Science.gov

Sample records for address critical issues

  1. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  2. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  3. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  4. A Critical Look at Physical Education and What Must Be Done to Address Obesity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pennington, Todd; Zanandrea, Maria; Wilkinson, Carol; Hager, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Historically, physical education (PE) has been designed to do one thing--teach sport skills. However, it is now being asked to deal with lifestyle issues such as obesity and inactivity. Since the target and purposes of PE have changed, a fundamental shift in the way it is delivered is essential to its survival. This article highlights some…

  5. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  7. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  8. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  9. Education Studies: Issues & Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Derek; Mufti, Emmanuel; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    This major text for Education Studies students provides a critical account of key issues in education today. The text features: (1) A critical analysis of key issues in Education Studies to encourage students' thinking about education in the broadest terms; (2) Themed sections with introductions to link the issues discussed in each chapter; (3)…

  10. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  11. Critical Endowment Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    Governing boards and administrations wrestle with complex endowment policy decisions that will determine current institutional quality and future institutional viability. This chapter presents data from the 2006 NACUBO Endowment Study (published in 2007), divided into the following issues of endowment management: historical returns; endowment…

  12. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  13. The Real Controversy about Child Sexual Abuse Research: Contradictory Findings and Critical Issues Not Addressed by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in Their 1998 Outcomes Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Pamela Paradis; Whittenburg, John A.; Baker, Gail L.; Lemmey, Dorothy E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a review of all types of child sexual abuse research ignored by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in their 1998 meta-analytic study. Eight major findings are addressed. Altogether these findings demonstrate the narrow focus of the meta-analysis. By restricting a broad meta-analysis to only some of the research and population in question,…

  14. Multicultural Children's Literature: A Critical Issues Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishnan, Ambika

    2010-01-01

    Written in an engaging style, this comprehensive text prepares K-12 teachers to address a wide range of contemporary social issues--such as violence, gender, war, terrorism, child labor, censorship, and disabilities--through multicultural children's literature. Each chapter includes sample lessons plans designed to encourage critical and creative…

  15. Addressing Learning Style Criticism: The Unified Learning Style Model Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Elvira

    Learning style is one of the individual differences that play an important but controversial role in the learning process. This paper aims at providing a critical analysis regarding learning styles and their use in technology enhanced learning. The identified criticism issues are addressed by reappraising the so called Unified Learning Style Model (ULSM). A detailed description of the ULSM components is provided, together with their rationale. The practical applicability of the model in adaptive web-based educational systems and its advantages versus traditional learning style models are also outlined.

  16. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  17. Critical Issues in Educating Autistic Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Barbara, Ed.; Thompson, Anneke, Ed.

    This book evolved from a conference convened to address critical issues in the education of children and youth with autism (Reston, Virginia, February 1980). Fourteen papers deal with critical issues in the education of autistic children and youth from perspectives of administrators, teachers, parents, researchers, and program developers. B.…

  18. Critical Issues in Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Hosokai, T.

    2004-10-01

    Updated achievements and critical issues in plasma accelerators are summarized. As to laser plasma accelerators, we cover the results of plasma cathodes by U.Michigan, LBNL, LOA and U.Tokyo. Although many new results of accelerated electrons have been reported, the electrons do not yet form a bunch with narrow energy spread. Several injection schemes and measurements to verify ultrashort bunch (tens fs) with narrow energy spread, low emittance and many charges are planned. E-162 experiments by UCLA / USC / SLAC and a newly proposed experiment on density transition trapping are introduced for electron beam driven plasma accelerators. Their main purpose is realization of GeV plasma accelerator, but application to pump-and-probe analysis for investigation of ultrafast quantum phenomena is also promising.

  19. Critical issues in clinical periodontal research.

    PubMed

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2012-06-01

    As periodontal researchers and clinicians, we are challenged every day to make decisions relating to the clinical management of our patients and about how best to conduct clinical periodontal research. This volume of Periodontology 2000 addresses some of the critical issues in contemporary clinical periodontics and periodontal research that are of direct relevance to clinicians, researchers, teachers and students. The 11 review articles in this volume of Periodontology 2000 focus on aspects of periodontal research methodology and clinical periodontology. In terms of research methodology, the articles aim to inform the reader on topics relating to randomized controlled trials in periodontal research, evidence-based dentistry, calibration of clinical examiners and statistics relevant to periodontal research. The clinical periodontology articles address issues relating to decisions on retaining periodontally compromised teeth or replacing them with implants, periodontal management in the patient with osteoporosis, surgical approaches for root coverage and the emerging science of advanced regenerative technologies, including the use of stem cells, for periodontal regeneration. It is hoped that these critical reviews will address many of the dilemmas that confront us on a regular basis and provide practical guidance to those engaged in both clinical periodontology and clinical periodontal research.

  20. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions.

  1. Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…

  2. Critical issues in NASA information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a globally-distributed complex of earth resources data bases since LANDSAT 1 was launched in 1972. NASA envisages considerable growth in the number, extent, and complexity of such data bases, due to the improvements expected in its remote sensing data rates, and the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of its scientific investigations. Work already has begun on information systems to support multidisciplinary research activities based on data acquired by the space station complex and other space-based and terrestrial sources. In response to a request from NASA's former Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, the National Research Council convened a committee in June 1985 to identify the critical issues involving information systems support to space science and applications. The committee has suggested that OSSA address four major information systems issues; centralization of management functions, interoperability of user involvement in the planning and implementation of its programs, and technology.

  3. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book examines critical issues in early childhood education across a broad range of contexts. The issues explored are not only critical in terms of being fundamental to early childhood education but they are also critical in that they present ideas and utilize frameworks which are not traditional to the field. The topics under review include…

  4. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health Past Issues / ... What types of research is NIDCR conducting on aging and oral health? We’re currently funding basic ...

  5. Critical care issues in adult liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Palepu B.; Kapoor, Dharmesh; Raya, Ravichandra; Subrahmanyam, M.; Juneja, Deven; Sukanya, B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, liver transplantation has become an operational reality in our part of the world. As a result, clinicians working in an intensive care unit are more likely to be exposed to these patients in the immediate postoperative period, and thus, it is important that they have a working knowledge of the common complications, when they are likely to occur, and how to deal with them. The main focus of this review is to address the variety of critical care issues in liver transplant recipients and to impress upon the need to provide favorable circumstances for the new liver to start functioning and maintain the function of other organs to aid in this process. PMID:20040807

  6. Emerging critical issues and technology needs

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.; Baker, A.B.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1997, a panel of experts representing private sector electricity companies met to identify emerging critical issues in the electricity sector and to ascertain how technology can help with these issues. Sandia National laboratories sponsored and conducted the meeting. The panel determined the top eight issues that will be critically important over the next five to ten years, when the electricity sector is expected to undergo a major transition in its market and the regulations that govern it. This report presents a discussion of the selection and ranking of critical issues identified by the panel and the research priorities that were identified.

  7. Critical issues facing animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Friess, S L

    1983-01-01

    An important series of issues confronts the animal research scientist involved in meeting world needs for food products from animal agriculture. The major issues stem from societal pressures for improved products, for prevention of chemical pollution of the biosphere, and for wise use of animal resources in toxicological testing and research. The following issues are among those treated in the present discussion: (1) There is a need to obtain reliable dosage vs response information for chronic effects produced in the human by food additive chemicals. (2) There is a need for toxicological research on combined hazard from multiple contaminants in animal food products. (3) There is a requirement for development of methodology for proper usage and (or) disposal of chemically contaminated animal food products. (4) The public must be educated with respect to the absolute necessity for use of intact animals in biological research, to supplement information from in vitro systems. (5) Animal scientists must characterize fully each animal species and strain employed in research and testing, to guarantee reproducibility of results. (6) Animal scientists must evolve a universal set of principles for translation of animal toxicity data into prediction of human hazard. (7) Animal scientists should develop universally uniform methodology for toxicological testing of foods and food chemical residues. (8) Animal scientists should rebut national regulatory philosophies that derive from unsound science. (9) The animal scientist should assist regulatory authorities in developing sound, practical "Good Laboratory Practice" guidelines.

  8. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  9. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  10. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  11. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures. PMID:28261162

  12. Critical Issues in Mycobiota Analysis.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Bettina; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Krause, Robert; Nilsson, R Henrik; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures.

  13. Addressing Fission Product Validation in MCNP Burnup Credit Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Don; Bowen, Douglas G; Marshall, William BJ J

    2015-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3 in September 2012. This ISG provides guidance for NRC staff members’ review of burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and dry storage of pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in casks. The ISG includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (keff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MAs). Based on previous work documented in NRC Regulatory Guide (NUREG) Contractor Report (CR)-7109, the ISG recommends that NRC staff members accept the use of either 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth—in addition to bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of keff calculations for the major actinides in SNF—to conservatively account for the bias and bias uncertainty associated with the specified unvalidated FP&MAs. The ISG recommends (1) use of 1.5% of the FP&MA worth if a modern version of SCALE and its nuclear data are used and (2) 3% of the FP&MA worth for well qualified, industry standard code systems other than SCALE with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files, Part B (ENDF/B),-V, ENDF/B-VI, or ENDF/B-VII cross sections libraries. The work presented in this paper provides a basis for extending the use of the 1.5% of the FP&MA worth bias to BUC criticality calculations performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The extended use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias is shown to be acceptable by comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII–based nuclear data. The comparison supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when the MCNP code is used for criticality calculations, provided that the cask design is similar to the hypothetical generic BUC-32 cask model and that the credited FP&MA worth is no more than 0.1 Δkeff (ISG-8, Rev. 3, Recommendation 4).

  14. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  15. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  16. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  17. Critical Issues in K-12 Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Tech. Environmental Education Center, Bettendorf, IA.

    This document reviews the critical issues in K-12 environmental education discussed at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Morgan State University summer institute for kindergarten through grade 12 educators. Areas reviewed included curriculum, employment opportunities and career awareness, environmental equity, professional development, and…

  18. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  19. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  20. Can they go it alone? Addressing criticisms of coteaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colette; Carlisle, Karen; Beggs, Jim

    2009-06-01

    This paper responds to Wassell and LaVan's paper on the transition from a preservice coteaching experience to independent teaching as a beginning inservice teacher. Wassell and LaVan describe coteaching as an alternative to traditional teaching. In our response, we argue that coteaching can also be applied alongside independent teaching in preservice courses, as opposed to an alternative to independent teaching, which has been shown to alleviate some of the transition issues described by Wassell and LaVan. We then present a critical discussion of different models and vocabularies of coteaching which apply in different sociocultural settings to expand the concept of coteaching. We attempt to extend Wassell and LaVan's use of Guba and Lincoln's (Fourth generation evaluation, 1989) authenticity criteria from the research methodology towards considering the criteria also as a framework for coteaching as practice for preservice and cooperating teachers. Finally, we reflect on the role of critical ethnography in Wassell and LaVan's study in terms of the researchers' intervention and whether improvements in the transition can be effectively introduced which do not require such intervention. We conclude our discussion with some suggestions to take forward this important work.

  1. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  2. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  3. Addressing Issues of Power, Justice, and Privilege in Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Stacie L.

    2014-01-01

    Tate applauds Rogers's use of teacher research to illustrate how literacy coaches and teachers can approach an accelerative literacy framework with a critical literacy lens. Citing her own work, as well as the work of other critical literacy educators, Tate reminds readers that teacher research is a careful plan that encompasses the power of…

  4. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  5. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  6. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  7. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  8. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  9. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  10. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  11. Agriculture: Critical issues in planning for an effective radiological emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper highlights the significant agricultural issues involved in an effective emergency response to radiation accidents. Topics included are the following: planning for ingestion exercises; ingestion pathway exercise issues of concern; recovering from an emergency - the critical issues often not sufficently address in an exercise including social, political and economic.

  12. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Hiring your next partner: AOA critical issues.

    PubMed

    Blasier, R Dale; Gagnon, Michael R; Iannotti, Joseph P; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-09-03

    Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson's role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms "Silent Generation," "Baby Boomers," "Generation X," and "Generation Y." Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one's self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for

  15. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  16. Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Issues in Teacher Education: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Homophobic harassment and bullying are persistent issues in Canadian schools despite recent initiatives to improve school climate. Among the reasons is that educators feel reluctant or ill-prepared to address these issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine how teacher education can help make schools safer by addressing LGBTQ issues and…

  17. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  18. Addressing psychosocial issues in cancer survivorship: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    With a burgeoning population of cancer survivors, organizations in the USA and around the world are considering how to address the many long-term and late psychosocial effects of cancer and cancer treatment. This article reviews the changing landscape of survivorship care over the past 50 years, from the time when there were relatively few survivors to the future, when the number of cancer survivors in the USA alone is expected to reach close to 20 million. Institute of Medicine Reports, intra-organizational summits and accrediting standards that have influenced the development of survivorship care plans and programs and the roles of the Internet and smartphone applications along with oncology specialist and primary care providers are discussed.

  19. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  20. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  1. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  2. Computer Software Training and HRD: What Are the Critical Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altemeyer, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores critical issues for HRD practice from a parsonian framework across the HRD legs of organizational development, adult learning, and training and development. Insights into the critical issues emerge from this approach. Identifying successful transfer of training to be critical for organizational, group, and individual success.…

  3. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  4. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  5. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  6. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  7. Critical Issues in Adult Probation: Issues in Probation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric W.; Parks, Evalyn C.

    These materials, gathered through an intensive review of computer searches in sociopsychological and criminal justice databases, library holdings at Ohio State University, publications from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, and telephone/mail contacts with state and country probation systems, examine issues in probation management…

  8. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Part-Time and Adjunct Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet focuses on issues related to part-time and adjunct faculty. It is clear that part-time faculty are now a substantial entity within academe and need to be understood better. This CRIB sheet lists resources that address: (1) trends in contracts, numbers, or conditions of part-time faculty; (2) issues…

  9. Excellence and Equity for Language Minority Students: Critical Issues and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basterra, Maria del Rosario, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection provide the reader with a unified and systemic framework in which issues of excellence and equity are presented and discussed. The publication is structured to address critical issues and promising practices for linguistically and culturally diverse students in the areas of instruction, assessment, and parent…

  10. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  11. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  12. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. ); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  13. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  14. Long-term storage of tissues by cryopreservation: critical issues.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J O; Toner, M

    1996-02-01

    The technique of cryopreservation (maintenance of biological samples in a state of 'suspended animation' at cryogenic temperatures), its potential use in tissue engineering applications and current obstacles to the development of effective cryopreservation methods for tissues are reviewed. A didactic overview of the principles of cryobiology and the methodology of cryopreservation is given, with emphasis on the processes of injury to cells during freezing and thawing, and how these are related to the physicochemical and biophysical changes occurring during cryopreservation. Critical issues relevant to the application of cryopreservation methods to tissues are then addressed, including heat and mass transfer limitations in these bulk systems, intrinsic differences between isolated and cultured cells, and mechanisms of freezing injury unique to tissue systems.

  15. CRITICAL ISSUES IN HIGH END COMPUTING - FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Corones, James

    2013-09-23

    High-End computing (HEC) has been a driver for advances in science and engineering for the past four decades. Increasingly HEC has become a significant element in the national security, economic vitality, and competitiveness of the United States. Advances in HEC provide results that cut across traditional disciplinary and organizational boundaries. This program provides opportunities to share information about HEC systems and computational techniques across multiple disciplines and organizations through conferences and exhibitions of HEC advances held in Washington DC so that mission agency staff, scientists, and industry can come together with White House, Congressional and Legislative staff in an environment conducive to the sharing of technical information, accomplishments, goals, and plans. A common thread across this series of conferences is the understanding of computational science and applied mathematics techniques across a diverse set of application areas of interest to the Nation. The specific objectives of this program are: Program Objective 1. To provide opportunities to share information about advances in high-end computing systems and computational techniques between mission critical agencies, agency laboratories, academics, and industry. Program Objective 2. To gather pertinent data, address specific topics of wide interest to mission critical agencies. Program Objective 3. To promote a continuing discussion of critical issues in high-end computing. Program Objective 4.To provide a venue where a multidisciplinary scientific audience can discuss the difficulties applying computational science techniques to specific problems and can specify future research that, if successful, will eliminate these problems.

  16. Critical Teacher Education and Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip; Schick, Jo-Anne

    1993-01-01

    Although University of Washington serves as vanguard for interprofessional collaboration, there are two features of professional practice not addressed in the program. Implementation may be problem, since teacher training is limited by state and occurs in contexts distant from urban areas needing interprofessional collaboration. Multicultural…

  17. Critical Issues in Education Facilities and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundtable discussion by a panel of professionals--Carl Larson, Scott E. Little, James Reny, and Roger Young. They share creative solutions to many of the facilities and business operations challenges faced by education institutions nationwide. Among the issues discussed is the effect of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on…

  18. Industrial Organizational Psychology: Today's Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharf, James C.

    The Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) of the American Psychological Association is dominated by the health care providers whose agenda in issuing accreditation standards and influencing state licensing requirements may be as much to protect the clinician from less expensive competition as it is to protect the client. Tension exists between the…

  19. Teenage Pregnancy: A Critical Family Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott (C.S.) Foundation, Flint, MI.

    The Mott Foundation has been involved with the issue of teenage pregnancy for 15 years, and has supported a network of programs with the main objective of finding new ways to deal with the negative consequences of teenage pregnancy. This report, which reflects the Foundation's perspective, is divided into six sections. The first provides an…

  20. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  1. Addressing critical astrophysical problems with NASA's small explorer (SMEX) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Ribas, Ignasi

    The Small Explorer (SMEX) program of NASA was initiated during the late 1980s to provide frequent, cost-effective opportunities to carry out sharply focused and relatively space science missions. The SMEX program together with the Mid-size Explorer (MIDEX) program were timely reactions to the increasingly long development times and cost over-runs for a number of large space missions during the previous decades. SMEX spacecrafts are typically 180 to 250 kg with orbit-averaged power consumptions of 50-200 watts. Frequently innovative or novel technologies and instrumentation are employed to achieve important results. The current cost cap (which includes cost of launch vehicle, development and operations) is 75M (Fiscal Year 2000 US). For comparison, the cost cap of the MIDEX mission is $135M. Both SMEX and MIDEX are solicited Principal Investigator (PI) missions that are peer-reviewed before selection. The SMEX program is supported by the NASA's Office of Space Research (OSS) and a wide spectrum of science is addressed. The themes include Origin and Evolution of Stars and Planets, the Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and the Sun-Earth Connection. Within these major themes, the missions may also focus on fundamental laws of physics as they relate to astrophysics and cosmology. So far, seven SMEX missions have been flown or are approved for flight within one or two years. In this paper, the past, current, and possible future SMEX missions are discussed and evaluated. Some highlights and important scientific returns from the current and approved missions are also included.

  2. Critical Issues in Bioinformatics and Computing

    PubMed Central

    Kesh, Someswa; Raghupathi, Wullianallur

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the field of bioinformatics and its implications for the various participants. Next-generation issues facing developers (programmers), users (molecular biologists), and the general public (patients) who would benefit from the potential applications are identified. The goal is to create awareness and debate on the opportunities (such as career paths) and the challenges such as privacy that arise. A triad model of the participants' roles and responsibilities is presented along with the identification of the challenges and possible solutions. PMID:18066389

  3. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  4. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  5. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  6. 49 CFR 192.933 - What actions must be taken to address integrity issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.933 What actions must be taken to address integrity issues? (a... issues? 192.933 Section 192.933 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  7. Critical issues in an electronic documentation system.

    PubMed

    Weir, Charlene R; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2007-10-11

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system.

  8. Antiretroviral drugs: Critical issues and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mira; Iyer, Geetha; Dikshit, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now recognized as a chronic illness. Although the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy is beyond question, several issues still persist. Since the drugs cannot eradicate the virus, cure is not yet possible, and patients have to maintain a lifelong adherence with the risk of toxic effects, drug-drug interactions and drug resistance. A clear understanding of the viral replication and its interaction with host cell factors has led to the development of a large number of effective antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). New drugs in the existing class such as apricitabine, elvucitabine and etravirine have shown promising results against HIV isolates resistant to first line drugs. These drugs have offered a new choice for patients with drug resistant disease. However, the impact of their long term use on safety is yet to be assessed. Novel drugs with unique mechanism of action such as CD4 receptor attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, pharmacokinetic enhancers, capsid assembly inhibitors and lens epithelium derived growth factor inhibitors are still under development. Currently, ARVs, especially tenofovir and emtricitabine, are also being evaluated for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV-1. The initial results of an HIV prevention trial network are encouraging and have recommended the use of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Thus, ARVs form the key component of HIV prevention and treatment strategy. This article discusses the challenges associated with HIV-1 treatment and updates several major advances in the development of ARVs. PMID:22701234

  9. Capitals, assets, and resources: some critical issues.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mike; Warde, Alan; Devine, Fiona

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores the potential of Bourdieu's approach to capital as a way of understanding class dynamics in contemporary capitalism. Recent rethinking of class analysis has sought to move beyond what Rosemary Crompton (1998) calls the 'employment aggregate approach', one which involves categorizing people into class groups according to whether they have certain attributes (e.g. occupations). Instead, recent contributions by Pierre Bourdieu, Erik Wright, Aage Sorensen, and Charles Tilly have concentrated on understanding the mechanisms that produce class inequalities. Concepts such as assets, capitals and resources (CARs) are often used to explain how class inequalities are produced, but there remain ambiguities and differences in how such terms are understood. This paper identifies problems faced both by game theoretical Marxism and by the rational choice approach of Goldthorpe in developing an adequate approach to CARs. It then turns to critically consider how elements of Bourdieu's approach, where his concept of capital is related to those of habitus and field, might overcome these weaknesses. Our rendering of his arguments leads us to conclude that our understanding of CARs might be enriched by considering how capital is distinctive not in terms of distinct relations of exploitation, but through its potential to accumulate and to be converted to other resources. This focus, we suggest, sidesteps otherwise intractable problems in CAR based approaches.

  10. Conference in Rhetorical Criticism, Address of the Conference and Commended Papers (Hayward, Calif., 1973-74).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannis, Estelle C., Ed.; And Others

    Papers delivered at the 1973 and 1974 meetings of the Conference in Rhetorical Criticism are contained in this pamphlet. These papers are preceded by a list of student and faculty participants, a list of editor-critics, and a schedule of events for each of those two years. The 1973 address to the conference, entitled "Rhetorical Criticism as…

  11. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing

    2014-12-09

    A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.

  12. Issues in Action Learning: A Critical Realist Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue that the perspective of "critical realism" has considerable potential for moving forward the theory and practice of action learning. The paper addresses three questions: (1) Does action learning emphasise the individual or the collective? (2) Can action learning be thought of as critical, but should it also be…

  13. Critical Issues Children Face in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Children will face many critical issues in the 21st century. Unfortunately, most of these issues are not new and have remained the same from previous years. Millions of children lack safe, affordable, quality child care and early childhood education while their parents work. Seven and one-half million children are at home alone without…

  14. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining has become a more visible issue within higher education as the number of part-time and adjunct faculty members grows and as campuses engage in restructuring and program discontinuation. This Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet highlights a few general resources about collective bargaining and draws attention to…

  15. Critical Issues in Mentoring and Mentoring Program for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganser, Tom; Bainer, Deborah L.; Bendixen-Noe, Mary; Brock, Barbara L.; Stinson, Anne D'Antonio; Giebelhaus, Carmen; Runyon, Charles Kent

    This collection of papers identifies critical issues in mentoring and mentoring programs. Paper 1, "Support Behaviors Among Teachers in Authentic Settings" (Deborah L. Bainer), discusses the following issues: (1) mentoring is just one of the types of support behaviors needed and practiced by teachers in elementary schools; (2) support…

  16. The evolving role of partnerships in addressing community public health issues: policy and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monica L; Burdine, James N; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    The current state of health insurance coverage in the United States is deteriorating. Historically, efforts to address access at the federal level have met with insurmountable opposition. This article describes a model utilizing the Partnership Approach to Community Health Improvement to engage communities in developing creative ways of addressing local health issues, discusses the policy implications of such a model, and explores ethical issues inherent in the discussion of universal access. An argument is presented for a national dialogue seeking societal agreement to approach access and health from a perspective of solidarity.

  17. Enhancing Situational Awareness When Addressing Critical Incidents at Suburban and Rural Schools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    geared more toward addressing student actions and issues surrounding bullying , interpersonal actions and social influences.20 4. Studies and Research...fired 188 rounds of ammunition, killing twelve students and one teacher before committing suicide .84 Since there were no witnesses to the suicide ...should strongly consider the development of school board threat risk assessment protocols, and other issues are; bullying prevention initiatives

  18. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  19. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  20. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  1. 23 CFR 636.501 - What issues may be addressed in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues may be addressed in discussions? 636.501 Section 636.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  2. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  3. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  4. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  5. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  6. Critical issues in process control system security : DHS spares project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; McIntyre, Annie; Henrie, Morgan

    2010-10-01

    The goals of this event are: (1) Discuss the next-generation issues and emerging risks in cyber security for control systems; (2) Review and discuss common control system architectures; (3) Discuss the role of policy, standards, and supply chain issues; (4) Interact to determine the most pertinent risks and most critical areas of the architecture; and (5) Merge feedback from Control System Managers, Engineers, IT, and Auditors.

  7. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  8. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  9. Critical issues using brain-computer interfaces for augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Hill, Katya; Kovacs, Thomas; Shin, Sangeun

    2015-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may potentially be of significant practical value to patients in advanced stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and locked-in syndrome for whom conventional augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems, which require some measure of consistent voluntary muscle control, are not satisfactory options. However, BCIs have primarily been used for communication in laboratory research settings. This article discusses 4 critical issues that should be addressed as BCIs are translated out of laboratory settings to become fully functional BCI/AAC systems that may be implemented clinically. These issues include (1) identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary system features; (2) integrating BCI/AAC systems in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework; (3) implementing language-based assessment and intervention; and (4) performance measurement. A clinical demonstration project is presented as an example of research beginning to address these critical issues.

  10. Breaking Barriers, Building Bridges: Critical Discussion of Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joy

    Noting that picture books can invite students to engage in critical discussion of complex issues of race, class, and gender, this lesson plan helps students to confront the injustice of barriers that separate human beings from one another and to examine the role of prejudice and stereotypes in sustaining these barriers. During the five 45-minute…

  11. Allowing for Practice: A Critical Issue in TESOL Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers teaching practice in short, intensive, pre-service TESOL certificate courses, drawing upon outcomes of recent research into the experiences of participants on courses offered internationally by a UK-based provider. Qualitative methodology led to the identification of 26 critical issues, including several related to the…

  12. Critical Issues for Dentistry: PGD Program Directors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Cheffetz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed directors of programs in postgraduate education in general dentistry (PGD) about critical issues facing their programs. Identified 12 themes: lack of postdoctoral applicants; student quality; professionalism and attitudes; number of postdoctoral positions; lack of funding; quality of facilities; special patient care; program curriculum;…

  13. Critical Issues in Using Data for Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on their experience of direct work with 16 principals in a midwest state in the USA, collaborative work with the state department of education and the major state-level professional associations and universities in the same state, and other state-level initiatives across the USA, the authors discuss eight critical issues concerning…

  14. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World [and] Current Issues Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Lynn Page

    1991-01-01

    This annual publication contains reading materials designed to help students understand the complexities of the domestic and foreign policy issues facing the United States. The first portion of the book features background reading on the structure of the Federal Government. Next, 10 domestic policy issues are covered: the economy, education, civil…

  15. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.

  16. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  17. Managing Human Resources. Greater OPM Leadership Needed To Address Critical Challenges. Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    The General Accounting Office examined the Office of Personnel Management's (OPM's) leadership role in addressing critical human resource problems and preparing the government to meet future challenges. Federal managers, OPM employees, and federal personnel officials were surveyed to study federal government problems in hiring, managing, and…

  18. International Analog Criticism: The "Scandignation" Addresses of Willy Brandt and Richard Nixon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaly, Ingeborg

    The resignation speeches of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt and United States President Richard Nixon are compared and the rhetorical efficacy of each figure is assessed in this paper. Analog criticism is employed to support the argument that in the particular subgenre of "scandignation" addresses, Brandt came much closer than Nixon…

  19. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  20. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  1. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  2. Safety issues in cultural heritage management and critical infrastructures management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is the fourth of its kind in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering , containing studies and applications of geophysical methodologies and sensing technologies for the knowledge, conservation and security of products of human activity ranging from civil infrastructures to built and cultural heritage. The first discussed the application of novel instrumentation, surface and airborne remote sensing techniques, as well as data processing oriented to both detection and characterization of archaeological buried remains and conservation of cultural heritage (Eppelbaum et al 2010). The second stressed the importance of an integrated and multiscale approach for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, from SAR to GPR to imaging based diagnostic techniques (Masini and Soldovieri 2011). The third enlarged the field of analysis to civil engineering structures and infrastructures, providing an overview of the effectiveness and the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques (Masini et al 2012). As a whole, the special issue put in evidence the factors that affect the choice of diagnostic strategy, such as the material, the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment). In order to complete the overview of the application fields of sensing technologies this issue has been dedicated to monitoring of cultural heritage and critical infrastructures to address safety and security issues. Particular attention has been paid to the data processing methods of different sensing techniques, from infrared thermography through GPR to SAR. Cascini et al (2013) present the effectiveness of a

  3. Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chell, G. G.; Mcclung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.

    1994-01-01

    Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.

  4. Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.

    1994-09-01

    Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.

  5. Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gouthro, Trina Johnena

    2009-11-01

    Negative and stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental health nursing discredit the valuable contributions of mental health nurses, but more importantly, these beliefs discredit the needs of people who access mental health care. The stigma associated with mental health nursing, however, has received little attention in the literature. In this article, the author explores the stigma associated with mental health nursing from a critical lens. Recommendations are proposed to address the stigma associated with mental health nursing and mental illness, concurrently, within nursing education.

  6. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  7. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  8. Rating scales, scales of measurement, issues of reliability: resolving some critical issues for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Domenic; Bronen, Richard; Spencer, Susan; Haut, Sheryl; Berg, Anne; Oliver, Patricia; Tyrer, Peter

    2006-08-01

    We focus upon several broad issues that are of concern to clinicians and clinical researchers in the areas of biobehavioral and biomedical research, including, but not limited to, the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuropsychology, and neurology. These issues are the critical reassessment of S. S. Stevens' quadripartite conceptualization of scales of measurement; the application of criteria to determine the clinical significance of reliability estimates; the detection of subsets of reliable and unreliable raters, when the overall level is of little clinical import; and finally, the application of Kappa statistics when multiple raters evaluate a single case.

  9. Identifying the mathematics middle year students use as they address a community issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Middle year students often do not see the mathematics in the real world whereas the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims for students to be "confident and creative users and communicators of mathematics" (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2012). Using authentic and real mathematics tasks can address this situation. This paper is an account of how, working within a Knowledge Producing Schools' framework, a group of middle year students addressed a real community issue, the problem of the lack of a teenage safe space using mathematics and technology. Data were collected for this case study via journal observations and reflections, semi-structured interviews, samples of the students' work and videos of students working. The data were analysed by identifying the mathematics the students used determining the function and location of the space and focused on problem negotiation, formulation and solving through the statistical investigation cycle. The paper will identify the mathematics and statistics these students used as they addressed a real problem in their local community.

  10. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  11. Which issues concerning multiple pregnancies should be addressed during psychosocial counselling?

    PubMed

    Emery, Marysa

    2007-01-01

    The global rise in multiple pregnancy rates due to assisted reproductive technology has led to the development of various strategies to diminish these rates without jeopardising pregnancy. Policies at treatment centres may include the option of fetal reduction, although each centre is subject to national laws and its own guidelines. However, personal opinions and goals may also influence practice. The development of clinical decisions, therefore, is complex and subject to change. Primary prevention is the best way to reduce multiple births. For preventative psychosocial counselling, some centres employ counsellors, but if not, this becomes the physician's task. An in-depth assessment is required to define how many embryos to transfer and what risk of multiple birth is acceptable to patients. Counselling should address the following: the relationship between pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the number of embryos transferred; benefits and risks of multiple pregnancy; and possibilities for primary and secondary prevention. Patients should voice how they feel facing these issues; which issues are worrisome; how they anticipate these possibilities; and what psychosocial support exists that could be mobilized. In summary, psychosocial counselling reinforces the partnership between couples and the assisted reproductive technology team, allowing for primary prevention and informed consent on multiple pregnancy issues.

  12. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  13. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.

  14. From Education to Practice: Addressing Opioid Misuse through Healthcare Provider Training: A Special Issue of SAj.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Harding, John Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging. In this issue of the Substance Abuse journal, we examine the science and evidence base of educational interventions and public initiatives addressing opioid use and addiction. These initiatives include naloxone rescue awareness and programs, community-based training initiatives, and system or public health approaches to improve student, trainee, and clinician education/training revolving around opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. We call on stakeholders to fund more research to investigate and implement the proven means to educate undergraduate students, graduate trainees, and clinicians regarding pain and addiction. We also recognize the 2016 peer reviewers of our journal who have performed meritorious, volunteer service to advance the science of addiction.

  15. Reproductive health services for adolescents. Critical legal issues.

    PubMed

    English, A

    2000-03-01

    The contemporary legal and policy environment has increased the challenges associated with providing health care services to the adolescent population. The issue of reproductive health care services is particularly intense because of the controversial nature of services for contraception and abortion. As the debates continue, one must remember the background against which they are occurring. The current legal framework, developed over nearly 40 years, enables adolescents who are minors to give their own consent for care in numerous circumstances and provides them with a significant level of confidentiality protection, particularly for reproductive health services. Laws have been enacted to expand adolescents' financial access to health care, through targeted publicly funded service programs and expanded health insurance coverage. This background provides the foundation for addressing the current challenges and for protecting and expanding adolescents' access to care.

  16. SUMMARY: ACHIEVEMENTS, CRITICAL ISSUES, AND THOUGHTS ON THE FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathryn D.

    2012-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to particle radiations in cancer treatment worldwide is increasing rapidly, and space agencies are developing plans for long-duration, deep-space missions in which humans could be exposed to significant levels of radiation from charged particles. Hence, the NCRP 47th Annual Meeting on “Scientific and Policy Challenges of Particle Radiations in Medical Therapy and Space Missions” was a timely opportunity to showcase the current scientific knowledge regarding charged particles, enhance cross-fertilization between the oncology and space scientific communities, and identify common needs and challenges to both communities, as well as ways to address those challenges. This issue of Health Physics contains papers from talks presented at that meeting and highlights provocative questions and the ample opportunities for synergism between space and particle-therapy research to further understanding of the biological impacts of particle radiations. PMID:23032899

  17. Summary: achievements, critical issues, and thoughts on the future.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D

    2012-11-01

    The number of individuals exposed to particle radiations in cancer treatment worldwide is increasing rapidly, and space agencies are developing plans for long duration, deep space missions in which humans could be exposed to significant levels of radiation from charged particles. Hence, the NCRP 47 th Annual Meeting on "Scientific and Policy Challenges of Particle Radiations in Medical Therapy and Space Missions" was a timely opportunity to showcase the current scientific knowledge regarding charged particles, enhance cross-fertilization between the oncology and space scientific communities, and identify common needs and challenges to both communities as well as ways to address those challenges. This issue of Health Physics contains papers from talks presented at that meeting and highlights provocative questions and the ample opportunities for synergism between space and particle-therapy research to further understanding of the biological impacts of particle radiations.

  18. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  19. Closing the gaps in knowledge, policy and action to address water issues in forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul W.

    1993-10-01

    Water issues on forest lands involve many human elements and needs that are not addressed by advanced physical and biological research and technology. Major gaps in our knowledge of important patterns of climate, soils, and terrain can be filled by relatively basic data collection and monitoring programs. Careful analysis of existing data and field experience also can reveal appropriate directions for management. A focus on problem-solving can direct research more effectively towards the resolution of key issues. Despite their impact, resource policies have widely varying scientific foundations. Policy-makers need sound processes for policy development, including timely technical input that is clear, objective, and related to socio-economic considerations. Resource polices should be consistent and include not only regulation, but also research, education, assistance, and incentives. Knowledge and sound policies still may not produce the desired on-the-ground actions, however, because of variable awareness, understanding, skill, or supervision in the field. Education and training programs are important not only for resource technicians, but also for contractors, operators, and other forest workers. Good planning, communication, and field coordination further insure that problems are avoided and new opportunities for effective actions are identified.

  20. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  1. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  2. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  3. Issues affecting the delivery of physical therapy services for individuals with critical illness.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Amy J; Kress, John P

    2013-02-01

    Research supports the provision of physical therapy intervention and early mobilization in the management of patients with critical illness. However, the translation of care from that of well-controlled research protocols to routine practice can be challenging and warrants further study. Discussions in the critical care and physical therapy communities, as well as in the published literature, are investigating factors related to early mobilization such as transforming culture in the intensive care unit (ICU), encouraging interprofessional collaboration, coordinating sedation interruption with mobility sessions, and determining the rehabilitation modalities that will most significantly improve patient outcomes. Some variables, however, need to be investigated and addressed specifically by the physical therapy profession. They include assessing and increasing physical therapist competence managing patients with critical illness in both professional (entry-level) education programs and clinical settings, determining and providing an adequate number of physical therapists for a given ICU, evaluating methods of prioritization of patients in the acute care setting, and adding to the body of research to support specific functional outcome measures to be used with patients in the ICU. Additionally, because persistent weakness and functional limitations can exist long after the critical illness itself has resolved, there is a need for increased awareness and involvement of physical therapists in all settings of practice, including outpatient clinics. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues that the physical therapy profession needs to address as the rehabilitation management of the patient with critical illness evolves.

  4. Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, J. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Mcbride, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more effective impact attenuation devices justify a renewal of the landing technology development effort that existed during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. A study was performed to evaluate the current and projected national capability in landing systems and to identify critical deficiencies in the technology base required to support the Assured Crew Return Vehicle and the Two-Way Manned Transportation System. A technology development program covering eight landing system performance issues is recommended.

  5. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  6. [People with stomas - issues and responses in critical periods].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazue; Ishiguro, Miho

    2014-01-01

    People with stomas who have either been cured of cancer or are living with cancer have achieved good interrelationships among the three issues of"establishing self-care","dealing with stoma complications", and"accepting stomas", and they are maintaining stable physical and mental states.However, self-care may become difficult due to stoma complications and adverse events caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the cancer treatment period, and in advanced phases of cancer serious stoma complications may occur due to deterioration of general condition and advancing cancer. Therefore, there is a risk that those stable physical and mental states will collapse.In order to deal with this critical state, in the cancer treatment period, stoma skin care is used for handling skin problems around the stoma, and for adverse events such as hand-and-foot syndrome, braces that are easy to operate are chosen from among various types of stoma braces in order to cover impediments.During advanced phases of cancer, care is conducted with the main priority placed on physical stability in order to ensure that the three major complications of stoma varicose veins, stoma prolapse, and parastomal hernia do not worsen and significantly affect general condition and daily life.Stoma outpatient treatment that provides lifelong support for such issues, and the existence of skin- and excretion-care certified nurses who provided highly specialized selfcare support, are extremely important for cancer survivors with stomas.

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for...and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...requesters April 2014 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

  8. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  9. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  18. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  19. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  20. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  1. Main issues addressed in the 2014-2015 revisions to the OECD Genetic Toxicology Test Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thybaud, Veronique; Lorge, Elisabeth; Levy, Dan D; van Benthem, Jan; Douglas, George R; Marchetti, Francesco; Moore, Martha M; Schoeny, Rita

    2017-03-07

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently revised the test guidelines (TGs) for genetic toxicology. This article describes the main issues addressed during the revision process, and the new and consistent recommendations made in the revised TGs for: (1) demonstration of laboratory proficiency; (2) generation and use of robust historical control data; (3) improvement of the statistical power of the tests; (4) selection of top concentration for in vitro assays; (5) consistent data interpretation and determination of whether the result is clearly positive, clearly negative or needs closer consideration; and, (6) consideration of 3R's for in vivo assay design. The revision process resulted in improved consistency among OECD TGs (including the newly developed ones) and more comprehensive recommendations for the conduct and the interpretation of the assays. Altogether, the recommendations made during the revision process should improve the efficiency, by which the data are generated, and the quality and reliability of test results. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c–statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy are assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations. PMID:26756274

  3. Critical issues encountered in experiments and measurements involving optical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Frank D.

    2007-02-01

    The successful design and operation of high energy laser (HEL) and laser communication systems require a comprehensive and thorough knowledge of the real turbulent atmosphere coupled with high-fidelity realistic laser beam propagation models. To date, modeling and simulation of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence have relied upon a traditional theoretical basis that assumes the existence of homogeneous, isotropic, stationary, and Kolmogorov turbulence. The real impact of the refractive index structure parameter ( C2 n ) on laser beam propagation including effects of non-classical turbulence as well as inner (l °) and outer scale (L °) effects will be examined. Observations clearly show turbulence is often layered and is produced by wave activity and episodic events such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Other critical turbulence issues involve the relationship between mechanical and optical turbulence and the effect of path variability of turbulence and inner scale on optical turbulence parameters over long paths. These issues will be examined from data obtained from five systems: a) a new measurement platform using a free-flying balloon that lifts a ring with a boom upon which are mounted several fine wire (1-μm diameter) sensors to measure high-speed temperature and velocity fluctuations, b) a new system using a kite/tethered blimp platform that obtains both profile and measurements at a fixed altitude over time, c) a 50 MHz radar at Vandenberg Air Force Base that senses at high temporal and spatial resolution to 20 km ASL, d) an instrumented aircraft system, and e) a suite of optical systems. The first four systems all provide estimates of C2 n , the eddy dissipation rate (\\Vegr), l ° and L °. Methods of calibration and problems of interpreting results from the measurement systems are discussed.

  4. Adolescent mothers of critically ill newborns: addressing the rights of parent and child.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2011-08-01

    Despite recent declines, the teen birth rate in the United States remains markedly higher than in other developed countries. Infants born to teen mothers are more likely to be preterm than those born to adult mothers and thus more likely to end up in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Critically ill newborns are not infrequently born to teen mothers, including those in early adolescence. The focus of this chapter is the mechanism of decision-making on behalf of those newborns and the role of the early adolescent mother as surrogate decision-maker. It is argued that the current standard in many US hospitals, and likely elsewhere, is suboptimal and inadequately addresses the rights and needs of both mother and newborn.

  5. [Beyond the criticism addressed to research ethics committees: a choice of governance].

    PubMed

    Legault, Georges A; Patenaude, Johane

    2007-12-01

    In 1998 in Canada and Quebec, two policies regarding research ethics transformed the evaluation approach of clinical research following the Code of Nuremberg and subsequent Declarations of the World Medical Association. Even after almost ten years of implementation, these policies still arouse debate in the research milieu. If for many, these debates essentially reflect the inherent difficulties in any implementation process, in which resistance to change and the modification of policies and action plans, we believe that there is a more fundamental stake, rarely mentioned or debated, that of the choice of governance. In this article we start by proposing a classification of the different modes of governance: professional deontology, and ethical and administrative rights. Secondly, we show how the debates and criticisms addressed to the Research Ethics Committee of Quebec and Canada attains their full meaning in light of this basic stake: the divergence of the mode of governance to favour ethics in research.

  6. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Yi; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Zhen-Long; Chong, Tie; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015. Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms “isoflavone”, “Phytoestrogen”, “soy”, “genistin”, and “PCa”. Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men. The effect of isoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones. The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa. Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels. In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa. Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa. However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa. PMID:26831238

  7. Current progress in public health models addressing the critical organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Villani, Vincenzo; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Shalhoub, Joseph; Michel, Sebastian G

    2014-12-01

    Since its inauguration in 1954, the field of modern transplantation has made great strides in surgical technique, the prevention of acute and chronic rejection, the minimization of immunosuppression-related side-effects and transplant tolerance. As such, organ transplantation is used worldwide as a curative, life-saving treatment for people with end-stage organ failure. However, the successes of organ transplantation have resulted in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists far exceeding the number of organs available, with growing numbers of patients dying while awaiting transplants. In order to address this critical organ shortage, a number of legislative changes have been implemented worldwide to increase the number of individuals registering as organ donors. These have included presumed consent donation, incentivized organ donation, commercial organ transplantation and mandated choice models. This article will address these public health policies in turn. The implementation of these strategies and the evidence for their efficacy will be evaluated. Based on this, we have identified that well-supported transplant coordinators approaching next-of-kin, incentives and public health campaigns are key factors that increase organ donation. Finally we propose a modified mandated choice model that may be an alternative option to maximize the number of available organs for transplantation.

  8. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Bryant, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, stereotype threat can reduce domain identification, job engagement, career aspirations, and receptivity to feedback. Stereotype threat has consequences in other relevant domains including leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiations, and competitiveness. Several institutional and individual level intervention strategies that have been field-tested and are easy to implement show promise for practitioners including: addressing environmental cues, valuing diversity, wise feedback, organizational mindsets, reattribution training, reframing the task, values-affirmation, utility-value, belonging, communal goal affordances, interdependent worldviews, and teaching about stereotype threat. This review integrates criticisms and evidence into one accessible source for practitioners and provides recommendations for implementing effective, low-cost interventions in the workplace. PMID:26834681

  9. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Bryant, William J

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, stereotype threat can reduce domain identification, job engagement, career aspirations, and receptivity to feedback. Stereotype threat has consequences in other relevant domains including leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiations, and competitiveness. Several institutional and individual level intervention strategies that have been field-tested and are easy to implement show promise for practitioners including: addressing environmental cues, valuing diversity, wise feedback, organizational mindsets, reattribution training, reframing the task, values-affirmation, utility-value, belonging, communal goal affordances, interdependent worldviews, and teaching about stereotype threat. This review integrates criticisms and evidence into one accessible source for practitioners and provides recommendations for implementing effective, low-cost interventions in the workplace.

  10. The Rhetoric of Issue Advertising: A Rationale, a Case Study, a Critical Perspective--And More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Supports the use of issue advertising. Argues that speech communication scholars can facilitate the responsible and effective use of issue ads. Reviews critics and proponents of issue advertising. Develops a rationale to guide the practice of issue advertising. Examines issue advertising in the current pro-nuclear campaign. (MS)

  11. Report: EPA Is Documenting How It Addresses Time-Critical Public Health Risks Under Its Superfund Authority

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0059, December 9, 2015. We found that the EPA can provide documentation that imminent and substantial endangerment threats to public health at Superfund time-critical removal sites have been addressed.

  12. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  13. Psychotherapy in residential treatment: historical development and critical issues.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, D Patrick

    2004-04-01

    In a time of concern with policies of managed care, more limited financial resources, and reduced lengths of residential treatment for troubled children and adolescents in the United States, we seem to be confronted ironically with an ever larger number of children who are growing up in circumstances of social dis-organization and personal despair. Faced with this dilemma, considerations of issues related to the provision of therapeutic services within residential treatment were provided by an examination of the historical development of the concepts of the milieu and residential care in the United States. The historical review revealed how the emergence of differing theories of psychotherapy has influenced the creation of various models of residential care. Several tensions have persisted over the years in the effort to provide therapy services within the broader residential setting. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral methodologies currently have come to the forefront in many aspects of milieu treatment in group care for children and adolescents in the United States. This article concluded with a critique of some potential impacts associated with those perspectives on individual and group treatment and on our views of the individual and culture in general. This discussion did not attempt to provide answers to all the stresses that can emerge in a residential setting that strives to provide a range of mental health services, nor was it intended to present an exclusively rejecting, strident criticism of the medical model or behaviorally oriented therapies. The intent was to point out some of the limitations of relying exclusively on those perspectives and to show that an amalgamation of treatment models can have real consequences for children in group care. A continued awareness of those potential consequences is essential to mitigate their potentially antitherapeutic effects.

  14. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  15. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care.

  16. Partnering To Build a Quality Workforce: Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges. A Report of the National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges (Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra; Senew, Mike

    The National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges addressed critical issues relevant to environmental technology education in the United States. Forty-three participants from across the country who attended the 1995 Forum represented business and industry, two-year colleges, four-year colleges and…

  17. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  18. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  19. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  20. Malaysian Editorials on the "Allah" Issue: A Critical Discourse Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Lokasundari Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the coverage in three Malaysian newspapers on an issue popularly known as the "Allah" issue. In 2009, the Catholic Church took the Malaysian government to court over the right to use the word "Allah". In a landmark court decision, the Church was given the right to use the word "Allah" in the…

  1. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  2. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  3. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue…

  4. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  5. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  6. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1996 Edition [and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This book accompanied by the Teacher's guide, focuses on policy issues being discussed and debated by U.S. policymakers. The book provides essays on current issues facing the nation and the world. Ten chapters highlight domestic policy issues and 10 chapters are about foreign policy issues. This book informs readers about important concerns of…

  7. Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, M; Marian, J; Martinez, E; Erhart, P

    2009-02-27

    Within the LDRD on 'Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors' basic thermodynamics of the Fe-Cr alloy and accurate atomistic modeling were used to help develop the capability to predict hardening, swelling and embrittlement using the paradigm of Multiscale Materials Modeling. Approaches at atomistic and mesoscale levels were linked to build-up the first steps in an integrated modeling platform that seeks to relate in a near-term effort dislocation dynamics to polycrystal plasticity. The requirements originated in the reactor systems under consideration today for future sources of nuclear energy. These requirements are beyond the present day performance of nuclear materials and calls for the development of new, high temperature, radiation resistant materials. Fe-Cr alloys with 9-12% Cr content are the base matrix of advanced ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels envisaged as fuel cladding and structural components of Gen-IV reactors. Predictive tools are needed to calculate structural and mechanical properties of these steels. This project represents a contribution in that direction. The synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials have lead to a significant advance in our comprehension of materials properties and their mechanical behavior. We took this progress to our advantage and within this LDRD were able to provide a detailed physical understanding of iron-chromium alloys microstructural behavior. By combining ab-initio simulations, many-body interatomic potential development, and mesoscale dislocation dynamics we were able to describe their microstructure evolution. For the first time in the case of Fe-Cr alloys, atomistic and mesoscale were merged and the first steps taken towards incorporating ordering and precipitation effects into dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the transport of self-interstitial, vacancy and

  8. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  9. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  10. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  11. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  12. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  13. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  14. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  15. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  16. Rural Special Education Curriculum Issues: Competency-Based Curriculum Addressing Graduation and Grading Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Norlis

    The paper introduces issues regarding graduation of handicapped students. Modifications to graduation requirements include course substitutions; curricular, method, evaluation or materials modification; and additional time allotted for completion of the degree requirements. Requirements for graduation from Show Low High School are listed under the…

  17. Contemporary Issues on Campuses: Today's Activities Professionals Must Address Everything from AIDS Education to Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopes, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Some approaches to dealing with contemporary issues on campus include Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome awareness--safe sex parties; crime prevention--students helping students, legislation, workshops and conferences; alcohol awareness--designated driver program and starting a nonalcoholic bar; cults on campus; sexual assault--"Hours Til…

  18. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  19. School-Based Programs Addressing Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Youth Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Homosexual adolescents are at risk within schools for many health problems. Hostile school environments can often exacerbate their problems. This article summarizes research on issues related to youth sexual orientation, noting controversies surrounding school involvement in the United States and describing programs instituted by school…

  20. The Spiritual Dimension of Education--Addressing Issues of Identity and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In a shrinking world where events across the globe become relevant for the lives of masses of people regardless of the distances that divide them, some serious issues have arisen which have particular significance for education policies and practice. Too many children are growing up against a backdrop of polarised views and attitudes which is a…

  1. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  2. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  3. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  4. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  5. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  6. Alternate measurements of benefit to criticality issues at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Toffer, H.; Cabrilla, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements in a critical mass facility, such as the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility, could be performed on simulated nuclear waste materials that would provide important critical mass information and concurrently provide a calibration of alternate measurement techniques. In addition to criticality information, the measurements could also provide a better assessment of diluent material/neutron interaction cross sections. An Hanford, large quantities of fissionable materials are dispersed in tanks, fuel storage pools, and in solid waste. Although the fissionable materials are well diluted by a variety of neutron-moderating and -absorbing substances, it is difficult to assess the margin of subcriticality. A number of measurement approaches are proposed that will either help determine fissionable material concentrations, distributions, or provide a direct measure of subcriticality. The methods under consideration involve passive neutron counting, active neutron measurements, pulse neutron applications, neutron noise analyses, and cover gas evaluations. Active neutron measurements can also provide insight into the determination of neutron absorber concentrations. Efforts are underway to test some of the methods in actual waste tank environments and geometries. It is important that these methods be tested and calibrated in a critical mass facility.

  7. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1997 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on 20 important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  8. Media Literacy as an Educational Method for Addressing College Women's Body Image Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…

  9. Broadening Views of Social Justice and Teacher Leadership: Addressing LGB Issues in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Morehead, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Teachers play a critical role in improving teaching, learning, teacher-student relationships, and school climate, and teacher education programs have a responsibility to prepare teachers to work with every student in their classroom. Kosciw, Diaz, and Greytak (2008) reported that, between 2001 and 2007, although library resources on lesbian, gay,…

  10. Staff Dismissal: Problems & Solutions. AASA Critical Issues Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Shirley Boes; Custis, Jerry

    This report, addressed to administrators and board members, discusses teacher dismissals in light of such motivating factors as declining enrollment, teacher supply and demand, and budget problems. Divided into nine chapters, this how-to-do-it book discusses some of the following topics: facts and figures on the dismissal of teachers, alternatives…

  11. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  12. Putting First Things First: Critical Issues for Public Administration Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing developments in the field of public administration over the past 50 years and identifying factors that have served, in some cases unintentionally, to undermine public confidence in the actual practice of public administration. It then examines a number of important conditions that must be addressed in the…

  13. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  14. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-06-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community.

  15. Energy Geographies: Thinking Critically about Energy Issues in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Energy issues are becoming increasingly common subjects of instruction in undergraduate- and graduate-level classrooms across a variety of disciplines. The interdisciplinary character of energy studies provides geographers with a great opportunity to present different applied and theoretical approaches to help students conceptualize energy issues…

  16. Critical Issues in Native North America. IWGIA Document No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Ward, Ed.

    This collection of articles compares the problems and issues facing indigenous nations within the United States and Canada and examines forms of native resistance. Glenn T. Morris and M. Annette Jaimes summarize the evolution of the "legal status" of indigenous nations under U.S. law and examine how U.S. legal definitions undermine…

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  18. Critical Issue Identification: A Vital Step for Rural Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langone, Christine A.

    This paper describes the use of the Nominal Group Technique as a tool to assist community leaders in 23 Georgia counties, most of them rural, in identifying and prioritizing community issues. The counties and individuals involved were participants in the Georgia County Perspective, a 12-week leadership program designed to give local leaders skills…

  19. Dialogue, Language and Identity: Critical Issues for Networked Management Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreday, Debra; Hodgson, Vivien; Jones, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the work of Mikhail Bakhtin and Norman Fairclough to show how dialogue is central to the construction of identity in networked management learning. The paper is based on a case study of a networked management learning course in higher education and attempts to illustrate how participants negotiate issues of difference,…

  20. New Age Ethics: Ethical Implications on Critical Future Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia W.

    Twentieth century scientific advancement has produced a "New Age" requiring a new ethics. The nature of human action has been profoundly and irrevocably modified. Theoretically, an ethics for the New Age must take into account humankind's new relationships to human interaction and to the natural world. New issues requiring important ethical…

  1. Critical Assessment Issues in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferns, Sonia; Zegwaard, Karsten E.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment has long been a contentious issue in work-integrated learning (WIL) and cooperative education. Despite assessment being central to the integrity and accountability of a university and long-standing theories around best practice in assessment, enacting quality assessment practices has proven to be more difficult. Authors in this special…

  2. Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

    This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…

  3. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  4. Supporting Technology Integration in Adult Education: Critical Issues and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishnan, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    What types of personal support are critical in helping teachers to integrate technology? How can adult education programs provide this support and who is best equipped to provide it? What organizational implications should program administrators consider when institutionalizing this personal support infrastructure? The experiences of eight adult…

  5. Controversial Issues in Adventure Education: A Critical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurdinger, Scott D.; Potter, Tom G.

    Adventure education has its own set of unique questions that help to define what it is and how it differs from other fields of education. Adventure education has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and with its evolution, many critical topics for deliberation have emerged. This book contains 15 chapters, each arranged in a debate format…

  6. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  7. Staffing and training issues in critical care hyperbaric medicine.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    The integrated chain of treatment of the most severe clinical cases that require hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) assumes that intensive care is continued while inside the hyperbaric chamber. Such an approach needs to take into account all the risks associated with transportation of the critically ill patient from the ICU to the chamber and back, changing of ventilator circuits and intravascular lines, using different medical devices in a hyperbaric environment, advanced invasive physiological monitoring as well as medical procedures (infusions, drainage, etc) during long or frequently repeated HBOT sessions. Any medical staff who take care of critically ill patients during HBOT should be certified and trained according to both emergency/intensive care and hyperbaric requirements. For any HBOT session, the number of staff needed for any HBOT session depends on both the type of chamber and the patient's status--stable, demanding or critically ill. For a critically ill patient, the standard procedure is a one-to-one patient-staff ratio inside the chamber; however, the final decision whether this is enough is taken after careful risk assessment based on the patient's condition, clinical indication for HBOT, experience of the personnel involved in that treatment and the available equipment.

  8. Critical Issue: Addressing Literacy Needs in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Arlette Ingram

    The rapidly shifting demographics of school-aged children, as well as continuing projections for the future, suggest that the enrollment of children who are culturally and linguistically different from what is considered the mainstream U.S. culture will continue to increase. The diversity of students in today's classrooms underscores the…

  9. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  10. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  11. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  12. Quality Is the Key: Critical Issues in Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John; Chappell, Clive; Bateman, Andrea; Roy, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The main finding from research conducted in 2005 into the critical issues in teaching, learning and assessment in vocational education and training (VET) was that "quality is the major issue." While the research identified many issues--such as the need for providers to be increasingly flexible and responsive in meeting the multiple…

  13. Software as a medical device: regulatory critical issues.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Sylvia; Bras Da Costa, Sabrina; Leroy, Nicolas; Loiseau, Séverine; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The revised Medical Device Directive has been adopted by the EU in 2010. A major change is that software for certain purposes is now considered a medical device. This entails that a new view needs to be developed on the design, development, evaluation and post-market surveillance of medical software that meets the definition of a medical device. This paper identifies some issues at stake and discusses them.

  14. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  15. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about issues currently confronting the United States. The introductory section briefly discusses the 101st Congress, members of the Bush administration, and the Supreme Court. The federal budget process is also discussed in this section. The section on domestic policy issues contains the…

  16. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R., Ed.

    This book investigates a variety of contemporary issues, both domestic U.S. concerns and those of an international focus that involve the United States. The introduction develops the context of the book by discussing the Reagan legacy, the 101st Congress, the Supreme Court, and the making of the U.S. federal budget. The domestic policy issues of…

  17. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to raise awareness of the critical importance of chronic early absence, synthesize available data on the scope of the challenge, and share emerging insights about how schools and communities can use chronic early absence to identify and address challenges affecting the social, educational and physical well-being of children and…

  18. Advocacy to action: addressing coordinated school health program issues with school boards.

    PubMed

    Wiley, David C; Howard-Barr, Elissa M

    2005-01-01

    As the need for Coordinated School Health Programs (CSHP) increases, so does recognition of the importance for advocating with local school boards for their support. Identifying the diversified make up of school board members and implementing effective strategies to advocate for coordinated school health can help facilitate the successful inclusion of such a program. With increasing emphasis placed on standardized testing and the "basic" curriculum, school board members need to become aware of specific benefits a CSHP can provide their district. With the relationship between health status and academic achievement confirmed in scientific research, school boards may begin paying more attention to providing high-quality health services and health instruction for students. This article presents items to consider and steps to take before, during, and after addressing a local school board for their support in implementing a CSHP.

  19. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  20. Critical care medicine in the United States: addressing the intensivist shortage and image of the specialty.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M; Oropello, John M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Intensivists are increasingly needed to care for the critically ill and manage ICUs as ICU beds, utilization, acuity of illness, complexity of care and costs continue to rise. However, there is a nationwide shortage of intensivists that has occurred despite years of well publicized warnings of an impending workforce crisis from specialty societies and the federal government. The magnitude of the intensivist shortfall, however, is difficult to determine because there are many perspectives of optimal ICU administration, patient coverage and intensivist availability and a lack of national data on intensivist practices. Nevertheless, the intensivist shortfall is quite real as evidenced by the alternative solutions that hospitals are deploying to provide care for their critically ill patients. In the midst of these manpower struggles, the critical care environment is dynamically changing and becoming more stressful. Severe hospital bed availability and fiscal constraints are forcing ICUs to alter their approaches to triage, throughput and unit staffing. National and local organizations are mandating that hospitals comply with resource intensive and arguably unproven initiatives to monitor and improve patient safety and quality, and informatics systems. Lastly, there is an ongoing sense of professional dissatisfaction among intensivists and a lack of public awareness that critical care medicine is even a distinct specialty. This article offers proposals to increase the adult intensivist workforce through expansion and enhancements of internal medicine based critical care training programs, incentives for recent graduates to enter the critical care medicine field, suggestions for improvements in the critical care profession and workplace to encourage senior intensivists to remain in the field, proactive marketing of critical care, and expanded engagement by the critical care societies in the challenges facing intensivists.

  1. Beyond Positivism: Understanding and addressing childhood obesity disparities through a Critical Theory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Krista; Kulage, Kristine M.; Lucero, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We apply Critical Theory to examine menu labeling with the aim of uncovering important implications for nursing practice, research, and policy. Conclusions Our critical analysis uncovers barriers to menu labeling's effectiveness, particularly for vulnerable populations. Nurses must work to minimize the impact of these barriers and optimize the effectiveness of menu labeling, in order to strengthen the fight against obesity. Practice implications We suggest changes, guided by this critical analysis,that can be implemented by nurses working in clinical practice, research, and policy. PMID:26112774

  2. Protein bio-corona: critical issue in immune nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Monica; Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Docea, Anca Oana; Constantin, Carolina; Negrei, Carolina; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-03-01

    With the expansion of the nanomedicine field, the knowledge focusing on the behavior of nanoparticles in the biological milieu has rapidly escalated. Upon introduction to a complex biological system, nanomaterials dynamically interact with all the encountered biomolecules and form the protein "bio-corona." The decoration with these surface biomolecules endows nanoparticles with new properties. The present review will address updates of the protein bio-corona characteristics as influenced by nanoparticle's physicochemical properties and by the particularities of the encountered biological milieu. Undeniably, bio-corona generation influences the efficacy of the nanodrug and guides the actions of innate and adaptive immunity. Exploiting the dynamic process of protein bio-corona development in combination with the new engineered horizons of drugs linked to nanoparticles could lead to innovative functional nanotherapies. Therefore, bio-medical nanotechnologies should focus on the interactions of nanoparticles with the immune system for both safety and efficacy reasons.

  3. Comorbidity: a critical issue in attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, B A; Shaywitz, S E

    1991-01-01

    In this report, we examine the interrelationships between attention deficit disorder (ADD), learning disabilities (LD), and conduct and oppositional disorders (COD). We indicate that it is reasonable to consider ADD as a distinct entity, frequently co-occurring with LD on the one hand, and COD on the other. The first section reviews the interrelationships between ADD and LD. Here we focus on definitional issues, trace the historical antecedents of ADD and LD, examine the prevalence of ADD and LD, and review studies designed to differentiate cognitive from attentional mechanisms in children with ADD, LD, or both. In the next section, we review the evidence linking ADD with COD, a distinction blurred in earlier investigations by problems with referral bias. More recent studies suggest that the antecedents, clinical characteristics, and prognosis may differ in children with ADD alone compared to those with ADD in association with COD.

  4. Critical issues in the use of muscle testing for the determination of sincerity of effort.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael E; Dannecker, Erin A

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there have been numerous attempts to identify methodologies that are capable of the determination of sincerity of effort during muscle testing. The ensuing paper reviewed this literature and drew several conclusions. Injured patients and healthy volunteers do produce less force and more variable force while performing submaximal contractions than maximal contractions. However, submaximal efforts during strength testing can be reproduced and the use of force variability is not adequate to distinguish sincerity of effort. Visual examination of the shape of force output curves is also not adequate for distinguishing sincerity of effort. Furthermore, much of the research using strength ratios, difference scores, and an assortment of different parameters derived during strength testing has not established reliable and clinically useful methods of differentiating effort levels. Methods examining motion variability, radial/ulnar force output ratios, difference scores of eccentric-concentric ratios, and electromyography offer some promise, but numerous critical issues need to addressed. The use of the coefficient of variation, for example, is statistically untenable given the number of trials appropriate for clinical samples. Several studies have inadequate sample size to number of variable ratios. Many studies have questionable or at least unknown generalizability to patient samples and actual functional capacity. It is critical that other explanatory variables such as fear of injury, pain, medications, work satisfaction, and other motivational factors be considered. It is our opinion that there is not sufficient empirical evidence to support the clinical application of muscle testing to determine sincerity of effort.

  5. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  6. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  7. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  8. Addressing practical issues related to nursing care for international visitors to Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Niiya, Kiyoka; Okayasu, Masako

    2014-04-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  9. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    PubMed Central

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development. We propose that limits on research with SHEEFs be based as directly as possible on the generation of such features, and recommend that the research and bioethics communities lead a wide-ranging inquiry aimed at mapping out solutions to the ethical problems raised by them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20674.001

  10. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  11. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  12. Next-generation remediation management: Unique challenges and critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, G.; Foster, S.

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen years ago, an entire professional and service industry sprang into existence in the United States with the creation of the Superfund program. This national endeavor, defined by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and a host of related environmental laws intended to address the blight of hazardous wastes, tossed a potpourri of experts, professionals, scientists, technical specialists, and contractors into a bowl with industry managers, government officials, and lawyers to create a new blend of multi-disciplinary projects that sought to clean the environment by applying a combination of science and technology mixed with threats of lawsuits, fines, and terms in prison. It was this very odd mix of knowledge and expertise, combined with institutional processes and penalties, that provided, many environmental professionals with careers. They became the multi-disciplinary project and program managers of the environmental industry. The job was to employ this process in a way that creates some good for the environment and value for their clients.

  13. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  14. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  15. Critical Issues in the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the philosophy of science and of specific sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology are well-developed fields with their own books and journals, the philosophy of astronomy and cosmology have received little systematic attention. At least six categories of problems may be identified in the astronomical context: 1) the nature of reasoning, including the roles of observation, theory, simulation, and analogy, as well as the limits of reasoning, starkly evident in the anthropic principle, fine-tuning, and multiverse controversies; 2) the often problematic nature of evidence and inference, especially since the objects of astronomical interest are for the most part beyond experiment and experience;3) the influence of metaphysical preconceptions and non-scientific worldviews on astronomy, evidenced, for example in the work of Arthur S. Eddington and many other astronomers; 4) the epistemological status of astronomy and its central concepts, including the process of discovery, the problems of classification, and the pitfalls of definition (as in planets); 5) the role of technology in shaping the discipline of astronomy and our view of the universe; and 6) the mutual interactions of astronomy and cosmology with society over time. Discussion of these issues should draw heavily on the history of astronomy as well as current research, and may reveal an evolution in approaches, techniques, and goals, perhaps with policy relevance. This endeavor should also utilize and synergize approaches and results from philosophy of science and of related sciences such as physics (e.g. discussions on the nature of space and time). Philosophers, historians and scientists should join this new endeavor. A Journal of the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology (JPAC) could help focus attention on their studies.

  16. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  17. African American Students in Urban Schools: Critical Issues and Solutions for Achievement. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…

  18. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige

    2002-07-01

    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  19. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet cites resources that give an overview of Title IX legislation and offer information about compliance, litigation, and related issues. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects individuals from gender-based discrimination in education programs or activities that receive federal financial…

  20. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  1. Recreating America's Community Colleges: Critical Policy Issues Facing America's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyman, David S.; Sullivan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    During the conduct of the 2004 Community Colleges Futures Assembly, sponsored by the University of Florida, delegates to the meeting identified three critical policy issues facing America's community colleges and challenged the delegates attending the 2005 Assembly to debate these issues and make recommendations. A total of 252 higher-education…

  2. Critical Issues in Higher Education. (Opportunities for Our Profession and a Request for Your Involvement.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    A variety of issues, challenges, and criticisms of higher education has emerged in recent years, and some salient themes are briefly introduced in this paper as discussion points for conference attendees. These issues concern a return to excellence, financial demands, a decline in the traditional college age cohort, changing enrollment profiles,…

  3. Critical insights for a sustainability framework to address integrated community water services: Technical metrics and approaches.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaobo; Schoen, Mary E; Ma, Xin Cissy; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Cashdollar, Jennifer; Garland, Jay

    2015-06-15

    Planning for sustainable community water systems requires a comprehensive understanding and assessment of the integrated source-drinking-wastewater systems over their life-cycles. Although traditional life cycle assessment and similar tools (e.g. footprints and emergy) have been applied to elements of these water services (i.e. water resources, drinking water, stormwater or wastewater treatment alone), we argue for the importance of developing and combining the system-based tools and metrics in order to holistically evaluate the complete water service system based on the concept of integrated resource management. We analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of key system-based tools and metrics, and discuss future directions to identify more sustainable municipal water services. Such efforts may include the need for novel metrics that address system adaptability to future changes and infrastructure robustness. Caution is also necessary when coupling fundamentally different tools so to avoid misunderstanding and consequently misleading decision-making.

  4. Perspectives on learning through research on critical issues-based science center exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, Erminia G.

    2004-07-01

    Recently, science centers have created issues-based exhibitions as a way of communicating socioscientific subject matter to the public. Research in the last decade has investigated how critical issues-based installations promote more robust views of science, while creating effective learning environments for teaching and learning about science. The focus of this paper is to explore research conducted over a 10-year period that informs our understanding of the nature of learning through these experiences. Two specific exhibitions - Mine Games and A Question of Truth - provide the context for discussing this research. Findings suggest that critical issues-based installations challenge visitors in different ways - intellectually and emotionally. They provide experiences beyond usual phenomenon-based exhibitions and carry the potential to enhance learning by personalizing subject matter, evoking emotion, stimulating dialogue and debate, and promoting reflexivity. Critical issues-based exhibitions serve as excellent environments in which to explore the nature of learning in these nonschool settings.

  5. Microalgae biofuels: A critical review of issues, problems and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2012-01-01

    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.

  6. Theoretical Model of Critical issues in Informed Consent in HIV Vaccine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cindi A.; Dewhurst, Stephen; McMahon, James M.; Bunce, Catherine A.; Keefer, Michael C.; Alio, Amina P.

    2014-01-01

    The informed consent (IC) process for HIV vaccine trials poses unique challenges and would benefit from improvements to its historically-based structure and format. Here, we propose a theoretical framework that provides a basis for systematically evaluating and addressing these challenges. The proposed framework follows a linear pathway, starting with the precondition of voluntariness, three main variables of valid decision-making (competency, provision of information and understanding) and then the consequential outcome of either refusal or consent to participate. The existing literature reveals that culturally appropriate provision of information and resultant understanding by the vaccine trial participant are among the most significant factors influencing the authenticity of valid decision-making, though they may be overridden by other considerations, such as individual altruism, mistrust and HIV-related stigma. Community collaborations to foster bidirectional transmission of information and more culturally tailored consenting materials therefore represent a key opportunity to enhance the informed consent process. By providing a visual synopsis of the issues most critical to IC effectiveness in a categorical and relational manner, the framework provided here presents HIV vaccine researchers a tool by which the informed consent process can be more systematically evaluated and consequently improved. PMID:24865892

  7. Identification of critical substorm-expansion-phase phenomena: Problems addressable with GEM observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Understanding the physics of the substorm process is currently a crucial topic in magnetospheric physics. Fundamental to this understanding is the determination of what phenomena occur in the magnetosphere during the expansion phase, where these phenomena occur, and how they propagate during the expansion phase. Satellite observations have given researchers important point measurements of what happens; however there is potential for enhancing the use of ground-based observations to study the substorm phenomena. Such enhanced use of ground-based measurements is already taking place as part of the GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) boundary-layer campaign and is planned to continue throughout the tail/substorm campaign. This report identifies expansion-phase phenomena observed locally within the nightside magnetosphere and from the ground, believed to be of fundamental importance for understanding large-scale substorm processes. The phenomena observed in situ are related to the phenomena observed from the ground. The primary goal is to identify outstanding questions that could be addressed during the GEM tail/substorm campaign using ground-based data from GEM observing periods in coordination with available satellite observations.

  8. A critical review of ADHD diagnostic criteria: what to address in the DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Bell, Allison S

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is an impairing psychological disorder that predominantly affects children, but also adults to a lesser extent. As a result, a considerable amount of research has been completed in recent years to better understand the nature of the disorder to best treat individuals experiencing symptoms of ADHD. Especially with the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-V) on the horizon, substantial empirical work has been analyzing current ADHD diagnostic criteria and what upcoming changes should be made. Among child and adult populations, adjusting or completely eradicating the age of onset criterion is well supported. With specifically adult populations, amending symptoms to be more developmentally and environmentally appropriate also appears necessary. Even though research additionally questions the state of ADHD subtypes (with both child and adult populations) and other general diagnostic issues (model for diagnosis and level of impairment), continued research is needed to better clarify what other changes should be made in the DSM-V and beyond.

  9. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data12

    PubMed Central

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: 1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; 2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; 3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; 4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; 5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; 6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and 7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  10. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  11. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  12. Teaching About Critical Earth Issues in the 2U Semester Online Consortium (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    with other students in the course). The second half of the course (the other weekly 80 minutes) is entirely active, consisting of a number of 16-person discussion groups. These discussion groups, each led by an instructor, will not contain any lecture material, but will be entirely active through discussions, problem-solving, gallery walks, concept tests, think-pair-share, etc. All students will be able to see and hear each other, and the goal will be to address current topics within the Critical Earth Issues (the Keystone Pipeline, the latest natural disaster, battery technology for electric cars, etc.). Student assessment will also be done through these sections, including online tests. The scalability of the course comes through this combination. The asynchronous part of the course will repeat from year to year, and the host university will hire as many section leaders as needed to cover the demand for online sections. It is a new experiment, and the continuance of the program will depend upon the level of success of the initial courses offered.

  13. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  14. Education For All: Critical Issues in the Education of Children and Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Terese C., Ed.; Graf, Victoria L., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Developed as a resource for educators and parents who teach and support the more than 6.5 million students with disabilities, this book includes contributions from acknowledged special and general education professionals. Contributors address overarching issues in the field and focus on topics that are relevant to students no matter what their…

  15. From Policy to Practice: Supporting Students with Diverse Needs in Thailand: Critical Issues and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2014-01-01

    A commitment to maximizing learning outcomes for all students is an axiom of most educational systems around the world. However this goal is sometimes compromised by factors that can be complex and difficult to address. Student behavior problems are one of the major issues challenging educators in many countries including Thailand. Recently, laws…

  16. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  17. Critical Issues in Electronic Media: SUNY Series in Film History and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Simon, Ed.

    This interdisciplinary sourcebook offers critical perspectives directly related to, or arising from, the practice of electronic media art. It sketches the changing topology of culture as it enters electronic space and specifically addresses questions of art practice in that space. The volume contains 13 papers: (1) "Suck on This, Planet of…

  18. Critical issues in hematology: anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and blood product transfusions in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Drews, Reed E

    2003-12-01

    Systematic evaluations of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy are essential to identifying and managing their causes successfully. In all cases, clinicians should evaluate RBC measurements alongside WBC and platelet counts and WBC differentials. Multiple competing factors may coexist; certain factors affect RBCs independent of those that affect WBCs or platelets. Ideally, clinicians should examine the peripheral blood smear for morphologic features of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets that provide important clues to the cause of the patient's hematologic disorder. Thrombocytopenia arises from decreased platelet production, increased platelet destruction, or dilutional or distributional causes. Drug-induced thrombocytopenias present diagnostic challenges, because many medicines can cause thrombocytopenia and critically ill patients often receive multiple medications. If they suspect type II HIT, clinicians must promptly discontinue all heparin sources, including LMWHs, without awaiting laboratory confirmation, to avoid thrombotic sequelae. Because warfarin anticoagulation induces acquired protein C deficiency, thereby exacerbating the prothrombotic state of type II HIT, warfarin should be withheld until platelet counts increase to more than 100,000/microL and type II HIT is clearly resolving. The presence of a consumptive coagulopathy in the setting of thrombocytopenia supports a diagnosis of DIC, not TTP-HUS, and is demonstrated by decreasing serum fibrinogen levels, and increasing TTs, PTs, aPTTs, and fibrin degradation products. Increasing D-dimer, levels are the most specific DIC parameter and reflect fibrinolysis of cross-linked fibrin. Elevated PTs or a PTTs can result from the absence of factors or the presence of inhibitors. Clinicians should suspect factor inhibitors when the prolonged PT or aPTT does not correct or only partially corrects following an immediate assay of a 1:1 mix of patient and normal plasma. In addition to factor inhibitors

  19. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  20. Critical Issues in Silicon Shallow Junction Formation - or - Laser Annealing Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poate, J. M.

    2000-03-01

    For over thirty years, the dominant technology for introducing dopant atoms into Si MOS transistors has been ion implantation, followed by furnace or rapid thermal annealing to remove lattice damage and incorporate dopant atoms on lattice sites. As device dimensions shrink, these processing technologies face severe physical challenges. In the past five years, as junction depths approached 0.1 microns, the central challenge has been understanding and controlling the phenomena of transient enhanced diffusion of boron (B). Experiments and computational modeling that have identified the source of Si interstitials driving B diffusion and clustering will be reviewed. The future requirements for sub-20 nm junction depths pose new challenges including (i) trapping impurities at concentrations well above the solid solubility in order to achieve adequate electrical activity in such thin layers and (ii) achieving extremely steep impurity gradients at the source/gate interface. Laser annealing is an obvious processing technology that can achieve these goals. For example, some of the first measurements twenty years ago demonstrated the ability to trap dopant atoms on lattice sites far in excess of equilibrium solubilities. Here we present recent pulsed laser melting and crystallization experiments that address some of the critical physical and processing issues. Thermodynamic properties of highly B doped amorphous and crystalline Si have been determined showing that it is now practical to produce, without clustering, 3% solutions of B in Si, which are stable at 850^oC for five minutes. The possibilities for the incorporation of laser annealing in Si integrated circuit fabrication will be discussed.

  1. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  2. Playing the Game: Critical Literacy, Gender Justice and Issues of Masculinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores issues of critical literacy, gender justice and masculinity through "Mr A's" story. Mr A is head of English at "Grange College"--an all boys' school in a large urban centre in Queensland (Australia). The paper highlights how the privileging of rationality, control and "the masculine" within Mr A's…

  3. "The Valour and the Horror:" A Critical Thinking and Controversial Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    Proposes ways in which the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's documentary series, "The Valour and the Horror," can be used to develop students' critical thinking skills. Asserts that the issues of historical accuracy provide excellent opportunities to discuss historiography, the role of the media in society, and human rights during…

  4. Critical Issues in K-12 Service-Learning: Case Studies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulati-Partee, Gita, Ed.; Finger, William R., Ed.

    This compilation includes practical and transferable principles that can be used by service-learning practitioners. The 39 case studies and personal essays in the compilation are organized around critical issues in strengthening long-term institutional and community support for K-12 service-learning programs. Each article describes how the issue…

  5. The Process of Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud: Critical Issues from Studies on Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Burani, Cristina; Colombo, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    In polysyllabic languages the assignment of stress is crucial for understanding the reading process. Here we review empirical evidence, drawn mainly from studies on Italian, and discuss critical issues in understanding reading. We first discuss the lexical and sublexical mechanisms responsible for stress assignment and propose that the former is…

  6. Critical Issues Facing America's Community Colleges: A Summary of the Community Colleges Futures Assembly 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Basham, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Three focus groups consisting of 42 board of trustee members, community college presidents, senior administrators, and faculty members developed critical issues facing community colleges with respect to instructional planning and services; planning, governance, finance; and workforce development. Thereafter, the delegation of more than 200 voted…

  7. Gaining the Competitive Edge: Critical Issues in Science and Engineering Technician Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy W.; And Others

    In an effort to explore critical issues important to the development of high quality science and engineering technicians, 115 technicians, technician educators, government representatives, and employer gathered in July 1993 to provide recommendations for future activities and projects designed to improve the quality of the U.S. technician…

  8. Critical Issues in Educational Finance. V.I.E.F. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B., Ed.; Floyd, Koy M., Ed.

    This Publication consists of nine articles that were originally prepared for a 1975 conference on "Critical Issues in Educational Finance," which was cosponsored by the Virginia Institute for Educational Finance, the Institutes on Education (Madison College), and the Virginia Association of School Executives. Included are the following articles:…

  9. Critical Issues and Practices in Gifted Education: What the Research Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Critical Issues and Practices in Gifted Education: What the Research Says" is the definitive reference book for those searching for a summary and evaluation of the literature on giftedness and gifted education. The book presents almost 50 summaries of important topics in the field, providing relevant research and a guide to how the research…

  10. Emerging Trends and Critical Issues Affecting Private Fund-Raising among Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen Luke; Glass, Jr., J. Conrad

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and rank orders emerging trends and critical issues affecting private fund-raising among community colleges. Development officers representing 42 North Carolina community colleges participated in the study. The greatest number of participants identified trends related to business and industry, the need for private funds, and increased…

  11. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet identifies important research about historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and describes resources that discuss historical roles, challenges, and opportunities related to these institutions. The topics covered include: (1) history; (2) finance and support; (3) enrollment; (4) Title IX;…

  12. Using Controversial Issues to Encourage Active Participation and Critical Thinking in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a teaching/learning technique that emphasizes a dialogue approach to critical thinking and learning in the classroom, by using a point-counterpoint procedures to examine open-ended, controversial psychological issues from at least two opposing perspectives. The course teaches students to examine and evaluate information from opposing…

  13. Breaking out of the Box: New Colleges for a New Century. 1996 Critical Issues Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Patricia; Alfred, Richard

    In this book, the Consortium for Community College Development's Think Tank (Michigan) identifies four critical and enduring issues for change in community colleges: (1) attracting and recruiting students in an increasingly competitive market; (2) improving student success through innovative approaches to teaching and learning; (3) encouraging…

  14. Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Mary E.; Pace, Darra; Blue, Elfreda; Schwartz, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of autism and the lack of specific answers regarding causation have given rise to unproven educational interventions and medical treatments. Parents of a newly diagnosed child can easily fall prey to interventions that promise cures. These interventions may be harmful and, thus, pose one of the critical issues in special…

  15. An Exploratory Study on the Application of Conceptual Knowledge and Critical Thinking to Technological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Fan, Szu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how senior high school students apply their conceptual knowledge, consisting of theoretical and system knowledge, to think critically when confronted with technological issues. We employed a curriculum on the history of communication technology to teach students about basic concepts in communication technology and to cultivate…

  16. Missions, Values, and "Flying Monkeys": Critical Issues for Community Colleges Today and in 2019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Basham, Matthew J.; Campbell, Dale F.; O'Daniels, Tina M.; Malcolm, Zaria; Felton, Shawn; Lebesch, Anna; Douma, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    A focus group (N = 36) consisting of board of trustee members, community college presidents, senior administrators, administrators, and faculty members from community colleges around the United States developed the top six critical issues faced with respect to instructional planning and services; planning, governance, and finance; and workforce…

  17. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Tamara

    This Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet focuses on the history of the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) and current FIPSE projects and priorities. As background, the bibliography includes an account of the early history of FIPSE and a description of its current programs. The bibliography lists 6 Internet resources…

  18. Preface to the Special Issue on High-Risk, Critical-Skills Training Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes the six articles included in this special issue, which discuss evaluation of human performance in critical skills occupations; strategic planning for safety in high-risk occupations; performance and training effectiveness decisions; performance indicators for training evaluation; evaluation of a nuclear training program; and a model for…

  19. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P.…

  20. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  1. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  2. Critical issues for high-brightness heavy-ion beams- prioritized

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Cohen, R; Davidson, R; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Grisham, L; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Kaganovich, I; Covo, M K; Kwan, J W; Lee, E; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Qin, H; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Vay, J L; Yu, S S

    2007-02-28

    This study group was initiated to consider whether there were any ''show-stopper'' issues with accelerators for heavy-ion warm-dense matter (WDM) and heavy-ion inertial fusion energy (HIF), and to prioritize them. Showstopper issues would appear as limits to beam current; that is, the beam would be well-behaved below the current limit, and significantly degraded in current or emittance if the current limit were exceeded at some region of an accelerator. We identified 14 issues: 1-6 could be addressed in the near term, 7-10 are potentially attractive solutions to performance and cost issues but are not yet fully characterized, 11-12 involve multibeam effects that cannot be more than partially studied in near-term facilities, and 13-14 involve new issues that are present in some novel driver concepts. Comparing the issues with the new experimental, simulation, and theoretical tools that we have developed, it is apparent that our new capabilities provide an opportunity to re-examine and significantly increase our understanding of the number one issue--halo growth and mitigation.

  3. AsthmaCritic: issues in designing a noninquisitive critiquing system for daily practice.

    PubMed

    Kuilboer, Manon M; van Wijk, Marc A M; Mosseveld, Mees; van der Lei, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The noninquisitive critiquing system, AsthmaCritic, uses routinely recorded electronic patient data to select and analyze records of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The system generates critiquing comments and adds these comments to the patient record. The system was developed by using and expanding an existing generic critiquing system. After a brief overview of the system, this report focuses on the authors' design choices in light of existing literature and the issues that underlie these design choices. Currently, AsthmaCritic is used by primary care physicians and is undergoing clinical evaluation.

  4. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix F: Critical technology items/issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Critical technology items and issues are defined in which there is a need for developmental research in order to assure technical and economic success for the state of the art of coal gasification in the United States. Technology development needs for the main processing units and the supporting units are discussed. While development needs are shown for a large number of systems, the most critical areas are associated with the gasifier itself and those systems which either feed the gasifier or directly receive products form the gasifier.

  5. Addressing Impairment and Its Relationship to Professional Boundary Issues: A Response to Forrest, Elman, Gizara, and Vacha-Haase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the Forrest et al article on counselor trainee impairment. Expands on several issues discussed in the article including evaluation and accreditation issues. Discusses professional boundaries as having relevance to anticipating and/or minimizing impairment. (Author/MKA)

  6. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  7. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  8. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    1999-01-31

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from October 1, 1998 through January 31, 1999, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  9. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ann B. Beauchesne

    1998-09-30

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from June 1, 1998 through September 30, 1998, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3

  10. What the eye does not see: a critical interpretive synthesis of European Union policies addressing sexual violence in vulnerable migrants.

    PubMed

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders.

  11. How Contexts and Issues Influence the Use of Policy-Relevant Research Syntheses: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Abelson, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Context Evidence briefs have emerged as a promising approach to synthesizing the best available research evidence for health system policymakers and stakeholders. An evidence brief may draw on systematic reviews and many other types of policy-relevant information, including local data and studies, to describe a problem, options for addressing it, and key implementation considerations. We conducted a systematic review to examine the ways in which context- and issue-related factors influence the perceived usefulness of evidence briefs among their intended users. Methods We used a critical interpretive synthesis approach to review both empirical and nonempirical literature and to develop a model that explains how context and issues influence policymakers’ and stakeholders’ views of the utility of evidence briefs prepared for priority policy issues. We used a “compass” question to create a detailed search strategy and conducted electronic searches in CINAHL, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, IPSA, MEDLINE, OAIster (gray literature), ProQuest A&I Theses, ProQuest (Sociological Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, PAIS, Political Science), PsychInfo, Web of Science, and WilsonWeb (Social Science Abstracts). Finally, we used a grounded and interpretive analytic approach to synthesize the results. Findings Of the 4,461 papers retrieved, 3,908 were excluded and 553 were assessed for “relevance,” with 137 included in the initial sample of papers to be analyzed and an additional 23 purposively sampled to fill conceptual gaps. Several themes emerged: (1) many established types of “evidence” are viewed as useful content in an evidence brief, along with several promising formatting features; (2) contextual factors, particularly the institutions, interests, and values of a given context, can influence views of evidence briefs; (3) whether an issue is polarizing and whether

  12. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  13. Critical Issues in Curriculum. Eighty-Seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Laurel N., Ed.

    This book comprises part I of the eighty-seventh annual yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Focusing on the theme of critical issues in curriculum, this volume consists of 12 articles by different authors. The first four articles focus on issues of professionalism: "Curriculum Issues in Historical Perspective" by…

  14. Musculoskeletal Workforce Needs: Are Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners the Solution? AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Day, Charles S; Boden, Scott D; Knott, Patrick T; O'Rourke, Nancy C; Yang, Brian W

    2016-06-01

    Growth estimates and demographic shifts of the population of the United States foreshadow a future heightened demand for musculoskeletal care. Although many articles have discussed this growing demand on the musculoskeletal workforce, few address the inevitable need for more musculoskeletal care providers. As we are unable to increase the number of orthopaedic surgeons because of restrictions on graduate medical education slots, physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) represent one potential solution to the impending musculoskeletal care supply shortage. This American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) symposium report investigates models for advanced practice provider integration, considers key issues affecting PAs and NPs, and proposes guidelines to help to assess the logistical and educational possibilities of further incorporating NPs and PAs into the orthopaedic workforce in order to address future musculoskeletal care needs.

  15. Toward CO-based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues#

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E.; Wang, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacological studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO releasing molecules (CO-RMs). The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  16. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  17. Characterization of the Cellular Output of a Point-of-Care Device and the Implications for Addressing Critical Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Woodell-May, Jennifer E; Tan, Matthew L; King, William J; Swift, Matthew J; Welch, Zachary R; Murphy, Michael P; McKale, James M

    2015-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal disease with high morbidity and healthcare costs due to limb loss. There are no effective medical therapies for patients with CLI to prevent amputation. Cell-based therapies are currently being investigated to address this unmet clinical need and have shown promising preliminary results. The purpose of this study was to characterize the output of a point-of-care cell separator (MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit), currently under investigation for the treatment of CLI, and compare its output with Ficoll-based separation. The outputs of the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit and Ficoll separation were characterized using an automated hematology analyzer, colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, and tubulogenesis assays. Hematology analysis indicated that the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit concentrated the total nucleated cells, mononuclear cells, and granulocytes compared with baseline bone marrow aspirate. Cells collected were positive for VEGFR-2, CD3, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD56, CD105, CD117, CD133, and Stro-1 antigen. CFU assays demonstrated that the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit output a significantly greater number of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells compared with cells output by Ficoll separation. There was no significant difference in the number of endothelial progenitor cells output by the two separation techniques. Isolated cells from both techniques formed interconnected nodes and microtubules in a three-dimensional cell culture assay. This information, along with data currently being collected in large-scale clinical trials, will help instruct how different cellular fractions may affect the outcomes for CLI patients.

  18. Issues deserve attention in encapsulating probiotics: Critical review of existing literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Qi; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Gong, Joshua

    2017-04-13

    Probiotic bacteria are being increasingly added to food for developing products with health-promoting properties. However, the efficacy of probiotics in commercial products is often questioned due to the loss of their viability during shelf storage and in human gastrointestinal tracts. Encapsulation of probiotics has been expected to provide protection to probiotics, but not many commercial products contain encapsulated and viable probiotic cells owing to various reasons. To promote the development and application of encapsulation technologies, this paper has critically reviewed previous publications with a focus on the areas where studies have fallen short, including insufficient consideration of structural effects of encapsulating material, general defects in encapsulating methods and issues in evaluation methodologies and risk assessments for application. Corresponding key issues that require further studies are highlighted. Some emerging trends in the field, such as current treads in encapsulating material and recently advanced encapsulation techniques, have also been discussed.

  19. Raising critical issues in the analysis of gender and science in children's literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-12-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science, and childhood in literature for children; (b) the need to consider socio/historical/cultural contexts in analytical and theoretical frameworks; and (c) the importance of fostering critical literacy perspectives in pre- and in-service science teachers and the children whom they teach.

  20. Conference in Rhetorical Criticism: Address of the Conference and Commended Papers (2nd, Hayward, Calif., May 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Harold, Ed.; And Others

    At the second annual Cal-State Hayward Conference in Rhetorical Criticism, upper division and graduate students from 17 colleges and universities presented papers on the theory, history, and criticism of rhetoric. Panels of faculty members from the same colleges and universities, serving as editor-critics, judged the six papers in this volume as…

  1. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  2. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  3. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  4. Race and Racism: The Efforts of Counseling Psychology to Understand and Address the Issues Associated With These Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on race and racism with the underlying hope and expectation that in the near future the terms race and racism will be more accurately understood and, when necessary, more appropriately and selectively addressed by the field of counseling psychology. With respect to the term racism, it is hoped that the efforts of counseling…

  5. Poetry and Prose as Pedagogical Tools for Addressing Difficult Knowledges: Translocational Positionality and Issues of Collective Political Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on the possibilities that poetry and prose offer as pedagogical tools that can both accommodate and address difficult and painful knowledges. The paper presents and analyses poems and prose written by students at a non-traditional secondary school for disadvantaged girls (many of whom identify as Indigenous Australian).…

  6. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  7. Face Values: The Use of Sensitive Error Correction to Address Adolescents' "Face" Issues in the Modern Languages Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel; Templeton, Brian; Valdera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety about "performing" in a foreign language in front of classmates may inhibit learners' contributions in the modern languages class through fear of embarrassment over possible error production. The issue of "face", perceived social standing in the eyes of others, presents a sensitive matter for young adolescents…

  8. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  11. [Chemical risk assessment in the construction industry: principles and critical issues].

    PubMed

    Manno, M

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment (RA) represents the first step to ensure the protection of the workers' health in all work sectors, production and services included. For this reason RA has become a legal duty for the occupational physician in his/her professional activity. The basic concepts of RA have been developed as a formal procedure for the management of chemical risks but they are currently applied to protect human health against all types of occupational and environmental risk factors. In the construction industry, in particular, chemical risk assessment is specially difficult due to the complexity of the working condition, and the variability and multiplicity of exposure. The critical aspects of RA in the construction industry will be discussed here, in the attempt to highlight how the occupational physician, making use of traditional and new tools, including biological monitoring, can address and partly overcome them.

  12. Center for Strategic Leadership Issue Paper, August 2007, Volume 8-07. Military Education Workshop Addresses Threats to Stability and Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    support of partner countries to address such destabilizing issues as competition for scare resources, forced migration, food security, changing weather...upcoming National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), the National Inteligence Council (NIC) has reached out to a broad group of U.S. government organizations and...resource competition and conflict; water and food security; health and disease, and the stability of governments. The Army should be prepared to adapt

  13. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Critical issues with clinical research in children: The example of premature infants

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, Stephen E. . E-mail: weltys@pediatrics.ohio-state.edu

    2005-09-01

    Research in pediatrics has led to marked improvements in survival in pediatric patients. In no other age group have these improvements been more dramatic than in neonatology, where antenatal steroid administration to mothers and postnatal utilization of surfactant have led to marked improvements in survival so that infants born at 24 weeks gestation now have a greater than 50% chance of survival. Unfortunately, more than 50% of these patients develop significant complications of prematurity with potential long-term impact on the health of these infants. Therefore, additional research must be done in these patients to prevent these complications or reduce the impact of these complications. There are many practical and some ethical issues that could impede research in the area. Interventional studies have succeeded because literally decades of research defined unequivocally the pathophysiology of diseases such as surfactant deficiency in RDS. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology leading to the complications of prematurity has been extrapolated from old concepts without verification as the population has become smaller and more premature than the previous era. Thus, an extremely important practical issue in pediatric research is whether to design interventions to address the extrapolated pathophysiology risking misinterpretations of the results of such studies. Or should our efforts be focused on defining endpoints associated with the development of diseases and complications which may define pathophysiology more completely but delay the design of interventions to improve the outcomes of patients. Another crucial practical issue in pediatric research is how to power studies so that interventions can be studied adequately. In the US, large neonatal networks have been formed so that large databases can be created and large multi-center trials can be performed. The practical issues associated with these network studies is the center to center variability in patient care

  16. Critical issues with clinical research in children: the example of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Welty, Stephen E

    2005-09-01

    Research in pediatrics has led to marked improvements in survival in pediatric patients. In no other age group have these improvements been more dramatic than in neonatology, where antenatal steroid administration to mothers and postnatal utilization of surfactant have led to marked improvements in survival so that infants born at 24 weeks gestation now have a greater than 50% chance of survival. Unfortunately, more than 50% of these patients develop significant complications of prematurity with potential long-term impact on the health of these infants. Therefore, additional research must be done in these patients to prevent these complications or reduce the impact of these complications. There are many practical and some ethical issues that could impede research in the area. Interventional studies have succeeded because literally decades of research defined unequivocally the pathophysiology of diseases such as surfactant deficiency in RDS. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology leading to the complications of prematurity has been extrapolated from old concepts without verification as the population has become smaller and more premature than the previous era. Thus, an extremely important practical issue in pediatric research is whether to design interventions to address the extrapolated pathophysiology risking misinterpretations of the results of such studies. Or should our efforts be focused on defining endpoints associated with the development of diseases and complications which may define pathophysiology more completely but delay the design of interventions to improve the outcomes of patients. Another crucial practical issue in pediatric research is how to power studies so that interventions can be studied adequately. In the US, large neonatal networks have been formed so that large databases can be created and large multi-center trials can be performed. The practical issues associated with these network studies is the center to center variability in patient care

  17. Critical Issues in Sensor Science To Aid Food and Water Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Farahi, R. H.; Passian, A.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  18. Critical issues in the decision to retire: a comparison of retired and retirement-age faculty.

    PubMed

    Cook, Linda Sue; Williamson, Marvel; Salmeron, Lois; Burton, Denise; Goad, Dan M

    2011-12-01

    The nursing faculty workforce is on the verge of a crisis because the number of full-time faculty expected to retire in the next 10 years is predicted to escalate dramatically. To propose evidence-based strategies to retain qualified nursing faculty beyond retirement age, this study built on previous qualitative research. An initial phenomenological study of retirement-age faculty identified 15 critical issues in the decision to remain employed in academia. To determine the degree to which these factors are shared by retired and still-employed faculty and the relative importance of each of these factors, a quasi-experimental comparative study was conducted. A Likert scale questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample drawn from a national population using the snowball sampling technique. ANOVA established the difference between retired and still-working faculty; discriminant analysis identified eight predictor variables for faculty decisions to remain in academia.

  19. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

    2000-03-31

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.

  20. The critical satellite technical issues of future pervasive broadband low-cost communication networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The critical technical issues of signal waveform design, projected spacecraft technology, satellite launch options, and satellite cost are discussed for future pervasive broadband communication networks. With DPCM video signal encoding, 32 Mb/s user-to-user data rate per channel, 10% overhead, two orthogonal polarizations, and crosstalk loss limited to 1 dB, TFM permits about 75 channels/GHz of frequency allocation. The BOM (beginning of mission) weight and power of a baseline 400-channel multibeam satellite is about 1800 kg and 5000 W. Each 35 Mb/s channel can support 1 to 10 video channels. The weight and power estimates assume hardened digital logic, composite materials for a multibeam antenna structure, high-efficiency solar cells, batteries, and amplifiers. Based on a cost model for large communication satellites, the total space segment cost of two active satellites and one spare would be about $485 M.

  1. [Some critical issues in the diagnosis and treatment of complex anal fistula].

    PubMed

    Ren, Donglin; Zhang, Heng

    2015-12-01

    In the past thirty years, colorectal surgeons have made great progress regarding the diagnosis and treatment of complex anal fistula, including the improvement of the accuracy of the preoperative evaluation of complex anal fistula, the improvement and standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease, the application of various "sphincter-sparing" procedures. However, complex anal fistula continues to prove a formidable challenge with a high recurrence rate and high incontinence rate. The variety of the surgical treatment also means that there is still no established "golden standard" with respect to that of the complex anal fistula. According to recent relevant literatures and personal experience, some critical issues in the diagnosis and treatment of complex anal fistula, including the approach to the accurate diagnosis, the value and significance of seton technique, the individual algorithm between the minimal invasive and extensive surgical treatments, the value of biopsy, are discussed in this article.

  2. Critical issues in the use of metals and alloys in sulphur-containing aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Sulphur-containing aqueous fluids are amongst the most corrosive environments experienced in industrial and natural systems. The high corrosivity is due principally to the wide range of oxidation states that sulphur may exist in within the thermodynamic stability domain of water, as well as to the high lability of many sulphur species, such as the polythionic acids and polysulfides. Additionally, sulphur, along with arsenic, antimony, and mercury, effectively promotes the entry of hydrogen into metal and alloy matrices, thereby leading to hydrogen damage and hydrogen embrittlement. In this paper, the chemistry of sulphur species in aqueous solutions and of the various iron sulphides is reviewed with emphasis on illustrating the diverse nature of metal/sulphur interactions. Finally, we identify a number of critical issues that need to be resolved to greatly improve our understanding of the chemistry of sulphur-containing systems and to improve our ability to predict the form and extent of corrosion in geochemical and geoenergy systems.

  3. Critical issues in the use of metals and alloys in sulphur-containing aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    Sulphur-containing aqueous fluids are amongst the most corrosive environments experienced in industrial and natural systems. The high corrosivity is due principally to the wide range of oxidation states that sulphur may exist in within the thermodynamic stability domain of water, as well as to the high lability of many sulphur species, such as the polythionic acids and polysulfides. Additionally, sulphur, along with arsenic, antimony, and mercury, effectively promotes the entry of hydrogen into metal and alloy matrices, thereby leading to hydrogen damage and hydrogen embrittlement. In this paper, the chemistry of sulphur species in aqueous solutions and of the various iron sulphides is reviewed with emphasis on illustrating the diverse nature of metal/sulphur interactions. Finally, we identify a number of critical issues that need to be resolved to greatly improve our understanding of the chemistry of sulphur-containing systems and to improve our ability to predict the form and extent of corrosion in geochemical and geoenergy systems.

  4. Critical issues in sensor science to aid food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Farahi, R H; Passian, A; Tetard, L; Thundat, T

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  5. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  6. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  7. Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seokho H; Berry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

  8. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA). Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis. PMID:28335464

  9. Conference in Rhetorical Criticism. Address of the Annual Conference and Commended Papers (17th, Hayward, California, May 7, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianniello, Raphaella A., Ed.

    The four papers in this compilation were drawn from a conference designed to encourage scholars to continue the rhetorical tradition. The first paper, by Robert S. Cathcart, was the opening address of the conference and discusses the "technologization" of rhetoric. Specifically, the paper discusses the application of rhetorical analysis…

  10. Conference in Rhetorical Criticism. Address of the Annual Conference and Commended Papers (15th, Hayward, California, May 9, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianniello, Raphaella, Ed.; Kemp, Alice Manion, Ed.

    The two papers presented in this compilation were drawn from a conference designed to encourage scholars to continue the rhetorical tradition. The first paper, presented by Dominic A. LaRusso, was the opening address of the conference and discusses the rhetorical tradition of the Renaissance. The second paper, by Phillip Marshall, was the paper…

  11. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  12. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  13. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis: the certification of NIST standard reference material 676a.

    PubMed

    Cline, James P; Von Dreele, Robert B; Winburn, Ryan; Stephens, Peter W; Filliben, James J

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% ± 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  14. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  15. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Executive Summary. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This applied research project, supported by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, sought to explore the prevalence, consequences, potential contributing factors and possible responses to chronic absence in grades K-3. To deepen understanding of the issue, this project supported new analysis of national and local data on student attendance patterns, a…

  16. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  17. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  18. Conference in Rhetorical Criticism. Address of the Annual Conference and Commended Papers (16th, Hayward, California, April 24, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Alice Manion, Ed.

    The two papers in this compilation were drawn from a conference designed to encourage scholars to continue the rhetorical tradition. The first paper, delivered by Todd Sorenson and Carrie Stopek, was the paper most highly commended by a panel of critics at the conference. The paper uses fantasy theme analysis, specifically the three fantasy theme…

  19. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  20. Addressing end of life care issues in a tertiary treatment centre: lessons learned from surveying parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Midson, Rosie; Carter, Bernie

    2010-03-01

    Much of the work in children's hospitals is rightly focused on treatments aimed towards cure but this means that death is often seen as a failure and, as such, it may not be discussed or acknowledged as a possibility until very late in a child's stay in hospital. However, this reluctance can deny the child and their family the opportunity to be informed, prepare and make choices. A survey of the care received by parents whose child had died in a children's tertiary treatment centre led to a greater understanding of the parents' experiences and the ways in which care could be enhanced. Parents talked of the way in which the geography of the hospital could be disruptive and dislocating and yet they often had no place to be alone or in private. Communication was identified as a core issue with many parents being positive about the quality and timing of communication. However, other parents expressed a preference for more preparation about the possibility that their child might die. Some parents had positive experiences of follow-up visits after their child's death, whilst others remained frustrated and some felt this visit had made them re-live the experiences. The importance of kind, supportive and consistent care was clearly evidenced by the parents when they spoke about their feelings and emotions. The findings helped to develop and implement an End of Life Care Pathway and a pathway tool which aimed to enhance parents' experiences and to improve care. A further survey was triggered by the concern that the pathway was not being fully utilized and it became apparent that, despite the tool, staff were still reluctant to provide anticipatory guidance, even though many practical aspects of care scored well. The need for good communication that prepares parents for the eventuality that their child might or will die is one of the clearest lessons from the second survey. This is important as anticipatory guidance opens up parents - and children's - choices, and their

  1. Some critical issues and concerns related to research advances on toxicology of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues and concerns on research advances on the toxicology of chemical mixtures. Emphases will be selectively given to the following questions and answers: Can mechanistic studies be conducted on chemical mixtures? The fact that any studies, including mechanistic studies, of single chemicals are really the study of the parent chemical plus its metabolites underscores the relevance of mechanistic studies on chemical mixtures. Can predictions be made on the health effects of chemical mixtures? Some successes are already evident in the literature on simpler chemical mixtures. For more complex mixtures, it is possible and we propose an approach here. What can we learn from other disciplines (the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration)? Two aspects, the knowledge and methodologies available in clinical pharmacology and the latest advances in structure-oriented lumping in chemical engineering, are discussed in detail. Unrepeatable results: The possibility of magnification of biologic variability because of low-level exposures to chemical mixtures is suggested with special reference to some known examples, including the controversial study on synergistic interactions of endocrine disruptors. Is the driving force for scientific investigations on chemical mixtures the legislative and regulatory atmosphere? Two laws with chemical mixtures specifically in the language are quoted and discussed. Their implications regarding research funding and activities are described. What are the pitfalls of applying for research funding on investigating chemical mixtures? The dilemma at least one investigator faces in pursuing research funding is elaborated. The questions and issues listed above are not all inclusive, but they represent some of the aspects that need to be brought into the open in the scientific community for discussion and/or debate. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to provide some momentum for the beginning of a fruitful

  2. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  3. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  4. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  5. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Urbani, Francesca; Proietti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM-) based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT) combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma. PMID:24195078

  6. Using the PACE EH model to mobilize communities to address local environmental health issues--a case study in Island County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Higman, Keith; Servatius, Celine; Webber, Whitney L; McDonald, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The Island County Environmental Health Initiative (ICEHI) is a demonstration project in the use of the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE EH) to build capacity in the 10 essential services of environmental health. The PACE EH methodology systematically applies the 10 essential services of environmental health through the completion of 13 tasks derived from a community-based environmental health assessment process. The ICEHI has successfully engaged community members, identified environmental health issues important to the community, and led to the implementation of action plans aimed at reducing environmental health risks through use of community resources. This paper describes the methodology utilized by the ICEHI to address locally important environmental health issues so that other local and state environmental health agencies may replicate the process in their communities.

  7. Strategies and recommendations for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Forest service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, J.A.; Starr, G.L.; Quigley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute held three types of meetings to obtain public and scientific input into strategies for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Seven strategies are proposed: (2) plan and implement management on a landscape level, (2) enhance training on natural resources, (3) facilitate public involvement in planning and decision making, (4) develop an integrated landscape-level database, (5) develop an integrated monitoring system, (6) assess economic and social effects and assist with adaptation to change, and (7) identify barriers to improving the protesting forest health and recommend changes.

  8. Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Strategies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Oct 2009 Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de...les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Special Course under...HFM-180 Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées (RTO-EN-HFM-180) Synthèse L’objectif des

  9. Addressing Mental Health Disparities through Clinical Competence Not Just Cultural Competence: The Need for Assessment of Sociocultural Issues in the Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. PMID:18778881

  10. Quality of life in children: A critical examination of concepts, approaches, issues, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Jan L; Koot, Hans M

    2016-04-01

    The quality of children's life is important both as an investment in the future of our society and because children constitute an important group of themselves and deserve to experience well-being presently. Quality of life (QOL) has been conceptualized and studied in children for several decades, but with disparate approaches that have rarely been discussed jointly with application to children in general. Here we describe and critically examine the three main approaches to children's QOL: health-related QOL (HRQOL), social indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB). Although this is not a review of instruments per se, we illustrate these approaches by describing their most prominent measures. Issues and opportunities in research on children's QOL are then discussed related to conceptual clarity, content specification, range of experience, subjective and objective perspectives, development in childhood, reporting source, and malleability of QOL. Finally, directions for advancing children's QOL are considered. We highlight the benefits of focusing on social indicators and SWB, rather than HRQOL, when representing this concept for children in general, the need for applying more sophisticated research strategies, and using QOL as a universal indicator of success whenever we intend to advance the well-being of children through intervention, programs, and policy.

  11. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

  12. Critical issues and needs in management of primary immunodeficiency diseases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Condino-Neto, A; Franco, J L; Trujillo-Vargas, C; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Leiva, L E; Rodriguez-Quiroz, F; King, A; Lagos, M; Oleastro, M; Bezrodnik, L; Grumach, A S; Costa-Carvalho, B T; Sorensen, R U

    2011-01-01

    Experts from six Latin American countries met to discuss critical issues and needs in the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). The diagnosis of PIDD is generally made following referral to an immunology centre located in a major city, but many paediatricians and general practitioners are not sufficiently trained to suspect PIDD in the first place. Access to laboratory testing is generally limited, and only some screening tests are typically covered by government health programmes. Specialised diagnostic tests are generally not reimbursed. Access to treatment varies by country reflecting differences in healthcare systems and reimbursement policies. An online PIDD Registry Programme for Latin America has been available since 2009, which will provide information about PIDD epidemiology in the region. Additional collaboration across countries appears feasible in at least two areas: a laboratory network to facilitate the diagnosis of PIDD, and educational programmes to improve PIDD awareness. In total, these collaborations should make it possible to advance the diagnosis and management of PIDD in Latin America.

  13. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    PubMed

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects.

  14. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Critical Issue for Clinicians and Forensic Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Margherita; Pascale, Natascha; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI. The exact mechanisms of IRI are not fully known. Molecular, cellular, and tissue alterations such as cell death, inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and oxidative stress are considered to be of paramount importance in IRI. However, comprehension of the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remains a challenge for clinicians. Furthermore, myocardial IRI is a critical issue also for forensic pathologists since sudden death may occur despite timely reperfusion following AMI, that is one of the most frequently litigated areas of cardiology practice. In this paper we explore the literature regarding the pathophysiology of myocardial IRI, focusing on the possible role of the calpain system, oxidative-nitrosative stress, and matrix metalloproteinases and aiming to foster knowledge of IRI pathophysiology also in terms of medicolegal understanding of sudden deaths following AMI. PMID:28286377

  15. A Multi-scale Modeling System: Developments, Applications and Critical Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiundar; Atlas, Robert; Randall, David; Lin, Xin; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Li, Jui-Lin; Waliser, Duane E.; Hou, Arthur; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Lau, William; Simpson, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling framework (MMF), which replaces the conventional cloud parameterizations with a cloud-resolving model (CRM) in each grid column of a GCM, constitutes a new and promising approach. The MMF can provide for global coverage and two-way interactions between the CRMs and their parent GCM. The GCM allows global coverage and the CRM allows explicit simulation of cloud processes and their interactions with radiation and surface processes. A new MMF has been developed that is based the Goddard finite volume GCM (fvGCM) and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. This Goddard MMF produces many features that are similar to another MMF that was developed at Colorado State University (CSU), such as an improved .surface precipitation pattern, better cloudiness, improved diurnal variability over both oceans and continents, and a stronger, propagating Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) compared to their parent GCMs using conventional cloud parameterizations. Both MMFs also produce a precipitation bias in the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere summer. However, there are also notable differences between two MMFs. For example, the CSU MMF simulates less rainfall over land than its parent GCM. This is why the CSU MMF simulated less overall global rainfall than its parent GCM. The Goddard MMF overestimates global rainfall because of its oceanic component. Some critical issues associated with the Goddard MMF are presented in this paper.

  16. Some notes on critical appraisal of prevalence studies: Comment on: "The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence".

    PubMed

    Harder, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  17. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    when an issue of water contamination becomes an issue of environmental injustice? How do we measure the impacts of environmental harm today on future generations? How do we measure the distribution of multiple or cumulative impacts on poorer groups? How do we quantify the responsibility of richer citizens in the world for the environmental harms distributed unequally to the poorer citizens? The papers in this focus issue do not answer all these questions, but we hope that this theme will recur in Environmental Research Letters and that more environmental scientists will begin to frame their analyses around the critical issues of distributions of environmental harms and benefits. References [1] United Nations Environment Programme 2007 Global Environmental Outlook 2007 (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme) [2] UNICEF 2005 The State of the World's Children 2005 (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [3] World Resources Institute 2002 Wastes Produced from Industrialised Countries available from www.wri.org [4] Stephens C and Stair P 2007 Charting a new course for urban public health State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 134 48 [5] Lee K N 2007 An urbanizing world State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 3 22 [6] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2003 Environmental Justice available from www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaljustice/ [7] Stephens C, Bullock S and Scott A 2001 Environmental justice: rights and mean to a healthy environment for all Special Briefing Paper Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Global Environmental Change Programme (Brighton: ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme, University of Sussex) p 3 available from www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/environmental_justice.pdf [8] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Access to Information 1999 Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

  18. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  19. Current Issues: Critical Policy Choices Facing the Nation and the World. 2000 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  20. Current Issues: Critical Policy Choices Facing the Nation and the World. 1999 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  1. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  2. GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI): Undergraduate curricular modules that feature geodetic data applied to critical social topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, B. J.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Walker, B.; Miller, M. S.; Charlevoix, D.

    2014-12-01

    The GETSI project is a three-year NSF funded project to develop and disseminate teaching and learning materials that feature geodesy data applied to critical societal issues such as climate change, water resource management, and natural hazards (http://serc.carleton.edu/getsi). GETSI was born out of requests from geoscience faculty for more resources with which to educate future citizens and future geoscience professionals on the power and breadth of geodetic methods to address societally relevant topics. Development of the first two modules started at a February 2014 workshop and initial classroom testing begins in fall 2014. The Year 1 introductory module "Changing Ice and Sea Level" includes geodetic data such as gravity, satellite altimetry, and GPS time series. The majors-level Year 1 module is "Imaging Active Tectonics" and it has students analyzing InSAR and LiDAR data to assess infrastructure vulnerability to demonstratively active faults. Additional resources such as animations and interactive data tools are also being developed. The full modules will take about two weeks of class time; module design will permit portions of the material to be used as individual projects or assignments of shorter duration. Ultimately a total of four modules will be created and disseminated, two each at the introductory and majors-levels. GETSI is working in tight partnership with the Science Education Resource Center's (SERC) InTeGrate project on the module development, assessment, and dissemination to ensure compatibility with the growing number of resources for geoscience education. This will allow for an optimized module development process based on successful practices defined by these earlier efforts.

  3. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  4. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  5. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  6. EUV source power and lifetime: the most critical issues for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Birner, Henry; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Bolshukhin, Denis; Brudermann, Jesko; Chinh, Tran Duc; Flohrer, Frank; Goetze, Sven; Hergenhan, Guido; Kloepfel, Diethard; Korobotchko, Vladimir; Mader, Bjorn; Mueller, Rainer; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Ziener, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturers are expecting to use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for high volume manufacturing of DRAMs and ICs starting by the end of this decade. Among all the technologies and modules which have to be developed EUV sources at 13.5 nm are considered to be the most critical issue. Specifically the required output power of 115 W at the entrance of the illuminator system in combination with the required lifetimes of source components and collector optics make the source technology critical for EUV lithography. The present paper gives an update of the development status of EUV light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results on both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are given. The LPP EUV sources use xenon-jet target systems and pulsed lasers with 500 W average power at up to 10 kHz developed at XTREME technologies. The maximum conversion efficiency from laser power into EUV in-band power is 1.0 % into 2p solid angle. 2.0 W EUV radiation is generated at 13.5 nm in 2p sr solid angle. The small source volume of < 0.3 mm diameter will allow large collection angles of 5 sr. The intermediate focus power is estimated to 1 W. Collector mirror lifetime tests showed 5 million pulses lifetime without debris mitigation. With debris mitigation in place lifetimes of more than 1 billion pulses are estimated. For the next generation of higher power EUV LPP sources a laser driver has been tested at 1.3 kW average laser power. This will lead to 5 W EUV power in intermediate focus. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding discharge pre-ionization. Prototype commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35W in 2p sr were already delivered for integration into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which results in an optics lifetime

  7. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  8. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  9. Pathways to Critical Consciousness: A First-Year Teacher's Engagement with Issues of Race and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the ways in which a White first-year teacher performs critical racial consciousness in the context of her urban fifth-grade classroom. The process of critical racial consciousness engagement is complex as well as understudied outside of preservice courses. The findings of this study fall into three…

  10. A Framework for Guiding Future Citizens to Think Critically about Nature of Science and Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a framework for guiding future citizens to think critically about nature of science (NOS) and "with" NOS as they engage in socioscientific decision making. The framework, referred to as the critical thinking--nature of science (CT-NOS) framework, explicates and targets both NOS as a learning objective and NOS…

  11. Eliciting Students' Understanding of a Local Socioscientific Issue through the Use of Critical Response Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, Engin; Andzenge, Senenge T.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a critical response pedagogy (CRP), an arts-based critical technique to facilitate meaningful dialogue in focus group settings, to secondary school science education students to engage them in discussion about sediment and chemical load in their local river basin community. Using a holistic single case design, twenty-two 11th…

  12. Debating the Issues: A Tool for Augmenting Critical Thinking Skills of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Abhijit; Macchiette, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The case for enhancing critical thinking as an integral part of the marketing curriculum through the debate process is presented. Linkages between critical thinking, debate, and the marketing curricula are examined in the context of desired student outcomes and learning skills. The role of the professor in planning and facilitating the debate is…

  13. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  14. Actuarial risk assessment models: a review of critical issues related to violence and sex-offender recidivism assessments.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, S; Kirkish, P; Garrick, T; Weinberger, L E; Phenix, A

    2000-01-01

    Risk assessment in the area of identification of violence has been dichotomized by several prominent researchers as the "clinical approach" versus the "actuarial method". The proponents of the actuarial approach argue for actuarially derived decisions to replace existing clinical practice. The actuarial method requires no clinical input, just a translation of the relevant material from the records to calculate the risk score. A risk appraisal approach based upon a sole actuarial method raises several questions: those of public safety, peer-accepted standards of practice, liability issues, and concordance with evidence-based medicine practice. We conclude that the sole actuarial approach fails to satisfy these critical issues.

  15. Constructivism, the psychology of learning, and the nature of mathematics: Some critical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Paul

    1993-03-01

    Constructivism is one of the central philosophies of research in the psychology of mathematics education. However, there is a danger in the ambiguous and at times uncritical references to it. This paper critically reviews the constructivism of Piaget and Glasersfeld, and attempts to distinguish some of the the psychological, educational and epistemological consequences of their theories, including their implications for the philosophy of mathematics. Finally, the notion of ‘cognizing subject’ and its relation to the social context is examined critically.

  16. Critical thinking, nurse education and universities: some thoughts on current issues and implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Morrall, Peter; Goodman, Benny

    2013-09-01

    When in the latter part of the 20th century nurse 'training' in the UK left the old schools of nursing (based within the health delivery system) and entered universities, the promise was not just a change of focus from training to education but an embracement of 'higher' education. Specifically, nurses were to be exposed to the demands of thinking rather than just doing - and critical thinking at that. However, despite a history of critical perspectives informing nursing theory, that promise may be turning sour. The insidious saturation of the university system in bureaucracy and managerialism has, we argue, undermined critical thinking. A major funding restructuring of higher education in the UK, coinciding with public concern about the state of nursing practice, is undermining further the viability of critical thinking in nursing and potentially the acceptability of university education for nurses. Nevertheless, while critical thinking in universities has decayed, there is no obvious educational alternative that can provide this core attribute, one that is even more necessary to understand health and promote competent nursing practice in an increasingly complex and globalising world. We propose that nurse academics and their colleagues from many other academic and professional disciplines engage in collegiate 'moral action' to re-establish critical thinking in UK universities.

  17. Using Critical Literacy to Explore Genetics and its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues with In-Service Secondary Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Melançon, Megan E.; Kleine, Karynne L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by applying a critical literacy approach that allows people develop cognitive skills such that they are able to “read the world” (Wink, 2004). The approach is one that permits readers to go beyond the literal text to examine what is present as well as what is missing as it relates to issues of equity and fairness. Becoming critically literate enabled these teacher-participants to challenge the subtle attitudes, values, and beliefs conveyed by a range of written and oral texts. The teacher-participants in this course improved their critical literacy skills by actively reading, critically writing about, and using evidence to support their conclusions about issues arising from advances in human genetics. A biologist, a linguist, and an educator collaboratively designed and taught the course. The personalized focus on the integration of thoughtful reading and writing in this class enhanced the teacher-participants' (n = 16) professional and intellectual development and will potentially improve learning in their biology and English classrooms in the future. PMID:21123688

  18. Using critical literacy to explore genetics and its ethical, legal, and social issues with in-service secondary teachers.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Michael L; Melançon, Megan E; Kleine, Karynne L M

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by applying a critical literacy approach that allows people develop cognitive skills such that they are able to "read the world" (Wink, 2004). The approach is one that permits readers to go beyond the literal text to examine what is present as well as what is missing as it relates to issues of equity and fairness. Becoming critically literate enabled these teacher-participants to challenge the subtle attitudes, values, and beliefs conveyed by a range of written and oral texts. The teacher-participants in this course improved their critical literacy skills by actively reading, critically writing about, and using evidence to support their conclusions about issues arising from advances in human genetics. A biologist, a linguist, and an educator collaboratively designed and taught the course. The personalized focus on the integration of thoughtful reading and writing in this class enhanced the teacher-participants' (n = 16) professional and intellectual development and will potentially improve learning in their biology and English classrooms in the future.

  19. Male fertility: Is spermiogenesis the critical step for answering biomedical issues?

    PubMed Central

    Baptissart, Marine; Vega, Aurélie; Martinot, Emmanuelle; Volle, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Regarding male fertility, biomedical issues have opposite goals to treat infertility or develop contraceptive drugs. Recently, the identification of the molecular mechanisms involved in germ cell differentiation suggest that spermiogenesis has to be put at the crossroad to reach these goals. Concerning fertility issues, citizens in our modern world are schizophrenic. On one side, couples have the possibility to control conception; and on the other side, more and more couples suffer from the misfortune of being infertile. These two societal problems lead to intensive research and conflicting government policies. However, these opposing goals rely on a better understanding of germ cell differentiation. PMID:23885302

  20. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  1. Criticality safety issues in the disposition of BN-350 spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. W.; Klann, R. T.; Koltyshev, S. M.; Krechetov, S.

    2000-02-28

    A criticality safety analysis has been performed as part of the BN-350 spent fuel disposition project being conducted jointly by the DOE and Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan regulations are reasonably consistent with those of the DOE. The high enrichment and severe undermoderation of this fast reactor fuel has significant criticality safety consequences. A detailed modeling approach was used that showed some configurations to be safe that otherwise would be rejected. Reasonable requirements for design and operations were needed, and with them, all operations were found to be safe.

  2. "Comments on Slavin": Becoming Critical Readers--Issues in Transparency, Representation, and Warranting of Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L.; Skukauskaite, Audra

    2008-01-01

    This response to Slavin's article (2008) explores the issues of transparency, representation, and warranting of claims in Slavin's descriptions of the work of others and his suggestions for program evaluation syntheses. Through contrastive analyses between Slavin's representations of the program evaluation synthesis efforts of five organizations…

  3. Solving the Teacher Shortage Problem in Ghana: Critical Perspectives for Understanding the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbold, Cosmas

    2015-01-01

    The problem of getting sufficient numbers of qualified teachers to staff classrooms is one of the most significant public policy issues facing many countries. In Ghana, the problem of teacher shortage has been a perennial one, necessitated by educational expansion as well as adverse socio-economic and political circumstances, and exacerbated by…

  4. Critical Issues in College System Management: Conference Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, October, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Fred, Ed.

    These proceedings contain all of the formal presentations made at a conference focusing on policy issues affecting the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. Introductory remarks by Harry Fisher are followed by an outline by Blair Tully of the Ontario government's focus on high technology and the projects of the Board of Industrial…

  5. A New Look at Student Achievement. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Magdalena

    To enhance activities and programs directed toward improving the teaching of reading, writing, and thinking skills in the southwest region, this document, part of a series of papers on this issue is presented. A new look at student achievement is necessary because the information age is making new demands. There has been a shift in education away…

  6. Integrating Scientific Method and Critical Thinking in Classroom Debates on Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge and skills to deal with current environmental issues should be included in biology teaching, which involves classroom debate that is ideal to develop knowledge. Increasing students' participation, acquiring interpersonal and oral communication skills and developing better understanding are some of the advantages of debates in the…

  7. Equity: The Critical Link in Southern Economic Development. Cross-Cutting Issue Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report presents a general overview of equity issues in the modern South. It discusses access to such needs as jobs and job opportunities, health, housing, education, government benefits, political power, resources, and protection. Six at-risk groups receive special focus: the poor; Blacks; Hispanics; women; older Southerners; and the…

  8. Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues. the Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Joan L.; And Others

    This book provides suggestions for handling important and emotionally charged issues of sexuality in the schools. Six chapters offer information on teenage pregnancy, HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), sexual orientation, sexual harassment, and sex education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Searching for Intimacy"…

  9. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  10. The Causes of Poverty: Thinking Critically about a Key Economic Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otlin, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Economics is a central part of civic education. Students need to know about the Constitution and the party system, but active citizenship in the twenty-first century requires much more than the standard civics courses offer. Economic issues dominate public policy debates ranging from Social Security to immigration to international security. If…

  11. A Paper on Critical Issues Facing State Education Agencies in Supporting Educational Research: One Chief's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedd, Mark R.

    To reflect the changing technological and social demands of the society in which it exists, education must develop and alter its goals. Critical to this process is educational research in the areas of program evaluation, environmental influences and resource availability. Federal investment in National Institute of Education (NIE) activities and…

  12. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David, Ed.

    This book considers the question of whether, or to what extent, a critical period limits the acquisition of a first language as well as a second language acquired postpubertally. The diversity of opinion on this question is represented in this volume. It is a question that has been approached by researchers working in linguistic theory, evolution…

  13. Organisational Issues for E-Learning: Critical Success Factors as Identified by HE Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project that identified organisational critical success factors (CSFs) for e-learning implementation in higher education (HE). These CSFs can be used as a theoretical foundation upon which to base decision-making and strategic thinking about e-learning. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  14. Critical Issues in Parental Involvement: A Collection of Research Summaries by Title VII Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez, Andrea B., Ed.; Rakow, Steven J., Ed.; Ensle, Anne Labay, Ed.

    This volume contains 18 summaries of research on parental involvement, carried out by inservice teachers completing a Master's degree in multicultural studies. All but one of the participants were certified Texas teachers working in bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education. Their research critically examined many facets of the…

  15. The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

  16. Contentious Issues in Science Education: Building Critical Thinking Patterns through Two-Dimensional Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a survey and follow-up qualitative research design, an elaborate model of technology integration has been studied in a science education classroom. Using a coding system known as cognotes, teacher-interns were first taught how to recognize electronic discussion contributions consisting specifically of critical approaches such as compare,…

  17. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides."

  18. Encapsulated islets for diabetes therapy: history, current progress, and critical issues requiring solution.

    PubMed

    Scharp, David W; Marchetti, Piero

    2014-04-01

    Insulin therapy became a reality in 1921 dramatically saving lives of people with diabetes, but not protecting them from long-term complications. Clinically successful free islet implants began in 1989 but require life long immunosuppression. Several encapsulated islet approaches have been ongoing for over 30 years without defining a clinically relevant product. Macro-devices encapsulating islet mass in a single device have shown long-term success in large animals but human trials have been limited by critical challenges. Micro-capsules using alginate or similar hydrogels encapsulate individual islets with many hundreds of promising rodent results published, but a low incidence of successful translation to large animal and human results. Reduction of encapsulated islet mass for clinical transplantation is in progress. This review covers the status of both early and current studies including the presentation of corporate efforts involved. It concludes by defining the critical items requiring solution to enable a successful clinical diabetes therapy.

  19. Feminist-informed participatory action research: a methodology of choice for examining critical nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Andrea M; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2007-04-01

    Identifying a methodology to guide a study that aims to enhance service delivery can be challenging. Participatory action research offers a solution to this challenge as it both informs and is informed by critical social theory. In addition, using a feminist lens helps acquiesce this approach as a suitable methodology for changing practice. This methodology embraces empowerment self-determination and the facilitation of agreed change as central tenets that guide the research process. Encouraged by the work of Foucault, Friere, Habermas, and Maguire, this paper explicates the philosophical assumptions underpinning critical social theory and outlines how feminist influences are complimentary in exploring the processes and applications of nursing research that seeks to embrace change.

  20. A review of criticisms of phylogenetic nomenclature: is taxonomic freedom the fundamental issue?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Harold N; Cantino, Philip D

    2002-02-01

    The proposal to implement a phylogenetic nomenclatural system governed by the PhyloCode), in which taxon names are defined by explicit reference to common descent, has met with strong criticism from some proponents of phylogenetic taxonomy (taxonomy based on the principle of common descent in which only clades and species are recognized). We examine these criticisms and find that some of the perceived problems with phylogenetic nomenclature are based on misconceptions, some are equally true of the current rank-based nomenclatural system, and some will be eliminated by implementation of the PhyloCode. Most of the criticisms are related to an overriding concern that, because the meanings of names are associated with phylogenetic pattern which is subject to change, the adoption of phylogenetic nomenclature will lead to increased instability in the content of taxa. This concern is associated with the fact that, despite the widespread adoption of the view that taxa are historical entities that are conceptualized based on ancestry, many taxonomists also conceptualize taxa based on their content. As a result, critics of phylogenetic nomenclature have argued that taxonomists should be free to emend the content of taxa without constraints imposed by nomenclatural decisions. However, in phylogenetic nomenclature the contents of taxa are determined, not by the taxonomist, but by the combination of the phylogenetic definition of the name and a phylogenetic hypothesis. Because the contents of taxa, once their names are defined, can no longer be freely modified by taxonomists, phylogenetic nomenclature is perceived as limiting taxonomic freedom. We argue that the form of taxonomic freedom inherent to phylogenetic nomenclature is appropriate to phylogenetic taxonomy in which taxa are considered historical entities that are discovered through phylogenetic analysis and are not human constructs.

  1. Coastal sedimentary research examines critical issues of national and global priority

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Chip; Anderson, John; Crook, Keith A.W.; Kaminsky, George; Larcombe, Piers; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Sansone, Frank; Scott, David B.; Riggs, Stan; Sallenger, Asbury; Shennan, Ian; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.

    2000-01-01

    An international conference was held recently in Honolulu, Hawaii, to examine and plan for coastal sedimentary research in the United States and globally. Participants agreed that sedimentary coastal environments constitute a critical national and global resource that suffers widespread degradation due to human impacts. Moreover, human population growth and inappropriate development in the coastal zone are escalating public asset losses due to coastal hazards and placing large numbers of communities at growing risk (Figure 1).

  2. Global pharmaceutical development and access: critical issues of ethics and equity.

    PubMed

    Lage, Agustín

    2011-07-01

    The article presents global data on access to pharmaceuticals and discusses underlying barriers. Two are highly visible: pricing policies and intellectual property rights; two are less recognized: the regulatory environment and scientific and technological capacities. Two ongoing transitions influence and even distort the problem of universal access to medications: the epidemiologic transition to an increasing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases; and the growing role of biotechnology products (especially immunobiologicals) in the pharmacopeia. Examples from Cuba and Brazil are used to explore what can and should be done to address commercial, regulatory, and technological aspects of assuring universal access to medications.

  3. End-of-life issues in the acute and critically ill patient

    PubMed Central

    Savory, Eric A; Marco, Catherine A

    2009-01-01

    The challenges of end-of-life care require emergency physicians to utilize a multifaceted and dynamic skill set. Such skills include medical therapies to relieve pain and other symptoms near the end-of-life. Physicians must also demonstrate aptitude in comfort care, communication, cultural competency, and ethical principles. It is imperative that emergency physicians demonstrate a fundamental understanding of end-of-life issues in order to employ the versatile, multidisciplinary approach required to provide the highest quality end-of-life care for patients and their families. PMID:19386133

  4. On-orbit damage detection and health monitoring of large space trusses - Status and critical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A.-L.

    1991-01-01

    The literature in the fields of structural identification, mode shape expansion and orthogonalization, and on-orbit damage location of large space trusses is reviewed. The use of a Dynamic Scale Model Technology (DSMT) hybrid scale model for damage location research and as a universal test bed for other damage location methods is proposed as a means of comparing and evaluating existing and newly developed methods in the named areas. Issues concerning on-orbit data acquisition, data accuracy, and data quality relevant to structural dynamic system identification which require extensive research are identified.

  5. Further development of a robust workup process for solution-phase high-throughput library synthesis to address environmental and sample tracking issues.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Hird, Nick; Cork, David G

    2006-01-01

    During further improvement of a high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis system, new workup tools and apparatus for parallel liquid-liquid extraction and evaporation have been developed. A combination of in-house design and collaboration with external manufacturers has been used to address (1) environmental issues concerning solvent emissions and (2) sample tracking errors arising from manual intervention. A parallel liquid-liquid extraction unit, containing miniature high-speed magnetic stirrers for efficient mixing of organic and aqueous phases, has been developed for use on a multichannel liquid handler. Separation of the phases is achieved by dispensing them into a newly patented filter tube containing a vertical hydrophobic porous membrane, which allows only the organic phase to pass into collection vials positioned below. The vertical positioning of the membrane overcomes the hitherto dependence on the use of heavier-than-water, bottom-phase, organic solvents such as dichloromethane, which are restricted due to environmental concerns. Both small (6-mL) and large (60-mL) filter tubes were developed for parallel phase separation in library and template synthesis, respectively. In addition, an apparatus for parallel solvent evaporation was developed to (1) remove solvent from the above samples with highly efficient recovery and (2) avoid the movement of individual samples between their collection on a liquid handler and registration to prevent sample identification errors. The apparatus uses a diaphragm pump to achieve a dynamic circulating closed system with a heating block for the rack of 96 sample vials and an efficient condenser to trap the solvents. Solvent recovery is typically >98%, and convenient operation and monitoring has made the apparatus the first choice for removal of volatile solvents.

  6. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  7. Technical assessment of critical Plasma-Materials Interaction (PMI) and High Heat Flux (HHF) issues for alternative fusion concepts (AFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.N.

    1986-03-01

    A number of approaches to fusion energy are being pursued as alternative fusion concepts (AFCs). The goal of these systems is to provide a more desirable method of producing fusion energy than the mainline programs. Some of the AFCs have both a Low Power Density (LPD) option and a High Power Density (HPD) option. A summary of representative AFC programs and their associated PMI and HHF issues is followed by the technical assessment of the critical issues. These requirements are discussed relative to the mainline and/or HPD components. The HPD options are contrasted with a tabulation of the characteristics of components for the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), which is representative of the HPD concept.

  8. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  9. Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for autism--an umbrella approach to issues critical to treatment individualization.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2014-12-01

    Integrating knowledge across the disciplines of genetics, neurological, and behavioral science targets, so far, early identification of children with autism and thus early access to intervention. Cross-discipline collaboration might be substantially improve treatment efficacy via individualized treatment based on the child and family needs, consistency across treatment providers and careful planning of skill curricula, setting and techniques. This paper documents the current state of five main issues critical to treatment individualization where cross-discipline collaboration is warranted: (1) developmental timing, (2) treatment intensity, (3) heterogeneity in treatment response, (4) program breath and flexibility, and (5) formats of treatment provision.

  10. Examining the Sources for our Understandings about Science: Enduring conflations and critical issues in research on nature of science in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2012-02-01

    This position paper addresses some enduring, as well as emerging issues, associated with the crucial question of benchmarking understandings about nature of science (NOS) for precollege science education. The question of benchmarking NOS understandings is revisited in light of the often cited, continuing debates among historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science, which are invoked to undermine the current widely accepted, domain-general, consensus-based, aspects approach to NOS. The paper explicates the underlying assumptions of, and argues for, this consensus approach. However, the paper calls for extending the current framework and advances a developmental perspective that allows for incorporating controversial NOS issues into this framework. The paper also examines recent calls to altogether abandon the domain-general approach to NOS research and development in science education in favor of a domain-specific approach. The paper argues that, contrary to what its advocates assume, a domain-specific approach is susceptible to the same criticisms often invoked against a domain-general approach. Instead, the paper argues for complementarity and reciprocity between the two approaches, and explicates how the latter can be achieved. Finally, the paper critiques current calls to privilege accounts of context-specific, day-to-day scientific practice and scientists' accounts of their enterprise as sources for deriving understandings about NOS in lieu of scholarship in history, philosophy, and sociology of science (HPSS). The paper argues that, while important, these can only supplement rather than replace HPSS scholarship as a major source for deriving understandings about NOS.

  11. Women's occupational health: a critical review and discussion of current issues.

    PubMed

    Messing, K

    1997-01-01

    Action to improve women's occupational health has been slowed by a notion that women's jobs are safe and that any health problems identified among women workers can be attributed to unfitness for the job or unnecessary complaining. With increasing numbers of women in the labor force, the effects of work on women's health have recently started to interest health care providers, health and safety representatives and researchers. We begin our summary of their discoveries with a discussion of women's place in the workplace and its implications for occupational health, followed by a brief review of some gender-insensitive data-gathering techniques. We have then chosen to concentrate on the following four areas: methods and data collection; directing attention to women's occupational health problems; musculoskeletal disease; mental and emotional stress. We conclude by pointing out some neglected occupational groups and health issues.

  12. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides are committed with guns. There are virtually no reliable data on the number of nonfatal firearm injuries. One of the most troubling aspects of handgun violence is that children often are the victims. Educational efforts have been attempted to promote the safer use of firearms, but they have not led to a significant reduction in the number of fatalities, since most firearm incidents are intended to do harm. PMID:2495544

  13. Treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: ongoing trials, critical issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Blanchard, P; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-04-01

    Due to the generally poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), treatment has been intensified, these last decades, leading to an increase of serious side effects. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection has been recently etiologically linked to a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), which is on the increase. These tumors are different, at the clinical and molecular level, when compared to tumors caused by traditional risk factors. Additionally, their prognosis is much more favorable which has led the medical community to consider new treatment strategies. Indeed, it is possible that less intensive treatment regimens could achieve similar efficacy with less toxicity and improved quality of life. Several clinical trials, investigating different ways to de-escalate treatment, are currently ongoing. In this article, we review these main approaches, discuss the rationale behind them and the issues raised by treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive OPSCC.

  14. Sport, health and drugs: a critical re-examination of some key issues and problems.

    PubMed

    Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Waddington, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    One of the major justifications for the ban on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport has been that relating to the protection of the health of athletes. This paper subjects this argument to critical analysis by putting it in the context of the broader relationship between sport and health. More particularly, the paper seeks to unravel some of the complexities of this relationship by an examination of: (i) some aspects of sports sponsorship, particularly with alcohol and tobacco companies; (ii) the health risks associated with elite level sport; and (iii) the widespread and legal use within the sporting context of drugs that can have dangerous side effects. The paper concludes with an examination of some aspects of anti-doping policies within sport and it is suggested that a more imaginative approach to athlete education is needed to prevent the misuse of drugs.

  15. Antimicrobial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues in the critically ill with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Julie M; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are important considerations, particularly in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The pathophysiologic changes that occur in these conditions can have a major effect on pharmacokinetic parameters, which in turn could result in failure to achieve pharmacodynamic targets for antimicrobials thus adversely affecting clinical outcome. This paper discusses the pathophysiologic changes that occur during severe sepsis and septic shock and the consequent effects on antimicrobial PK and PD. The effect of PK/PD on specific antimicrobial classes is discussed and a rational framework for antimicrobial dosing is provided. Knowledge of PK/PD properties of antimicrobials can be used to personalize dosing regimens not only to maximize antimicrobial activity but also to minimize toxicity and reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  16. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike; Matthews, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable methodology to

  17. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives.

  18. Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L. (Editor); Ming, Doug W. (Editor); Henninger, Don (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Technical Memorandum is a compilation of presentations and discussions in the form of minutes from a workshop entitled 'Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media' held at NASA's Johnson Space Center, July 24-25, 2000. This workshop arose from the growing belief within NASA's Advanced Life Support Program that further advances and improvements in plant production systems for microgravity would benefit from additional knowledge of fundamental processes occurring in the root zone. The objective of the workshop was to bring together individuals who had expertise in various areas of fluid physics, soil physics, plant physiology, hardware development, and flight tests to identify, discuss, and prioritize critical issues of water and air flow through porous media in microgravity. Participants of the workshop included representatives from private companies involved in flight hardware development and scientists from universities and NASA Centers with expertise in plant flight tests, plant physiology, fluid physics, and soil physics.

  19. Critical transport issues for improving the performance of aqueous redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2017-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generated from intermittent renewable sources (such as solar and wind) grows, developing reliable energy storage technologies to store electrical energy in large scale is of increasing importance. Redox flow batteries are now enjoying a renaissance and regarded as a leading technology in providing a well-balanced solution for current daunting challenges. In this article, state-of-the-art studies of the complex multicomponent transport phenomena in aqueous redox flow batteries, with a special emphasis on all-vanadium redox flow batteries, are reviewed and summarized. Rather than elaborating on the details of previous experimental and numerical investigations, this article highlights: i) the key transport issues in each battery's component that need to be tackled so that the rate capability and cycling stability of flow batteries can be significantly improved, ii) the basic mechanisms that control the active species/ion/electron transport behaviors in each battery's component, and iii) the key experimental and numerical findings regarding the correlations between the multicomponent transport processes and battery performance.

  20. Getting ready for malaria elimination: a check list of critical issues to consider.

    PubMed

    González-Silva, Matiana; Bassat, Quique; Alonso, Pedro L

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, a renewed interest in malaria elimination and eradication has emerged and seems to be rooting in the minds of the scientific community, public health specialists, funding bodies, policy makers and politicians. Malaria eradication will certainly benefit from improved and innovative tools; notwithstanding novel knowledge in fields ranging from basic science to mathematical modelling and health systems research. However, the elimination of malaria also encompasses a broad range of essential aspects that countries and other actors need to consider when thinking of embarking on such an adventure, including the implementation of innovative strategies, the ability to incorporate the most up-to-date evidence into policy, the integration of malaria into the broader health agenda, the strengthening of surveillance and health systems, capacity building, funding, advocacy and, very importantly, research. While in some cases this enthusiasm is clearly justified, some countries are still a long way from realistically advancing towards elimination. This paper attempts to provide guidance on all the necessary issues that should be considered when initiating a malaria elimination program.

  1. Issues in preparedness for biologic terrorism: a perspective for critical care nursing.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Menuey, Bernadette C; Foster, Dawn

    2002-08-01

    Although the use of microorganisms as weapons is as old a practice as war itself, the sense of our collective vulnerability to these agents has seldom been as great. The events of late 2001 demonstrated that the United States is vulnerable to terrorist attack carried out by highly motivated, organized, funded, and trained individuals. It is our collective good fortune that the perpetrator of the anthrax mailings was not bent on destruction of the scale witnessed on September 11, 2001. Because acute care and critical care nurses are on the forefront of community disease surveillance, they must be aware of the signs and symptoms of illness that may indicate that a biological attack has taken place. Many symptoms of infection or intoxication by biological warfare agents (bacterial, viral, and toxic) are nonspecific and flulike in nature, at least early in the disease process. The essential details of the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of the biological warfare agents that merit greatest concern are provided, and five biological warfare agents of particular interest are described in detail: anthrax, ricin (castor bean) toxin, smallpox, plague, and tularemia. Recommendations are given for additional Web-based resources to allow further study.

  2. Critical issues for the application of integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies to inertial measurement units

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Montague, S.; Allen, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    One of the principal applications of monolithically integrated micromechanical/microelectronic systems has been accelerometers for automotive applications. As integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies such as those developed by U.C. Berkeley, Analog Devices, and Sandia National Laboratories mature, additional systems for more sensitive inertial measurements will enter the commercial marketplace. In this paper, the authors will examine key technology design rules which impact the performance and cost of inertial measurement devices manufactured in integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies. These design parameters include: (1) minimum MEMS feature size, (2) minimum CMOS feature size, (3) maximum MEMS linear dimension, (4) number of mechanical MEMS layers, (5) MEMS/CMOS spacing. In particular, the embedded approach to integration developed at Sandia will be examined in the context of these technology features. Presently, this technology offers MEMS feature sizes as small as 1 {micro}m, CMOS critical dimensions of 1.25 {micro}m, MEMS linear dimensions of 1,000 {micro}m, a single mechanical level of polysilicon, and a 100 {micro}m space between MEMS and CMOS. This is applicable to modern precision guided munitions.

  3. Critical Issues for Producing UHTC-Brazed Joints: Wetting and Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerone, A.; Muolo, M. L.; Valenza, F.

    2016-08-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important interaction phenomena occurring at the solid-liquid interfaces in metal-ceramic systems at high temperatures, with special attention to the most recent developments concerning wetting and joining transition metals diborides. These phenomena are described and discussed from both the experimental and theoretical points of view in relation to joining ceramic and metal-ceramic systems by means of processes in the presence of a liquid phase (brazing, TLPB etc.). It is shown that wetting and the formation of interfacial dissolution regions are the results of the competition between different phenomena: dissolution of the ceramic in the liquid phase, reaction and formation of new phases at the solid-liquid interface, and drop spreading along the substrate surface. We emphasize the role of phase diagrams to support both the design of the experiments and the choice of active alloying elements, and to interpret the evolution of the system in relation to temperature and composition. In this respect, the sessile-drop technique has been shown to be helpful in assessing critical points of newly calculated phase diagrams. These studies are essential for the design of joining processes, for the creation of composite materials, and are of a particular relevance when applied to UHTC materials.

  4. Review paper: critical issues in tissue engineering: biomaterials, cell sources, angiogenesis, and drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Hojjat; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2011-11-01

    Tissue engineering is a newly emerging biomedical technology, which aids and increases the repair and regeneration of deficient and injured tissues. It employs the principles from the fields of materials science, cell biology, transplantation, and engineering in an effort to treat or replace damaged tissues. Tissue engineering and development of complex tissues or organs, such as heart, muscle, kidney, liver, and lung, are still a distant milestone in twenty-first century. Generally, there are four main challenges in tissue engineering which need optimization. These include biomaterials, cell sources, vascularization of engineered tissues, and design of drug delivery systems. Biomaterials and cell sources should be specific for the engineering of each tissue or organ. On the other hand, angiogenesis is required not only for the treatment of a variety of ischemic conditions, but it is also a critical component of virtually all tissue-engineering strategies. Therefore, controlling the dose, location, and duration of releasing angiogenic factors via polymeric delivery systems, in order to ultimately better mimic the stem cell niche through scaffolds, will dictate the utility of a variety of biomaterials in tissue regeneration. This review focuses on the use of polymeric vehicles that are made of synthetic and/or natural biomaterials as scaffolds for three-dimensional cell cultures and for locally delivering the inductive growth factors in various formats to provide a method of controlled, localized delivery for the desired time frame and for vascularized tissue-engineering therapies.

  5. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  6. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  7. Ethics of the Physician's Role in Health-Care Cost Control: AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Joseph; Iorio, Richard; Barber, Thomas; Barron, Chloe; Caplan, Arthur

    2016-07-20

    The United States health-care expenditure is rising precipitously. The Congressional Budget Office has estimated that, in 2025, at our current rate of increased spending, 25% of the gross domestic product will be allocated to health care. Our per-capita spending on health care also far exceeds that of any other industrialized country. Health-care costs must be addressed if our country is to remain competitive in the global marketplace and to maintain its financial solvency. If unchecked, the uncontrolled rise in health-care expenditures will not only affect our capacity to provide our patients with high-quality care but also threaten the ability of our nation to compete economically on the global stage. This is not hyperbole but fiscal reality.As physicians, we are becoming increasingly familiar with the economics impacting health-care policy. Thus, we are in a unique position to control the cost of health care. This includes an increased reliance on creating and adhering to evidence-based guidelines. We can do this and still continue to respect the primacy of patient welfare and the right of patients to act in their own self-interest. However, as evidenced by the use of high-volume centers of excellence, each strategy adapted to control costs must be vetted and must be monitored for its unintended ethical consequences.The solution to this complex problem must involve the input of all of the health-care stakeholders, including the patients, payers, and providers. Physicians ought to play a role in designing and executing a remedy. After all, we are the ones who best understand medicine and whose moral obligation is to the welfare of our patients.

  8. Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review for the evidence supporting or disproving the reality of parenteral nutrition- antiepileptic drugs interaction, especially with respect to the plasma protein-binding of the drug. Methods The articles related to the topic were identified through Medline and PubMed search (1968-Feburary 2010) for English language on the interaction between parenteral nutrition and antiepileptic drugs; the search terms used were anti-epileptic drugs, parenteral nutrition, and/or interaction, and/or in vitro. The search looked for prospective randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies; prospective nonrandomized uncontrolled studies; retrospective studies; case reports; and in vitro studies. Full text of the articles were then traced from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) library subscribed databases, including Wiley-Blackwell Library, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHost, OVID, ScienceDirect, SAGE Premier, Scopus, SpringerLINK, and Wiley InterScience. The articles from journals not listed by USM library were traced through inter library loan. Results There were interactions between parenteral nutrition and drugs, including antiepileptics. Several guidelines were designed for the management of illnesses such as traumatic brain injuries or cancer patients, involving the use of parenteral nutrition and antiepileptics. Moreover, many studies demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo parenteral nutrition -drugs interactions, especially with antiepileptics. Conclusions There was no evidence supporting the existence of parenteral nutrition-antiepileptic drugs interaction. The issue has not been studied in formal researches, but several case reports and anecdotes demonstrate this drug-nutrition interaction. However, alteration in the drug-free fraction result from parenteral nutrition-drug (i.e. antiepileptics) interactions may necessitate scrupulous reassessment of drug dosages in patients receiving these therapies. This reassessment may be particularly

  9. Critical issues in measuring the mechanical properties of hard films on soft substrates by nanoindentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, J.C.; Pharr, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    This study explores the difficulties encountered when using conventional nanoindentation techniques to measure the Young`s modulus and hardness of hard films on soft substrates. In general, the indentation measurement of film/substrate systems is affected by four material properties: the Young`s modulus and hardness of the film, and the Young`s modulus and hardness of the substrate. For the particular case of a hard film on a soft substrate, there is a tendency for the material around the hardness impression to sink-in which results from the large difference in yielding of the two materials. In this study, a model system consisting of NiP on annealed Cu was used to explore the behavior. This system is interesting because the film and substrate have similar Young`s moduli, minimizing the elastic behavior as a variable. In contrast, the hardness of NiP is approximately 7--8 GPa, and that of the annealed copper is less than 1 GPa, providing a factor of 10 difference in the plastic flow characteristics. Experimental results indicate that standard analytical methods for determining the contact depth, hardness and Young`s modulus do not work well for the case of a hard film on a soft substrate. At shallow contact depths, the measured indentation modulus is close to that of the film, but at larger depths sink-in phenomena result in an overestimation of the contact area, and an indentation modulus which is less than the Young`s modulus of both the film and substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provide critical details of the physical processes involved, and illustrate how the standard data analyses overestimate the true contact area.

  10. Critical Issues for Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells on Flexible Polymer Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon; Shafarman, William; Birkmire, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Elemental in-line evaporation on glass substrates has been a viable process for the large-area manufacture of CuInSe2-based photovoltaics, with module efficiencies as high as 12.7% [1]. However, lightweight, flexible CuInSe2-based modules are attractive in a number of applications, such as space power sources. In addition, flexible substrates have an inherent advantage in manufacturability in that they can be deposited in a roll-to-roll configuration allowing continuous, high yield, and ultimately lower cost production. As a result, high-temperature polymers have been used as substrates in depositing CuInSe2 films [2]. Recently, efficiency of 14.1% has been reported for a Cu(InGa)Se2-based solar cell on a polyimide substrate [3]. Both metal foil and polymer webs have been used as substrates for Cu(InGa)Se2-based photovoltaics in a roll-to-roll configuration with reasonable success [4,5]. Both of these substrates do not allow, readily, the incorporation of Na into the Cu(InGa)Se2 film which is necessary for high efficiency devices [3]. In addition, polymer substrates, can not be used at temperatures that are optimum for Cu(InGa)Se2 deposition. However, unlike metal foils, they are electrically insulating, simplifying monolithically-integrated module fabrication and are not a source of impurities diffusing into the growing film. The Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) has modified its in-line evaporation system [6] from deposition onto glass substrates to roll-to-roll deposition onto polyimide (PI) film in order to investigate key issues in the deposition of large-area Cu(InGa)Se2 films on flexible polymer substrates. This transition presented unexpected challenges that had to be resolved. In this paper, two major problems, spitting from the Cu source and the cracking of Mo back contact film, will be discussed and the solution to each will be presented.

  11. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  12. Catalytic potential of selected metal ions for bioleaching, and potential techno-economic and environmental issues: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish; Morrison, Liam; Healy, Mark Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Bioleaching is considered to be a low-cost, eco-friendly technique for leaching valuable metals from a variety of matrixes. However, the inherent slow dissolution kinetics and low metal leaching yields have restricted its wider commercial applicability. Recent advancements in bio-hydrometallurgy have suggested that these critical issues can be successfully alleviated through the addition of a catalyst. The catalyzing properties of a variety of metals ions (Ag(+), Hg(++), Bi(+++), Cu(++), Co(++) etc.) during bioleaching have been successfully demonstrated. In this article, the role and mechanisms of these metal species in catalyzing bioleaching from different minerals (chalcopyrite, complex sulfides, etc.) and waste materials (spent batteries) are reviewed, techno-economic and environmental challenges associated with the use of metals ions as catalysts are identified, and future prospectives are discussed. Based on the analysis, it is suggested that metal ion-catalyzed bioleaching will play a key role in the development of future industrial bio-hydrometallurgical processes.

  13. Not Yes or No, But What If: An Examination of Policies and Issues to be Addressed with Open Homosexuality in the US Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Dont ask, dont tell. Gay rights organizations argue that it is a human rights issue and cite several countries that have lifted the ban on open...don’t tell.” Gay rights organizations argue that it is a human rights issue and cite several countries that have lifted the ban on open homosexuality...Barrack Obama as the forty-fourth President of the United States, the countries’ gay rights groups are looking to finally reap the rewards of their

  14. Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care, a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. Methods A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public. Results Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue. Conclusions The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care. PMID:21708041

  15. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  16. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  17. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  18. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  19. Infanticide: A Critical Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Norma J.

    Infanticide in the United States today usually happens in the hospital. Occasionally, handicapped infants are killed by a direct act, but more often infanticide is accomplished by withholding something (for example, food, medication, surgery) that babies need to survive. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Baby Doe regulations of May 1982, and the…

  20. Project 10 Handbook: Addressing Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. A Resource Directory for Teachers, Guidance Counselors, Parents and School-Based Adolescent Care Providers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Project 10, Inc.

    This handbook was developed by Project 10, an on-campus counseling program within the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The handbook covers many of the issues and problems that arise for homosexual high school students. Introductory material includes a history of the informal beginnings of Project 10. The first chapter describes…

  1. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  2. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  3. Polyphenol-based nutraceuticals for the control of angiogenesis: Analysis of the critical issues for human use.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood-vessel, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several diseases, and thus represents a druggable target for the prevention and treatment of different disorders. It is nowadays well kwon how diet can control cancer development and progression, and how the use of certain diet components can prevent cancer development. Several studies, also from our lab, now indicate that natural plant products including nutraceuticals modulate tumor angiogenesis. In this review, it is reported how phytochemicals, comprising hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, genistein, curcumin, and the green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate among the others, negatively regulate angiogenesis. A single plant-derived compound may affect both endothelial and tumor cells, with the common denominator of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenger activities. Beside these positive features, documented in cellular and animal models, a series of critical issues should be considered from a pharmacological point of view as: what is the best source of bioactive compounds: food and beverages, extracted phytocomplexes, isolated nutraceuticals or synthetic analogues? How is the bioavailability of the compounds of interest in relation to the above source? Is there any biological activity by circulating metabolic derivatives? What is the best formulation, administration route and posology? How safe are in humans? How strong and reliable are the clinical trials designed for their use alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy? After a dissertation of these critical points, the conclusion can be drawn that novel and effective strategies should be optimized to improve their bioavailability and efficacy, considering their exploitation as chemopreventive and/or curative approaches.

  4. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics.

  5. tDCS of the Cerebellum: Where Do We Stand in 2016? Technical Issues and Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    van Dun, Kim; Bodranghien, Florian C. A. A.; Mariën, Peter; Manto, Mario U.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an up-and-coming electrical neurostimulation technique increasingly used both in healthy subjects and in selected groups of patients. Due to the high density of neurons in the cerebellum, its peculiar anatomical organization with the cortex lying superficially below the skull and its diffuse connections with motor and associative areas of the cerebrum, the cerebellum is becoming a major target for neuromodulation of the cerebellocerebral networks. We discuss the recent studies based on cerebellar tDCS with a focus on the numerous technical and open issues which remain to be solved. Our current knowledge of the physiological impacts of tDCS on cerebellar circuitry is criticized. We provide a comparison with transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), another promising transcranial electrical neurostimulation technique. Although both tDCS and tACS are becoming established techniques to modulate the cerebellocerebral networks, it is surprising that their impacts on cerebellar disorders remains unclear. A major reason is that the literature lacks large trials with a double-blind, sham-controlled, and cross-over experimental design in cerebellar patients. PMID:27242469

  6. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses four issues related to music: (1) music as a form of intelligence and the misconceptions that have arisen; (2) music as a discipline focusing on mastering the discipline of music and obstacles to musicality; (3) a rationale for music education; and (4) the future of music education. (CMK)

  7. Examining the Sources for Our Understandings about Science: Enduring Conflations and Critical Issues in Research on Nature of Science in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    This position paper addresses some enduring, as well as emerging issues, associated with the crucial question of benchmarking understandings about nature of science (NOS) for precollege science education. The question of benchmarking NOS understandings is revisited in light of the often cited, continuing debates among historians, philosophers, and…

  8. A Critical Analysis of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature Comparing the Effects of Traditional versus Community Policing on Quality of Life, and Associated Quality of Life Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polite, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    There are two major issues that will be addressed in this study to determine if they influence the selection of an appropriate policing strategy. The first is citizen perception of whether crime has decreased or increased in their community. The second is whether the length of time a citizen has lived in the community has an effect on their…

  9. How Not to Evaluate a Psychological Measure: Rebuttal to Criticism of the Defining Issues Test of Moral Judgment Development by Curzer and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Stephen J.; Bebeau, Muriel J.; Narvaez, Darcia

    2016-01-01

    In a 2014 paper in "Theory and Research in Education," Howard Curzer and colleagues critique the Defining Issues Test of moral judgment development according to eight criteria that are described as difficulties any measure of educational outcomes must address. This article highlights how Curzer et al. do not consult existing empirical…

  10. Undergraduate teaching modules featuring geodesy data applied to critical social topics (GETSI: GEodetic Tools for Societal Issues)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The GETSI project, funded by NSF TUES, is developing and disseminating teaching and learning materials that feature geodesy data applied to critical societal issues such as climate change, water resource management, and natural hazards (serc.carleton.edu/getsi). It is collaborative between UNAVCO (NSF's geodetic facility), Mt San Antonio College, and Indiana University. GETSI was initiated after requests by geoscience faculty for geodetic teaching resources for introductory and majors-level students. Full modules take two weeks but module subsets can also be used. Modules are developed and tested by two co-authors and also tested in a third classroom. GETSI is working in partnership with the Science Education Resource Center's (SERC) InTeGrate project on the development, assessment, and dissemination to ensure compatibility with the growing number of resources for geoscience education. Two GETSI modules are being published in October 2015. "Ice mass and sea level changes" includes geodetic data from GRACE, satellite altimetry, and GPS time series. "Imaging Active Tectonics" has students analyzing InSAR and LiDAR data to assess infrastructure earthquake vulnerability. Another three modules are in testing during fall 2015 and will be published in 2016. "Surface process hazards" investigates mass wasting hazard and risk using LiDAR data. "Water resources and geodesy" uses GRACE, vertical GPS, and reflection GPS data to have students investigating droughts in California and the High Great Plains. "GPS, strain, and earthquakes" helps students learn about infinitesimal and coseismic strain through analysis of horizontal GPS data and includes an extension module on the Napa 2014 earthquake. In addition to teaching resources, the GETSI project is compiling recommendations on successful development of geodesy curricula. The chief recommendations so far are the critical importance of including scientific experts in the authorship team and investing significant resources in

  11. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  12. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  13. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  14. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm(2), exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  15. Proceedings of the Invitational Symposium on Emerging Critical Issues in Distance Higher Education (Albany, New York, November 28-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg/CPB Project, Washington, DC.

    This document contains texts of presentations and transcriptions of panel discussions from an international symposium on critical issues in distance higher education. The following are included: "Opening Remarks" (Thomas Sobol); "The Changing Context for Distance Learning, Some Highlights" (Harold D. Hodgkinson); panel…

  16. A Comparative Analysis between Researchers, Innovative Practitioners, and Department Chairs of Critical Issues for Turnaround Leadership in Community College Instructional Programs and Services 2010 and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Matthew J.; Campbell, Dale F.

    2011-01-01

    The Community College Futures Assembly has met annually in Orlando, Florida since 1995 to serve as a showcase for best practices in community colleges as well as a think tank for research into the critical issues facing community colleges. Select conference attendees would have the opportunity to participate in focus groups with respect to…

  17. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  18. Critical Issues and Common Pitfalls in Designing and Conducting Impact Studies in Education: Lessons Learned from the What Works Clearinghouse (Phase I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Mengli; Herman, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on our five years of experience developing WWC evidence standards and reviewing studies against those standards as well as current literature on the design of impact studies, we highlight in this paper some of the most critical issues and common pitfalls in designing and conducting impact studies in education, and provide practical…

  19. Response to Special Issue of "Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education" Concerning "Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the six authors in the special issue of "Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education" concerning her book "Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy." In this response, the author focuses on some general observations that came to mind whilst reading the…

  20. Planning for D[Cubed]T: Data-Driven Decisions about Technology. CD-ROM with Critical Issues in Evaluating the Effectiveness of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Mary; Hawkes, Mark; Rouk, Ullik

    This booklet discusses the following critical issues in evaluating the effectiveness of technology in education: (1) The effectiveness of technology is embedded in the effectiveness of other school improvement efforts; (2) Current practices for evaluating the impact of technology in education need broadening; (3) Standardized test scores offer…

  1. Critical Issues in Library Management: Organizing for Leadership and Decision-Making. Papers from the Thirty-Fifth Allerton Institute. Occasional Papers, Nos. 198/199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce L., Ed.; Weech, Terry L., Ed.

    This is a collection of six papers on critical issues in library management presented at the annual Allerton Park Conference (35th, October 24-26, 1993) sponsored by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. The first paper, "Learning about Leadership: What Works in Modern Organizations"…

  2. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework.

  3. Legal Protections in Public Accommodations Settings: A Critical Public Health Issue for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean

    2015-01-01

    ). Conclusions Discrimination in public accommodations is common and is associated with adverse health outcomes among transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Discrimination in health care settings creates a unique health risk for gender minority people. The passage and enforcement of transgender rights laws that include protections against discrimination in public accommodations—inclusive of health care—are a public health policy approach critically needed to address transgender health inequities. PMID:26219197

  4. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  5. Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lucy J.; Lopez, Fanny Y.; Jia, Justin L.; Pho, Mai T.; Kim, Karen E.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered. PMID:27158858

  6. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  8. In Search of the Revolutionary Power of Critical Pedagogy: Issues of Ideology, Power, and Culture in Technology Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoogd, Glenn L.; Loveless, Avril M.; Yelland, Nicola

    This paper describes critical pedagogy (i.e., a perspective on teaching that seeks to increase equality, voice, individual and cultural expression, and democracy in classrooms) which is meaningful in research on using technology in teacher education. The first section discusses critical pedagogy as it applies to the uses of technology for teacher…

  9. Should child obesity be an issue for child protective services? A call for more research on this critical public health issue.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah J; Gonzalez, Michelle; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Emunah, Josie; Miller, Lindsey; Anton, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    Given the lasting effects on adolescent and adult health, childhood obesity is a major public health issue. The relatively slow progress toward the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, has prompted leaders in both academic and practice sectors to advocate for what may be considered a radical intervention approach, to conceptualize extreme child obesity as an issue of child maltreatment. Advocates of this approach suggest that this conceptualization affords a new angle for intervention-the involvement of child protective services (CPS) in mandating family-focused lifestyle changes aimed at reducing child overweight and, in the most extreme cases, the removal of the obese child from the home. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to inform policies or practices consistent with this recommendation, which is already being implemented in some states. This article aims to provide an overview of the challenges to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity that have motivated the call for CPS involvement in extreme cases and to review the existing research related to this approach. Given that relatively little data are currently available to support or refute the merits of CPS involvement, recommendations for future research that would better inform public policy and decision making regarding this and other intervention strategies are also highlighted.

  10. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  11. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  12. Trends Affecting Nonprofit Camps: Issues and Recommendations for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, Deborah; Henderson, Karla

    2000-01-01

    An American Camping Association project identified trends, issues, and recommendations for addressing the issues that may confront nonprofit camping programs in the next 10-15 years. Results are organized into three categories: mission, strategic management, and critical issues. A sidebar summarizes relevant trends related to funding, management,…

  13. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  14. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  15. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  16. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  17. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  18. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  19. Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shih-Hua; Linscott, Jamie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications…

  20. Real sample temperature: a critical issue in the experiments of nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy on biological samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kamali, Saeed; Zhou, Zhao Hui; Cramer, Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    There are several practical and intertangled issues which make the experiments of nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) on biological samples difficult to perform. The sample temperature is one of the most important issues. In NRVS the real sample temperatures can be very different from the readings on the temperature sensors. In this study the following have been performed: (i) citing and analyzing various existing NRVS data to assess the real sample temperatures during the NRVS measurements and to understand their trends with the samples' loading conditions; (ii) designing several NRVS measurements with (Et(4)N)[FeCl(4)] to verify these trends; and (iii) proposing a new sample-loading procedure to achieve significantly lower real sample temperatures and to balance among the intertangled experimental issues in biological NRVS measurements.