexity continua, design problems tend to be the most ill-structured and complex. Brown and Chandrasekaran suggest that design problems may vary along a continuum from…

  10. The Problems with "Noise Numbers" for Wind Farm Noise Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Human perception responds primarily to sound character rather than sound level. Wind farms are unique sound sources and exhibit special audible and inaudible characteristics that can be described as modulating sound or as a tonal complex. Wind farm compliance measures based on a specified noise number alone will fail to address problems with noise…

  11. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  12. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  13. Developing and Validating a Conceptual Model of Recurring Problems in Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Christiano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent problems in medical teaching clinic are common and difficult to address because of complex interpersonal dynamics. To minimize this difficulty, we developed a conceptual model that simplifies problems and identifies the root cause of tension between groups in clinic. We used recursive analysis and modeling of the data from a larger…

  14. Collegiality in Schools: Its Nature and Implications for Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    Collegiality can effectively address complex schoolwide problems requiring shared expertise or cohesive schoolwide action for resolution, but traditional teacher autonomy may inhibit such collegiality. Two New Zealand schools used collegial processes to develop solutions to schoolwide problems. Forest High was worried that staff failure to meet…

  15. Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Antilearning of Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2008-01-01

    In problem-solving research, insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in 4 experiments, the authors had participants solve 2 complex control tasks that were identical in structure but that varied in presentation format. Participants learned to solve the…

  16. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  17. A study of the complex action problem in a simple model for dynamical compactification in superstring theory using the factorization method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.; Azuma, T.; Nishimura, J.

    The IIB matrix model proposes a mechanism for dynamically generating four dimensional space--time in string theory by spontaneous breaking of the ten dimensional rotational symmetry $\\textrm{SO}(10)$. Calculations using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) lend support to this conjecture. We study a simple $\\textrm{SO}(4)$ invariant matrix model using Monte Carlo simulations and we confirm that its rotational symmetry breaks down, showing that lower dimensional configurations dominate the path integral. The model has a strong complex action problem and the calculations were made possible by the use of the factorization method on the density of states $\\rho_n(x)$ of properly normalized eigenvalues $\\tilde\\lambda_n$ of the space--time moment of inertia tensor. We study scaling properties of the factorized terms of $\\rho_n(x)$ and we find them in agreement with simple scaling arguments. These can be used in the finite size scaling extrapolation and in the study of the region of configuration space obscured by the large fluctuations of the phase. The computed values of $\\tilde\\lambda_n$ are in reasonable agreement with GEM calculations and a numerical method for comparing the free energy of the corresponding ansatze is proposed and tested.

  18. Address-event-based platform for bioinspired spiking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Fernández, A.; Luján, C. D.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Rivas, M.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows a real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons, located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems, it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) reading AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualizing it on the screen, and (b) converting conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and injecting it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. In the other hand, the use of a commercial personal computer implies to depend on software tools and operating systems that can make the system slower and un-robust. This paper addresses the problem of communicating several AER based chips to compose a powerful processing system. The problem was discussed in the Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop of 2006. The platform is based basically on an embedded computer, a powerful FPGA and serial links, to make the system faster and be stand alone (independent from a PC). A new platform is presented that allow to connect up to eight AER based chips to a Spartan 3 4000 FPGA. The FPGA is responsible of the network communication based in Address-Event and, at the same time, to map and transform the address space of the traffic to implement a pre-processing. A MMU microprocessor (Intel XScale 400MHz Gumstix Connex computer) is also connected to the FPGA

  19. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  20. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  1. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  2. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  3. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  4. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  5. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  6. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  7. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  8. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  9. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  10. State of the Workforce Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Elizabeth

    The U.S. work force is unready for the new jobs, unready for the new realities, unready for the new challenges of the 1990s. Across the board, jobs are demanding better reading, writing, and reasoning skills and more math and science. Statistics define the scope of the problem: 25 percent of young people drop out of high school; 70 percent of all…

  11. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  12. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  13. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  14. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  15. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  16. Controllability of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  17. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  18. A Correlational Study Assessing the Relationships among Information Technology Project Complexity, Project Complication, and Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The specific problem addressed in this study was the low success rate of information technology (IT) projects in the U.S. Due to the abstract nature and inherent complexity of software development, IT projects are among the most complex projects encountered. Most existing schools of project management theory are based on the rational systems…

  19. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Stochastic Control of Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Maroulas, Vasileios; Xiong, Professor Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of subsystems that interact with each other and the environment. We treat the stochastic control problem as a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution is an optimal control policy that minimizes the average cost criterion for the entire system. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value in deriving online an optimal control policy in complex systems.

  20. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  1. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  5. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  6. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  7. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  8. A Developmental Study of Recognition and Recall of Complex Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczcz, M. A.

    Three experiments using the same overall design were conducted to address problems associated with repeated measurement designs employed to assess retention of information in complex pictures and to assess the developmental course of schemata-guided retention efforts. Forty-eight subjects, ages 6, 10, and 20 years, were shown scenes whose forms…

  9. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  10. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  11. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  12. An entropy based measure for comparing distributions of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, R.; Castellani, B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is part of a series addressing the empirical/statistical distribution of the diversity of complexity within and amongst complex systems. Here, we consider the problem of measuring the diversity of complexity in a system, given its ordered range of complexity types i and their probability of occurrence pi, with the understanding that larger values of i mean a higher degree of complexity. To address this problem, we introduce a new complexity measure called case-based entropyCc - a modification of the Shannon-Wiener entropy measure H. The utility of this measure is that, unlike current complexity measures-which focus on the macroscopic complexity of a single system-Cc can be used to empirically identify and measure the distribution of the diversity of complexity within and across multiple natural and human-made systems, as well as the diversity contribution of complexity of any part of a system, relative to the total range of ordered complexity types.

  13. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  14. Addressing dysfunctional relations among healthcare teams: improving team cooperation through applied organizational theories.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B; Barshes, Neal R

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that communication failure and interpersonal conflicts are significant impediments among health-care teams to assess complex information and engage in the meaningful collaboration necessary for optimizing patient care. Despite the prolific research on the role of effective teamwork in accomplishing complex tasks, such findings have been traditionally applied to business organizations and not medical contexts. This chapter, therefore, reviews and applies four theories from the fields of organizational behavior (OB) and organization development (OD) as potential means for improving team interaction in health-care contexts. This study is unique in its approach as it addresses the long-standing problems that exist in team communication and cooperation in health-care teams by applying well-established theories from the organizational literature. The utilization and application of the theoretical constructs discussed in this work offer valuable means by which the efficacy of team work can be greatly improved in health-care organizations. PMID:21887945

  15. Addressing the unmet need for visualizing conditional random fields in biological data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological world is replete with phenomena that appear to be ideally modeled and analyzed by one archetypal statistical framework - the Graphical Probabilistic Model (GPM). The structure of GPMs is a uniquely good match for biological problems that range from aligning sequences to modeling the genome-to-phenome relationship. The fundamental questions that GPMs address involve making decisions based on a complex web of interacting factors. Unfortunately, while GPMs ideally fit many questions in biology, they are not an easy solution to apply. Building a GPM is not a simple task for an end user. Moreover, applying GPMs is also impeded by the insidious fact that the “complex web of interacting factors” inherent to a problem might be easy to define and also intractable to compute upon. Discussion We propose that the visualization sciences can contribute to many domains of the bio-sciences, by developing tools to address archetypal representation and user interaction issues in GPMs, and in particular a variety of GPM called a Conditional Random Field(CRF). CRFs bring additional power, and additional complexity, because the CRF dependency network can be conditioned on the query data. Conclusions In this manuscript we examine the shared features of several biological problems that are amenable to modeling with CRFs, highlight the challenges that existing visualization and visual analytics paradigms induce for these data, and document an experimental solution called StickWRLD which, while leaving room for improvement, has been successfully applied in several biological research projects. Software and tutorials are available at http://www.stickwrld.org/ PMID:25000815

  16. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  17. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  18. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  19. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  20. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  1. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  2. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  3. PROBLEM OF COMPLEX EIGENSYSTEMS INTHE SEMIANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF TIME IN SOLUTE TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS: A NEW METHOD USING REAL ARITHMETIC.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Umari, Amjad M. J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    In the numerical modeling of groundwater solute transport, explicit solutions may be obtained for the concentration field at any future time without computing concentrations at intermediate times. The spatial variables are discretized and time is left continuous inthe governing differnetial equation. These semianalytical solutions have been presented in the literature and involve the eigensystem of a coefficient matrix. This eigensystem may be complex (i. e. , have imaginary components) due to the asymmetry created by the advection term in the governing advection-dispersionequation. It is shown here that the error due to ignoring the imaginary components of complex eigenvalues is large for small dispersivity values. A new algorithm that represents the complex eigensystem by converting it to a real eigensystem is presented. The method requires only real arithmetic.

  4. An approach to 1,3,4-dioxaphospholane complexes through an acid-induced ring expansion of an oxaphosphirane complex: the problem of construction and deconstruction of O,P-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Janaina Marinas; Helten, Holger; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Streubel, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    Treatment of oxaphosphirane complex 1, triflic acid (TfOH), and various aldehydes yielded 1,3,4-dioxaphospholane complexes 5a,b-7a,b after deprotonation with NEt(3). In addition to NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and MS data, the X-ray structures of complexes 5a and 7a were determined. (31)P NMR spectroscopic monitoring and DFT calculations provided insight into the reaction course and revealed the transient TfOH 1,3,4-dioxaphospholanium association complex TfOH-5a,b and/or TfOH-5a,b' as key reactive intermediates. Furthermore, it was observed that the five-membered ring system was cleaved upon warming and yielded side-on (E,Z)-methylenephosphonium complexes 8a,b if deprotonation did not occur at low temperature. Overall, a novel temperature- and acid-dependent construction and deconstruction process of the 1,3,4-dioxaphospholane ring system is described. PMID:21433300

  5. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  6. Discovering Recurring Anomalies in Text Reports Regarding Complex Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zane-Ulman, Brett; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2005-01-01

    Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. For some platforms, these reports may be encoded as scanned images rather than even searchable text. The problem that we address in this paper is the discovery of recurring anomalies and relationships between different problem reports that may indicate larger systemic problems. We will illustrate our techniques on data from discrepancy reports regarding software anomalies in the Space Shuttle. These free text reports are written by a number of different penp!e, thus the emphasis and wording varies considerably.

  7. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  8. Addressing the Developmental Issues of Lesbian and Gay College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marso, Joan L.

    This paper addresses the developmental stages and issues faced by lesbian and gay college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Over and above the developmental stages faced by all students, lesbian and gay students frequently struggle with their sexual identity and development and the range of problems and emotions associated with coming to…

  9. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  10. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  11. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 13, Number 2. Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concern about responding to behavior problems and promoting social and emotional learning are related and are embedded into the arenas we frame to encompass the content of student/learning supports. How these concerns are addressed is critical to the type of school and classroom climate that emerges and to student engagement and re-engagement in…

  12. Some Uses of Computers in Rhetoric and Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Theodore, Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the "computer revolution" on the field of rhetoric and public address in terms of the potential applications of computer methods to rhetorical problems. He first discusses the computer as a very fast calculator, giving the example of a study that probably would not have been undertaken if the calculations had had…

  13. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  14. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  15. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  16. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  17. Six-month outcomes following an emergency hospital admission for older adults with co-morbid mental health problems indicate complexity of care needs

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Lucy E.; Goldberg, Sarah E.; Lewis, Sarah A.; Whittamore, Kathy; Gladman, John R. F.; Jones, Rob G.; Harwood, Rowan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: two-thirds of older patients admitted as an emergency to a general hospital have co-existing mental health problems including delirium, dementia and depression. This study describes the outcomes of older adults with co-morbid mental health problems after an acute hospital admission. Methods: a follow-up study of 250 patients aged over 70 admitted to 1 of 12 wards (geriatric, medical or orthopaedic) of an English acute general hospital with a co-morbid mental health problem and followed up at 180 days. Results: twenty-seven per cent did not return to their original place of residence after the hospital admission. After 180 days 31% had died, 42% had been readmitted and 24% of community residents had moved to a care home. Only 31% survived without being readmitted or moving to a care home. However, 16% spent >170 of the 180 days at home. Significant predictors for poor outcomes were co-morbidity, nutrition, cognitive function, reduction in activities of daily living ability prior to admission, behavioural and psychiatric problems and depression. Only 42% of survivors recovered to their pre-acute illness level of function. Clinically significant behavioural and psychiatric symptoms were present at follow-up in 71% of survivors with baseline cognitive impairment, and new symptoms developed frequently in this group. Conclusions: the variable, but often adverse, outcomes in this group implies a wide range of health and social care needs. Community and acute services to meet these needs should be anticipated and provided for. PMID:23800454

  18. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  19. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  20. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  1. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 2—Application to crosshole GPR tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely on the high frequency approximation of the wave-equation and 'fat' ray based forward models relying on finite frequency theory. In order to sample the a posteriori probability density function we make use of both least squares based inversion, for linear Gaussian inverse problems, and the extended Metropolis sampler, for non-linear non-Gaussian inverse problems. To illustrate the applicability of the SIPPI toolbox to a tomographic field data set we use a cross-borehole traveltime data set from Arrenæs, Denmark. Both the computer code and the data are released in the public domain using open source and open data licenses. The code has been developed to facilitate inversion of 2D and 3D travel time tomographic data using a wide range of possible a priori models and choices of forward models.

  2. Addressing Heart Failure Challenges through Illness-Informed Social Work.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Camp, Jessica K; Perry, Tam E

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the role of social workers in addressing the needs of people with heart failure. Although previous studies have explored the role of social workers in health care settings, few studies have addressed the challenges of specific chronic diseases such as heart failure. To address this gap in the literature, this study used qualitative interviews with health care social workers (n = 8) to obtain in-depth information about activities and challenges related to heart failure care. Findings suggest that health care social workers perceive heart failure as characterized by an uncertain illness trajectory, frequent hospitalizations, and difficulties accessing formal and informal care. These findings suggest the importance of what we term illness-informed social work, a practice that combines heart failure knowledge with social work competencies to address the complex psychosocial issues in heart failure care. PMID:26285359

  3. Problem Solvers: Problem--How Long Can You Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Children Mathematics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles are increasingly emphasized these days. This month the authors begin a series of mathematical problems that also address physical activity. They hope that these problems offer opportunities to investigate mathematics and also reinforce the desire to lead a healthy life. In their first problem of the academic year, students…

  4. Student homicidal violence in schools: an international problem.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. PMID:21491570

  5. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling. PMID:24443502

  6. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  7. Developing Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skills through Wilderness Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rachel H.; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2016-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) has become an increasingly critical skill. Students who enter adult roles with the cognitive skills to address ISPs will be better able to assume roles in the emerging economies. Opportunities to develop and practice these skills…

  8. Collaboration in an Era of Change: New Forms of Community Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaley, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Campuses are developing new ways to respond to complex social, cultural, economic and environmental problems by adapting their educational approaches and their scholarship to address a changing world order. At the same time, government agencies, nonprofit organizations and businesses are embracing collaborative approaches to community…

  9. Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning in Gerontology: A Plan of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeski, Robin; Stover, Merrily

    2005-01-01

    Issues of older adults are often ill-structured and complex, requiring the application of insights from different disciplines to be adequately addressed. Gerontology has often used a multidisciplinary rather than an integrated interdisciplinary approach. Interdisciplinary and problem-based learning (PBL) provide pedagogical tools which teach…

  10. Interesting and Difficult Mathematical Problems: Changing Teachers' Views by Employing Multiple-Solution Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Raisa; Leikin, Roza

    2013-01-01

    The study considers mathematical problem solving to be at the heart of mathematics teaching and learning, while mathematical challenge is a core element of any educational process. The study design addresses the complexity of teachers' knowledge. It is aimed at exploring the development of teachers' mathematical and pedagogical conceptions…

  11. Will I Lose a Tooth? Will I Learn to Read? Problem Posing with Multicultural Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    By using a problem-posing, critical literacy approach employing children's literature, even the complex issues of a world in conflict and confusion can be addressed through an ongoing dialogue. In this article, the author defines "critical literacy" as a process of constructing and critically using language (oral and written) as a means of…

  12. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  13. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  14. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  15. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  16. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  18. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...