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Sample records for address cost sharing

  1. 32 CFR 37.415 - Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Should I address cost sharing in the... § 37.415 Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation? To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all potential proposers, you should state clearly in...

  2. 32 CFR 37.415 - Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Should I address cost sharing in the... § 37.415 Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation? To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all potential proposers, you should state clearly in...

  3. 32 CFR 37.415 - Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation? 37.415 Section 37.415 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition...

  4. 32 CFR 37.415 - Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation? 37.415 Section 37.415 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition...

  5. 32 CFR 37.415 - Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Should I address cost sharing in the announcement or solicitation? 37.415 Section 37.415 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition...

  6. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  7. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 85.40 Section 85.40 Wildlife... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total costs approved in the grant agreement. (b) The provisions of 43 CFR 12.64 apply to cost sharing...

  8. 75 FR 38748 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 447 and 457 [CMS-2244-CN] RIN 0938-AP73 Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost... Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing.'' The May 28, 2010, final rule revised a November 25, 2008, final rule entitled, ``Medicaid Programs; Premiums and Cost Sharing'' which addressed public comments received...

  9. 38 CFR 17.274 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the beneficiary cost share. (b) In addition to the beneficiary cost share, an annual (calendar year... illness or injury, a calendar year cost limit or “catastrophic cap” has been placed on the beneficiary... cap computation. After a family has paid the maximum cost-share and deductible amounts for a...

  10. 38 CFR 17.274 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the beneficiary cost share. (b) In addition to the beneficiary cost share, an annual (calendar year... illness or injury, a calendar year cost limit or “catastrophic cap” has been placed on the beneficiary... cap computation. After a family has paid the maximum cost-share and deductible amounts for a...

  11. 42 CFR 438.108 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost sharing. 438.108 Section 438.108 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.108 Cost sharing. The contract must provide that any cost sharing imposed on Medicaid enrollees is in accordance with §§ 447.50 through...

  12. 10 CFR 602.12 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost sharing. 602.12 Section 602.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... PROGRAM § 602.12 Cost sharing. Cost sharing is not required, nor will it be considered, as a criterion in the evaluation and selection process unless otherwise provided under § 602.9(d)(5)....

  13. 10 CFR 605.13 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost sharing. 605.13 Section 605.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... § 605.13 Cost sharing. Cost sharing is not required nor will it be considered as a criterion in the evaluation and selection process unless otherwise provided under § 605.10(d)(5)....

  14. 10 CFR 602.12 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing. 602.12 Section 602.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.12 Cost sharing. Cost sharing is not required, nor will it be considered, as a criterion...

  15. 44 CFR 204.61 - Cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 204.61 Cost share. (a) All fire management assistance grants are subject to a cost share. The Federal cost share for fire management assistance grants is seventy-five percent (75%). (b) As stated in § 204.25, the...

  16. The Remainder of the Cost Sharing Policy Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin

    2000-01-01

    Identifies issues not addressed by the National Science and Technology Council and the National Science Foundation in recent policy initiatives dealing with federal cost-sharing policies and practices within the research community. These include establishment of differential cost-sharing requirements for universities and states that traditionally…

  17. 42 CFR 447.52 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services (physician visit, physical therapy, etc.) $4 10% of cost the agency pays 20% of cost the agency... paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the agency may target cost sharing to specified groups of individuals with... agency may target cost sharing to specified groups of individuals regardless of income. (e) Denial...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.54 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Special Conditions § 1260.54 Cost sharing. Cost Sharing October 2000 (a) NASA and the Recipient will share in providing the resources necessary to perform the agreement. NASA funding and non-cash...-cash contribution will be on a___ percent NASA; ___ percent Recipient basis. (b) The funding and...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.54 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Conditions § 1260.54 Cost sharing. Cost Sharing October 2000 (a) NASA and the Recipient will share in providing the resources necessary to perform the agreement. NASA funding and non-cash...-cash contribution will be on a___ percent NASA; ___ percent Recipient basis. (b) The funding and...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.54 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Special Conditions § 1260.54 Cost sharing. Cost Sharing October 2000 (a) NASA and the Recipient will share in providing the resources necessary to perform the agreement. NASA funding and non-cash...-cash contribution will be on a___ percent NASA; ___ percent Recipient basis. (b) The funding and...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.54 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Special Conditions § 1260.54 Cost sharing. Cost Sharing October 2000 (a) NASA and the Recipient will share in providing the resources necessary to perform the agreement. NASA funding and non-cash...-cash contribution will be on a___ percent NASA; ___ percent Recipient basis. (b) The funding and...

  2. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost sharing. 63.22 Section 63.22 Public Welfare... THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.22 Cost sharing. Policy... amount equal to as much as the entire cost of the project....

  3. 10 CFR 603.415 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cost sharing. To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all potential... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost sharing. 603.415 Section 603.415 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...-Federal parties carrying out a RD&D project under a TIA are to provide at least half of the costs of...

  4. 32 CFR 37.1265 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1265 Cost sharing. A portion of project costs that are borne by the recipient or non-Federal third parties on behalf of the...

  5. 10 CFR 600.30 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., taking into consideration any technological risk relating to the activity. (d) Cost share shall be... circular of the Office of Management and Budget; (iv) Indirect costs or facilities and administrative...

  6. 42 CFR 438.108 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 438.108 Section 438.108 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.108 Cost sharing. The contract...

  7. 33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost sharing. 239.8 Section 239.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... for recreation facilities at local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project...

  8. 33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost sharing. 239.8 Section 239.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... for recreation facilities at local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project...

  9. 33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost sharing. 239.8 Section 239.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... for recreation facilities at local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project...

  10. 10 CFR 603.415 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost sharing. 603.415 Section 603.415 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition Phase § 603.415 Cost sharing. To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all...

  11. 10 CFR 603.415 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost sharing. 603.415 Section 603.415 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition Phase § 603.415 Cost sharing. To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all...

  12. 10 CFR 603.415 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost sharing. 603.415 Section 603.415 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Competition Phase § 603.415 Cost sharing. To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all...

  13. 42 CFR 438.108 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost sharing. 438.108 Section 438.108 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.108 Cost sharing. The contract...

  14. 42 CFR 438.108 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost sharing. 438.108 Section 438.108 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.108 Cost sharing. The contract...

  15. 50 CFR 80.12 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.12 Cost sharing....

  16. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.22 Cost sharing. Policy Research funds shall not be used to pay any recipient of a grant for the conduct of a research project an amount equal to as much as the entire cost of the project....

  17. Addressing Challenges to the Shared Use of School Recreational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, John O.; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Carroll, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The shared use of school recreational facilities holds the potential to offer activity opportunities for many people, especially those in low-income, minority, and under-resourced communities. School facilities are usually easily accessible and offer safe, free or low cost, and convenient recreation and sport opportunities. However, a number of…

  18. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  19. Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Gilbert M.; Pariyo, George; Galiwango, Edward; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of ending cost sharing on use of outpatient services and how this was perceived by health workers and members of a health unit management committee. METHODS: From 10 districts across Uganda, 78 health facilities were selected. Attendance at these facilities was assessed for eight months before and 12 months after cost sharing ended. The data represented 1 966 522 outpatient visits. Perceptions about the impact of ending cost sharing were obtained from the 73 health workers and 78 members of the health unit management committee who were available. FINDINGS: With the end of cost sharing, the mean monthly number of new visits increased by 17 928 (53.3%), but among children aged <5 years the increase was 3611 (27.3%). Mean monthly reattendances increased by 2838 (81.3%) among children aged <5 years and 1889 (24.3%) among all people. Attendances for immunizations, antenatal clinics, and family planning all increased, despite these services having always been free. Health workers reported a decline in morale, and many health unit management committees no longer met regularly. CONCLUSION: Use of all services increased - even those that had never before been subject to fees. The loss of some autonomy by the health facility and diminished community governance of health facilities may have long term negative effects. PMID:15112007

  20. 42 CFR 447.53 - Cost sharing for drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost sharing for drugs. 447.53 Section 447.53... and Cost Sharing § 447.53 Cost sharing for drugs. (a) The agency may establish differential cost sharing for preferred and non-preferred drugs. The provisions in § 447.56(a) shall apply except as...

  1. 22 CFR 226.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.23 Cost sharing or... classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated supplies included in the cost sharing or matching share...

  2. 7 CFR 636.7 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.7 Cost-share payments. (a) NRCS may... costs to develop fish and wildlife habitat. The cost-share payment to a participant will be...

  3. 7 CFR 636.7 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.7 Cost-share payments. (a) NRCS may... costs to develop fish and wildlife habitat. The cost-share payment to a participant will be...

  4. 7 CFR 636.7 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.7 Cost-share payments. (a) NRCS may... costs to develop fish and wildlife habitat. The cost-share payment to a participant will be...

  5. 7 CFR 636.7 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.7 Cost-share payments. (a) NRCS may... costs to develop fish and wildlife habitat. The cost-share payment to a participant will be...

  6. Addressing Cost Increases in Evolutionary Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    Financing ROI of Information Warfare Systems Special Termination Liability in MDAPs Strategic Sourcing Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to...of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI

  7. 7 CFR 636.7 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.7 Cost-share payments. (a) NRCS... establishing conservation practices to develop fish and wildlife habitat. The cost-share payment to...

  8. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs... this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be reimbursed by the Government... firms, to recover their IR&D costs through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the cost...

  9. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs... this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be reimbursed by the Government... firms, to recover their IR&D costs through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the cost...

  10. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs... this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be reimbursed by the Government... firms, to recover their IR&D costs through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the cost...

  11. Cost Sharing, Health Care Expenditures, and Utilization: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Perkowski, Patryk; Rodberg, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Health systems implement cost sharing to help reduce health care expenditure and utilization by discouraging the use of unnecessary health care services. We examine cost sharing in 28 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development from 1999 through 2009 in the areas of medical care, hospital care, and pharmaceuticals. We investigate associations between cost sharing, health care expenditures, and health care utilization and find no significant association between cost sharing and health care expenditures or utilization in these countries.

  12. 76 FR 80081 - Section 482: Methods To Determine Taxable Income in Connection With a Cost Sharing Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...This document contains final regulations regarding methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement under section 482 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). The final regulations address issues that have arisen in administering the current cost sharing regulations. The final regulations affect domestic and foreign entities that enter into cost sharing......

  13. 14 CFR § 1260.54 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Special Conditions § 1260.54 Cost sharing. Cost Sharing October 2000 (a) NASA and the Recipient will share in providing the resources necessary to perform the agreement. NASA funding and non-cash...-cash contribution will be on a___ percent NASA; ___ percent Recipient basis. (b) The funding and...

  14. 29 CFR 1470.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agreements. Except as provided by Federal statute, a cost sharing or matching requirement may not be met by... subgrantee from a contract awarded under another Federal grant. (2) General revenue sharing. For the purpose... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  15. 14 CFR 1273.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agreements. Except as provided by Federal statute, a cost sharing or matching requirement may not be met by... subgrantee from a contract awarded under another Federal grant. (2) General revenue sharing. For the purpose... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  16. 43 CFR 12.64 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.64 Matching or cost sharing... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be used for cost sharing or matching. (6) Are provided for in the approved budget when required by NASA. (7) Conform to other provisions of this subpart, as applicable. (b) Unrecovered indirect costs may be included as part of cost sharing or matching only with the prior approval of the cognizant...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be used for cost sharing or matching. (6) Are provided for in the approved budget when required by NASA. (7) Conform to other provisions of this subpart, as applicable. (b) Unrecovered indirect costs may be included as part of cost sharing or matching only with the prior approval of the cognizant...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be used for cost sharing or matching. (6) Are provided for in the approved budget when required by NASA. (7) Conform to other provisions of this subpart, as applicable. (b) Unrecovered indirect costs may be included as part of cost sharing or matching only with the prior approval of the cognizant...

  20. 28 CFR 70.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.23 Cost... and classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated supplies included in the cost sharing or...

  1. Patient cost sharing: how much is too much?

    PubMed

    Trude, Sally

    2003-12-01

    Responding to successive years of double-digit health insurance premium increases, employers continue to restructure health benefits to slow the rise in company costs by increasing patients' financial stake in their care. A new Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) study examines how increased patient cost sharing through higher deductibles, copayments and coinsurance raises patients' out-of-pocket costs. Increased patient cost sharing creates more financial burdens for seriously ill and low-income workers. Concerns about financial hardships for seriously ill and low-income workers may limit employers' ability to slow rising premiums through increased patient cost sharing.

  2. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I accept costs of prior research as cost... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.545 May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing? No, you may not count...

  3. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I accept costs of prior research as cost... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.545 May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing? No, you may not count...

  4. 45 CFR 1183.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1183... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  5. 15 CFR 24.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  6. 14 CFR 1273.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  7. 20 CFR 437.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial... indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions will be given only if the grantee... additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv)...

  8. 45 CFR 1174.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1174... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  9. 34 CFR 80.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.24... indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee... additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv)...

  10. 10 CFR 600.224 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 600... payments would have been an indirect costs. Cost sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  11. 45 CFR 1157.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee... additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv)...

  12. 44 CFR 13.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee... additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv)...

  13. 22 CFR 135.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  14. 29 CFR 1470.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  15. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial... indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee... additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv)...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  17. 45 CFR 92.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL, AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award... payments would have been an indirect costs. Costs sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall... provided under the contract (without additional cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings...

  18. Lowering medical costs through the sharing of savings by physicians and patients: inclusive shared savings.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Harald; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to controlling health care costs have strengths and weaknesses. We propose an alternative, "inclusive shared savings," that aims to lower medical costs through savings that are shared by physicians and patients. Inclusive shared savings may be particularly attractive in situations in which treatments, such as those for gastric cancer, are similar in clinical effectiveness and have modest differences in convenience but substantially differ in cost. Inclusive shared savings incorporates features of typical insurance coverage, shared savings, and value-based insurance design but differs from value-based insurance design, which merely seeks to decrease or eliminate out-of-pocket costs. Inclusive shared savings offers financial incentives to physicians and patients to promote the use of lower-cost, but equally effective, interventions and should be evaluated in a rigorous trial or demonstration project.

  19. 48 CFR 335.070 - Cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing. 335.070 Section 335.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.070 Cost-sharing....

  20. 41 CFR 105-72.303 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 105-72.303 Section 105-72.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Management § 105-72.303 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and third party...

  1. 45 CFR 152.21 - Premiums and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Benefits § 152.21 Premiums and cost-sharing. (a) Limitation on... and cost-sharing by other insurers offering health insurance coverage to individuals in the applicable...) Premiums charged to enrollees in the PCIP may vary on the basis of age by a factor not greater than 4 to...

  2. 22 CFR 226.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 226.23 Section 226.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.23 Cost sharing...

  3. 22 CFR 226.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 226.23 Section 226.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.23 Cost sharing...

  4. 22 CFR 226.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 226.23 Section 226.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.23 Cost sharing...

  5. 40 CFR 30.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30... accordance with the applicable cost principles. If, after consultation with Agency property management... classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated supplies included in the cost sharing or matching share...

  6. 45 CFR 156.130 - Cost-sharing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section. (b) (c) Special rule for network plans. In the case of a plan using a network of providers, cost-sharing paid by, or on behalf of, an enrollee for benefits provided outside of such network shall not count toward the annual limitation on cost-sharing (as defined in paragraph...

  7. Income-related cost sharing in health insurance.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Thorpe, K E

    1993-01-01

    The vast majority of health plans in the United States require patients to meet cost-sharing requirements that are unrelated to income. Because this is highly inequitable, the authors propose a new system in which cost sharing is explicitly linked to income levels. This proposal differs from earlier proposals to relate cost sharing to income, which relied on the federal income tax system. In this plan, employers and insurers (both public and private) would collect the information necessary to relate cost sharing amounts to income. The proposal could be applied to nearly any health system reform proposal currently under discussion. The authors examine the experience of a number of U.S. firms that have already incorporated income-related cost sharing, as possible models to apply to health insurance nationwide.

  8. 45 CFR 800.106 - Cost-sharing limits, advance payments of premium tax credits, and cost-sharing reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-sharing limits, advance payments of premium tax credits, and cost-sharing reductions. 800.106 Section 800.106 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM...

  9. 45 CFR 800.106 - Cost-sharing limits, advance payments of premium tax credits, and cost-sharing reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-sharing limits, advance payments of premium tax credits, and cost-sharing reductions. 800.106 Section 800.106 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM...

  10. 10 CFR 600.30 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirement does not apply to: (1) An award under the small business innovation research program or the small... circular of the Office of Management and Budget; (iv) Indirect costs or facilities and administrative...

  11. 45 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.23... workshop and classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated supplies included in the cost sharing...

  12. 15 CFR 14.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.23 Cost sharing or... include such items as expendable equipment, office supplies, laboratory supplies or workshop and...

  13. 22 CFR 145.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management § 145.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and third party in-kind... expendable equipment, office supplies, laboratory supplies or workshop and classroom supplies. Value...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Program Management § 1210.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and third... supplies, laboratory supplies or workshop and classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated...

  15. 45 CFR 1157.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contribution to a fixed-price contract may count towards satisfying a cost sharing or matching requirement only... a grantee or subgrantee, the treatment of the donated property will depend upon the purpose of...

  16. 10 CFR 600.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... counted as cost sharing or matching if the service is an integral and necessary part of an approved..., material, equipment, buildings and land shall be documented. (j) DOE shall specify in the solicitation...

  17. 10 CFR 600.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... counted as cost sharing or matching if the service is an integral and necessary part of an approved..., material, equipment, buildings and land shall be documented. (j) DOE shall specify in the solicitation...

  18. 10 CFR 600.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... counted as cost sharing or matching if the service is an integral and necessary part of an approved..., material, equipment, buildings and land shall be documented. (j) DOE shall specify in the solicitation...

  19. 10 CFR 600.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... counted as cost sharing or matching if the service is an integral and necessary part of an approved..., material, equipment, buildings and land shall be documented. (j) DOE shall specify in the solicitation...

  20. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  1. 34 CFR 675.45 - Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... career outcomes, relative to student self-sufficiency in financing their higher education, repayment of... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share. 675.45 Section 675.45 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  2. Patient cost sharing and medical expenditures for the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kazuya; Mizuoka, Sou; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Iizuka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapidly aging population, relatively little is known about how cost sharing affects the elderly's medical spending. Exploiting longitudinal claims data and the drastic reduction of coinsurance from 30% to 10% at age 70 in Japan, we find that the elderly's demand responses are heterogeneous in ways that have not been previously reported. Outpatient services by orthopedic and eye specialties, which will continue to increase in an aging society, are particularly price responsive and account for a large share of the spending increase. Lower cost sharing increases demand for brand-name drugs but not for generics. These high price elasticities may call for different cost-sharing rules for these services. Patient health status also matters: receiving medical services appears more discretionary for the healthy than the sick in the outpatient setting. Finally, we found no evidence that additional medical spending improved short-term health outcomes.

  3. 48 CFR 3416.303 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing contracts. 3416.303 Section 3416.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts...

  4. 20 CFR 437.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....24 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 437.24 Matching or cost sharing. (a) Basic rule. Costs and contributions acceptable. With...

  5. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not-for-profit organizations. (1) Costs to perform research stemming from an unsolicited proposal by... organizations is mandatory in any contract for basic or applied research resulting from an unsolicited proposal... the research, and the contractor has no means of recovering its shared costs on such projects. (2)...

  6. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... not-for-profit organizations. (1) Costs to perform research stemming from an unsolicited proposal by... organizations is mandatory in any contract for basic or applied research resulting from an unsolicited proposal... the research, and the contractor has no means of recovering its shared costs on such projects. (2)...

  7. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... not-for-profit organizations. (1) Costs to perform research stemming from an unsolicited proposal by... organizations is mandatory in any contract for basic or applied research resulting from an unsolicited proposal... the research, and the contractor has no means of recovering its shared costs on such projects. (2)...

  8. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs... to recover through those procurement contracts the allocable portion of its research and...

  9. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repayment of Federal cost share. 603.575 Section 603.575 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost...

  10. 45 CFR 2541.240 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee); or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  11. 40 CFR 31.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  12. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  13. 32 CFR 33.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  14. 38 CFR 43.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS... sharing or matching credit for such contributions shall be given only if the grantee, subgrantee, or... cost to the grantee or subgrantee) or (B) A cost savings to the grantee or subgrantee. (iv) The...

  15. Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalew, Sewale Abate

    2013-01-01

    Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

  16. Institutionalising cost sharing for catchment management: lessons from land and water management planning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, G R

    2002-01-01

    A recurring theme in recent Australian reports on integrated catchment management (ICM) has been the need to institutionalise more formally the cost-sharing commitments made within this domain. This represents a significant departure from earlier visions of ICM as essentially promoting voluntary uptake of resource-conservation measures. Two important questions raised by this nascent policy shift are addressed in this paper. Firstly, how might cost-sharing arrangements be given greater formality without undermining the efforts of ICM to increase the preparedness of civil stakeholders to voluntarily, or informally, accept responsibility for sharing costs? Secondly, how is it possible to formalise cost-sharing arrangements so that the transaction costs of enforcing compliance with them remain affordable? Answers to these questions are explored through a case study of the Land and Water Management Planning Program now being successfully implemented in the irrigation districts of the central-Murray region of southern inland New South Wales (NSW) surrounding Deniliquin. The sophisticated system of institutional arrangements introduced in the program to facilitate monitoring, enforcement and adaptive management of cost-sharing commitments is discussed, and insights into how informally motivated cooperation can enhance the affordability and political feasibility of formal arrangements are presented.

  17. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost-share payments. 625.10 Section 625.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... preserve forest ecosystem functions and values, and measures that are needed to provide the...

  18. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost-share payments. 625.10 Section 625.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... preserve forest ecosystem functions and values, and measures that are needed to provide the...

  19. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost-share payments. 625.10 Section 625.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... preserve forest ecosystem functions and values, and measures that are needed to provide the...

  20. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-share payments. 625.10 Section 625.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... forest ecosystem functions and values over time and measures that are needed to provide the...

  1. Cost Sharing in Zambia's Public Universities: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaiti, Gift; Shen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This research paper explores the concept of "cost sharing" which became more prominent in Zambia education with the advent of democratic form of governance in 1991. As a way of responding to the ever diminishing tax revenues, government through the education policy of 1996, allowed higher education institutions including public…

  2. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 85.24 Section 85.24 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND...

  3. 22 CFR 518.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions... work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the required skills are not found in the recipient organization, rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the...

  4. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Financial and Program Management § 74.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and... volunteer services must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the...

  5. 29 CFR 95.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Financial and Program Management § 95.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and... services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the...

  6. 20 CFR 435.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.23 Cost sharing or... must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those instances... with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the kind...

  7. 24 CFR 84.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management § 84.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and third party in-kind... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program Management § 3019.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a) All contributions, including cash and third.... Rates for volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's..., rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a.... Rates for volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's..., rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the...

  10. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 74.23 Section 74.23 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  11. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 74.23 Section 74.23 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1403.24 Section 1403.24 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  13. 21 CFR 1403.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1403.24 Section 1403.24 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  14. 21 CFR 1403.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1403.24 Section 1403.24 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  15. 7 CFR 1467.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost-share payments. 1467.10 Section 1467.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.10...

  16. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 74.23 Section 74.23 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  17. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 74.23 Section 74.23 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  18. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the contracting... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repayment of Federal cost share. 603.575 Section 603.575 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS...

  19. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 85.24 Section 85.24 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND...

  20. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 85.24 Section 85.24 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND...

  1. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 85.24 Section 85.24 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND...

  2. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 85.24 Section 85.24 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND...

  3. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 66.24 Section 66.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  4. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 66.24 Section 66.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  5. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 66.24 Section 66.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  6. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 66.24 Section 66.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  7. 32 CFR 34.13 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing or matching; or (ii) Independent research and... following qualifications: (A) The value of donated space shall not exceed the fair rental value of comparable space as established by an independent appraisal of comparable space and facilities in a...

  8. 20 CFR 435.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 435.23 Section 435.23 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... made. However, the full value of equipment or other capital assets and fair rental charges for land...

  9. 20 CFR 437.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 437.24 Section 437.24 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... grant or subgrant, as follows: (1) Awards for capital expenditures. If the purpose of the grant...

  10. 20 CFR 435.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost sharing or matching. 435.23 Section 435.23 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... made. However, the full value of equipment or other capital assets and fair rental charges for land...

  11. 20 CFR 437.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 437.24 Section 437.24 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... grant or subgrant, as follows: (1) Awards for capital expenditures. If the purpose of the grant...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.23 Cost sharing or matching. (a.... (2) The current fair market value. However, when there is sufficient justification, the Federal awarding agency may approve the use of the current fair market value of the donated property, even if...

  13. 45 CFR 156.130 - Cost-sharing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... limit. (c) Special rule for network plans. In the case of a plan using a network of providers, cost-sharing paid by, or on behalf of, an enrollee for benefits provided outside of such network shall not... annual dollar limits in multiples of 50. For a plan year beginning in a calendar year after 2014,...

  14. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.9 Cost-share agreements. (a) To... a term of at least 15 years; (2) Protects and restores essential plant or animal habitat, as... implementing the WHIP plan of operations to develop fish and wildlife habitat....

  15. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.9 Cost-share agreements. (a) To... least 15 years; (2) Protects and restores critical plant or animal habitat, as determined by NRCS; and... practices to develop fish and wildlife habitat....

  16. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.9 Cost-share agreements. (a) To... a term of at least 15 years; (2) Protects and restores essential plant or animal habitat, as... implementing the WHIP plan of operations to develop fish and wildlife habitat....

  17. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.9 Cost-share agreements. (a) To... a term of at least 15 years; (2) Protects and restores essential plant or animal habitat, as... implementing the WHIP plan of operations to develop fish and wildlife habitat....

  18. 42 CFR 447.70 - General alternative cost sharing protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services. Except as indicated, these limits do not apply to alternative cost sharing for prescription drugs identified by a State's Medicaid program as non-preferred within a class of such drugs or for non-emergency... under contract health services. (11) Preferred drugs within a class, or drugs not identified by...

  19. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subsidy eligible individuals are entitled to the following: (1) Elimination of the annual deductible under § 423.104(d)(1). (2) Reduction in cost-sharing for all covered Part D drugs covered under the PDP or MA-PD plan below the out-of-pocket limit (under § 423.104), including Part D drugs covered under the...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... treated in those sections, the value placed upon it shall be fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of...

  1. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Matching or cost sharing. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION... treated in those sections, the value placed upon it shall be fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... treated in those sections, the value placed upon it shall be fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... treated in those sections, the value placed upon it shall be fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of...

  4. 75 FR 30243 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Recovery Act). These provisions increase State flexibility to impose premiums and cost sharing for coverage... drugs (which are subject to a separate provision discussed below), and to adopt certain rules with... Federal Register (73 FR 9727) that proposed to implement and interpret the provisions of sections...

  5. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... organizations is mandatory in any contract for basic or applied research resulting from an unsolicited proposal... the research, and the contractor has no means of recovering its shared costs on such projects. (2) The... contribution from non-Federal sources; (ii) The extent to which the particular area of research...

  6. 13 CFR 143.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching or cost sharing. 143.24 Section 143.24 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award...

  7. 14 CFR § 1260.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal statute to be used for cost sharing or matching. (6) Are provided for in the approved budget when required by NASA. (7) Conform to other provisions of this subpart, as applicable. (b) Unrecovered indirect... NASA grant officer. (c) Values for recipient contributions of services and property shall...

  8. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... organizations is mandatory in any contract for basic or applied research resulting from an unsolicited proposal... the research, and the contractor has no means of recovering its shared costs on such projects. (2) The... contribution from non-Federal sources; (ii) The extent to which the particular area of research...

  9. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  10. 48 CFR 42.707 - Cost-sharing rates and limitations on indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ceiling may be incorporated into the contract for prospective application. For cost sharing under research... contractor— (i) Is a new or recently reorganized company, and there is no past or recent record of incurred indirect costs; (ii) Has a recent record of a rapidly increasing indirect cost rate due to a...

  11. Evolution of cooperation with shared costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel S; Vincent, Thomas L

    2008-09-07

    The quest to determine how cooperation evolves can be based on evolutionary game theory, in spite of the fact that evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) for most non-zero-sum games are not cooperative. We analyse the evolution of cooperation for a family of evolutionary games involving shared costs and benefits with a continuum of strategies from non-cooperation to total cooperation. This cost-benefit game allows the cooperator to share in the benefit of a cooperative act, and the recipient to be burdened with a share of the cooperator's cost. The cost-benefit game encompasses the Prisoner's Dilemma, Snowdrift game and Partial Altruism. The models produce ESS solutions of total cooperation, partial cooperation, non-cooperation and coexistence between cooperation and non-cooperation. Cooperation emerges from an interplay between the nonlinearities in the cost and benefit functions. If benefits increase at a decelerating rate and costs increase at an accelerating rate with the degree of cooperation, then the ESS has an intermediate level of cooperation. The game also exhibits non-ESS points such as unstable minima, convergent-stable minima and unstable maxima. The emergence of cooperative behaviour in this game represents enlightened self-interest, whereas non-cooperative solutions illustrate the Tragedy of the Commons. Games having either a stable maximum or a stable minimum have the property that small changes in the incentive structure (model parameter values) or culture (starting frequencies of strategies) result in correspondingly small changes in the degree of cooperation. Conversely, with unstable maxima or unstable minima, small changes in the incentive structure or culture can result in a switch from non-cooperation to total cooperation (and vice versa). These solutions identify when human or animal societies have the potential for cooperation and whether cooperation is robust or fragile.

  12. 36 CFR 230.6 - Project costs and cost share requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project costs and cost share requirements. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program §...

  13. 36 CFR 230.6 - Project costs and cost share requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project costs and cost share requirements. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program §...

  14. 36 CFR 230.6 - Project costs and cost share requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project costs and cost share requirements. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program §...

  15. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Estimated cost and cost-sharing. 1552.216-76 Section 1552.216-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and...

  16. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing? 37.545 Section 37.545 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  17. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing? 37.545 Section 37.545 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  18. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing? 37.545 Section 37.545 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  19. Supply-side cost sharing when patients and doctors collude.

    PubMed

    Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2003-09-01

    Doctors and patients generally share a common interest in maximizing the quality of care. Purchasers of health care on the other hand, desire cost-effective levels of quality. We consider the purchaser's problem of implementing supply-side cost sharing when patients and doctors are asymmetrically informed and can collude to advance their own joint interests in maximal quality. Such collusion can be interpreted as the sort of informal side-payments that are observed in transitional and developing economies. It may also be interpreted as a "formal" (but unregulated) case of physician balance billing. We show that both collusion-proof schemes and collusion-inducing schemes can implement cost-effective care. A number of policy implications are discussed. In particular, more permissive advertising of referred services (such as pharmaceuticals) and more informed patients will increase the cost of implementing collusion-proof mechanisms. If patients have a high willingness to pay or are informed, then allowing collusion may be preferred.

  20. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  1. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost... Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.78 Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. (a) The total aggregate amount of premiums and cost sharing imposed...

  2. Probabilistic sharing solves the problem of costly punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-08-01

    Cooperators that refuse to participate in sanctioning defectors create the second-order free-rider problem. Such cooperators will not be punished because they contribute to the public good, but they also eschew the costs associated with punishing defectors. Altruistic punishers—those that cooperate and punish—are at a disadvantage, and it is puzzling how such behaviour has evolved. We show that sharing the responsibility to sanction defectors rather than relying on certain individuals to do so permanently can solve the problem of costly punishment. Inspired by the fact that humans have strong but also emotional tendencies for fair play, we consider probabilistic sanctioning as the simplest way of distributing the duty. In well-mixed populations the public goods game is transformed into a coordination game with full cooperation and defection as the two stable equilibria, while in structured populations pattern formation supports additional counterintuitive solutions that are reminiscent of Parrondo's paradox.

  3. Physician response to the United Mine Workers' cost-sharing program: the other side of the coin.

    PubMed Central

    Fahs, M C

    1992-01-01

    The effect of cost sharing on health services utilization is analyzed from a new perspective, that is, its effects on physician response to cost sharing. A primary data set was constructed using medical records and billing files from a large multispecialty group practice during the three-year period surrounding the introduction of cost sharing to the United Mine Workers Health and Retirement Fund. This same group practice also served an equally large number of patients covered by United Steelworkers' health benefit plans, for which similar utilization data were available. The questions addressed in this interinsurer study are: (1) to what extent does a physician's treatment of medically similar cases vary, following a drop in patient visits as a result of cost sharing? and (2) what is the impact, if any, on costs of care for other patients in the practice (e.g., "spillover effects" such as cost shifting)? Answers to these kinds of questions are necessary to predict the effects of cost sharing on overall health care costs. A fixed-effects model of physician service use was applied to data on episodes of treatment for all patients in a private group practice. This shows that the introduction of cost sharing to some patients in a practice does, in fact, increase the treatment costs to other patients in the same practice who remain under stable insurance plans. The analysis demonstrates that when the economic effects of cost sharing on physician service use are analyzed for all patients within a physician practice, the findings are remarkably different from those of an analysis limited to those patients directly affected by cost sharing. PMID:1563952

  4. Breaking the Bank: Three Financing Models for Addressing the Drug Innovation Cost Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kleinke, J.D.; McGee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background The introduction of innovative specialty pharmaceuticals with high prices has renewed efforts by public and private healthcare payers to constrain their utilization, increase patient cost-sharing, and compel government intervention on pricing. These efforts, although rational for individual payers, have the potential to undermine the public health impact and overall economic value of these innovations for society. The emerging archetypal example is the outcry over the cost of sofosbuvir, a drug proved to cure hepatitis C infection at a cost of $84,000 per person for a course of treatment (or $1000 per tablet). This represents a radical medical breakthrough for public health, with great promise for the long-term costs associated with this disease, but with major short-term cost implications for the budgets of healthcare payers. Objectives To propose potential financing models to provide a workable and lasting solution that directly addresses the misalignment of incentives between healthcare payers confronted with the high upfront costs of innovative specialty drugs and the rest of the US healthcare system, and to articulate these in the context of the historic struggle over paying for innovation. Discussion We describe 3 innovative financing models to manage expensive specialty drugs that will significantly reduce the direct, immediate cost burden of these drugs to public and private healthcare payers. The 3 financing models include high-cost drug mortgages, high-cost drugs reinsurance, and high-cost drug patient rebates. These models have been proved successful in other areas and should be adopted into healthcare to mitigate the high-cost of specialty drugs. We discuss the distribution of this burden over time and across the healthcare system, and we match the financial burden of medical innovations to the healthcare stakeholders who capture their overall value. All 3 models work within or replicate the current healthcare marketplace mechanisms for

  5. 7 CFR 631.7 - Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., conservation practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the state. (b) The designated... conservation systems, practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the county....

  6. 7 CFR 631.7 - Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., conservation practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the state. (b) The designated... conservation systems, practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the county....

  7. 36 CFR 1206.45 - What rules govern subgrant distribution, cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution, cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting? 1206.45 Section 1206.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL..., cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting? (a) The Commission will annually establish...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1162 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1162 Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau,...

  9. 47 CFR 27.1178 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1178 Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, under...

  10. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This... Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $1.495 million for this...

  11. 76 FR 54999 - Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice... Service (AMS) for the allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. Beginning in...

  12. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites all States of the United... allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for...

  13. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity.

  14. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost... Cost Sharing § 37.550 May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? (a) In most instances, you should not count costs of patents and other intellectual property (e.g., copyrighted material,...

  15. Addressing the computational cost of large EIT solutions.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Alistair; Borsic, Andrea; Adler, Andy

    2012-05-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a soft field tomography modality based on the application of electric current to a body and measurement of voltages through electrodes at the boundary. The interior conductivity is reconstructed on a discrete representation of the domain using a finite-element method (FEM) mesh and a parametrization of that domain. The reconstruction requires a sequence of numerically intensive calculations. There is strong interest in reducing the cost of these calculations. An improvement in the compute time for current problems would encourage further exploration of computationally challenging problems such as the incorporation of time series data, wide-spread adoption of three-dimensional simulations and correlation of other modalities such as CT and ultrasound. Multicore processors offer an opportunity to reduce EIT computation times but may require some restructuring of the underlying algorithms to maximize the use of available resources. This work profiles two EIT software packages (EIDORS and NDRM) to experimentally determine where the computational costs arise in EIT as problems scale. Sparse matrix solvers, a key component for the FEM forward problem and sensitivity estimates in the inverse problem, are shown to take a considerable portion of the total compute time in these packages. A sparse matrix solver performance measurement tool, Meagre-Crowd, is developed to interface with a variety of solvers and compare their performance over a range of two- and three-dimensional problems of increasing node density. Results show that distributed sparse matrix solvers that operate on multiple cores are advantageous up to a limit that increases as the node density increases. We recommend a selection procedure to find a solver and hardware arrangement matched to the problem and provide guidance and tools to perform that selection.

  16. Gauging the feasibility of cost-sharing and medical student interest groups to reduce interview costs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Bryan A; Wilson, Taylor A; Bell, Randy S; Ashley, William W; Barrow, Daniel L; Wolfe, Stacey Quintero

    2014-11-01

    Indirect costs of the interview tour can be prohibitive. The authors sought to assess the desire of interviewees to mitigate these costs through ideas such as sharing hotel rooms and transportation, willingness to stay with local students, and the preferred modality to coordinate this collaboration. A survey link was posted on the Uncle Harvey website and the Facebook profile page of fourth-year medical students from 6 different medical schools shortly after the 2014 match day. There were a total of 156 respondents to the survey. The majority of the respondents were postinterview medical students (65.4%), but preinterview medical students (28.2%) and current residents (6.4%) also responded to the survey. Most respondents were pursuing a field other than neurosurgery (75.0%) and expressed a desire to share a hotel room and/or transportation (77.4%) as well as stay in the dorm room of a medical student at the program in which they are interviewing (70.0%). Students going into neurosurgery were significantly more likely to be interested in sharing hotel/transportation (89.2% neurosurgery vs 72.8% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) and in staying in the dorm room of a local student when on interviews (85.0% neurosurgery vs 57.1% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) than those going into other specialties. Among postinterview students, communication was preferred to be by private, email identification-only chat room. Given neurosurgery resident candidates' interest in collaborating to reduce interview costs, consideration should be given to creating a system that could allow students to coordinate cost sharing between interviewees. Moreover, interviewees should be connected to local students from neurosurgery interest groups as a resource.

  17. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2010-05-28

    This final rule revises the November 25, 2008 final rule entitled, "Medicaid Programs; Premiums and Cost Sharing (73 FR 71828)," to address public comments received during reopened comment periods, and to reflect relevant statutory changes made in section 5006(a) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act). This revised final rule implements and interprets section 1916A of the Social Security Act (the Act), which was added by sections 6041, 6042, and 6043 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA), amended by section 405(a)(1) of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (TRHCA) and further amended by section 5006(a) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act). These provisions increase State flexibility to impose premiums and cost sharing for coverage of certain individuals whose family income exceeds specified levels. This revised rule also provides a further opportunity for public comment on revisions made to implement and interpret section 5006(a) of the Recovery Act. The Recovery Act prohibits States from charging premiums and cost sharing under Medicaid to Indians furnished items or services directly by the Indian Health Service, Indian Tribes, Tribal Organizations, or Urban Indian Organizations or through referral under contract health services.

  18. The Cost of Cost-Sharing: The Impact of Medicaid Benefit Design on Influenza Vaccination Uptake.

    PubMed

    Stoecker, Charles; Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C

    2017-03-06

    Prior research indicates that cost-sharing and lack of insurance coverage reduce preventive services use among low-income persons. State Medicaid policy may affect the uptake of recommended adult vaccinations. We examined the impact of three aspects of Medicaid benefit design (coverage for vaccines, prohibiting cost-sharing, and copayment amounts) on vaccine uptake in the fee-for-service Medicaid population 19-64 years old. We combined previously published reports to obtain state Medicaid policy information from 2003 and 2012. Data on influenza vaccination uptake were taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used a differences-in-differences framework, controlling for national trends and state differences, to estimate the effect of each benefit design factor on vaccination uptake in different Medicaid-eligible populations. Each additional dollar of copayment for vaccination decreased influenza vaccination coverage 1-6 percentage points. The effects of covering vaccines or prohibiting cost-sharing were mixed. Imposing copayments for vaccination is associated with lower vaccination coverage. These findings have implications for the implementation of Medicaid expansion in states that currently impose copayments.

  19. The Cost of Cost-Sharing: The Impact of Medicaid Benefit Design on Influenza Vaccination Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Stoecker, Charles; Stewart, Alexandra M.; Lindley, Megan C.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research indicates that cost-sharing and lack of insurance coverage reduce preventive services use among low-income persons. State Medicaid policy may affect the uptake of recommended adult vaccinations. We examined the impact of three aspects of Medicaid benefit design (coverage for vaccines, prohibiting cost-sharing, and copayment amounts) on vaccine uptake in the fee-for-service Medicaid population 19–64 years old. We combined previously published reports to obtain state Medicaid policy information from 2003 and 2012. Data on influenza vaccination uptake were taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used a differences-in-differences framework, controlling for national trends and state differences, to estimate the effect of each benefit design factor on vaccination uptake in different Medicaid-eligible populations. Each additional dollar of copayment for vaccination decreased influenza vaccination coverage 1–6 percentage points. The effects of covering vaccines or prohibiting cost-sharing were mixed. Imposing copayments for vaccination is associated with lower vaccination coverage. These findings have implications for the implementation of Medicaid expansion in states that currently impose copayments. PMID:28272310

  20. 47 CFR 24.243 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment;...

  1. 47 CFR 24.243 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment;...

  2. 47 CFR 24.243 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment;...

  3. 47 CFR 24.243 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment;...

  4. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  5. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  6. 10 CFR 603.525 - Value and reasonableness of the recipient's cost sharing contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Value and reasonableness of the recipient's cost sharing contribution. 603.525 Section 603.525 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... sharing contributions meet the criteria for cost sharing and determine values for them, in accordance...

  7. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of projects and railroad share of the... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.210 Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost. (a) State laws requiring railroads to share in the cost of work...

  8. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification of projects and railroad share of the... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.210 Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost. (a) State laws requiring railroads to share in the cost of work...

  9. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  10. Prescription cost sharing: economic and health impacts, and implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Levy, R A

    1992-09-01

    Cost sharing for prescription pharmaceuticals--in the form of copayments, coinsurance, or deductibles--is now common in healthcare systems throughout the world. Although there are no studies that directly or convincingly measure the effects of prescription cost sharing on health status or treatment outcomes, cost sharing does appear to reduce utilisation of pharmaceuticals; however, more information is required concerning the relationship between cost sharing and prescription-filling behaviour. Additionally, outcomes studies are needed to define appropriate and inappropriate cost-sharing levels for particular groups of patients, based on income, disease, employment status, and other factors. Cost sharing for pharmaceuticals and other medical services is likely to increase in the near future. As a result, consumers will have a greater role in treatment decisions and will also become more interested in knowing the value of the medicines they are asked to purchase. They are therefore likely to demand pharmaceutical products that are more cost-effective and products that improve quality of life. The increased implementation of cost-sharing programmes necessitates the adoption of appropriate cost-sharing policies, which incorporate the following general principles: 1. Consumers must be provided with the information required to make informed decisions, including the value of the medication, its importance in the treatment plan, and the consequences of not having the prescription filled. 2. Aggressive or abusive cost-sharing features that deny access to optimal pharmaceutical therapy must be avoided. 3. Inappropriate cost sharing, either fixed level or percentage of the prescription cost, may affect disease control and ultimately health or functional status. 4. Cost sharing restricted to pharmaceuticals may encourage replacement of drug therapy with more expensive forms of treatment; therefore, cost sharing should apply to the full range of medical services to prevent

  11. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect inpatient care use and costs among people with chronic disease?

    PubMed

    Xin, Haichang

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rising health care costs continue to be a significant concern in the United States. High cost-sharing strategies thus have been widely used to address rising health care costs. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies for physician care are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients, especially whether utilization and costs in inpatient care will increase in response. This study examined whether high cost sharing in physician care affects inpatient care utilization and costs differently between individuals with and without chronic conditions. Findings from this study will contribute to the insurance benefit design that can control care utilization and save costs of chronically ill individuals. Prior studies suffered from gaps that limit both internal validity and external validity of their findings. This study has its unique contributions by filling these gaps jointly. The study used data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample, with a cross-sectional study design. Instrumental variable technique was used to address the endogeneity between health care utilization and cost-sharing levels. We used negative binomial regression to analyze the count data and generalized linear models for costs data. To account for national survey sampling design, weight and variance were adjusted. The study compared the effects of high cost-sharing policies on inpatient care utilization and costs between individuals with and without chronic conditions to answer the research question. The final study sample consisted of 4523 individuals; among them, 752 had hospitalizations. The multivariate analysis demonstrated consistent patterns. Compared with low cost-sharing policies, high cost-sharing policies for physician care were not associated with a greater increase in inpatient care utilization (P = .86 for chronically ill

  12. 42 CFR 447.68 - Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost sharing charges: State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or similar cost sharing charges: State plan requirements. 447.68 Section 447.68 Public Health CENTERS... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.68 Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost...

  13. Trends in Cost-Sharing in the US and Potential International Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Morphew, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    "Cost­-sharing" refers to the principle that a variety of sources contribute to the cost of higher education. This study utilizes university-­level data from the United States to explore the increasing shift of cost burdens from governments to students. Panel regression results suggest that the share of expenditures drawn from tuition…

  14. Cost Sharing-Just When I Thought I Knew All the Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoletti, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues in the recent debate on cost sharing within the federal government-university partnership, the historical roots of cost sharing, and limitations on the recovery of costs under federally funded research. Notes that the Presidential Review Directive process is working toward a set of guiding principles and recommendations to enhance…

  15. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. 1516.303-76 Section 1516.303-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  16. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. 1516.303-76 Section 1516.303-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  17. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. 1516.303-76 Section 1516.303-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  18. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. 1516.303-76 Section 1516.303-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  19. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. 1516.303-76 Section 1516.303-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs... (HVAC) (if required); alternate transport equipment; and leased facilities. Increased recurring...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; back-up power equipment; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training... actual costs associated with providing a replacement system, such as equipment and engineering...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment (vendor required); spare... system, such as equipment and engineering expenses. There is no cap on the actual costs of relocation....

  3. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.31 What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable? The non-Federal cost-share for...

  4. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.31 What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable? The non-Federal cost-share for...

  5. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.31 What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable? The non-Federal cost-share for...

  6. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.31 What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable? The non-Federal cost-share for...

  7. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  8. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  9. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment... a replacement system, such as equipment and engineering expenses. C may not exceed $250,000...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test... a replacement system, such as equipment and engineering expenses. There is no cap on the...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment... a replacement system, such as equipment and engineering expenses. C may not exceed $250,000...

  12. 32 CFR 34.13 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... development (IR&D) costs. In accordance with the for-profit cost principle in 48 CFR 31.205-18(e), use of IR&D... of the IR&D as allowable indirect costs. In such cases, the IR&D must meet all of the criteria...

  13. 32 CFR 34.13 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... development (IR&D) costs. In accordance with the for-profit cost principle in 48 CFR 31.205-18(e), use of IR&D... of the IR&D as allowable indirect costs. In such cases, the IR&D must meet all of the criteria...

  14. 32 CFR 34.13 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... development (IR&D) costs. In accordance with the for-profit cost principle in 48 CFR 31.205-18(e), use of IR&D... of the IR&D as allowable indirect costs. In such cases, the IR&D must meet all of the criteria...

  15. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The HFRP restoration plan may include periodic manipulation to maximize fish and wildlife habitat and...-share agreement, or the agreement under which Landowner Protections have been provided. NRCS will...

  16. 7 CFR 631.7 - Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing. 631... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.7 Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing. (a) The...

  17. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.224 FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... cost-share for an energy conservation measure grant in that building: (a) A non-Federally...

  19. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  20. 42 CFR 600.515 - Public schedule of enrollee premium and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public schedule of enrollee premium and cost sharing. 600.515 Section 600.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... BENEFITS, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, SERVICE DELIVERY REQUIREMENTS, PREMIUM AND COST SHARING, ALLOTMENTS,...

  1. 23 CFR 505.13 - Federal Government's share of project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS OF NATIONAL AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE EVALUATION AND RATING § 505.13 Federal Government's share of project cost. (a) Based on engineering studies, studies of economic feasibility, and... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Government's share of project cost....

  2. 33 CFR 241.5 - Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROVISION § 241.5 Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share. (a) Step one, the benefits test... factor determined in § 241.5(a)(1), when expressed as a percentage, is greater than the standard level of cost-sharing, the standard level will apply. (3) If the factor determined in § 241.5(a)(1),...

  3. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  4. 40 CFR 35.147 - Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Partnership Grant. 35.147 Section 35.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... (section 105) § 35.147 Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant. (a) To calculate the cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant (see §§ 35.130 through 35.138) in the initial and...

  5. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  6. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  7. Cost Sharing in Higher Education in Kenya: Examining the Undesired Policy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngolovoi, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Cost sharing in higher education is a policy that comes from the United States. The policy advocates that costs of higher education should be shared between the government, parents, students and/or donor organizations. Proponents of the policy (such as the World Bank) have over the years been advocating for its implementation in African countries.…

  8. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications From State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...) for the allocation of organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.425 million...

  9. 78 FR 52131 - Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic... Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the following 16 eligible...) for organic certification cost- share funds. A total of $1,352,850 is available to the 16...

  10. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications from State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...) for the allocation of organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.5 million...

  11. 10 CFR 603.525 - Value and reasonableness of the recipient's cost sharing contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Value and reasonableness of the recipient's cost sharing contribution. 603.525 Section 603.525 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.525 Value and reasonableness of...

  12. Consumer cost sharing in private health insurance: on the threshold of change.

    PubMed

    Goff, Veronica

    2004-05-14

    Employers are asking employees to pay more for health care through higher premium contributions, share of contribution, and out-of-pocket maximums, along with variations in deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance based on choice of providers, networks, drugs, and other services. This issue brief examines consumer cost-sharing trends in private insurance, discusses the outlook for cost sharing in employment-based benefits, and considers public policies to support health care markets for consumers.

  13. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment (vendor required); spare equipment; project management; site lease renegotiation; required antenna upgrades for interference control; power plant...

  14. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment (vendor required); spare equipment; project management; site lease renegotiation; required antenna upgrades for interference control; power plant...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment (vendor required); spare equipment; project management; site lease renegotiation; required antenna upgrades for interference control; power plant...

  16. 47 CFR 24.243 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC... Conditioning (HVAC) (if required); alternate transport equipment; and leased facilities. C also...

  17. A menu with prices: Annual per person costs of programs addressing community integration.

    PubMed

    Leff, H Stephen; Cichocki, Ben; Chow, Clifton; Salzer, Mark; Wieman, Dow

    2016-02-01

    Information on costs of programs addressing community integration for persons with serious mental illness in the United States, essential for program planning and evaluation, is largely lacking. To address this knowledge gap, community integration programs identified through directories and snowball sampling were sent an online survey addressing program costs and organizational attributes. 64 Responses were received for which annual per person costs (APPC) could be computed. Programs were categorized by type of services provided. Program types differed in median APPCs, though median APPCs identified were consistent with the ranges identified in the limited literature available. Multiple regression was used to identify organizational variables underlying APPCs such as psychosocial rehabilitation program type, provision of EBPs, number of volunteers, and percentage of budget spent on direct care staff, though effects sizes were moderate at best. This study adds tentative prices to the menu of community integration programs, and the implications of these findings for choosing, designing and evaluating programs addressing community integration are discussed.

  18. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../or modifications; back-up power equipment; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning... engineering expenses. C may not exceed $250,000 per paired link, with an additional $150,000 permitted if...

  19. Consumer Cost-Sharing in Marketplace vs. Employer Health Insurance Plans, 2015.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Using data from 49 states and Washington, D.C., we analyzed changes in cost-sharing under health plans offered to individuals and families through state and federal exchanges from 2014 to 2015. We examined eight vehicles for cost-sharing, including deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket limits, and compared findings with cost-sharing under employer-based insurance. We found cost-sharing under marketplace plans remained essentially unchanged from 2014 to 2015. Stable premiums during that period do not reflect greater costs borne by enrollees. Further, 56 percent of enrollees in marketplace plans attained cost-sharing reductions in 2015. However, for people without cost-sharing reductions, average copayments, deductibles, and out-of-pocket limits under catastrophic, bronze, and silver plans are considerably higher than under employer-based plans on average, while cost-sharing under gold plans is similar employer-based plans on average. Marketplace plans are far more likely than employer-based plans to require enrollees to meet deductibles before they receive coverage for prescription drugs.

  20. The Costs of Sharing: Attending to Contact in Composition Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    "Sharing" is a ubiquitous yet largely unexamined term in composition scholarship and practice. Scholars and teachers use the term widely to talk about practices such as peer review, collaboration, and student-teacher conferences, all of which have been used to support the relevance of composition as a social and communal act. Yet, as…

  1. Collaboration on Technology Projects Results in Cost Sharing Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Carole; Hartleb, David; Neves, Darrow

    2007-01-01

    Realizing they shared a common and growing need for information technology consulting services, new administrative systems, and interrelated instructional technology growth at their respective institutions, two colleges in Massachusetts joined forces. They chose to partner with CampusWorks, Inc. and found a way to save money and improve their…

  2. The Current and Projected Taxpayer Shares of US Health Costs

    PubMed Central

    Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated taxpayers’ current and projected share of US health expenditures, including government payments for public employees’ health benefits as well as tax subsidies to private health spending. Methods. We tabulated official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services figures on direct government spending for health programs and public employees’ health benefits for 2013, and projected figures through 2024. We calculated the value of tax subsidies for private spending from official federal budget documents and figures for state and local tax collections. Results. Tax-funded health expenditures totaled $1.877 trillion in 2013 and are projected to increase to $3.642 trillion in 2024. Government’s share of overall health spending was 64.3% of national health expenditures in 2013 and will rise to 67.1% in 2024. Government health expenditures in the United States account for a larger share of gross domestic product (11.2% in 2013) than do total health expenditures in any other nation. Conclusions. Contrary to public perceptions and official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates, government funds most health care in the United States. Appreciation of government’s predominant role in health funding might encourage more appropriate and equitable targeting of health expenditures. PMID:26794173

  3. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administration costs. (1) You may provide your share of program operating costs with cash, including other...'s share of program costs? 2521.45 Section 2521.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs? The limitations on the Federal...

  4. 7 CFR 1484.50 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Advertising costs; (21) Reasonable travel costs and expenses related to undertaking a foreign market... MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Contributions and Reimbursements § 1484.50 What cost share... will be made in furtherance of the Cooperator's overall foreign market development program; (2)...

  5. 42 CFR 447.70 - General alternative cost sharing protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identified by a State's Medicaid program as non-preferred within a class of such drugs or for non-emergency...) Items and services furnished to an Indian directly by an Indian health care provider or through referral... State's Medicaid program as a non-preferred drug within a class, for individuals for whom cost...

  6. 42 CFR 447.70 - General alternative cost sharing protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identified by a State's Medicaid program as non-preferred within a class of such drugs or for non-emergency...) Items and services furnished to an Indian directly by an Indian health care provider or through referral... State's Medicaid program as a non-preferred drug within a class, for individuals for whom cost...

  7. 42 CFR 447.70 - General alternative cost sharing protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identified by a State's Medicaid program as non-preferred within a class of such drugs or for non-emergency...) Items and services furnished to an Indian directly by an Indian health care provider or through referral... State's Medicaid program as a non-preferred drug within a class, for individuals for whom cost...

  8. 40 CFR 31.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors. Contractors under a grant may earn income... awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by this income may count...

  9. 45 CFR 602.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... indirect cost rate, a special rate for allocating to individual projects or programs the value of the... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  10. 45 CFR 602.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... indirect cost rate, a special rate for allocating to individual projects or programs the value of the... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  11. 45 CFR 602.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... indirect cost rate, a special rate for allocating to individual projects or programs the value of the... fair and reasonable. (c) Valuation of donated services—(1) Volunteer services. Unpaid services...

  12. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 603.215 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.215 Recipient's commitment and cost... self-interest in the success of the project and incorporating the technology into products...

  13. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 603.215 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.215 Recipient's commitment and cost... self-interest in the success of the project and incorporating the technology into products...

  14. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 603.215 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.215 Recipient's commitment and cost... self-interest in the success of the project and incorporating the technology into products...

  15. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 603.215 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.215 Recipient's commitment and cost... self-interest in the success of the project and incorporating the technology into products...

  16. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business... through other awards. It is standard business practice for all for-profit firms, including commercial... costs associated with a technology investment agreement. Contracting officers should note that...

  17. The Sanford Science Education Center: Addressing Key Design Challenges in Sharing Complex Science with Diverse Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inverness Research, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In facilities throughout the United States and abroad, communities of scientists share infrastructure, instrumentation, and equipment to conduct scientific research. In these large facilities--laboratories, accelerators, telescope arrays, and research vessels--scientists are researching key questions that have the potential to make a significant…

  18. On international cost-sharing of pharmaceutical R&D.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita; Martinez-Giralt, Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Ramsey pricing has been proposed in the pharmaceutical industry as a principle to price discriminate among markets while allowing to recover the (fixed) R&D cost. However, such analyses neglect the presence of insurance or the fund raising costs for most of drug reimbursement. By incorporating these new elements, we aim at providing some building blocks towards an economic theory incorporating Ramsey pricing and insurance coverage. We show how coinsurance affects the optimal prices to pay for the R&D investment. We also show that under certain conditions, there is no strategic incentive by governments to set coinsurance rates in order to shift the financial burden of R&D. This will have important implications to the application of Ramsey pricing principles to pharmaceutical products across countries.

  19. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions beyond their control; (2) Compliance with the terms of the 10-year cost-share agreement would work... agreement where forces beyond the participant's control prevented compliance with the agreement....

  20. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands... microwave incumbent a monetary sum to relocate its own facilities, the AWS relocator must estimate the...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27... averaged over numerous systems). If an AWS relocator pays a BRS incumbent a monetary sum to relocate...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1172 - Dispute Resolution Under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MHz Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200... provide evidentiary support to demonstrate that their calculation is reasonable and made in good...

  3. Trends in cost sharing among selected high income countries--2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Hossein, Zare; Gerard, Anderson

    2013-09-01

    Many high income countries increased their level of patient cost sharing between 2000 and 2010 as one component of their policy agenda to reduce the level of health care spending. We use data from the OECD, European Observatory, and country-specific resources to analyze trends in the UK, Germany, Japan, France, and the United States. Some forms of cost sharing-deductibles, co-insurance, or co-payments-increased in all these countries, with the highest rates of increase occurring in the pharmaceutical sector. In spite of higher levels of cost-sharing, out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of total spending remained unchanged in most of these countries because they instituted programs to protect certain categories of individuals by creating out-of-pocket limits, exempting people with certain chronic diseases, or eliminating cost sharing for certain demographic groups and low-income people.

  4. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  5. V-22 Osprey Aircraft: Assessments Needed to Address Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-23

    GAO United States Government Accountability Office Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House ...Investments Highlights of GAO-09-692T, a testimony before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives T Since the 1980s...of Representatives V-22 OSPREY AIRCRAFT Assessments Needed to Address Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments Statement of

  6. Interrelation of preventive care benefits and shared costs under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robert Brent; Hertelendy, Attila J

    2014-08-01

    With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), access to insurance and coverage of preventive care services has been expanded. By removing the barrier of shared costs for preventive care, it is expected that an increase in utilization of preventive care services will reduce the cost of chronic diseases. Early detection and treatment is anticipated to be less costly than treatment at full onset of chronic conditions. One concern of early detection of disease is the cost to treat. In reality, the confluence of early detection may result in greater overall expenditures. Even with improved access to preventive care benefits, cost-sharing of other health services remains a major component of insurance plans. In order to treat identified conditions or diseases, cost-sharing comes into play. With the greater adoption of cost-sharing insurance plans, expenditures on the part of enrollee are anticipated to rise. Once the healthcare recipients realize the implication of early identification and resultant treatment costs, enrollment in preventive care may decline. Healthcare legislation and regulation should consider the full spectrum of care and the microeconomic costs associated with preventive treatment. Although the system at large may not realize the immediate impact, behavioral shifts on the part of healthcare consumers may alter healthcare. Rather than the current status quo of treating presenting conditions, preventive treatment is largely anticipated to require more resources and may impact the consumer's financial capacity. This report will explore how these two concepts are co-dependent, and highlight the need for continued reform.

  7. Addressing Barriers to Shared Decision Making Among Latino LGBTQ Patients and Healthcare Providers in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Fanny Y.; DeMeester, Rachel H.; Jia, Justin L.; Peek, Monica E.; Vela, Monica B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons’ culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient–provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population. PMID:27617356

  8. Addressing Barriers to Shared Decision Making Among Latino LGBTQ Patients and Healthcare Providers in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arshiya A; Lopez, Fanny Y; DeMeester, Rachel H; Jia, Justin L; Peek, Monica E; Vela, Monica B

    2016-10-01

    Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons' culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient-provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population.

  9. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable project costs of an airport planning project shall be— (1) In the case of an airport master plan... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States share of project costs. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.205 United...

  10. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allowable project costs of an airport planning project shall be— (1) In the case of an airport master plan... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States share of project costs. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.205 United...

  11. 26 CFR 16A.126-1 - Certain cost-sharing payments-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... means payment of the economic benefit, if any, conferred upon the taxpayer upon receipt of the...) “Section 126 cost” means the cost of the improvement less the sum of (i) Any government payments under a... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain cost-sharing payments-in general....

  12. 33 CFR 241.5 - Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISION § 241.5 Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share. (a) Step one, the benefits test...) Calculate the ratio of flood control benefits (developed using the Water Resources Council's Principles and... costs. Divide the result by four. For example, if the project's (or separable element's)...

  13. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... software) as cost sharing, because: (1) It is difficult to assign values to these intangible contributions... offer the use of commercially available software for which there is an established license fee for use of the product. The costs of the development of the software would not be a reasonable basis...

  14. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... software) as cost sharing, because: (1) It is difficult to assign values to these intangible contributions... offer the use of commercially available software for which there is an established license fee for use of the product. The costs of the development of the software would not be a reasonable basis...

  15. Is Job Sharing Worthwhile? A Cost-Benefit Analysis in UK Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Data from a survey of personnel directors in United Kingdom universities were used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of job sharing from the institutions' perspective. Results show a 5% rise in productivity would raise the ratio of benefits to cost to 14.3 to 1. Retention of staff, reduction of stress, and reduced unemployment are also benefits.…

  16. Patient cost sharing and social inequalities in access to health care in three western European countries.

    PubMed

    Lostao, Lourdes; Regidor, Enrique; Geyer, Siegfried; Aïach, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the association between social class and health services use in France, Germany and Spain, three countries with universal health coverage but with different cost-sharing systems. In France, patients share the cost of both physician visits and hospitalization, in Germany they share the cost of hospitalization, and in Spain there is no system of patient cost sharing. The data were obtained from national health surveys carried out in each of these countries during the last decade of the 20th century. We found that persons belonging to a low social class had fewer physician visits than those belonging to a high social class in France, whereas the opposite occurred in Germany and Spain. After adjusting for a measure of the need for health care, the results in France changed little, whereas no significant differences by social class were seen in Germany and Spain. Persons of low social class had more hospital admissions than those of high social class in France and Spain, while no statistically different differences were seen in Germany. After adjusting for need, no significant differences were seen in any of the three countries. Although other factors related with the structure of the health system can not be ruled out, our findings suggest that patient cost sharing reduces the frequency of physician visits and that this decrease is greater in the low social classes, whereas the effect of co-payment for hospitalization on the frequency of hospital admission is not clear.

  17. Precompetitive Data Sharing as a Catalyst to Address Unmet Needs in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Diane; Hu, Michele T; Romero, Klaus; Breen, Kieran; Burn, David; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bhattaram, Atul; Isaac, Maria; Venuto, Charles; Kubota, Ken; Little, Max A; Friend, Stephen; Lovestone, Simon; Morris, Huw R; Grosset, Donald; Sutherland, Margaret; Gallacher, John; Williams-Gray, Caroline; Bain, Lisa J; Avilés, Enrique; Marek, Ken; Toga, Arthur W; Stark, Yafit; Forrest Gordon, Mark; Ford, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex heterogeneous disorder with urgent need for disease-modifying therapies. Progress in successful therapeutic approaches for PD will require an unprecedented level of collaboration. At a workshop hosted by Parkinson's UK and co-organized by Critical Path Institute's (C-Path) Coalition Against Major Diseases (CAMD) Consortiums, investigators from industry, academia, government and regulatory agencies agreed on the need for sharing of data to enable future success. Government agencies included EMA, FDA, NINDS/NIH and IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative). Emerging discoveries in new biomarkers and genetic endophenotypes are contributing to our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of PD. In parallel there is growing recognition that early intervention will be key for successful treatments aimed at disease modification. At present, there is a lack of a comprehensive understanding of disease progression and the many factors that contribute to disease progression heterogeneity. Novel therapeutic targets and trial designs that incorporate existing and new biomarkers to evaluate drug effects independently and in combination are required. The integration of robust clinical data sets is viewed as a powerful approach to hasten medical discovery and therapies, as is being realized across diverse disease conditions employing big data analytics for healthcare. The application of lessons learned from parallel efforts is critical to identify barriers and enable a viable path forward. A roadmap is presented for a regulatory, academic, industry and advocacy driven integrated initiative that aims to facilitate and streamline new drug trials and registrations in Parkinson's disease.

  18. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  19. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  20. The Impact of Cost Sharing on Internal Efficiency of Public Secondary Schools in Ndivisi Division, Bungoma District Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiveu, Noah Murumba; Mayio, Julius

    2009-01-01

    Adoption of cost sharing policy in education has witnessed the return to communities and parents a substantial proportion of financial responsibility for schooling. With increased poverty levels, many parents and communities have not been able to meet the cost requirements under cost sharing policy. Thus their investment in education and support…

  1. Changes in drug utilization following the outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing program--evidence from Taiwan's elderly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuen-Zen; Romeis, James C

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines changes in drug utilization following Taiwan's newly implemented National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing program for persons over 65 years old. The study is a hospital outpatient prescription level analysis that adopts a pretest-posttest control group experiment design. Selected measures of outpatient prescription drug utilization are examined for cost-sharing and non cost-sharing groups in cost-sharing periods and pre cost-sharing periods. Additional analyses were conducted comparing older patients with and without chronic diseases and differences for essential and non-essential drugs. Patients over age 65 were drawn from 21 hospitals in the Taipei area using a stratified random sampling method. This paper yields several interesting findings. First, average prescription cost and prescription period increased for both the cost-sharing and non cost-sharing groups. However, the rate of increase was significantly less in the cost-sharing group when compared with the non cost-sharing group. Second, the elderly with non-chronic diseases were more sensitive (i.e., reducing drug utilization) to the drug cost-sharing program when compared with those with chronic diseases. Third, for the elderly with non-chronic diseases average drug cost per prescription experienced a smaller decrease in essential drugs but a moderate increase in non-essential drugs for the cost-sharing group. By contrast, for the non cost-sharing group, average drug cost per prescription increased sharply in non-essential drugs as well as essential drugs. Finally, there was a significant increase in the number of prescriptions as well as drug costs above the upper bound of the cost-sharing schedule. The outpatient drug cost-sharing program implemented by the NHI in Taiwan did not reverse the trend of prescription drug cost increases in hospitals. The significant increase in the number of prescriptions above the upper bound of the cost-sharing schedule

  2. Texas hospitals share creative uses of non-clinical staff to reduce ER costs.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Texas hospitals share creative uses of non-clinical staff to reduce ER costs. In central Texas, Christus Spohn Hospital and Seton Health Care are independently exploring the use of non-clinical staff to improve utilization of clinical and emergency services, but their existing programs employ different structures and outcomes measurements.

  3. 47 CFR 27.1160 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... would occur. All AWS entities that benefit from the clearance of this spectrum by other AWS entities or... AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement (as set forth in part 1, subpart X of this chapter) and the spectrum lessee triggers a cost-sharing obligation, the licensee is the AWS...

  4. 36 CFR 230.45 - Recapture of cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recapture of cost-share assistance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.45 Recapture of...

  5. 36 CFR 230.41 - Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance. 230.41 Section 230.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program §...

  6. 36 CFR 230.45 - Recapture of cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recapture of cost-share assistance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.45 Recapture of...

  7. 36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement. 230.44 Section 230.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.44...

  8. 36 CFR 230.45 - Recapture of cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recapture of cost-share assistance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.45 Recapture of...

  9. 36 CFR 230.43 - Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices. 230.43 Section 230.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.43...

  10. 36 CFR 230.41 - Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance. 230.41 Section 230.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program §...

  11. 36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement. 230.44 Section 230.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.44...

  12. 36 CFR 230.43 - Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices. 230.43 Section 230.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.43...

  13. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42...

  14. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42...

  15. 36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement. 230.44 Section 230.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.44...

  16. 36 CFR 230.45 - Recapture of cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recapture of cost-share assistance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.45 Recapture of...

  17. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42...

  18. 36 CFR 230.43 - Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices. 230.43 Section 230.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.43...

  19. 36 CFR 230.41 - Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance. 230.41 Section 230.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program §...

  20. 36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement. 230.44 Section 230.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.44...

  1. 36 CFR 230.41 - Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance. 230.41 Section 230.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program §...

  2. 36 CFR 230.45 - Recapture of cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recapture of cost-share assistance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.45 Recapture of...

  3. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42...

  4. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42...

  5. 36 CFR 230.41 - Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility requirements for cost-share assistance. 230.41 Section 230.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program §...

  6. 36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement. 230.44 Section 230.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.44...

  7. 36 CFR 230.43 - Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices. 230.43 Section 230.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.43...

  8. 36 CFR 230.43 - Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost-share assistance-prohibited practices. 230.43 Section 230.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.43...

  9. 47 CFR 24.253 - Termination of cost-sharing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination of cost-sharing obligations. 24.253 Section 24.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  10. 47 CFR 24.251 - Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.251 Section 24.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from...

  11. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.147 - Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant. 35.147 Section 35.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution...

  13. 34 CFR 426.30 - What is the requirement regarding cost-sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the requirement regarding cost-sharing? 426.30 Section 426.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM What...

  14. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN...

  15. 7 CFR 1484.50 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What cost share contributions are eligible? 1484.50 Section 1484.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS...

  16. 7 CFR 1484.50 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What cost share contributions are eligible? 1484.50 Section 1484.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS...

  17. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use.

  18. Models of Collaboration and Cost Sharing in Transition Programming. Information Brief. Volume 6, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes collaboration and cost-sharing among agencies and Federal programs to improve transition supports for youth with disabilities. The brief reviews suggested activities for forming collaborations and pooling resources, and provides examples of programs that have "blended" or "braided" funds provided by partner agencies. It also…

  19. 7 CFR 636.11 - Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement. 636.11 Section 636.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  20. 7 CFR 636.12 - Termination of cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of cost-share agreements. 636.12 Section 636.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  1. 7 CFR 636.11 - Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement. 636.11 Section 636.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  2. 7 CFR 636.11 - Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement. 636.11 Section 636.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  3. 7 CFR 636.12 - Termination of cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of cost-share agreements. 636.12 Section 636.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  4. 7 CFR 636.11 - Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement. 636.11 Section 636.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  5. 7 CFR 636.12 - Termination of cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of cost-share agreements. 636.12 Section 636.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  6. 7 CFR 636.12 - Termination of cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of cost-share agreements. 636.12 Section 636.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM §...

  7. 7 CFR 636.11 - Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of interest in a cost-share agreement. 636.11 Section 636.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM §...

  8. 7 CFR 636.12 - Termination of cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of cost-share agreements. 636.12 Section 636.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM §...

  9. 47 CFR 24.251 - Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.251 Section 24.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from...

  10. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  11. 47 CFR 24.253 - Termination of cost-sharing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of cost-sharing obligations. 24.253 Section 24.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  12. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  13. 47 CFR 24.251 - Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.251 Section 24.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from...

  14. 47 CFR 24.253 - Termination of cost-sharing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of cost-sharing obligations. 24.253 Section 24.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  15. 7 CFR 1486.400 - What are the rules on cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the rules on cost sharing? 1486.400 Section 1486.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS...

  16. 7 CFR 1486.401 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What cost share contributions are eligible? 1486.401 Section 1486.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS...

  17. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN...

  18. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN...

  19. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN...

  20. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN...

  1. 47 CFR 52.32 - Allocation of the shared costs of long-term number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....21(h), of each regional database, as defined in § 52.21(1), shall recover the shared costs of long-term number portability attributable to that regional database from all telecommunications carriers providing telecommunications service in areas that regional database serves. Pursuant to its duties...

  2. 50 CFR 84.46 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM NATIONAL COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Acceptance/Use of Federal Money § 84.46 What are the cost-sharing..., if a State proposes to manage a contiguous wetland of 100 acres, and already owns 10 of the 100...

  3. 75 FR 67227 - Relocation Cost Sharing in the Broadcast Auxiliary Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...) inability to agree with Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) operators in the band on the sharing of the costs to... relocation principles for emerging technologies previously adopted for the BAS band to the instant relocation...-0636, Policy and Rules Division, Office of Engineering and Technology,...

  4. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  5. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  6. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  7. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  8. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  9. 47 CFR 52.32 - Allocation of the shared costs of long-term number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....21(h), of each regional database, as defined in § 52.21(1), shall recover the shared costs of long-term number portability attributable to that regional database from all telecommunications carriers providing telecommunications service in areas that regional database serves. Pursuant to its duties...

  10. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? 37.550 Section 37.550 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  11. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing? 37.550 Section 37.550 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business...

  12. 32 CFR 37.215 - What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing? 37.215 Section 37.215 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use...

  13. 32 CFR 37.215 - What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing? 37.215 Section 37.215 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use...

  14. Collectively bargained health plans: more comprehensive, less cost sharing than employer plans.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Satorius, Jennifer L; Pickreign, Jeremy; Stromberg, Sam T

    2015-03-01

    National statistics on the cost and provisions of collectively bargained health plans show them to have similar single premiums, but lower family premiums, compared to employer-based plans not subject to collective bargaining. Union members contribute 4 percent and 6 percent of the cost of their premiums for single and family coverage, respectively, versus 18 percent and 29 percent for workers in employer-based plans. Cost sharing in collectively bargained plans is considerably less than in employer-based plans; coverage for prescription drugs is similar.

  15. The economics of time shared computing: Congestion, user costs and capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Time shared systems permit the fixed costs of computing resources to be spread over large numbers of users. However, bottleneck results in the theory of closed queueing networks can be used to show that this economy of scale will be offset by the increased congestion that results as more users are added to the system. If one considers the total costs, including the congestion cost, there is an optimal number of users for a system which equals the saturation value usually used to define system capacity.

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for...and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...requesters April 2014 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

  17. The Spatial Dynamics of Predators and the Benefits and Costs of Sharing Information

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed. We derive a feeding functional response that accounts for both spatio-temporal heterogeneity and communication, and validate this mathematical analysis with a computational agent-based model. This agent-based model has an explicit yet minimal representation of space, as well as information sharing about the location of prey. The analytical model simplifies predator behavior into a few discrete states and one essential trade-off, between the individual benefit of acquiring information and the cost of creating spatial and temporal correlation between predators. Despite the absence of an explicit spatial dimension in these equations, they quantitatively predict the predator consumption rates measured in the agent-based simulations across the explored parameter space. Together, the mathematical analysis and agent-based simulations identify the conditions for when there is a benefit to sharing information, and also when there is a cost. PMID:27764098

  18. Disposal of Large Reactor Components - Rulemaking to Address Funding of Disposal Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, J.T.; Lieberman, J.; Magette, T.E.

    2008-07-01

    The paper will explore the current challenges of financing the disposal costs for disposing of large reactor components such as reactor pressure vessel heads and steam generators and the resulting delays in disposal caused by the current regulatory requirements. The paper also will discuss a recent rulemaking petition submitted by EnergySolutions to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission designed to improve the regulatory process by providing a process to permit funds from decommissioning trust funds to be used to fund disposal of large reactor components. If granted, the disposal of these large components could be expedited where reactor licensees have sufficient decommissioning trust funds available. Perspectives on the rulemaking will be addressed. In conclusion: NRC should provide serious consideration to this Petition. There is support in the industry for granting this Petition. As of the date this paper was submitted, there have been no negative comments. Granting this Petition is prudent and consistent with the underlying purpose of 10 C.F.R. 50.82(a)(8) and 10 CFR 20.1406. It provides flexibility without any adverse impact on the public health and safety. It should facilitate the decommissioning process by providing a regulatory framework to allow removing MRCs from sites, resulting in (1) the source term at the site being reduced, (2) the site workers being exposed to less radiation, (3) eliminating an unnecessary regulatory burden as the costs associated with maintaining the MRCs on-site and providing protection to the workers as a result of those components can be avoided, (4) the overall cost to decommission the site being reduced, and (5) more funds being made available to decommission the reactor at the time the reactor ceases operation. Finally, the framework would provide the demonstration by a site-specific decommissioning cost estimate and the associated funding program that adequate funds are available to dispose of these components as well as

  19. 45 CFR 2521.60 - To what extent must my share of program costs increase over time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cash or in-kind contributions to reach the overall share level. For example, if your organization finds... receive from the Corporation. (a) Minimum Organization Share: (1) Subject to the requirements of § 2521.45... will be required to provide your share of costs beginning at the year three level, according to...

  20. 45 CFR 2521.60 - To what extent must my share of program costs increase over time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cash or in-kind contributions to reach the overall share level. For example, if your organization finds... receive from the Corporation. (a) Minimum Organization Share: (1) Subject to the requirements of § 2521.45... will be required to provide your share of costs beginning at the year three level, according to...

  1. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiacai; Zhao, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method. PMID:27834830

  2. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  3. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiacai; Zhao, Wenjian

    2016-11-08

    There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  4. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State...

  5. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State...

  6. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State...

  7. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State...

  8. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State...

  9. 36 CFR 1206.50 - What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make? 1206.50 Section 1206.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS AND RECORDS COMMISSION Applying for NHPRC Grants § 1206.50 What types of funding and cost sharing...

  10. 76 FR 6148 - Notice of Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for Recommending a Cost Share Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for Recommending a Cost Share Adjustment AGENCY: Federal... indicator for recommending cost share adjustments for major disasters declared on or after January 1, 2011... INFORMATION: Pursuant to 44 CFR 206.47, the statewide per capita indicator that is used to recommend...

  11. 77 FR 5262 - Notice of Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for Recommending a Cost Share Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for...: FEMA gives notice that the statewide per capita indicator for recommending cost share adjustments for... indicator that is used to recommend an increase of the Federal cost share from seventy-five percent (75%)...

  12. 78 FR 9935 - Notice of Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for Recommending a Cost Share Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Statewide Per Capita Indicator for...: FEMA gives notice that the statewide per capita indicator for recommending cost share adjustments for... indicator that is used to recommend an increase of the Federal cost share from seventy-five percent (75%)...

  13. Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Das, Jai K; Walker, Neff; Rizvi, Arjumand; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Black, Robert E

    2013-04-20

    Global mortality in children younger than 5 years has fallen substantially in the past two decades from more than 12 million in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011, but progress is inconsistent between countries. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors. Several interventions can effectively address these problems, but are not available to those in need. We systematically reviewed evidence showing the effectiveness of various potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, and relevant delivery strategies. We used the Lives Saved Tool model to assess the effect on mortality when these interventions are applied. We estimate that if implemented at present annual rates of increase in each of the 75 Countdown countries, these interventions and packages of care could save 54% of diarrhoea and 51% of pneumonia deaths by 2025 at a cost of US$3·8 billion. However, if coverage of these key evidence-based interventions were scaled up to at least 80%, and that for immunisations to at least 90%, 95% of diarrhoea and 67% of pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years could be eliminated by 2025 at a cost of $6·715 billion. New delivery platforms could promote equitable access and community platforms are important catalysts in this respect. Furthermore, several of these interventions could reduce morbidity and overall burden of disease, with possible benefits for developmental outcomes.

  14. All rights reserved, or can we just copy? Cost sharing arrangements and characteristics of health care systems.

    PubMed

    Ros, C C; Groenewegen, P P; Delnoij, D M

    2000-05-01

    In most European countries cost sharing has been introduced in order to reduce the demand for care. Different forms of cost sharing are available, but because of historically grown system characteristics and prevailing values countries differ in the application of specific forms. This review focuses on eighteen European countries, and on the combinations of health system characteristics and present forms of cost sharing. We found that some combinations are more present: different payment systems for primary care physicians go together with different forms of cost sharing, different services have different forms of cost sharing. In countries with a GP as gatekeeper no charges are in use for the GP. No distinct relationship could be found between the financing system (tax-based or insurance-based) and the form of cost sharing or the exclusion of vulnerable populations. It is concluded that there are two ways of filtering 'unnecessary' demand. One is by introducing cost sharing for directly accessible services such as GPs. The second way is by having GPs act as gatekeepers to more specialized, and more costly care.

  15. Cost-effective mask-sharing technology for SOI LIGBT and PLDMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Qiao, Ming; Zhou, Xin; Liang, Tao; Li, Yang; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective mask-sharing technology for the 200 V silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lateral insulated gate bipolar transistor (LIGBT) and p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (PLDMOS) are proposed in this paper. N-well and P-body implantations are shared as an N-buffer implantation of the LIGBT and P-buffer implantation of the PLDMOS, respectively, which reduces two masks compared with the conventional process. The structure and process parameters for LIGBT and PLDMOS with the new process are optimized by simulation to achieve good performance. The experimental results indicate that the LIGBT and PLDMOS using the new process maintain the same performance compared to the conventional devices.

  16. Cost-Sharing Rates Increase During Deep Recession: Preliminary Data From Greece

    PubMed Central

    Gouvalas, Athanasios; Igoumenidis, Michael; Theodorou, Mamas; Athanasakis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measures taken over the past four years in Greece to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure have led to significant price reductions for medicines, but have also changed patient cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs. This study attempts to capture the resulting increase in patients’ out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses for prescription drugs during the 2011-2014 period. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of financial data derived from 39 883 prescriptions, dispensed at three randomly chosen pharmacies located in Lamia, central Greece. Results: The study recorded an average contribution rate per prescription as follows: 11.28% for 2011 (95% CI: 10.76-11.80), 14.10% for 2012, 19.97% for 2013, and 29.08% for 2014. Correspondingly, the mean patient charge per prescription for 2011 was €6.58 (95% CI: 6.22-6.94), €8.28 for 2012, €8.35 for 2013, and €10.87 for 2014. During the 2011-2014 period, mean percentage rate of patient contribution increased by 157.75%, while average patient charge per prescription in current prices increased by 65.22%. The use of a newly introduced internal reference price (IRP) system increased the level of prescription charge at a rate of 2.41% for 2012 (100% surcharge on patients), 26.24% for 2013 (49.95% on patients and 50.04% on the appropriate health insurance funds), and 47.72% for 2014 (85.06% on patients and 14.94% on funds). Conclusion: Increased cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs can reduce public pharmaceutical expenditure, but international experience shows that rising OOP expenses can compromise patients’ ability to pay, particularly when it comes to chronic diseases and vulnerable populations. Various suggestions could be effective in refining the cost-sharing approach by giving greater consideration to chronic patients, and to the poor and elderly. PMID:28005548

  17. Effects of cost sharing on physician utilization under favourable conditions for supplier-induced demand.

    PubMed

    Van de Voorde, C; Van Doorslaer, E; Schokkaert, E

    2001-07-01

    The effects of cost sharing on the demand for ambulatory care in experimental circumstances are well understood since the Rand Health Insurance Experiment (HIE). However, in a non-experimental real-world context, supplier-induced demand of doctors might erode some of the significant negative out-of-pocket price elasticity identified in the HIE. Belgium is an interesting test case for this hypothesis because it has relatively high rates of patient cost sharing in its public health insurance system and a very high density of physicians, all remunerated fee-for-service. We have exploited the price variation generated by a substantial increase in patient co-payment rates in 1994 to estimate out-of-pocket price elasticities for three groups of users, and for three types of services using a fixed-effects model in levels and in differences. We obtain significant out-of-pocket price elasticities for the general population in the range from -0.39 to -0.28 for GP home visits, -0.16 to -0.12 for GP office visits and -0.10 for specialist visits. The estimates were generally lower and less significant for the groups of elderly and disabled. The differences we find in price responsiveness appear to be fairly robust and consistent with the HIE predictions. These results suggest that--at least in the short run--non-experimental utilization effects of cost sharing are very similar to the experimental evidence, even in a situation of favourable conditions for supplier-induced demand.

  18. Policy Framework for Covering Preventive Services Without Cost Sharing: Saving Lives and Saving Money?

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephanie C; Pearson, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    The US Affordable Care Act mandates that private insurers cover a list of preventive services without cost sharing. The list is determined by 4 expert committees that evaluate the overall health effect of preventive services. We analyzed the process by which the expert committees develop their recommendations. Each committee uses different criteria to evaluate preventive services and none of the committees consider cost systematically. We propose that the existing committees adopt consistent evidence review methodologies and expand the scope of preventive services reviewed and that a separate advisory committee be established to integrate economic considerations into the final selection of free preventive services. The comprehensive framework and associated criteria are intended to help policy makers in the future develop a more evidence-based, consistent, and ethically sound approach.

  19. Shared Use of School Facilities with Community Organizations and Afterschool Physical Activity Program Participation: A Cost-Benefit Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanters, Michael A.; Bocarro, Jason N.; Filardo, Mary; Edwards, Michael B.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Floyd, Myron F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partnerships between school districts and community-based organizations to share school facilities during afterschool hours can be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity. However, the perceived cost of shared use has been noted as an important reason for restricting community access to schools. This study examined…

  20. 26 CFR 1.936-6 - Intangible property income when an election out is made: Cost sharing and profit split options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... possessions corporation to be entitled to the benefits of the cost sharing method with respect to such units... entitled to the benefits of the cost sharing method with respect to units of the possession product which... account to determine benefits under cost sharing for the section 936 corporation? Is the result...

  1. To Build or Not to Build: Addressing Facilities Needs While Controlling Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadamus, James A.

    2015-01-01

    When trustees, presidents, and senior college administrators meet, one topic dominates the conversation: how to keep education quality high and costs down. To keep quality high, college leaders need to have strong faculties and state-of-the-art facilities for teaching and research. Quality counts but it also costs, and that is where the pressures…

  2. Presidential address. Endoscopic surgery, cost effectiveness, and the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M

    1995-02-01

    One measure of mitigating escalating costs of health care is to create an economic market-based system that connects value to cost. Cost-effectiveness analysis compares treatments that produce different benefits and require different costs, and ranks them by the amount of net treatment benefit divided by cost. Evaluation of the impact of illness and treatment on the medical condition, quality of life, and productivity of individual patients is essential for capturing all dimensions of treatment outcome. When performed by efficient teams, laparoscopic surgery compared with conventional open surgery, adds value through reduced operative morbidity, earlier returns to work, and improved quality of life. These advantages have to be confirmed by cost-effectiveness analysis, however. Endoscopic surgery will be consistently more cost effective than conventional surgery only when performed by a dedicated team of surgeons, nurses, and technicians. The need for a specialized team arises from the fact that endoscopic surgery requires different skills, including the ability to develop a two-dimensional concept for tissue manipulation, perform major surgery through small incisions using a different type of hand-eye coordination, and operate and maintain highly sophisticated and sensitive equipment and instrumentation. Reusable instruments will contribute to lower costs.

  3. Dropping out of Arizona's Schools: The Scope, the Costs, and the Successful Strategies To Address the Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robledo Montecel, Maria; Cortez, Josie; Cortez, Albert

    This report addresses the scope of Arizona's dropout problem and strategies for changing the situation. An introduction examines the magnitude of the problem, who is dropping out and why, costs of dropping out, what works in combating high dropout rates, what Arizona citizens and leaders can do, and what steps should be taken to reduce the dropout…

  4. Defense Acquisitions. Assessments Needed to Address V-22 Aircraft Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Honorable Edolphus Towns Chairman Committee on Oversight and Government Reform House of Representatives The Honorable Bart Stupak Chairman...Report to Congressional Requesters United States Government Accountability Office GAO May 2009 DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS...Assessments Needed to Address V-22 Aircraft Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments GAO-09-482 Report Documentation Page

  5. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  6. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  7. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  8. Cost-sharing, physician utilization, and adverse selection among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    Pooled data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Surveys were used to compare the number of self-reported annual physician visits among 36,808 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 in insurance groups with differential cost-sharing. Adjusted for adverse selection and a set of health covariates, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) only beneficiaries had similar physician utilization compared with HMO enrollees but fewer visits compared with those with supplemental (1.04, p = .001) and Medicaid (1.55, p = .003) coverage. FFS only beneficiaries in very good or excellent health had fewer visits compared with those of similar health status with supplemental (1.30, p = .001) or Medicaid coverage (2.15, p = .002). For subpopulations with several chronic conditions, FFS only beneficiaries also had fewer visits compared with beneficiaries with supplemental or Medicaid coverage. Observed differences in utilization may reflect efficient and necessary physician utilization among those with chronic health needs.

  9. Effects of reduced cost-sharing on children's health: Evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Reo

    2016-02-01

    Although childhood health status is widely recognized as an important determinant for future achievement and health, there are few studies on the impact of patient cost-sharing on children's health. This paper investigates whether reduced cost-sharing leads to an improvement of health status among preschool and school-age children in Japan, exploiting regional disparities in expansions of municipality-level subsidy programs for out-of-pocket expenditure. With the eligibility for this subsidy program, known as the Medical Subsidy for Children and Infants (MSCI), the coinsurance rate generally decreases from 30% or 20% to zero for outpatient health care services and drug prescriptions. In order to uncover the impact of this program, I conducted an original survey of all municipalities in Japan to understand the time-series evolution of the eligible age for the MSCI in October 2013 (weighted response rate = 75%), and the probability of being eligible for the MSCI was then calculated by the age, prefecture of residence, and year. These probabilities were matched to children's health data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions from 1995 to 2010. The results show that eligibility for the MSCI improves subjective measures of health status among preschool children (n = 115,019). However, I find no such improvement among school-age children (n = 133,855). In addition, MSCI eligibility does not reduce hospitalization among either preschool or school-age children. Taken together, this study finds no discernible effects on health among school-age children, suggesting recent rapid expansions of the MSCI for this age group have not been associated with the improvement of health status.

  10. The magnitude, share and determinants of unpaid care costs for home-based palliative care service provision in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future.

  11. Cost effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in the intensive care unit: addressing uncertainty in the decision

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate A; Cook, David A; Whitby, Michael; Paterson, David L; Graves, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Some types of antimicrobial-coated central venous catheters (A-CVC) have been shown to be cost effective in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, not all types have been evaluated, and there are concerns over the quality and usefulness of these earlier studies. There is uncertainty amongst clinicians over which, if any, A-CVCs to use. We re-evaluated the cost effectiveness of all commercially available A-CVCs for prevention of CR-BSI in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods We used a Markov decision model to compare the cost effectiveness of A-CVCs relative to uncoated catheters. Four catheter types were evaluated: minocycline and rifampicin (MR)-coated catheters, silver, platinum and carbon (SPC)-impregnated catheters, and two chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-coated catheters; one coated on the external surface (CH/SSD (ext)) and the other coated on both surfaces (CH/SSD (int/ext)). The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained and the expected net monetary benefits were estimated for each. Uncertainty arising from data estimates, data quality and heterogeneity was explored in sensitivity analyses. Results The baseline analysis, with no consideration of uncertainty, indicated all four types of A-CVC were cost-saving relative to uncoated catheters. MR-coated catheters prevented 15 infections per 1,000 catheters and generated the greatest health benefits, 1.6 quality-adjusted life years, and cost savings (AUD $130,289). After considering uncertainty in the current evidence, the MR-coated catheters returned the highest incremental monetary net benefits of AUD $948 per catheter; however there was a 62% probability of error in this conclusion. Although the MR-coated catheters had the highest monetary net benefits across multiple scenarios, the decision was always associated with high uncertainty. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that the cost effectiveness of using A-CVCs within the ICU is

  12. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in After-School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…

  13. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  14. Vision Stations: Addressing Corrective Vision Needs With Low-cost Technologies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen A; Frutiger, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Eyeglasses, required for functional vision by nearly half the world's population, are still needed by more than a billion people. There are a number of constraints on the provision of eyeglasses: product cost, durability, and appearance; traditional approaches to evaluating refraction; and sustainably scaling potential distribution methods. We offer our experience with an immigrant population in a US urban setting using a "Vision Station." The station allowed for immediate provision of adjustable glasses using self-refraction, ordering of custom lenses from a low-cost website, and referral to primary and eye care physicians for those with medical eye concerns. As with models in development by other groups, Vision Stations connect people with the life-changing provision of functional vision.

  15. Vision Stations: Addressing Corrective Vision Needs With Low-cost Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Frutiger, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeglasses, required for functional vision by nearly half the world's population, are still needed by more than a billion people. There are a number of constraints on the provision of eyeglasses: product cost, durability, and appearance; traditional approaches to evaluating refraction; and sustainably scaling potential distribution methods. We offer our experience with an immigrant population in a US urban setting using a “Vision Station.” The station allowed for immediate provision of adjustable glasses using self-refraction, ordering of custom lenses from a low-cost website, and referral to primary and eye care physicians for those with medical eye concerns. As with models in development by other groups, Vision Stations connect people with the life-changing provision of functional vision. PMID:25984406

  16. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert Glenn; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies call on afterschool programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community-partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods Four large-scale ASPs (serving ∼500 children aged 6-12 years each day) and a single local grocery store chain participated in the study. The nutritional quality of snacks served was recorded pre-intervention (18 weeks spring/fall 2011) and post-intervention (7 weeks spring 2012) via direct observation, along with cost/child/snack/day. Results Pre-intervention snacks were low-nutrient-density salty snacks (eg, chips, 3.0 servings/week), sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, powdered-lemonade, 1.9 servings/week), and desserts (eg, cookies, 2.1servings/week), with only 0.4 servings/week of fruits and no vegetables. By post-intervention, fruits (3.5 servings/week) and vegetables (1.2 servings/week) increased, while sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. Snack expenditures were $0.26 versus $0.24 from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Partnership savings versus purchasing snacks at full retail cost was 24.5% or $0.25/serving versus $0.34/serving. Conclusions This innovative partnership can serve as a model in communities where ASPs seek to identify low-cost alternatives to providing nutritious snacks. PMID:25040123

  17. 45 CFR 2521.50 - If I am an Indian Tribe, to what extent may I use tribal funds towards my share of costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal funds towards my share of costs? 2521.50 Section 2521.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... an Indian Tribe, to what extent may I use tribal funds towards my share of costs? If you are an... Education Assistance Act), those funds are considered non-Federal and you may use them towards your share...

  18. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  19. Examining the Value of Subsidies of Health Plans and Cost-Sharing for Prescription Drugs in the Health Insurance Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Mort, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated federally and state-run health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, with health plans offering subsidies for plan members as well as coverage for essential health benefits, to help individuals, families, and small businesses find health plans that fit their specific needs. A recent study found that the value of these healthcare subsidies varied with the number of health plans in the different geographic rating areas, but that study only examined the premiums and the deductibles of those health plans. Objectives To examine the value of subsidies of health plans, including cost-sharing for prescription drugs in the health insurance marketplace. Methods We have used publicly available health plan data from HealthCare.gov and from county population data obtained from the US Census Bureau in June 2015. The average-weighted premium; medical deductible; medical maximum out-of-pocket spending; and cost-sharing for generic drugs, preferred and nonpreferred brand-name drugs, and specialty drugs were calculated for the second lowest-cost silver plan in each geographic rating area. These were then compared across geographic areas with different numbers of plans to determine the value of the subsidies. We also compared the difference between the cost of the average silver plan and the second lowest-cost silver plan for each area to determine the cost to enrollees if they selected the average silver plan. Results The monetary value of the subsidies provided by health plans was lower in areas with a larger number of plans, because the second lowest-cost silver plans in these areas tended to have lower premiums and higher deductibles. For the most common type of cost-sharing for generic and for preferred brand-name drugs, plan enrollees would likely have a lower or similar copayment if they selected the average-cost silver plan instead of the second lowest-cost silver plan. However, they may end up paying approximately $8 less in

  20. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  1. 43 CFR 404.34 - Can Reclamation reduce the amount of non-Federal cost-share required for a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Federal cost-share required for a feasibility study? 404.34 Section 404.34 Public Lands: Interior... for a feasibility study? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for a feasibility study to an amount less than 50 percent of the study costs if: (a) Reclamation determines...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1176 - Cost-sharing requirements for AWS in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clearance of BRS incumbents from this spectrum, including BRS incumbents occupying the 2150-2162 MHz band on... relocation until the end of the period specified in § 27.1190. If an AWS licensee enters into a spectrum leasing arrangement and the spectrum lessee triggers a cost-sharing obligation, the licensee is the...

  3. Potential Savings in Rural Public School Non-Instructional Costs through Shared Services Arrangements: A Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECM, Inc., Williamsville, NY.

    A study was undertaken in 16 rural New York school districts to determine the feasibility of sharing noninstructional services as an avenue to achieving cost savings and enhanced services. The districts involved were within the Delaware/Chenango/Madison/Otsego BOCES (Board of Cooperative Educational Services) in a rural mountainous region of…

  4. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations below 50... Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial hardship... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal...

  5. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial hardship... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can Reclamation reduce the...

  6. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial hardship... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can Reclamation reduce the...

  7. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial hardship... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can Reclamation reduce the...

  8. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial hardship... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can Reclamation reduce the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.482-7 - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement. 1.482-7 Section 1.482-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.482-7 Methods to determine taxable income...

  10. 26 CFR 1.482-7T - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary). 1.482-7T Section 1.482-7T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.482-7T Methods to determine taxable...

  11. 26 CFR 1.482-7T - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary). 1.482-7T Section 1.482-7T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.482-7T Methods to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.482-7 - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement. 1.482-7 Section 1.482-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.482-7 Methods to determine taxable income...

  13. 26 CFR 1.482-7 - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement. 1.482-7 Section 1.482-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.482-7 Methods to determine taxable income...

  14. 26 CFR 1.482-7T - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Use of differential income stream as a consideration in assessing the best method. An analysis under... income stream with a similar risk profile to the differential income stream. Such differential income... of undertaking the risk of developing the cost shared intangibles and enjoying the value of...

  15. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  16. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  17. Commercialization and cost-sharing potential for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantships and facilities by industry, utilities and government

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Following the introduction and summary on the US energy situation and the potential for OTEC, the remaining chapters deal with the OTEC-ammonia model; legal aspects of OTEC commercialization; the formation of SOLARAMCO, a joint venture of ammonia companies; electric power from OTEC, fuel cells and direct cables, potential cost-sharing; and OTEC production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  18. Changes in Consumer Cost-Sharing for Health Plans Sold in the ACA's Insurance Marketplaces, 2015 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon; Green, Matthew; Call, Adrienne; Whitmore, Heidi; Stromberg, Sam; Oran, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    This brief examines changes in consumer health plan cost-sharing--deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket limits--for coverage offered in the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces between 2015 and 2016. Three of seven measures studied rose moderately in 2016, an increase attributable in part to a shift in the mix of plans offered in the marketplaces, from plans with higher actuarial value (platinum and gold plans) to those that have less generous coverage (bronze and silver plans). Nearly 60 percent of enrollees in marketplace plans receive cost-sharing reductions as part of income-based assistance. For enrollees without cost-sharing reductions, average copayments, deductibles, and out-of-pocket limits remain considerably higher under bronze and silver plans than under employer-based plans; cost-sharing is similar in gold plans and employer plans. Marketplace plans are more likely than employer-based plans to impose a deductible for prescription drugs but no less likely to do so for primary care visits.

  19. 7 CFR 701.15 - Starting practices before cost-share request is submitted; non-entitlement to payment; payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starting practices before cost-share request is submitted; non-entitlement to payment; payment subject to the availability of funds. 701.15 Section 701.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION...

  20. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.530 What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a... reimbursed by the Government through other awards. It is standard business practice for all for-profit...

  1. 36 CFR 1206.50 - What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make? 1206.50 Section 1206.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS...

  2. 36 CFR 1206.50 - What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make? 1206.50 Section 1206.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS AND...

  3. 36 CFR 1206.50 - What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make? 1206.50 Section 1206.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS...

  4. 36 CFR 1206.50 - What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What types of funding and cost sharing arrangements does the Commission make? 1206.50 Section 1206.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS...

  5. 32 CFR 37.540 - May I accept fully depreciated real property or equipment as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I accept fully depreciated real property or equipment as cost sharing? 37.540 Section 37.540 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  6. 32 CFR 37.540 - May I accept fully depreciated real property or equipment as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I accept fully depreciated real property or equipment as cost sharing? 37.540 Section 37.540 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  7. 32 CFR 37.535 - How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment? 37.535 Section 37.535 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  8. 32 CFR 37.535 - How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment? 37.535 Section 37.535 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  9. 32 CFR 37.535 - How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I value cost sharing related to real property or equipment? 37.535 Section 37.535 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  10. Precompetitive Data Sharing as a Catalyst to Address Unmet Needs in Parkinson’s Disease 1

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Diane; Hu, Michele T.; Romero, Klaus; Breen, Kieran; Burn, David; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bhattaram, Atul; Isaac, Maria; Venuto, Charles; Kubota, Ken; Little, Max A.; Friend, Stephen; Lovestone, Simon; Morris, Huw R.; Grosset, Donald; Sutherland, Margaret; Gallacher, John; Williams-Gray, Caroline; Bain, Lisa J.; Avilés, Enrique; Marek, Ken; Toga, Arthur W.; Stark, Yafit; Forrest Gordon, Mark; Ford, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease is a complex heterogeneous disorder with urgent need for disease-modifying therapies. Progress in successful therapeutic approaches for PD will require an unprecedented level of collaboration. At a workshop hosted by Parkinson’s UK and co-organized by Critical Path Institute’s (C-Path) Coalition Against Major Diseases (CAMD) Consortiums, investigators from industry, academia, government and regulatory agencies agreed on the need for sharing of data to enable future success. Government agencies included EMA, FDA, NINDS/NIH and IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative). Emerging discoveries in new biomarkers and genetic endophenotypes are contributing to our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of PD. In parallel there is growing recognition that early intervention will be key for successful treatments aimed at disease modification. At present, there is a lack of a comprehensive understanding of disease progression and the many factors that contribute to disease progression heterogeneity. Novel therapeutic targets and trial designs that incorporate existing and new biomarkers to evaluate drug effects independently and in combination are required. The integration of robust clinical data sets is viewed as a powerful approach to hasten medical discovery and therapies, as is being realized across diverse disease conditions employing big data analytics for healthcare. The application of lessons learned from parallel efforts is critical to identify barriers and enable a viable path forward. A roadmap is presented for a regulatory, academic, industry and advocacy driven integrated initiative that aims to facilitate and streamline new drug trials and registrations in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26406139

  11. Parents are a Drag: Long-Lived Birds Share the Cost of Increased Foraging Effort with Their Offspring, but Males Pass on More of the Costs than Females

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R.; Elliott, Kyle Hamish; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that parents will balance benefits from investment in current offspring against benefits from future reproductive investments. Long-lived organisms are therefore less likely to increase parental effort when environmental conditions deteriorate. To investigate the effect of decreased foraging capacity on parental behaviour of long-lived monogamous seabirds, we experimentally increased energy costs for chick-rearing thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). Handicapped birds had lighter chicks and lower provisioning rates, supporting the prediction that long-lived animals would pass some of the costs of impaired foraging ability on to their offspring. Nonetheless, handicapped birds spent less time underwater, had longer inter-dive surface intervals, had lower body mass, showed lower resighting probabilities in subsequent years and consumed fewer risky prey items. Corticosterone levels were similar between control and handicapped birds. Apparently, adults shared some of the costs of impaired foraging, but those costs were not measurable in all metrics. Handicapped males had higher plasma neutral lipid concentrations (higher energy mobilisation) and their chicks exhibited lower growth rates than handicapped females, suggesting different sex-specific investment strategies. Unlike other studies of auks, partners did not compensate for handicapping, despite good foraging conditions for unhandicapped birds. In conclusion, parental murres and their offspring shared the costs of experimentally increased foraging constraints, with females investing more than males. PMID:23382921

  12. Federal and state forestry cost-share assistance programs: Structure, accomplishments, and future outlook. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.

    1995-09-01

    Cost-share assistance programs have been an effective policy mechanism for increasing productivity on nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. In light of reduced harvests from Federal lands, timber productivity on these lands has become increasingly important to ensure sufficient timber supplies in the future. Productivity of other forest resources has also been enhanced through these programs. Four Federal programs, the Forestry Incentives Program, the Agricultural Conservation Program, the Stewardship Incentives program, and the Conservation Reserve Program, provided cost-share assistance for tree planting on 467,000 acres in 1993. During the course of this study, the provisions of the individual State programs, funding levels, accomplishments, and outlook for continuation or expansion, were examined. Federal programs were reviewed as well, with respect to their interaction with State-level programs. The results of the study are presented in this paper.

  13. Report on audit of fire and emergency medical services cost sharing between the Department of Energy and Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-02

    Los Alamos County was created in 1964 as a response to a Congressional mandate, promulgated in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Because the county came into existence via the Atomic Energy Act, the Department provided fire and emergency medical services. In the intervening years, however, the Department and the county have worked toward making the county self-sufficient. The contract for fire and emergency medical services represented a step in the direction of self-sufficiency by requiring the county to begin paying for its share of the related costs. The purpose of the audit was to determine if the costs for fire and emergency medical services were shared appropriately commensurate with the use of the services.

  14. Increased Patient Cost-Sharing, Weak US Economy, and Poor Health Habits: Implications for Employers and Insurers

    PubMed Central

    Haren, Melinda C.; McConnell, Kirk; Shinn, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare stakeholders, including insurers and employers, agree that growth in healthcare costs is inevitable. But the current trend toward further cost-shifting to employees and other health plan members is unsustainable. In 2008, the Zitter Group conducted a large national study on the relationship between insurers and employers, to understand how these 2 healthcare stakeholders interact in the creation of health benefit design. The survey results were previously summarized and discussed in the February/March 2009 issue of this journal. The present article aims to assess the implications of those results in the context of the growing tendency to increase patient cost-sharing, a weak US economy, and poor health habits. Increasing cost-sharing is a blunt instrument: although it may reduce utilization of frivolous services, it may also result in individuals forgoing medically necessary care. Increases in deductibles will lead to an overall decrease in optimal care-seeking behavior as families juggle healthcare costs with a weak economy and stagnating wages. PMID:25126283

  15. 43 CFR 404.34 - Can Reclamation reduce the amount of non-Federal cost-share required for a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can Reclamation reduce the amount of non... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.34 Can Reclamation reduce the amount of non-Federal cost-share...

  16. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  17. Enhanced support for shared decision making reduced costs of care for patients with preference-sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Veroff, David; Marr, Amy; Wennberg, David E

    2013-02-01

    Shared decision making is an approach to care that seeks to fully inform patients about the risks and benefits of available treatments and engage them as participants in decisions about the treatments. Although recent federal and state policies pursue the expanded use of shared decision making as a way to improve care quality and patient experience, payers and providers want evidence that this emerging model of care is cost-effective. We examined data obtained from a year-long randomized investigation. The study compared the effects on patients of receiving a usual level of support in making a medical treatment decision with the effects of receiving enhanced support, which included more contact with trained health coaches through telephone, mail, e-mail, and the Internet. We found that patients who received enhanced support had 5.3 percent lower overall medical costs than patients who received the usual level of support. The enhanced-support group had 12.5 percent fewer hospital admissions than the usual-support group, and 9.9 percent fewer preference-sensitive surgeries, including 20.9 percent fewer preference-sensitive heart surgeries. These findings indicate that support for shared decision making can generate savings. They also suggest that a "remote" model of support-combining telephonic coaching with decision aids, for example-may constitute a relatively low-cost and effective intervention that could reach broader populations without the need for the direct involvement of regular medical care team members.

  18. Effects of shared medical appointments on quality of life and cost-effectiveness for patients with a chronic neuromuscular disease. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shared medical appointments are a series of one-to-one doctor-patient contacts, in presence of a group of 6-10 fellow patients. This group visits substitute the annual control visits of patients with the neurologist. The same items attended to in a one-to- one appointment are addressed. The possible advantages of a shared medical appointment could be an added value to the present management of neuromuscular patients. The currently problem-focused one-to-one out-patient visits often leave little time for the patient's psychosocial needs, patient education, and patient empowerment. Methods/design A randomized, prospective controlled study (RCT) with a follow up of 6 months will be conducted to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of shared medical appointments compared to usual care for 300 neuromuscular patients and their partners at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center. Every included patient will be randomly allocated to one of the two study arms. This study has been reviewed and approved by the medical ethics committee of the region Arnhem-Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D, SF-36 and the Individualized neuromuscular Quality of Life Questionnaire. The primary analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis on the area under the curve of the quality of life scores. A linear mixed model will be used with random factor group and fixed factors treatment, baseline score and type of neuromuscular disease. For the economic evaluation an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from a societal perspective, relating differences in costs to difference in health outcome. Results are expected in 2012. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial which evaluates the effect of shared medical appointments versus usual care for neuromuscular patients. This will enable to determine if there is additional value of shared medical appointments to the

  19. 45 CFR 156.430 - Payment for cost-sharing reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benefit year if the QHP issuer provides evidence, certified by a member of the American Academy of... coinsurance rate. (D) The effective claims ceiling. (E) A memorandum developed by a member of the American...-sharing reductions provided following a termination of coverage effective date with respect to a...

  20. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  1. 7 CFR 1484.50 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acquiring materials, supplies, or services; (4) The cost of office space; (5) A reasonable and justifiable... research that is undertaken to benefit an industry and has a specific export application; and (25)...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that benefit from the self-relocation, the fifty percent attributable to the AWS entrant shall be treated as the entire cost of the link relocation, and depreciation shall run from the date on which...

  3. 50 CFR 84.46 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have been exempted from the matching share, as provided in Pub. L. 95-134, amended by Pub. L. 95-348, Pub. L. 96-205, Pub. L. 98-213, and Pub. L. 98-454 (48 U.S.C... Application for Federal Assistance (SF 424), the Assurances (SF 424B or SF 424D), and the Grant...

  4. 50 CFR 84.46 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have been exempted from the matching share, as provided in Pub. L. 95-134, amended by Pub. L. 95-348, Pub. L. 96-205, Pub. L. 98-213, and Pub. L. 98-454 (48 U.S.C... Application for Federal Assistance (SF 424), the Assurances (SF 424B or SF 424D), and the Grant...

  5. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  6. When public health intervention is not successful: Cost sharing, crowd-out, and selection in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2017-03-06

    This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers. Crowd-out and selection help explain why the program has been unable to reduce cancer mortality.

  7. Cost-Saving Strategies and Shared Services among School Districts in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Jeffrey; Penska, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    School districts across New York State have implemented numerous innovative cost-saving measures in the 1990s, according to February 1993 New York State School Boards Association survey of 722 school superintendents. Districts achieved substantial savings in financial management, plant management, personnel management, and school support services…

  8. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  9. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  10. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a bridge structure is located within the limits of a grade separation project, the estimated cost of a theoretical structure and approaches as described in § 646.210(c) (1) to eliminate the railroad... described below: (1) Where a grade crossing is eliminated by grade separation, the structure and...

  11. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a bridge structure is located within the limits of a grade separation project, the estimated cost of a theoretical structure and approaches as described in § 646.210(c)(1) to eliminate the railroad... described below: (1) Where a grade crossing is eliminated by grade separation, the structure and...

  12. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a bridge structure is located within the limits of a grade separation project, the estimated cost of a theoretical structure and approaches as described in § 646.210(c) (1) to eliminate the railroad... described below: (1) Where a grade crossing is eliminated by grade separation, the structure and...

  13. 32 CFR 37.215 - What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.215 What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost... recipient's management plan, or through other means. A recipient's self-interest might be driven,...

  14. 32 CFR 37.215 - What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.215 What must I conclude about the recipient's commitment and cost... recipient's management plan, or through other means. A recipient's self-interest might be driven,...

  15. 50 CFR 80.83 - What is the Federal share of allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION... costs of a grant-funded project in a program or subprogram authorized by the Dingell-Johnson Sport...

  16. 42 CFR 457.540 - Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of the FPL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities § 457.540 Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of... sharing and other similar charges for children whose family income is at or below 150 percent of the FPL... charges for children whose family income is at or below 100 percent of the FPL are equal to or less...

  17. 43 CFR 404.35 - Is there a different non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? 404... non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? Yes. If the feasibility study involves a rural water supply system that will serve...

  18. 43 CFR 404.35 - Is there a different non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? 404... non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? Yes. If the feasibility study involves a rural water supply system that will serve...

  19. Making health insurance cost-sharing clear to consumers: challenges in implementing health reform's insurance disclosure requirements.

    PubMed

    Quincy, Lynn

    2011-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for a new health insurance disclosure form, called the Summary of Benefits and Coverage, which uses a fixed layout and standard terms and definitions to allow consumers to compare health insurance plans and understand terms of coverage. This brief reports on findings from a Consumers Union study that examined consumers' initial reactions to the form. Testing revealed that consumers were able to use the forms to make hypothetical choices among health plans. However, the study also found deep-seated confusion and lack of confidence with respect to health plan cost-sharing. These findings have significant implications for any venue providing comparative displays of health insurance information, like the future state exchanges, and for policies that rely on the ability of consumers to make informed health insurance purchasing decisions, such as "consumer-driven health care" policies.

  20. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  1. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  2. Active and Reserve Unit Costs: DOD Report to Congress Generally Addressed the Statutory Requirements but Lacks Detail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Section 1080A, issued in January 2012, states that such reductions must be balanced with...preparation for future challenges and protection of the broad range of U.S. national security interests. One key to achieving this balance is determining the...addressed the statutory requirements, we used a scorecard methodology in which two analysts independently assessed the extent to which the report’s

  3. Women Saw Large Decrease In Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Contraceptives After ACA Mandate Removed Cost Sharing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nora V; Polsky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance.

  4. Status of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems’ Cost, Schedule, and Management Actions Taken to Address Prior Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    identified corrective actions taken to ensure the integrity of business process re-engineering ( BPR ) assessments submitted for DoD ERP programs. DoD...certification authority determine that an appropriate BPR effort is completed before funds in excess of $1 million are obligated for defense...determine whether an adequate BPR effort occurred for ongoing defense business systems modernizations that have a total cost in excess of $100

  5. 26 CFR 1.936-6 - Intangible property income when an election out is made: Cost sharing and profit split options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gross income with respect to such units under section 936(h)(5)(C)(i)(II), and the income derived by the... (h)(5)(C)(i)(II). For purposes of computing total sales in the denominator of the cost sharing... must be made. See, however, section 936(h)(5)(C)(i)(III)(a) with respect to the increase in the...

  6. The ACA’s Cost-Sharing Reduction Plans: A Key to Affordable Health Coverage for Millions of U.S. Workers.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Call, Adrienne; Stromberg, Sam; Oran, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Issue: Without the cost-sharing reductions (CSRs) made available by the Affordable Care Act, health plans sold in the marketplaces may be unaffordable for many low-income people. CSRs are available to households earning between 100 percent and 250 percent of the federal poverty level that choose a silver-level marketplace plan. In 2016, about 7 million people received cost-sharing reductions that substantially lowered their deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket limits. Goal: To examine variations in consumer cost-sharing reductions between silver-level plans with CSRs to traditional marketplace plans and to employer-based insurance. Methods: Data analysis of 1,209 CSR-eligible plans sold in individual marketplaces in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. Key findings and conclusions: Cost-sharing amounts in silver plans with CSRs are much less than those in non-CSR base silver plans; silver plans with CSRs generally offer far better financial protection than those without. General annual deductibles range from $246 for CSR silver plans with a platinum-level actuarial value (94%) to as much as $3,063 for non-CSR silver plans. Out-of-pocket limits vary from $6,223 in base silver plans to $1,102 in silver plans with CSRs and a platinum-level actuarial level.

  7. On Cost-Sharing, Tuition Fees and Income-Contingent Loans for Universal Higher Education: A New Contract between University, Student and State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In the search for a viable twenty-first century cost-sharing contract between university, student and state, the issues of rising participation and student demand, functional differentiation, institutional competition and stratification and social inequality are systematically discussed. The argument develops through, firstly, a critical appraisal…

  8. Secondary Schools in a County in Kenya Seem to Be Taking Advantages of the Cost Sharing Policy: Understanding Its Practice and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makori, Andrew; Chepchieng, Gideon; Misoi, Pauline; Kiplagat, Rotich

    2015-01-01

    The study set out to research on parents' views regarding the practice of cost sharing policy in secondary schools in Kenya in relation to form one entry items requirement and fee payment. This article reports on its findings. The study adopted a quantitative survey and employed a questionnaire (both closed and open-ended) to collect data. The…

  9. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  10. Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lucy J.; Lopez, Fanny Y.; Jia, Justin L.; Pho, Mai T.; Kim, Karen E.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered. PMID:27158858

  11. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  12. Report: Implementation Plan With Cost Sharing Methodology Needed for Region 8 Senior Environmental Employee Work on Lead Risk Reduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #13-P-0430, September 24, 2013. The two Region 8 program offices that jointly implement the Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting Program do not have methodology or agreement for sharing SEE funding, which has led to confusion.

  13. Commercial insurance vs community-based health plans: time for a policy option with clinical emphasis to address the cost spiral.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship between various clinical strategies and reductions in utilization and costs. This article describes the organization of health services, including integration of delivery and financing systems, at the community level as a model that effectively addresses the critical structural flaws that have frustrated control of costs. Community-based health plans (CHPs) have been developed and have demonstrated viability. The key elements of CHPs are a legal organizational structure, a full provider network, advanced care-management systems, and the ability to assume financial risk. Common misconceptions regarding obstacles to CHP development are the complexity of the undertaking, difficulty assuming the insurance function, and insured pools that are too small to be viable. The characteristics of successful CHPs and 2 case studies are described, including the types of advanced care-management systems that have resulted in strong financial performance. The demonstrated ability of CHPs to establish financial viability with small numbers of enrollees challenges the common assumption that there is a fixed relationship between health plan enrollment size and financial performance. Organizing the health system at the community/regional level provides an attractive alternative model in the health-reform debate. There is an opportunity for clinical systems and state and federal leaders to support the development of community-based integrated delivery and financing system models that, among other advantages, have significant potential to modulate the pernicious cost spiral.

  14. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. Results. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. Conclusions. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free. PMID:26447918

  15. Cost-effectiveness of a shared computerized decision support system for diabetes linked to electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Anne; Blackhouse, Gordon; Troyan, Sue; Goeree, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) are believed to enhance patient care and reduce healthcare costs; however the current evidence is limited and the cost-effectiveness remains unknown. Objective To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of a CDSS linked to evidence-based treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes. Methods Using the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model, changes in factors (eg, HbA1c) from a randomized controlled trial were used to estimate cost-effectiveness. The cost of implementation, development, and maintenance of the core dataset, and projected diabetes-related complications were included. The base case assumed a 1-year treatment effect, 5% discount rate, and 40-year time horizon. Univariate, one-way sensitivity analyses were carried out by altering different parameter values. The perspective was the Ontario Ministry of Health and costs were in 2010 Canadian dollars. Results The cost of implementing the intervention was $483 699. The one-year intervention reduced HbA1c by 0.2 and systolic blood pressure by 3.95 mm Hg, but increased body mass index by 0.02 kg/m2, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 14% in the occurrence of amputation. The model estimated that the intervention resulted in an additional 0.0117 quality-adjusted life year; the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $160 845 per quality-adjusted life-year. Conclusion The web-based prototype decision support system slightly improved short-term risk factors. The model predicted moderate improvements in long-term health outcomes. This disease management program will need to develop considerable efficiencies in terms of costs and processes or improved effectiveness to be considered a cost-effective intervention for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22052900

  16. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  17. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278).

  18. 77 FR 8143 - Section 482; Methods To Determine Taxable Income in Connection With a Cost Sharing Arrangement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... determines that the discount rate that would be applied to determine the present value of income and costs... rate that would be applicable in determining the present value of the net income attributable to...

  19. Shared networks of interpreter services, at relatively low cost, can help providers serve patients with limited english skills.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services.

  20. 45 CFR 2521.60 - To what extent must my share of program costs increase over time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Corporation will determine the location of your program based on the legal applicant's address. (4) If you... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBLE AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAM APPLICANTS... commission may meet its match based on the aggregate of its grantees' individual match requirements....