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Sample records for address current deficiencies

  1. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  2. Current issues in iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R D; Cook, J D

    1996-03-01

    This brief review of developments relating to iron deficiency during the past year covers three main areas: iron supplementation, the regulation of iron absorption, and the use of the serum transferrin receptor for the assessment of iron status. The intermittent administration of iron supplement once or twice weekly rather than daily has been advocated by international health agencies in recent years, but radioiron absorption studies in human subjects have failed to demonstrate any absorptive advantage of the intermittent schedule. The value of prophylactic iron supplementation in elderly blood donors was evaluated and shown to offer limited benefit in maintaining donation frequency. A recent model of the regulation of iron absorption involving erythropoietic and store regulators is discussed and a recent article indicating a potential non-hematopoietic effect of hematopoietic growth factors on iron absorption by the gastrointestinal mucosal cell is reviewed. A new measure of functional iron deficiency, namely the serum transferrin receptor, is discussed, with particular reference to its mechanism of production and its great value in distinguishing iron deficiency anemia from the anemia of chronic disease.

  3. Addressing Perceived Skill Deficiencies in Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…

  4. 5 CFR 870.910 - Notification of current addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of current addresses. 870....910 Notification of current addresses. Each assignee and each beneficiary of an assignee must keep the office where the assignment is filed informed of his/her current address....

  5. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  6. Identifying and Addressing Land Surface Model Deficiencies with Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Li, Bailing; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Houborg, Rasmus; Zaitchik, Ben; Reichle, Rolf; Kumar, Sujay

    2012-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) encapsulate our understanding of terrestrial water and energy cycle physics and provide estimates of land surface states and fluxes when and where measurement gaps exist. Gaps in our understanding of the physics are a different issue. Data assimilation can address that issue both directly, through updating of prognostic model variables, or indirectly, when the simulated world conflicts with observation, necessitating adjustment of the model. Here we will focus on the latter case and present several examples, including (1) depth to bedrock adjustment to accommodate assimilated GRACE terrestrial water storage data; (2) steps to prevent immediate melting of assimilated snow cover; (3) irrigation's contribution to evapotranspiration; (4) lessons learned from soil moisture data assimilation; (5) the potential impact of satellite based runoff observation

  7. Strategic Science to Address Current and Future Space Weather Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Schwadron, N.; Antiochos, S. K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kamalabadi, F.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Tobiska, W. K.; Weimer, D. R.; Withers, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program has contributed a wealth of scientific knowledge that is relevant to space weather and user needs. A targeted approach to science questions has resulted in leveraging new scientific knowledge to improve not only our understanding of the Heliophysics domain, but also to develop predictive capabilities in key areas of LWS science. This fascinating interplay between science and applications promises to benefit both domains. Scientists providing feedback to the LWS program are now discussing an evolution of the targeted approach that explicitly considers how new science improves, or enables, predictive capability directly. Long-term program goals are termed "Strategic Science Areas" (SSAs) that address predictive capabilities in six specific areas: geomagnetically induced currents, satellite drag, solar energetic particles, ionospheric total electron content, radio frequency scintillation induced by the ionosphere, and the radiation environment. SSAs are organized around user needs and the impacts of space weather on society. Scientists involved in the LWS program identify targeted areas of research that reference (or bear upon) societal needs. Such targeted science leads to new discoveries and is one of the valid forms of exploration. In this talk we describe the benefits of targeted science, and how addressing societal impacts in an appropriate way maintains the strong science focus of LWS, while also leading to its broader impacts.

  8. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  9. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  10. The key role of government in addressing the pandemic of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H

    2015-04-08

    Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

  11. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use.

  12. Elliptical polarization effects in a chromatically addressed Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. D.; Aspey, R. A.; Kong, M. G.; Gibson, J. R.; Jones, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Optical polarization processes in a parallel-sided glass element used in a Faraday rotation current sensor have been considered. In such sensors the path length necessary to produce sufficient rotation of the plane of polarization is produced by a multiplicity of reflections within the glass element. It is shown that such reflections induce ellipticity of polarization and that this affects the current-sensing performance of the sensor. Two reflection cases, corresponding to total internal reflections at a glass-air interface and reflections by aluminium-coated surfaces, are considered. The latter are shown to produce higher optical attenuation but a lower degree of elliptical polarization. The implications of the induced elliptical polarization in relation to chromatically modulated polychromatic light are considered. It is shown that the resolution of the Faraday sensing is improved by minimizing the ellipticity of the polarization with the aluminium-coated reflections. However a greater dynamic range and signal strength may be achievable with the total internal reflection element.

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xiv - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions A Appendix A to Chapter XIV Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... DISPUTES PANEL Ch. XIV, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xiv - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions A Appendix A to Chapter XIV Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... DISPUTES PANEL Ch. XIV, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions...

  15. Addressing the Needs of Students with Color Vision Deficiencies in the Elementary School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karla Bame

    2013-01-01

    Color vision deficiencies affect approximately eight percent of the male population (Birch & Chisholm, 2008; Cole, 2007; Jenny & Kelso, 2007; Neitz & Neitz, 2000), yet the condition is often overlooked in the educational setting despite the pervasiveness of color in the school (Suero et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  17. [Current recommendations for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, R M; Huch, R; Krafft, A

    2007-04-04

    Iron deficiency is a frequent complication in chronically ill patients and in pregnant women. Iron status can now be characterised precisely and relatively easily by determining serum ferritin, transferritin saturation and if necessary hypochromic erythrocytes and the haemoglobin content of erythrocytes (CHr). Oral iron replacement is usually restricted by limited absorption and low tolerability. Intravenous iron therapy is possible in such cases and can be combined with rHuEPO (e.g. EPREX/ epoetin alfa) in severe cases. Iron saccharate (VENOFER) is commercially available in Switzerland and this permits high dose iron replacement without any danger of anaphylaxis or acute iron toxicity.

  18. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: Current Treatment Options and Emerging Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Haagdorens, Michel; Van Acker, Sara Ilse; Van Gerwen, Veerle; Ní Dhubhghaill, Sorcha; Koppen, Carina; Tassignon, Marie-José; Zakaria, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Severe ocular surface disease can result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), a condition leading to decreased visual acuity, photophobia, and ocular pain. To restore the ocular surface in advanced stem cell deficient corneas, an autologous or allogenic limbal stem cell transplantation is performed. In recent years, the risk of secondary LSCD due to removal of large limbal grafts has been significantly reduced by the optimization of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). Despite the great successes of CLET, there still is room for improvement as overall success rate is 70% and visual acuity often remains suboptimal after successful transplantation. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation reports higher success rates but has not been performed in as many patients yet. This review focuses on limbal epithelial stem cells and the pathophysiology of LSCD. State-of-the-art therapeutic management of LSCD is described, and new and evolving techniques in ocular surface regeneration are being discussed, in particular, advantages and disadvantages of alternative cell scaffolds and cell sources for cell based ocular surface reconstruction. PMID:26788074

  19. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: current perspective on research, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT deficiency and contributes to an international database located in Malmö, Sweden. This database is designed to increase understanding of AAT deficiency. Additionally, AIR members are engaged in active, wide-ranging investigations to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of the disease and meet biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2–3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques. PMID:18046892

  1. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm) and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards

  2. Notification: Audit on Status of Corrective Actions to Address Operational Deficiencies at the EPA’s National Center for Radiation Field Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY16-0179, May 5, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin research on EPA actions to address operational deficiencies relative to QA requirements and staff technical competencies at the National Center for Radiation Field Operations (NCRFO).

  3. REVIEW OF VARIOUS APPROACHES TO ADDRESS HIGH CURRENTS IN SRF ELECTRON LINACS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.

    2005-07-10

    The combination of high-brightness electron sources and high-current SRF Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) leads to a new emerging technology: High-power, high-brightness electron beams. This technology enables extremely high average power Free-Electron Lasers, a new generation of extreme brightness light sources, electron coolers of high-energy hadron storage rings, polarized electron-hadron colliders of very high luminosity, compact Thomson scattering X-ray sources, terahertz radiation generators and much more. What is typical for many of these applications is the need for very high current, defined here as over 100 mA average current, and high brightness, which is charge dependant, but needs to be in the range of between sub micron up to perhaps 50 microns, usually the lower--the better. Suffice it to say that while there are a number of projects aiming at this level of performance, none is anywhere near it. This work will review the problems associated with the achievement of such performance and the various approaches taken in a number of laboratories around the world to address the issues.

  4. Addressing drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Menzel, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI) was applied in order to address the drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region located in the southeastern Mediterranean area. In the first step, the SPEI was derived from spatially interpolated monthly precipitation and temperature data at multiple timescales: accumulated precipitation and monthly mean temperature were considered over a number of timescales - for example 1, 3, and 6 months. To investigate the performance of the drought index, correlation analyses were conducted with simulated soil moisture and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from remote sensing. A comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), i.e., a drought index that does not incorporate temperature, was also conducted. The results show that the 6-month SPEI has the highest correlation with simulated soil moisture and best explains the interannual variation of the monthly NDVI. Hence, a timescale of 6 months is the most appropriate when addressing vegetation growth in the semi-arid region. In the second step, the 6-month SPEI was derived from three climate projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. When comparing the period 2031-2060 with 1961-1990, it is shown that the percentage of time with moderate, severe and extreme drought conditions is projected to increase strongly. To address the impact of drought on the agricultural sector, the irrigation water demand during certain drought years was thereafter simulated with a hydrological model on a spatial resolution of 1 km. A large increase in the demand for irrigation water was simulated, showing that the agricultural sector is expected to become even more vulnerable to drought in the future.

  5. Is current biochar soil study addressing global soil constraints for sustainable agriculture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Yan, Ming; Niu, Yaru; Liu, Xiaoyu; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chen, De; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Li, Lianqing; Joseph, Stephen; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Crowley, David; Filley, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Global soil degradation has been increasingly threatened sustainability of world agriculture. Use of biochar from bio-wastes has been proposed as a global option for its great potential in tackling soil degradation and mitigating climate change in agriculture. For last 10 years, there have been greatly increasing interests in application of charred biomass, more recently termed biochar, as a soil amendment for addressing soil constraints for sustainable agriculture. Biochar soil studies could deliver reliable information for appropriate application of biochar to soils where for sustainable agriculture has been challenged. Here we review the literature of 798 publications reporting biochar soil studies by August, 2015 to address potential gaps in understanding of biochar's role in agriculture. We have found some substantial biases and gaps inherent in the current biochar studies. 1) The majority of published studies were from developed regions where the soils are less constrained and were much more frequent in laboratory and glasshouse pot experiments than field studies under realistic agriculture. 2) The published biochar soil studies have used more often small kiln or lab prepared biochar than commercial scale biochars, more often wood and municipal waste derived biochars than crop straw biochars. Overall, the lack of long-term well designed field studies using biochar produced in commercial processes may have limited our current understanding of biochar's potential to enhance global crop production and climate change mitigation. We have also recommended a global alliance between longer-term research experiments and biochar production facilities to foster the uptake of this important technology at a global scale. Keywords: biochar, soil study, literature review, research gap, global perspective, quantitative assessment, sustainable agriculture

  6. Model-based probe state estimation and crack inverse methods addressing eddy current probe variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Oneida, Erin K.; Shell, Eric B.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias; Murphy, R. Kim; Mazdiyasni, Siamack; Lindgren, Eric A.; Mooers, Ryan D.

    2017-02-01

    A model-based calibration process is introduced that estimates the state of the eddy current probe. First, a carefully designed surrogate model was built using VIC-3D® simulations covering the critical range of probe rotation angles, tilt in two directions, and probe offset (liftoff) for both transverse and longitudinal flaw orientations. Some approximations and numerical compromises in the model were made to represent tilt in two directions and reduce simulation time; however, this surrogate model was found to represent the key trends in the eddy current response for each of the four probe properties in experimental verification studies well. Next, this model was incorporated into an iterative inversion scheme during the calibration process, to estimate the probe state while also addressing the amplitude/phase fit and centering the calibration notch indication. Results are presented showing several examples of the blind estimation of tilt and rotation angle for known experimental cases with reasonable agreement. Once the probe state is estimated, the final step is to transform the base crack inversion surrogate model and apply it for crack characterization. Using this process, results are presented demonstrating improved crack inversion performance for extreme probe states.

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xiv - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) The Office address of the Board is as follows: 1900 E Street, NW., Room 7469, Washington, DC 20424...—254-7362; Commercial—(202) 254-7362 (b) The Office address of the General Counsel is as follows: 1900... (c) The Office address of the Chief Administrative Law Judge is as follows: 1111 20th Street,...

  8. Addressing current and future challenges for the NHS: the role of good leadership.

    PubMed

    Elton, Lotte

    2016-10-03

    Purpose This paper aims to describe and analyse some of the ways in which good leadership can enable those working within the National Health Service (NHS) to weather the changes and difficulties likely to arise in the coming years, and takes the format of an essay written by the prize-winner of the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management's Student Prize. The Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management ran its inaugural Student Prize in 2015-2016, which aimed at medical students with an interest in medical leadership. In running the Prize, the Faculty hoped to foster an enthusiasm for and understanding of the importance of leadership in medicine. Design/methodology/approach The Faculty asked entrants to discuss the role of good leadership in addressing the current and future challenges faced by the NHS, making reference to the Leadership and Management Standards for Medical Professionals published by the Faculty in 2015. These standards were intended to help guide current and future leaders and were grouped into three categories, namely, self, team and corporate responsibility. Findings This paper highlights the political nature of health care in the UK and the increasing impetus on medical professionals to navigate debates on austerity measures and health-care costs, particularly given the projected deficit in NHS funding. It stresses the importance of building organisational cultures prizing transparency to prevent future breaches in standards of care and the value of patient-centred approaches in improving satisfaction for both patients and staff. Identification of opportunities for collaboration and partnership is emphasised as crucial to assuage the burden that lack of appropriate social care places on clinical services. Originality/value This paper offers a novel perspective - that of a medical student - on the complex issues faced by the NHS over the coming years and utilises a well-regarded set of standards in conceptualising the role that health

  9. The current unmet need in type 2 diabetes mellitus: addressing glycemia and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Philip

    2009-05-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires a multifaceted approach of both lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight control, smoking cessation) and pharmacological therapy. In addition to agents that improve hyperglycemia, patients often require treatments to address the additional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Although the benefits of early, aggressive glycemic control are clearly established, treatment remains suboptimal. Many patients fail to achieve long-term glycemic control, with rates of patients with T2DM achieving target goals for hypertension and dyslipidemia also unsatisfactory. Several factors contribute to the failure to meet treatment goals. These include poor adherence by patients to lifestyle and pharmacological treatment, lack of understanding by patients of the long-term benefits of treatment, patient concerns about adverse effects leading to poor compliance, and failure of health care providers to initiate or intensify medications appropriately (termed clinical inertia). This article reviews the current state of T2DM treatment and the management of CV risk factors associated with T2DM, and identifies unmet treatment needs.

  10. 43 CFR 429.32 - How will Reclamation address currently authorized existing private exclusive recreational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreational or residential uses at least once every 5 years to determine if the following criteria are being.... The report will state whether the existing use meets the required criteria listed in paragraph (b) of... provided to make corrections identified in the report. Failure to correct the deficiencies within the...

  11. The GÉANT network: addressing current and future needs of the HEP community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Vincenzo; Usman, Mian

    2015-12-01

    The GÉANT infrastructure is the backbone that serves the scientific communities in Europe for their data movement needs and their access to international research and education networks. Using the extensive fibre footprint and infrastructure in Europe the GÉANT network delivers a portfolio of services aimed to best fit the specific needs of the users, including Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure, end-to-end performance monitoring, advanced network services (dynamic circuits, L2-L3VPN, MD-VPN). This talk will outline the factors that help the GÉANT network to respond to the needs of the High Energy Physics community, both in Europe and worldwide. The Pan-European network provides the connectivity between 40 European national research and education networks. In addition, GÉANT also connects the European NRENs to the R&E networks in other world region and has reach to over 110 NREN worldwide, making GÉANT the best connected Research and Education network, with its multiple intercontinental links to different continents e.g. North and South America, Africa and Asia-Pacific. The High Energy Physics computational needs have always had (and will keep having) a leading role among the scientific user groups of the GÉANT network: the LHCONE overlay network has been built, in collaboration with the other big world REN, specifically to address the peculiar needs of the LHC data movement. Recently, as a result of a series of coordinated efforts, the LHCONE network has been expanded to the Asia-Pacific area, and is going to include some of the main regional R&E network in the area. The LHC community is not the only one that is actively using a distributed computing model (hence the need for a high-performance network); new communities are arising, as BELLE II. GÉANT is deeply involved also with the BELLE II Experiment, to provide full support to their distributed computing model, along with a perfSONAR-based network monitoring system. GÉANT has also

  12. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  13. 5 CFR Appendix A to 5 Cfr Chapter... - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DC 20424-0001; telephone: (202) 218-7740; fax: (202) 482-6657. (b) The Office address, telephone number, and fax number of the General Counsel are: Suite 200, 1400 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20424... the Chief Administrative Law Judge are: Suite 300, 1400 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20424;...

  14. 5 CFR Appendix A to 5 Cfr Chapter... - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DC 20424-0001; telephone: (202) 218-7740; fax: (202) 482-6657. (b) The Office address, telephone number, and fax number of the General Counsel are: Suite 200, 1400 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20424... the Chief Administrative Law Judge are: Suite 300, 1400 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20424;...

  15. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  16. 17 CFR 3.30 - Current address for purpose of delivery of communications from the Commission or the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current address for purpose of... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.30..., commodity pool operator, commodity trading advisor, floor trader that is a non-natural person, or...

  17. 17 CFR 3.30 - Current address for purpose of delivery of communications from the Commission or the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current address for purpose of... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.30..., introducing broker, commodity pool operator, commodity trading advisor, or leverage transaction merchant...

  18. Current progress in public health models addressing the critical organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Villani, Vincenzo; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Shalhoub, Joseph; Michel, Sebastian G

    2014-12-01

    Since its inauguration in 1954, the field of modern transplantation has made great strides in surgical technique, the prevention of acute and chronic rejection, the minimization of immunosuppression-related side-effects and transplant tolerance. As such, organ transplantation is used worldwide as a curative, life-saving treatment for people with end-stage organ failure. However, the successes of organ transplantation have resulted in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists far exceeding the number of organs available, with growing numbers of patients dying while awaiting transplants. In order to address this critical organ shortage, a number of legislative changes have been implemented worldwide to increase the number of individuals registering as organ donors. These have included presumed consent donation, incentivized organ donation, commercial organ transplantation and mandated choice models. This article will address these public health policies in turn. The implementation of these strategies and the evidence for their efficacy will be evaluated. Based on this, we have identified that well-supported transplant coordinators approaching next-of-kin, incentives and public health campaigns are key factors that increase organ donation. Finally we propose a modified mandated choice model that may be an alternative option to maximize the number of available organs for transplantation.

  19. Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics: Determining Computational Priorities and Addressing Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Tawhai, Merryn; Bischoff, Jeff; Einstein, Daniel R.; Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent; Reinbolt, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Abstract In this article, we describe some current multiscale modeling issues in computational biomechanics from the perspective of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems and mechanotransduction. First, we outline the necessity of multiscale simulations in these biological systems. Then we summarize challenges inherent to multiscale biomechanics modeling, regardless of the subdiscipline, followed by computational challenges that are system-specific. We discuss some of the current tools that have been utilized to aid research in multiscale mechanics simulations, and the priorities to further the field of multiscale biomechanics computation.

  20. Addressing neuropsychiatric disturbances during rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: current and future methods

    PubMed Central

    Arciniegas, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and sensorimotor disturbances are the principal clinical manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) throughout the early postinjury period. These post-traumatic neuropsychiatric disturbances present substantial challenges to patients, their families, and clinicians providing their rehabilitative care, the optimal approaches to which remain incompletely developed. In this article, a neuropsychiairically informed, neurobiologically anchored approach to understanding and meeting challenges is described. The foundation for thai approach is laid, with a review of clinical case definitions of TBI and clarification of their intended referents. The differential diagnosis of event-related neuropsychiatric disturbances is considered next, after which the clinical and neurobiological heterogeneity within the diagnostic category of TBI are discussed. The clinical manifestations of biomechanical force-induced brain dysfunction are described as a state of post-traumatic encephalopathy (PTE) comprising several phenomenologically distinct stages, PTE is then used as a framework for understanding and clinically evaluating the neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI encountered commonly during the early post-injury rehabilitation period, and for considering the types and timings of neurorehabilitative interventions. Finally, directions for future research that may address productively the challenges to TBI rehabilitation presented by neuropsychiatric disturbances are considered. PMID:22034400

  1. Current and future therapies for addressing the effects of inflammation on HDL cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fatima; Baker, Wendy S; Khan, Madiha I; Thukuntla, Shwetha; McKinney, Kevin H; Abate, Nicola; Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa

    2017-03-22

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes arising from metabolic abnormalities are known to precipitate the development of CVD. Several metabolic and inflammatory markers have been proposed for predicting the progression of CVD, including high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For ~50 years, HDL-C has been considered as the atheroprotective 'good' cholesterol because of its strong inverse association with the progression of CVD. Thus, interventions to increase the concentration of HDL-C have been successfully tested in animals; however, clinical trials were unable to confirm the cardiovascular benefits of pharmaceutical interventions aimed at increasing HDL-C levels. Based on these data, the significance of HDL-C in the prevention of CVD has been called into question. Fundamental in vitro and animal studies suggest that HDL-C functionality, rather than HDL-C concentration, is important for the CVD-preventive qualities of HDL-C. Our current review of the literature positively demonstrates the negative impact of systemic and tissue (i.e. adipose tissue) inflammation in the healthy metabolism and function of HDL-C. Our survey indicates that HDL-C may be a good marker of adipose tissue health, independently of its atheroprotective associations. We summarize the current findings on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs to either prevent HDL-C clearance or improve the function and production of HDL-C particles. It is evident that the therapeutic agents currently available may not provide the optimal strategy for altering HDL-C metabolism and function, and thus, further research is required to supplement this mechanistic approach for preventing the progression of CVD.

  2. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients. PMID:26248374

  3. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Haque, Azizul; Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients.

  4. Photoinduced electric currents in carotenoid-deficient Chlamydomonas mutants reconstituted with retinal and its analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sineshchekov, O A; Govorunova, E G; Dér, A; Keszthelyi, L; Nultsch, W

    1994-01-01

    Reconstitution of the photoelectric responses involved in photosensory transduction in "blind" cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii carotenoid-deficient mutants was studied by means of a recently developed population method. Both the photoreceptor current and the regenerative response can be restored by addition of all-trans-retinal, 9-demethyl-retinal, or dimethyl-octatrienal, while the retinal analogs prevented from 13-cis/trans isomerization, 13-demethyl-retinal and citral, are not effective. Fluence dependence, spectral sensitivity, and effect of hydroxylamine treatment on retinal-induced photoelectric responses are similar to those found earlier in green strains of Chlamydomonas, although an alternative mechanism of antenna directivity in white cells of reconstituted "blind" mutants (likely based on the focusing effect of the transparent cell bodies) leads to the reversed sign of phototaxis in mutant cells under the same conditions. The results obtained indicate that both photoreceptor current and regenerative response are initiated by the same or similar rhodopsins with arhaebacterial-like chromophore(s) and prove directly the earlier suggested identity of the photoreceptor pigment(s) involved in photomotile and photoelectric responses in flagellated algae. PMID:8075341

  5. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young People in Ethiopia: An Analysis of the Current Situation.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Nigina; Kereta, Worknesh; Mitchell, Kirstin R

    2015-09-01

    Young people in Ethiopia face a number of risks to their sexual and reproductive health, including adolescent pregnancy, sexual violence, and unmet need for family planning. This study explores the extent to which current service provision addresses the SRH needs of young Ethiopians . Methods included a comprehensive review of the academic and policy literature on young people's SRH and service provision in Ethiopia; and 14 semi-structured Key Informant Interviews. Factors affecting utilization of sexual and reproductive services by young people include: limited SRH knowledge, lack of open discussion of sexual matters, low status of women, cultural and logistical barriers, competing priorities among community health professionals, limited resources for health facilities, and negative attitudes of providers towards unmarried youth. While the antenatal needs of young married women are somewhat addressed, gaps exist in terms of services for unmarried youth, young men, rural youth and vulnerable groups. The national policy platform has created an enabling environment for addressing youth SRH needs but challenges to implementing these policies still persist. The way forward requires a focus on reducing barriers to utilization of services, and attention to underserved groups. It also requires resource mobilization, strong leadership and effective coordination between stakeholders and donors.

  6. Addressing current medical needs in invasive fungal infection prevention and treatment with new antifungal agents, strategies and formulations.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Stuart K; Drew, Richard H; Perfect, John R

    2011-09-01

    Introduction: Morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remains unacceptably high. Such diseases represent a substantial burden to the healthcare system. New options are needed to address antifungal resistance in existing and emerging pathogens and improve treatment outcomes while minimizing drug-related toxicities and interactions. Awareness of new and potential future options is of great value for those healthcare professionals who care for patients with IFIs. Areas covered: A search of PubMed, infectious diseases conference abstracts and reference lists from relevant publications was conducted and relevant information abstracted. This review describes the limitations of existing systemic antifungal therapies (e.g., resistance, drug-drug interactions, drug-related toxicities) and summarizes data regarding several emerging antifungal compounds including (but not limited to) new triazoles (e.g. isavuconazole, ravuconazole), echinocandins (e.g., aminocandin) and nikkomycin Z. Agents in clinical trials such as (but not limited to) new triazoles (e.g., isavuconazole, ravuconazole), echinocandins (e.g., aminocandin) and nikkomycin are included. New formulations of existing drugs including reformulations of miconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B are also reviewed. Finally, new or novel administration strategies for existing drugs such as combination antifungal therapy, antifungal dose escalation, adjunctive use of iron chelators and preemptive therapy are discussed. Expert opinion: All present antifungal agents have some deficiencies in antifungal spectra, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and/or drug-drug interactions, making them less than ideal for some fungal infections. Therefore, there remains an urgent need to find safe, effective, rapidly fungicidal, broad-spectrum antifungal agents with excellent pharmacodynamics to effectively eliminate the fungus from the body with short antifungal courses.

  7. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  8. Is vitamin D deficiency associated with heart failure? A review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Megha; Phan, Anita; Willix, Robert; Barber, Mickey; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 1 billion people worldwide have deficient or insufficient levels of vitamin D. Even more alarming is the association of vitamin D deficiency with many types of diseases, particularly heart failure (HF). Hypovitaminosis D has been observed to be highly prevalent in the HF community with rates varying from approximately 80% to 95%. Higher rates of deficiency have been linked to winter months, in patients with protracted decompensated HF, darker skin pigmentation, and higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes. In fact, some data suggest vitamin D deficiency may even be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with HF. Traditionally obtained through UV exposure and activated in the liver and then the kidneys, vitamin D is classified as a vitamin but functions as a steroid hormone. The hormone acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, renal juxtaglomerular cells, and most interestingly, cardiac myocytes. Studies have shown that the association between vitamin D deficiency and HF often manifests in the structural components of cardiac myocytes and/or through alterations of the neurohormonal cascade. In addition, vitamin D may also act rapidly through intracellular nongenomic receptors that alter cardiac contractility. Unfortunately, prospective vitamin D supplementation trials show mixed results. In rat models, successful correction of deficiency was associated with reductions in ventricular hypertrophy. In humans, however, echocardiographic dimensions did not change significantly. These results bring into questions whether vitamin D is a risk factor for HF, a marker of HF disease severity, or has a true pathologic role. This article provides a thorough review of vitamin D deficiency etiology, prevalence, and possible pathophysiologic role in HF. Furthermore, we carefully review prospective trials on vitamin D therapy in HF. We believe more trials on vitamin D therapy in HF need to be

  9. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  10. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  11. Rare deficiency {alpha}{sub 1} Antitrypsin variants; current status and SSCP analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, G.D.; Cox, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    The serine protease inhibitor {alpha}{sub 1} Antitrypsin ({alpha}{sub 1}AT) is an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase. A deficiency of {alpha}{sub 1}AT (< 20% of the normal amount of {alpha}{sub 1}AT) is associated with early-onset emphysema and childhood liver disease. The most common deficiency allele, PI{sup *}Z, has a frequency of 1-2% in the North American white population. Several rare deficiency alleles (including null (QO) alleles; < 1% of normal) with a combined frequency of approximately 10{sup -4}, have been reported. Of 24 sequenced deficiency variants, the defect in 15 has been proven to be due to gene deletion (2), mRNA degradation (2), error in mRNA processing (1), intracellular protein accumulation (5) and intracellular protein degradation (5). We have determined conditions for detection of new mutations. We have screened DNA from 20 individuals carrying rare deficiency alleles. In some individuals, RFLP haplotype analysis suggested the presence of a new variant. The root alleles, M1 (Ala 213) or M1 (Val 213), and the presence of variants whose mutant sequence alters a restriction endonuclease site were determined by digestion of the amplified exon. Mutation detection was performed by SSCP analysis of each of the four coding exons followed by direct sequencing of the amplified exon. 12 of 14 known mutations (85%) were detected by SSCP analysis. We detected a new null allele in a patient that also carries the QO{sup *}hongkong allele. C to A transversion at the third nucleotide of codon 38 creates a stop codon on the M1(Val 213) root allele. This new variant allele has been named PI{sup *}QOkowloon. Characterization of the mutations leading to {alpha}{sub 1}AT deficiency allows delineation of amino acids critical for stability, for normal secretion and for normal function.

  12. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  13. Current opinion on the management of iron deficiency anaemia in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Derovs, Aleksejs; Pokrotnieks, Juris; Derova, Jelena; Danilans, Anatolijs; Pukitis, Aldis; Dombure, Polina; Leiniece, Sandra; Zeltina Indra

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia in the world. Despite frequently weak and masked clinical presentation of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), this disease is very serious with complications leading to early mortality. In the developed countries IDA is predominantly diagnosed as the complication of another disease or as the result of major bleeding events. Diagnosis of IDA should be based on laboratory findings i.e. haemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and ferritin. Latter is the most sensitive marker for iron deficiency. Anaemia of chronic disease should be taken into an account as a potential differential diagnosis or coexisting state. For women in fertility age with IDA, gynaecological disorders should be ruled out first. Males and postmenopausal women with IDA should undergo upper, lower and in certain cases capsule endoscopy and/or enteroscopy to find a plausible cause of IDA. The ultimate goal of therapy is to find out and treat the primary cause of IDA. Iron body stores should be restored using either oral or parenteral iron preparations. The use of parenteral iron preparations in patients with gastrointestinal pathologies is often clinically substantiated for the treatment of IDA. Red blood cell transfusion should be administered in emergency cases only.

  14. Superior high-field current density in slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. H.; Nakane, T.; Kumakura, H.

    2005-12-01

    A series of Fe-clad MgxB2 tapes with x varying from 0.5 to 1.2 was prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. Slightly Mg-deficient samples showed higher Jc in high magnetic fields, whereas samples with stoichiometric Mg or a slight excess of Mg exhibited better Jc in the low-field region. The sample with x =0.9 showed the best Jc in the applied magnetic field. The MgB2 core was porous in Mg-deficient tapes but with smaller grain sizes than the samples with a slight Mg excess due to insufficient grain growth. Some fine nanometer size grains were also observed in the B-rich samples. The enhanced grain boundary pinning due to the smaller grain size may explain the superior high-field Jc property of the slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes. Our results indicate that preparing MgB2 samples with a slight excess of Mg may not be advantageous when developing devices for high-field applications.

  15. Access, availability, and infrastructure deficiency: The current management of thyroid disease in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Fualal, Jane; Ehrenkranz, Joel

    2016-08-26

    Thyroid disease, a neglected tropical disease and the most common noncommunicable disease in the developing world, is overlooked, under-diagnosed, and inadequately managed. The spectrum of thyroid disorders in the developing world is qualitatively different from that found in industrialized countries. This qualitative difference has resulted in limited access to clinical, laboratory, and imaging resources that are necessary for the care of patients with thyroid disease. The management of thyroid disease in the developing world is comparable to the care provided for disorders of the thyroid in North America fifty years ago.This article reviews public health and clinical aspects of developing world medical and surgical thyroid disease. Topics covered include iodine deficiency disorders, congenital hypothyroidism, goiter, thyroid cancer, and hyper- and hypothyroidism. The review concludes with a description of programs based on smartphone technology to improve the availability, affordability, and quality of thyroid disease care.

  16. Thiamin deficiency and heart failure: the current knowledge and gaps in literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mavra; Azizi-Namini, Parastoo; Yan, Andrew T; Keith, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The management of heart failure (HF) represents a significant challenge for both patients as well as the healthcare system in industrialized countries. Thiamin is a required coenzyme in the energy-producing reactions that fuel myocardial contraction. Therefore, thiamin deficiency (TD) may contribute to myocardial weakness by limiting the energy available for contraction. Previous studies have reported a wide range in the prevalence of TD in patients with HF (3-91 %). The impact of thiamin supplementation in patients with HF is inconclusive. Studies conducted to date are limited by their small sample size, indirect methods of assessing thiamin concentration, methodological inconsistencies, use of impractical means of thiamin supplementation, a focus on hospitalized patients, and lack a robust technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to improve our understanding of any change in nutritional requirements associated with chronic disease as well as the clinical benefit of supplementation.

  17. Effects of pulsed potential on address electrode in a surface-discharge alternating-current plasma display panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong Chull; Shintani, Youichi; Tachibana, Kunihide; Sakai, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Naoki

    2003-06-01

    The influence of pulsed potential application onto the address electrode of an ac-type plasma display panel was investigated from the observation of front and side views of Xe atom densities in the metastable (1s5) and excited (2p) states in a unit discharge cell by using microscopic laser absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. It was seen that a predischarge occurs between the address electrode and one of the sustain electrode worked as a preceding anode, which is a similar effect found previously by applying a higher sustain voltage. The predischarge partially erases the surface charge accumulated in the preceding pulse, but it induces a faster main sustain discharge, bowing towards the address electrode, and enhances the production efficiency of Xe(1s5) atoms, if the applied potential is within an optimal range.

  18. 17 CFR 3.30 - Current address for purpose of delivery of communications from the Commission or the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... application for registration (Form 7-R or Form 8-R) or as submitted on the biographical supplement (Form 8-R... relating to a biographical supplement submitted for or on behalf of a principal to the futures commission... Association of any change of the address an the application for registration, biographical supplement,...

  19. 17 CFR 3.30 - Current address for purpose of delivery of communications from the Commission or the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application for registration (Form 7-R or Form 8-R) or as submitted on the biographical supplement (Form 8-R... relating to a biographical supplement submitted for or on behalf of a principal to the futures commission... application for registration, biographical supplement, or other address filed with the National...

  20. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immune deficiency diseases: current status and critical needs.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Kohn, Donald B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Puck, Jennifer M; Schultz, Kirk R; Buckley, Rebecca H; Eapen, Mary; Kamani, Naynesh R; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Roifman, Chaim M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Shearer, William T

    2008-12-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used for 40 years to ameliorate or cure primary immune deficiency (PID) diseases, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and non-SCID PID. There is a critical need for evaluation of the North American experience of different HCT approaches for these diseases to identify best practices and plan future investigative clinical trials. Our survey of incidence and prevalence of PID in North American practice sites indicates that such studies are feasible. A conference of experts in HCT treatment of PID has recommended (1) a comprehensive cross-sectional and retrospective analysis of HCT survivors with SCID; (2) a prospective study of patients with SCID receiving HCT, with comparable baseline and follow-up testing across participating centers; (3) a pilot study of newborn screening for SCID to identify affected infants before compromise by infection; and (4) studies of the natural history of disease in patients who do or do not receive HCT for the non-SCID diseases of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and chronic granulomatous disease. To accomplish these goals, collaboration by a consortium of institutions in North America is proposed. Participation of immunologists and HCT physicians having interest in PID and experts in laboratory methods, clinical outcomes assessment, databases, and analysis will be required for the success of these studies.

  1. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  2. Current Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) deficiencies and potential improvements utilizing TSO-C91a ELTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, Bernard J.; Dreibelbis, Ryland R.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of current ELT problems and potential improvements that could be made by employing the TSO-C91a ELTs to replace the current TSO-C91 ELTs. The scope of the study included the following: (1) validate the problems; (2) determine specific failure causes; (3) determine false alarm causes; (4) estimate improvements from TSO-C91a; (5) estimate benefits from replacement of the current ELTs; and (6) determine need and benefits for improved ELT inspection and maintenance. A detailed comparison between the two requirements documents (TSO-C91 and -91a) was made to assess improved performance of the ELT in each category of failure cause and each cause of false alarms. The comparison and analysis resulted in projecting a success of operation rate approximately 3 times the current rate and a reduction in false alarms to 0.25 of those generated by TSO-C91 ELTs. These improvements led to a projection of benefits of approximately 25 additional lives to be saved each year with TSO-C91a ELTs and an improved inspection and maintenance program.

  3. Current prevalence of goiter determined by ultrasonography and associated risk factors in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Mustafa; Erem, Cihangir; Deger, Orhan; Topbas, Murat; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Can, Emine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of goiter and related risk factors in an adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 2,500 subjects (1,270 women and 1,230 men, aged over 20 years) by multistage sampling. Blood and urine specimens were collected for the assessment of thyroid function. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was performed to measure thyroid volume and evaluate nodules. The overall goiter prevalence was 26.5 % (28.4 % in women, 24.5 % in men, P < 0.05). Median thyroid volume was 15.59 mL (13.65 mL in women, 17.96 mL in men, P < 0.0001). Median urinary iodine was 122.79 μg/L. USG revealed thyroid nodules in 35.2 % of the subjects (38.4 % in women, 31.8 % in men, P < 0.005). Age group analysis revealed the lowest rate in the 20-29-year age group (12.5 %), which increased with age, reaching the highest level (38.4 %) in the 70+ years age group. The prevalence of goiter was negatively correlated with education level and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and positive family history. According to occupation, goiter prevalence was highest in farmers (35.3 %) and housewives (32.2 %). Despite a normal range of current urinary iodine excretion levels, prevalence of goiter in this adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient province of Turkey remained high, even about 10 years after salt iodine supplementation program introduction. In addition, the goiter prevalence was higher for female gender, advanced age, positive family history of goiter, low education level, and high BMI.

  4. Addressing the current bottlenecks of metabolomics: Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis™, an isotopic-labeling technique for accurate biochemical profiling.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Felice A; Beecher, Chris

    2012-09-01

    Metabolomics or biochemical profiling is a fast emerging science; however, there are still many associated bottlenecks to overcome before measurements will be considered robust. Advances in MS resolution and sensitivity, ultra pressure LC-MS, ESI, and isotopic approaches such as flux analysis and stable-isotope dilution, have made it easier to quantitate biochemicals. The digitization of mass spectrometers has simplified informatic aspects. However, issues of analytical variability, ion suppression and metabolite identification still plague metabolomics investigators. These hurdles need to be overcome for accurate metabolite quantitation not only for in vitro systems, but for complex matrices such as biofluids and tissues, before it is possible to routinely identify biomarkers that are associated with the early prediction and diagnosis of diseases. In this report, we describe a novel isotopic-labeling method that uses the creation of distinct biochemical signatures to eliminate current bottlenecks and enable accurate metabolic profiling.

  5. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  6. Food deprivation and nicotine correct akinesia and freezing in Na(+) -leak current channel (NALCN)-deficient strains of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, K; Zweig, R; Aamodt, E J; Dwyer, D S

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in various genes adversely affect locomotion in model organisms, and thus provide valuable clues about the complex processes that control movement. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss-of-function mutations in the Na(+) leak current channel (NALCN) and associated proteins (UNC-79 and UNC-80) cause akinesia and fainting (abrupt freezing of movement during escape from touch). It is not known how defects in the NALCN induce these phenotypes or if they are chronic and irreversible. Here, we report that akinesia and freezing are state-dependent and reversible in NALCN-deficient mutants (nca-1;nca-2, unc-79 and unc-80) when additional cation channels substitute for this protein. Two main measures of locomotion were evaluated: spontaneous movement (traversal of >2 head lengths during a 5 second observation period) and the touch-freeze response (movement greater than three body bends in response to tail touch). Food deprivation for as little as 3 min stimulated spontaneous movement and corrected the touch-freeze response. Conversely, food-deprived animals that moved normally in the absence of bacteria rapidly reverted to uncoordinated movement when re-exposed to food. The effects of food deprivation were mimicked by nicotine, which suggested that acetylcholine mediated the response. Nicotine appeared to act on interneurons or motor neurons rather than directly at the neuromuscular junction because levamisole, which stimulates muscle contraction, did not correct movement. Neural circuits have been proposed to account for the effects of food deprivation and nicotine on spontaneous movement and freezing. The NALCN may play an unrecognized role in human movement disorders characterized by akinesia and freezing gait.

  7. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

  8. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    INFORMATION 5841014708036CX PROCESSOR,RADAR DATA 2840010491153OJ LINER ,COMBUSTION CHAMBER,AIRCRAFT GAS TU 6610015272395 INDICATOR, VERTICAL...1610008736424 AFTER BODY HALF BODY 1620011708325 CYLINDER AND PISTON ASSEMBLY,LANDING GEA F-22 5985015260321 Antenna 1560015246083 Radome 5993015237903...Generator/Amplifier 6130014869149 Power Supply 5841015279740 Processor, Radar Data 2840015614467RF LINER ,AFT EXT SW UR 1560015252952FR DOOR,ACCESS

  9. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D.

  10. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Proteasome inhibitor (MG132) rescues Nav1.5 protein content and the cardiac sodium current in dystrophin-deficient mdx (5cv) mice.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Gavillet, Bruno; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.5, plays a central role in cardiac excitability and impulse propagation and associates with the dystrophin multiprotein complex at the lateral membrane of cardiomyocytes. It was previously shown that Nav1.5 protein content and the sodium current (l Na) were both decreased in cardiomyocytes of dystrophin-deficient mdx (5cv) mice. In this study, wild-type and mdx (5cv) mice were treated for 7 days with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 μg/Kg/24 h) using implanted osmotic mini pumps. MG132 rescued both the total amount of Nav1.5 protein and l Na but, unlike in previous studies, de novo expression of dystrophin was not observed in skeletal or cardiac muscle. This study suggests that the reduced expression of Nav1.5 in dystrophin-deficient cells is dependent on proteasomal degradation.

  12. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  13. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations.

    PubMed

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono

    2013-04-01

    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended.

  14. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  15. Are Systematic Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Supplementation Currently Feasible for Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Beyond its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism for healthy bone mineralization, there is increasing awareness for vitamin D contribution in modulation of immune reactions. Given that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving excess immune/inflammatory activity and posing great therapeutic challenges, it is conceivable to claim that vitamin D treatment may be a safe and effective treatment to influence or modify the primary disease and its related comorbidities. Nevertheless, consistent body of research supporting this hypothesis is still lacking. In this paper, we examine whether systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency are feasible at present. We will review the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D and its contribution in initiation and progression of AS, as well as how they would determine the occurrence of comorbid conditions. Our conclusion is that despite the overwhelmed interest about vitamin D treatment in AS patients, systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency of all AS patients are not feasible as yet. This stresses the need for further extensive well-designed research to prove vitamin D efficacy in AS beyond bone protection. And if utility is proven, personalized treatment regimes, duration of treatment, and threshold values for vitamin D should be provided. PMID:28116213

  16. Magnetic studies of current conduction and flux pinning in high-T(sub c) cuprates: Virgin, irradiated, and oxygen deficient materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J. G.; Christen, D. K.; Kerchner, H. R.; Sles, B. C.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Civale, L.; Marwick, A. D.; Holtzberg, F.

    1992-09-01

    To increase the current density and pinning of magnetic flux in high temperature superconductors, defects with point-like and line-like geometries were created in controlled numbers using ion irradiation methods. Single crystals of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 superconductors were studied using dc magnetic methods. These studies showed greatly increased irreversibility in the vortex state magnetization and enhanced intragrain current density J(sub c) following irradiation. Linear defects, created by irradiation with energetic heavy ions, are particularly effective in pinning vortices at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. Further investigations of 'flux creep' (the time dependence of magnetization) are well described by recent vortex glass and collective pinning theories. Complementary investigations have delineated the role of oxygen deficiency (delta) on pinning in aligned Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) materials.

  17. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  18. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  20. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  1. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  2. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in respiratory deficiency and current investigations on its improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Manap, Hany Hazfiza; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi

    2017-03-01

    The implementation of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) as one of the extracorporeal life support system is getting more attention today. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to study the clinical practice of commercial ECCO2R system, current trend of its development and also the perspective on future improvement that can be done to the existing ECCO2R system. The strength of this article lies in its review scope, which focuses on the commercial ECCO2R therapy in the market based on membrane lung and current investigation to improve the efficiency of the ECCO2R system, in terms of surface modification by carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilization technique and respiratory electrodialysis (R-ED). Our methodology approach involves the identification of relevant published literature from PubMed and Web of Sciences search engine using the terms Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal (ECCO2R), Extracorporeal life support, by combining terms between ECCO2R and CA and also ECCO2R with R-ED. This identification only limits articles in English language. Overall, several commercial ECCO2R systems are known and proven safe to be used in patients in terms of efficiency, safety and risk of complication. In addition, CA-modified hollow fiber for membrane lung and R-ED are proven to have good potential to be applied in conventional ECCO2R design. The detailed technique and current progress on CA immobilization and R-ED development were also reviewed in this article.

  3. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  4. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  5. Model for Electron-Beam-Induced Current Analysis of mc-Si Addressing Defect Contrast Behavior in Heavily Contaminated PV Material: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Much work has been done to correlate electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) contrast behavior of extended defects with the character and degree of impurity decoration. However, existing models fail to account for recently observed contrast behavior of defects in heavily contaminated mc-Si PV cells. We have observed large increases in defect contrast with decreasing temperature for all electrically active defects, regardless of their initial contrast signatures at ambient temperature. This negates the usefulness of the existing models in identifying defect character and levels of impurity decoration based on the temperature dependence of the contrast behavior. By considering the interactions of transition metal impurities with the silicon lattice and extended defects, we attempt to provide an explanation for these observations. Our findings will enhance the ability of the PV community to understand and mitigate the effects of these types of defects as the adoption of increasingly lower purity feedstocks for mc-Si PV production continues.

  6. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  7. Towards a rAAV-based gene therapy for ADA-SCID: from ADA deficiency to current and future treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jared N; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-07-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency fosters a rare, devastating pediatric immune deficiency with concomitant opportunistic infections, metabolic anomalies and multiple organ system pathology. The standard of care for adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) includes enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation. Gene therapies for ADA-SCID over nearly two decades have exclusively involved retroviral vectors targeted to lymphocytes and hematopoetic progenitors. These groundbreaking gene therapies represent a revolution in clinical medicine, but come with several challenges, including the risk of insertional mutagenesis. An alternative gene therapy for ADA-SCID may utilize recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo, with numerous target tissues, to foster ectopic expression and secretion of adenosine deaminase. This review endeavors to describe ADA-SCID, the traditional treatments, previous retroviral gene therapies, and primarily, alternative recombinant adeno-associated virus-based strategies to remedy this potentially fatal genetic disease.

  8. [Solution of Iodine deficiency in the Czech Republic - history and current situation20 years of work of prof. Václav Zamrazil for Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ryšavá, Lydie; Kříž, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years. Under 50 mcg only 1 % of children 10-12 years. Median of iodurias is below 300 mcg/l (seniors 185 mcg/l, children 7-10 years 277 mcg/l, children 10-12 years 252 mcg/l). We satisfy 8 of 10 indicators of Principles for Sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency. Results of screening for congenital hypothyroidism are in keeping with sufficient iodine intake in newborns. Unsatisfactory situation however persist in expectant and breast feeding mothers 16 % [11] 6 % [10] of women included in the respective studies had ioduria below 50 mpg/l. Milk and dairy produce became a rich dietary source of Iodine as cattle feeds are fortified with Iodine. No part of observed human population is exposed Iodine doses higher than 17 mcg/kg. Next target for prevention will be achieving optimal iodine concentration in milk and improvement of iodine saturation of expectant and nursing mothers. Integral part is the monitoring of iodine saturation of population.Key words: dietary exposition - dietary sources of iodine - Inter resort commission for elimination of iodine deficit - iodine deficiency - iodine supply - iodized salt - ioduria.

  9. Human health and the environment can't wait for reform: current opportunities for the federal government and states to address chemical risks under the Toxic Substances Control Act.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Expressing its concern about growing rates of cancer and other diseases, coupled with the lack of data about the effect of the thousands of chemicals used in U.S. society, in 1976 Congress enacted the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Congress intended for TSCA to shed new light on chemical risks and provide the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with a set of tools to address those risks and protect human health and the environment. In the years since TSCA's passage, the procedural hurdles and the difficult-to-meet legal standards built into the statute, along with a court decision rejecting EPA's use of its authority to ban dangerous chemicals, have impeded EPA's ability to regulate chemical use and manufacture. This Comment argues that both the EPA and state governments have the authority to act now to address the risks posed by dangerous chemicals. By utilizing certain sections of the statute in new and aggressive ways, EPA can effectively address chemical risks. Further, this Comment argues that TSCA's preemption provision affords states leeway to continue to regulate the use of chemicals within their borders. Though reform of TSCA is necessary, EPA and states can effectively protect against chemical risks in the near-term by using the full extent of their authority under the current law.

  10. The current impact and potential of biotechnology to improve the capacity of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world and an important cause of premature death in young children and pregnant women. Billions of people get most of their vitamin A from plants that are rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Orange-fleshe...

  11. Concise review: transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells for treating limbal stem cell deficiency-current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-06-01

    A number of diseases and external factors can deplete limbal stem cells, causing pain and visual loss. Ten years have passed since the first transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells in humans, representing the first autologous cell-based therapy for severe bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Its steady increase in popularity since then can be attributed to the accumulating evidence of its efficacy in reverting limbal stem cell deficiency. In this review, the focus is on clinical, and to a lesser degree laboratory, features of cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplants over the past 10 years. Comparisons with other available technologies are made. Avenues for research to stimulate further improvements in clinical results and allow worldwide distribution of limbal stem cell therapy based on oral mucosal cells are discussed. These include storage and transportation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial sheets and in vivo culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahid; Freeman, C.; Barker, Narviar C.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Maitra, Sarbani; Olagbemiro, Yetunde; Richie, William; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have established the link between thiamine deficiency and delirium. This literature review examines the physiology, pathophysiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations (e.g., Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, structural and functional brain injuries) and diagnosis of thiamine deficiency and delirium. Current treatment practices are also discussed that may improve patient outcome, which ultimately may result in a reduction in healthcare costs. PMID:23696956

  14. CLIGEN: Addressing deficiencies in the generator and its databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLIGEN is a stochastic generator that estimates daily temperatures, precipitation and other weather related phenomena. It is an intermediate model used by the Water Erosion Prediction Program (WEPP), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and other models that require daily weather observations....

  15. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  16. Role of small bowel capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in elderly: a comprehensive review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Adnan; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; Brady, Patrick

    2014-07-14

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common and often under recognized problem in the elderly. It may be the result of multiple factors including a bleeding lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty percent of elderly patients with IDA have a negative upper and lower endoscopy and two-thirds of these have a lesion in the small bowel (SB). Capsule endoscopy (CE) provides direct visualization of entire SB mucosa, which was not possible before. It is superior to push enteroscopy, enteroclysis and barium radiography for diagnosing clinically significant SB pathology resulting in IDA. Angioectasia is one of the commonest lesions seen on the CE in elderly with IDA. The diagnostic yield of CE for IDA progressively increases with advancing age, and is highest among patients over 85 years of age. Balloon assisted enteroscopy is used to treat the lesions seen on CE. CE has some limitations mainly lack of therapeutic capability, inability to provide precise location of the lesion and false positive results. Overall CE is a very safe and effective procedure for the evaluation of IDA in elderly.

  17. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

  18. Plasminogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Celkan, Tiraje

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen plays an important role in fibrinolysis as well as wound healing, cell migration, tissue modeling and angiogenesis. Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that leads to the development of thick, wood-like pseudomembranes on mucosal surfaces, mostly seen in conjunctivas named as ''ligneous conjunctivitis''. Local conjunctival use of fresh frozen plazma (FFP) in combination with other eye medications such as cyclosporin and artificial tear drops may relieve the symptoms. Topical treatment with plasminogen eye drops is the most promising treatment that is not yet available in Turkey.

  19. Organophosphates and monocyte esterase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    McClean, E; Mackey, H; Markey, G M; Morris, T C

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possibility that monocyte esterase deficiency (MED) could be caused by exposure to organophosphates. METHODS--Pseudocholinesterase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in the serum and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the red cells of a group of monocyte esterase deficient subjects and compared with the enzyme activities of a control group of monocyte esterase positive subjects. RESULTS--No significant difference was found between the enzyme activities of the monocyte esterase deficient group and the control group for any of the esterases investigated. CONCLUSION--Current or recent exposure to organophosphorus is not the cause of MED. PMID:7560207

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. A Geobacter sulfurreducens strain expressing pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili localizes OmcS on pili but is deficient in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-02-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity.

  2. A Geobacter sulfurreducens Strain Expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pili Localizes OmcS on Pili but Is Deficient in Fe(III) Oxide Reduction and Current Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity. PMID:24296506

  3. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin deficiency anemia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood ... normal amounts of certain vitamins. Vitamins linked to vitamin deficiency anemia include folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin ...

  4. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT deficiency, is a condition that raises your risk ... and other diseases. Some people who have severe AAT deficiency develop emphysema (em-fi-SE-ma)—often ...

  5. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  6. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  7. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  10. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  11. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  12. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  13. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  14. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R

    2011-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine. It occurs in approximately 1:15,000 individuals. Deficiency of this enzyme produces a spectrum of disorders including classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Classic phenylketonuria is caused by a complete or near-complete deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and without dietary restriction of phenylalanine most children will develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Mild phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia are associated with lower risk of impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency can be diagnosed by newborn screening based on detection of the presence of hyperphenylalaninemia using the Guthrie microbial inhibition assay or other assays on a blood spot obtained from a heel prick. Since the introduction of newborn screening, the major neurologic consequences of hyperphenylalaninemia have been largely eradicated. Affected individuals can lead normal lives. However, recent data suggest that homeostasis is not fully restored with current therapy. Treated individuals have a higher incidence of neuropsychological problems. The mainstay of treatment for hyperphenylalaninemia involves a low-protein diet and use of a phenylalanine-free medical formula. This treatment must commence as soon as possible after birth and should continue for life. Regular monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is necessary. Targets of plasma phenylalanine of 120-360 μmol/L (2-6 mg/dL) in the first decade of life are essential for optimal outcome. Phenylalanine targets in adolescence and adulthood are less clear. A significant proportion of patients with phenylketonuria may benefit from adjuvant therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin stereoisomer. Special consideration must be

  15. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  16. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  17. Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N

    2007-09-01

    A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation.

  18. VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSEN, CARL L.

    THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

  19. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  20. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  1. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Rehman Mehmood; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry

    2017-02-16

    Iodine deficiency remains a considerable challenge worldwide, even after decades of efforts to address the problem. The aim of this review is to present the current situation in historically iodine-deficient Pakistan regarding iodine nutritional status and place it in a global perspective. We collected relevant articles from online bibliographic databases and websites of concerned organizations that addressed prevalence of goiter/iodine deficiency and barriers to sustainable control. We divided the studies into pre- and post-1994, a landmark year when Pakistan formally adopted the universal salt iodization (USI) programme. Overall, 56 studies reported goiter/iodine deficiency prevalence in Pakistan. Before 1994, six studies (30%) reported a goiter prevalence ≥70%, while nine studies (45%) reported a goiter prevalence between 30% and 70%. Only five studies (25%) found a goiter prevalence less than 30%, of which only two studies reported prevalence <10%. From 1994 onwards, 15 studies (41.7%) reported a goiter/iodine deficiency (ID) prevalence ≥50%, of which seven studies reported prevalence ≥70%, while three studies (8.3%) found a goiter prevalence of 30%-49%, nine studies (25%) found a goiter prevalence of 10%-29%, and five studies (13.9%) reported prevalence of <10%. Four studies (11.1%) reported lower goiter prevalence but higher prevalence of iodine deficiency. The efforts in the past two decades resulted in up to a 50% decline in iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Variable remaining factors and the recent results, however, indicate that this decline may be non-uniform and even over-estimated. Coordinated and regionally adopted efforts for eradication of IDD from all stakeholders should be pursued. Policy makers should take steps to protect future generations and alert concerned organizations about the importance of careful assessments and estimates of iodine nutritional status.

  4. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  5. Addressing Consumer Questions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economy, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the greatest nutrition for their families at the l...

  6. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  7. Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity12

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jennifer C; Arundel, Cherinne; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity has been viewed traditionally as a disease of excess nutrition, evidence suggests that it may also be a disease of malnutrition. Specifically, thiamin deficiency was found in 15.5–29% of obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. It can present with vague signs and symptoms and is often overlooked in patients without alcohol use disorders. This review explores the relatively new discovery of high rates of thiamin deficiency in certain populations of people with obesity, including the effects of thiamin deficiency and potential underlying mechanisms of deficiency in people with obesity. The 2 observational studies that examined the prevalence in preoperative bariatric surgery patients and gaps in our current knowledge (including the prevalence of thiamin deficiency in the general obese population and whether the current RDA for thiamin meets the metabolic needs of overweight or obese adults) are reviewed. Suggestions for future areas of research are included. PMID:25770253

  8. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  9. Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. PMID:23676549

  10. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  11. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  12. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  13. Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the second most common cause, after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency . PKD is found in people ... Read More Anemia Autosomal recessive Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemolytic anemia Review Date 10/27/ ...

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin D Deficiency A Patient’s Guide Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. Along with calcium, it is vital ... for physicians about testing for, treating, and preventing vitamin D deficiency. These guidelines do not apply to people who ...

  15. Folate-deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  16. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  17. Corrective Action Planning for Environmental Compliance Deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C. F.; Ashburn, S. A.; Jolley, R. L.; Smith, A. A.; Mercer, A. E.; Oeulette, B.; Renz, K.; Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    Effective corrective action planning is one of the cornerstones of an effective environmental management program. Alternatively, ineffective planning can highlight an installation`s unwillingness or inability to effectively address environmental compliance deficiencies. The following paper discusses several guidelines to consider in corrective action planning to ensure that plans benefit rather than harm an installation`s overall environmental management program.

  18. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  19. Molecular genetics of human lactase deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Irma; Torniainen, Suvi; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2009-01-01

    Lactase non-persistence (adult-type hypolactasia) is present in more than half of the human population and is caused by the down-regulation of lactase enzyme activity during childhood. Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a rare severe gastrointestinal disorder of new-borns enriched in the Finnish population. Both lactase deficiencies are autosomal recessive traits and characterized by diminished expression of lactase activity in the intestine. Genetic variants underlying both forms have been identified. Here we review the current understanding of the molecular defects of human lactase deficiencies and their phenotype-genotype correlation, the implications on clinical practice, and the understanding of their function and role in human evolution.

  20. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  1. Therapeutic intervention in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh; Greven, Rachel; Jansen, Erwin E W; Jakobs, Cornelis; Hogema, Boris M; Froestl, Wolfgang; Snead, O Carter; Bartels, Hilke; Grompe, Markus; Gibson, K Michael

    2002-07-01

    Therapeutic intervention for human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) has been limited to vigabatrin (VGB). Pharmacologically, VGB should be highly effective due to 4-aminobutyrate-transaminase (GABA-transaminase) inhibition, lowering succinic semialdehyde and, thereby, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels. Unfortunately, clinical efficacy has been limited. Because GHB possesses a number of potential receptor interactions, we addressed the hypothesis that antagonism of these interactions in mice with SSADH deficiency could lead to the development of novel treatment strategies for human patients. SSADH-deficient mice have significantly elevated tissue GHB levels, are neurologically impaired, and die within 4 weeks postnatally. In the current report, we compared oral versus intraperitoneal administration of VGB, CGP 35348 [3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist], and the nonprotein amino acid taurine in rescue of SSADH-deficient mice from early death. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of the specific GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]benzocycloheptene-5-ol-6-ylideneacetic acid) using i.p. administration. All interventions led to significant lifespan extension (22-61%), with NCS-382 being most effective (50-61% survival). To explore the limited human clinical efficacy of VGB, we measured brain GHB and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in SSADH-deficient mice receiving VGB. Whereas high-dose VGB led to the expected elevation of brain GABA, we found no parallel decrease in GHB levels. Our data indicate that, at a minimum, GHB and GABA(B) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of SSADH deficiency. We conclude that taurine and NCS-382 may have therapeutic relevance in human SSADH deficiency and that the poor clinical efficacy of VGB in this disease may relate to an inability to decrease brain GHB concentrations.

  2. Autism and Folate Deficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    W81XWH-09-1-0246 TITLE: Autism and Folate Deficiency PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard H. Finnell, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0246 Autism and Folate Deficiency 5b. GRANT NUMBER AR080064-Concept Award 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...risk factor for autism : alterations in m ethionine metabolism in autistic patients may be due to a functional folate deficiency, and folate receptor

  3. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  4. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  5. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  6. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  7. Chemical Education in India: Addressing Current Challenges and Optimizing Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Mangala Sunder; Brakaspathy, R.; Arunan, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the structure of higher education programs in chemical and general sciences in India. The lack of high-quality chemical education in India in the past is traced back to the economic and social developments of the past. Remedial measures undertaken recently to improve the overall quality of chemical…

  8. Current Issues Concerning Clinical Optometric Education. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imperato, Pascal James

    1996-01-01

    Clinical optometric education is in flux. It must meet the challenges of advances in bioscience, newer diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, a changing health care environment, and interdisciplinary learning for problem solving; engender social responsibility; promote good provider-patient relations; stress primary care; and emphasize prevention.…

  9. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  10. Unique effects of energy versus estrogen deficiency on multiple components of bone strength in exercising women.

    PubMed

    Southmayd, E A; Mallinson, R J; Williams, N I; Mallinson, D J; De Souza, M J

    2017-04-01

    Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes.

  11. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  12. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  13. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  14. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  15. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  16. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) Report

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Kohn, Donald B.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C.; Bleesing, Jack J. H.; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M.; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J.; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, Hubert Bobby; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Logan, Brent R.; Long-Boyle, Janel R.; Malech, Harry L.; McGhee, Sean A.; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J.; Routes, John M.; Shearer, William T.; Small, Trudy N.; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R.; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease through retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to: encourage training of junior investigators; establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues; work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness; and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for PID. To date, the PIDTC has funded two pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans; and B cell reconstitution in SCID patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first two PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives. PMID:24139498

  17. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C; Bleesing, Jack J H; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C; Dvorak, Christopher C; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Bobby Gaspar, Hubert; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M; Logan, Brent R; Long-Boyle, Janel R; Malech, Harry L; McGhee, Sean A; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Small, Trudy N; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.

  18. X-linked creatine transporter deficiency: clinical aspects and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Mancini, Grazia M; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-09-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency was discovered in 2001 as an X-linked cause of intellectual disability characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency. This review describes the current knowledge regarding creatine metabolism, the creatine transporter and the clinical aspects of creatine transporter deficiency. The condition mainly affects the brain while other creatine requiring organs, such as the muscles, are relatively spared. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that creatine synthesis also occurs in the brain, leading to the intriguing question of why cerebral creatine is deficient in creatine transporter deficiency. The possible mechanisms explaining the cerebral creatine deficiency are discussed. The creatine transporter knockout mouse provides a good model to study the disease. Over the past years several treatment options have been explored but no treatment has been proven effective. Understanding the pathogenesis of creatine transporter deficiency is of paramount importance in the development of an effective treatment.

  19. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  20. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ana G L; Persson, Daniel P; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan K; Alexander, Ross D; Aarts, Mark G M

    2013-09-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency. They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we propose in this review a putative model of how plants sense zinc deficiency.

  1. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  2. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  3. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency · 6: New and emerging treatments for α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sandhaus, R

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic condition that increases the risk of developing lung and liver disease, as well as other associated conditions. Most treatment of affected individuals is not specifically directed at AAT deficiency but focuses on the resultant disease state. The only currently available specific therapeutic agent—namely, intravenous augmentation with plasma derived AAT protein—is marketed in a limited number of countries. Treatments aimed at correcting the underlying genetic abnormality, supplementing or modifying the gene product, and halting or reversing organ injury are now beginning to emerge. These innovative approaches may prove effective at modifying or eliminating diseases association with AAT deficiency. PMID:15454659

  4. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  5. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  6. [Selenium deficiency in pregnancy?].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Jenewein, I; Ritzberger, G; Sölder, E; Waitz-Penz, A; Schirmer, M; Abfalter, E

    1990-07-15

    Selenium content was investigated by atomic absorbtion spectroscopy in 32 normal pregnant women in the 38th-42, week of pregnancy. In congruence with other investigations from middle and northern Europe, selenium deficiency was stated in all of the patients.

  7. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bollée, Guillaume; Harambat, Jérôme; Bensman, Albert; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Daudon, Michel; Ceballos-Picot, Irène

    2012-09-01

    Complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that leads to the formation and hyperexcretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) into urine. The low solubility of DHA results in precipitation of this compound and the formation of urinary crystals and stones. The disease can present as recurrent urolithiasis or nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation into renal parenchyma (DHA nephropathy). The diagnostic tools available-including stone analysis, crystalluria, and APRT activity measurement-make the diagnosis easy to confirm when APRT deficiency is suspected. However, the disease can present at any age, and the variability of symptoms can present a diagnostic challenge to many physicians. The early recognition and treatment of APRT deficiency are of crucial importance for preventing irreversible loss of renal function, which still occurs in a non-negligible proportion of cases. This review summarizes the genetic and metabolic mechanisms underlying stone formation and renal disease, along with the diagnosis and management of APRT deficiency.

  8. Factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation factors. Factor ... You will be given fresh blood plasma or fresh frozen plasma infusions ... These treatments will correct the deficiency temporarily.

  9. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  10. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ≤ 50 years and men ≤ 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  12. Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders.

  13. Immunoglobulin treatment in primary antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L J; Hoepelman, I M; Ellerbroek, P M

    2011-05-01

    The primary antibody deficiency syndromes are characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections and the inability to produce effective immunoglobulin (Ig) responses. The best-known primary antibody deficiencies are common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency, and selective antibody deficiency with normal immunoglobulins (SADNI). Therapy in these patients consists of prophylactic antibiotics and/or Ig replacement therapy. Diagnostic delay remains common owing to limited awareness of the presenting features and may result in increased morbidity and mortality. Replacement therapy with immunoglobulins increases life expectancy and reduces the frequency and severity of infections, but the effect on end-organ damage is still unknown. Both intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) treatment appear to be safe, with comparable efficacy. A starting dose of 300-400 mg/kg/month in IVIg and 100 mg/week for SCIg is recommended. IgG trough levels should be >5 g/L for patients with agammaglobulinaemia and 3 g/L greater than the initial IgG level for patients with CVID; however, the clinical response should be foremost in choosing the dose and trough level. Infusion-related adverse reactions are generally mild owing to improved manufacturing processes. In this paper, aspects of Ig replacement therapy in primary antibody-deficient patients will be addressed.

  14. Iron deficiency: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Polin, Vanessa; Coriat, Romain; Perkins, Géraldine; Dhooge, Marion; Abitbol, Vered; Leblanc, Sarah; Prat, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most frequent cause of anaemia worldwide. It impairs quality of life, increases asthenia and can lead to clinical worsening of patients. In addition, iron deficiency has a complex mechanism whose pathologic pathway is recently becoming better understood. The discovery of hepcidin has allowed a better clarification of iron metabolism regulation. Furthermore, the ratio of concentration of soluble transferrin receptor to the log of the ferritin level, has been developed as a tool to detect iron deficiency in most situations. The cause of iron deficiency should always be sought because the underlying condition can be serious. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding diagnostic algorithms for iron deficiency anaemia. The majority of aetiologies occur in the digestive tract, in men and postmenopausal women, and justify morphological examination of the gut. First line investigations are upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy, and when negative, the small bowel should be explored; newer tools such as video capsule endoscopy have also been developed. The treatment of iron deficiency is aetiological if possible and iron supplementation whether in oral or in parenteral form. New parenteral formulations are available and seem to have promising results in terms of efficacy and safety.

  15. Norovirus infection in primary immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Li-An K; Clark, Ian; Brown, Julianne R; Breuer, Judith; Lowe, David M

    2017-03-08

    Norovirus is acknowledged to be a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and its importance as a cause of chronic infection in immune deficient hosts is increasingly recognised. Current evidence suggests that a coordinated response of innate immune mechanisms, CD8+ cytotoxicity and a humoral response, with CD4+ orchestration, is necessary for norovirus clearance. We explain how primary immune deficiency impairs these host defences and predisposes to chronic infection, associated with protracted diarrhoea, weight loss, and requirement for parenteral nutrition. The mucosal villous atrophy frequently seen in norovirus infection appears to be immune mediated, suggesting that some functional immune response is required in order for chronic norovirus infection to become symptomatic in primary immune deficiency. We provide a comprehensive summary of published cases of norovirus infection in patients with primary immune deficiency. Spontaneous viral clearance has been described; however, the majority of reported cases have had prolonged and severe illness. Treatment strategies are discussed in detail. Approaches that have been tried in patients with primary immune deficiency include exclusion diets, enteral and intravenous immunoglobulins, breast milk, immunosuppressants, ribavirin, and nitazoxanide. To date, only ribavirin has been used with apparent success to achieve clearance of chronic norovirus in primary immune deficiency, and randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate a number of promising therapies that are discussed.

  16. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  17. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties.

  18. Is Maxwell's Displacement Current a Current?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses in detail the claim that certain well-known physics experiments demonstrate the magnetic field produced by Maxwell's displacement current. Addresses the question of whether the displacement current acts as a source of magnetic field in the same way as a current in a wire would. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

  19. Perspectives on nutritional iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) is caused by an intake of dietary iron insufficient to cover physiological iron requirements. Studies on iron absorption from whole diets have examined relationships between dietary iron bioavailability/absorption, iron losses, and amounts of stored iron. New insights have been obtained into regulation of iron absorption and expected rates of changes of iron stores or hemoglobin iron deficits when bioavailability or iron content of the diet has been modified and when losses of iron occur. Negative effects of ID are probably related to age, up to about 20 years, explaining some of earlier controversies. Difficulties in establishing the prevalence of mild ID are outlined. The degree of underestimation of the prevalence of mild ID when using multiple diagnostic criteria is discussed. It is suggested that current low-energy lifestyles are a common denominator for the current high prevalence not only of ID but also of obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

  20. Congenital prothrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Stefano; De Cristofaro, Raimondo

    2009-06-01

    Prothrombin deficiency is among the rarest inherited coagulation disorders, with a prevalence of approximately 1:2,000,000. Two main phenotypes can be distinguished: (1) hypoprothrombinemia (type I deficiency), characterized by concomitantly low levels of activity and antigen; and (2) dysprothrombinemia (type II deficiency), characterized by the normal or near-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. In some cases, hypoprothrombinemia associated with dysprothrombinemia was also described in compound heterozygous defects. No living patient with undetectable plasma prothrombin has been reported to date. Prothrombin is encoded by a gene of approximately 21 kb located on chromosome 11 and containing 14 exons. Forty different mutations have been identified and characterized in prothrombin deficiency. Many of them surround the catalytic site, whereas another "hot spot" is localized in the recognition domain called anion binding exosite I, also called fibrinogen recognition site. Recently, mutations were identified also in the Na (+)-binding loop and in the light A-chain of thrombin. Most hypoprothrombinemia-associated mutations are missense, but there are also nonsense mutations leading to stop codons and one single nucleotide deletion. Finally, the main aspects of clinical manifestations and therapy of congenital prothrombin deficiency are presented and discussed.

  1. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  2. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Mark; Wingrove, Kate; Naude, Celeste; Durao, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs), guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either “nutrition-specific interventions” (NSpI) or “nutrition-sensitive interventions” (NSeI), was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated. PMID:27618094

  3. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  4. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  6. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  7. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  8. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  9. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Mino, M

    1999-10-01

    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  10. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  11. Natural killer cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Orange, Jordan S

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune defense against infection and cancer and are especially useful in combating certain viral pathogens. The utility of NK cells in human health has been underscored by a growing number of persons who are deficient in NK cells and/or their functions. This can be in the context of a broader genetically defined congenital immunodeficiency, of which there are more than 40 presently known to impair NK cells. However, the abnormality of NK cells in certain cases represents the majority immunologic defect. In aggregate, these conditions are termed NK cell deficiency. Recent advances have added clarity to this diagnosis and identified defects in 3 genes that can cause NK cell deficiency, as well as some of the underlying biology. Appropriate consideration of these diagnoses and patients raises the potential for rational therapeutic options and further innovation.

  12. Presidential address. Fatti Maschii Parole Femine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G P

    1984-03-15

    The current role of the Society of Surgical Oncology has demonstrated leadership in the field of surgical oncology in both word and deed, as exemplified by the motto of the State of Maryland, adopted from the 1632 family seal of Lord Baltimore, "Fatti Maschii Parole Femine." The current emphasis on the need for clinical research on human cancers, and the education of surgeons in all aspects of various cancers is well founded in the writings and the addresses of Dr. James Ewing, the Society's founder. Our goals as a society for the next decade have been precisely defined and, as in all important national programs, made current and interfaced with corresponding priorities of the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. The Society, in three project areas, is: (1) assessing current progress in surgical oncology, as well as future manpower needs; (2) studying on a comprehensive basis the surgical practices in cancer patient management; and (3) surveying academic centers concerning the nature of current education and training of academic surgeons in clinical research. The Training Committee currently reviews and recognizes 2-year postresidency multidisciplinary training at several institutions, and the James Ewing Foundation has expanded its fiscal support of educational activities. This annual meeting marks an historic first signified by the conjoint sessions being held with other international surgical oncology societies.

  13. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  14. Terms of Address in the Chinese Business Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Sultan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examines terms of address currently used by employees of Chinese business enterprises. The authors find that a speaker's address selections are related significantly to the gender of the speaker, the location of the enterprise in Eastern or Western China, and the ownership type of the enterprise; that is, whether the enterprise is…

  15. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 2. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Center for Mental Health in Schools includes the following features and regular segments: (1) Concerns = Opportunities: Addressing Student Disengagement, Acting Out, and Dropouts by Moving in New Directions; (2) Info Sheet: Costs of Not Addressing Barriers to Learning; and (3) Current Status of Mental…

  16. The 2006 ACTER Presidential Address: The Premier Educational Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In this address, ACTER President Jack Elliot states that Career and Technical Education (CTE) is the premier educational delivery system in the world. It addresses all learning styles by employing pedagogical strategies that embrace all of the multiple intelligence areas and incorporate the current knowledge in brain-based research. He discusses…

  17. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  18. [Control of iron deficiency in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Dillon, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, especially in developing countries. It occurs when iron absorption cannot compensate iron requirements and losses. Requirements are especially high in pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents who run a higher risk of being iron-deficient. In developing countries, the main cause of iron deficiency is the low iron bioavailability of the diet. The consequences of iron deficiency are many and serious, affecting not only individuals' health but also the development of societies and countries. The prevention and the control of iron deficiency and anemia in all groups of a population with different iron requirements imply to coordinate different interventions. Iron fortification of staple foods or condiments directed to the whole population is a sustainable and low cost-effective approach. However, at some periods of life, especially during pregnancy and in children from the age of 6 months, iron requirements are high. For pregnant women, the current approach favours the daily iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy but the results in terms of public health are disappointing. The preventive weekly iron-folate supplementation of women during their reproductive life, whose efficacy is recognized, offers a promising alternative; its impact in terms of public health is under current evaluation. For infants and young children, iron fortification of complementary food is effective but this food is generally imported and economically inaccessible to populations with limited resources. The production, by small private units from local products, of complementary foods of low viscosity, good nutritional quality, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and of low cost is at hand in several countries. When complementary foods are not available, the preventive iron supplementation from 6 to 18 months of age has to be advised. This approach should be strengthened by the advantages of the weekly

  19. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hwalla, Nahla; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha Salem; Radwan, Hadia; Alfawaz, Hanan Abdullah; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammed; Zaghloul, Sahar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government-sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. PMID:28273802

  20. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  1. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  2. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  3. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  4. Circadian Behaviour in Neuroglobin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hundahl, Christian A.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night. PMID:22496809

  5. Induced polarized state in intentionally grown oxygen deficient KTaO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mota, D. A.; Romaguera-Barcelay, Y.; Tkach, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Almeida, A.; Perez de la Cruz, J.; Vilarinho, P. M.; Tavares, P. B.

    2013-07-21

    Deliberately oxygen deficient potassium tantalate thin films were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Si/SiO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt substrates. Once they were structurally characterized, the effect of oxygen vacancies on their electric properties was addressed by measuring leakage currents, dielectric constant, electric polarization, and thermally stimulated depolarization currents. By using K{sub 2}O rich KTaO{sub 3} targets and specific deposition conditions, KTaO{sub 3-{delta}} oxygen deficient thin films with a K/Ta = 1 ratio were obtained. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns show that KTaO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films are under a compressive strain of 2.3% relative to KTaO{sub 3} crystals. Leakage current results reveal the presence of a conductive mechanism, following the Poole-Frenkel formalism. Furthermore, dielectric, polarization, and depolarization current measurements yield the existence of a polarized state below T{sub pol} {approx} 367 Degree-Sign C. A Cole-Cole dipolar relaxation was also ascertained apparently due to oxygen vacancies induced dipoles. After thermal annealing the films in an oxygen atmosphere at a temperature above T{sub pol}, the aforementioned polarized state is suppressed, associated with a drastic oxygen vacancies reduction emerging from annealing process.

  6. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  7. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency: diagnosis and management guideline.

    PubMed

    Vockley, Jerry; Andersson, Hans C; Antshel, Kevin M; Braverman, Nancy E; Burton, Barbara K; Frazier, Dianne M; Mitchell, John; Smith, Wendy E; Thompson, Barry H; Berry, Susan A

    2014-02-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, traditionally known as phenylketonuria, results in the accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood of affected individuals and was the first inborn error of metabolism to be identified through population screening. Early identification and treatment prevent the most dramatic clinical sequelae of the disorder, but new neurodevelopmental and psychological problems have emerged in individuals treated from birth. The additional unanticipated recognition of a toxic effect of elevated maternal phenylalanine on fetal development has added to a general call in the field for treatment for life. Two major conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health held >10 years apart reviewed the state of knowledge in the field of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, but there are no generally accepted recommendations for therapy. The purpose of this guideline is to review the strength of the medical literature relative to the treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency and to develop recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of this disorder. Evidence review from the original National Institutes of Health consensus conference and a recent update by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was used to address key questions in the diagnosis and treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency by a working group established by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. The group met by phone and in person over the course of a year to review these reports, develop recommendations, and identify key gaps in our knowledge of this disorder. Above all, treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency must be life long, with a goal of maintaining blood phenylalanine in the range of 120-360 µmol/l. Treatment has predominantly been dietary manipulation, and use of low protein and phenylalanine medical foods is likely to remain a major component of therapy for the immediate future. Pharmacotherapy for phenylalanine

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Isolated growth hormone deficiency Educational Resources (10 links) Boston Children's Hospital CLIMB: Growth Hormone Deficiency Information Sheet (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Isolated growth hormone deficiency ...

  9. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  10. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  11. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: proopiomelanocortin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Open All Close All Description Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency causes severe obesity that begins at an early age. In addition ... and severe obesity. POMC deficiency is a rare cause of obesity; POMC gene mutations are not frequently associated with ...

  13. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Biotinidase Deficiency (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Biotinidase Deficiency Illinois ... Group Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 ...

  15. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Cambodian Women: A Common Deficiency in a Sunny Country

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Geoffry; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Un, Samoeurn; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Chamnan, Chhoun; De los Reyes, Francisco N.; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. The countrywide median of 25(OH)D was, respectively, 64.9 and 91.1 nmol/L for mothers and children. Based on The Endocrine Society cutoffs (>50<75 nmol/L = insufficiency; ≤50 nmol/L = deficiency); 64.6% of mothers and 34.8% of their children had plasma vitamin D concentrations indicating insufficiency or deficiency. For deficiency alone, 29% of the mothers were found to be vitamin D deficient, but only 13.4% of children. Children who live in urban areas had a 43% higher rate of vitamin D insufficiency versus those who live in rural areas (OR; 1.434; 95% CI: 1.007; 2.041). However, such differences were not observed in their mothers. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is likely in part due to lifestyle choices, including sun avoidance, increasingly predominant indoor work, and covered transport. These survey findings support the need for a broader national Cambodian study incorporating testing of adult men, adolescents and the elderly, and encompassing other parameters such as skeletal health. However, the data presented in this study already show significant deficiencies which need to be addressed and we discuss the benefit of establishing nationally-mandated food fortification programs to enhance the intake of vitamin D. PMID:27187456

  17. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  18. IgA deficiency in wolves.

    PubMed

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Hellman, Lars; Zhao, Yaofeng; Arnemo, Jon M; Lin, Miaoli; Tengvall, Katarina; Møller, Torsten; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hammarström, Lennart

    2013-06-01

    Low mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and an increased frequency of overt IgA deficiency (IgAD) in certain dog breeds raises the question whether it is a breeding-enriched phenomenon or a legacy from the dog's ancestor, the gray wolf (Canis lupus). The IgA concentration in 99 serum samples from 58 free-ranging and 13 captive Scandinavian wolves, was therefore measured by capture ELISA. The concentrations were markedly lower in the wolf serum samples than in the dog controls. Potential differences in the IgA molecule between dogs and wolves were addressed by sequencing the wolf IgA heavy chain constant region encoding gene (IGHA). Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double immunodiffusion. We suggest that the vast majority of wolves, the ancestor of the dog, are IgA deficient.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz ...

  20. Rice fortification: an emerging opportunity to contribute to the elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiency worldwide.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Hall, Jessica; Bagriansky, Jack; Sugimoto, Jonathan; Gundry, Daniel; Matthias, Dipika; Prigge, Shane; Hindle, Peter; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Maberly, Glen

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are ranked among the top causes of poor health and disability in the world. These deficiencies damage developing brains, impair learning ability, increase susceptibility to infections, and reduce the work productivity of nations. Food fortification is a sustainable, cost-effective approach to reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. As the staple food for an estimated 3 billion people, rice has the potential to fill an obvious gap in current fortification programs. In recent years, new technologies have produced fortified rice kernels that are efficacious in reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. There are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice that comes from large mills supplying centralized markets and national welfare programs in major rice-growing countries. The rice export markets, which handle 30 million MT of rice annually, also present a key fortification opportunity. The cost of fortifying rice is only 1.5% to 3% of the current retail price of rice. Countries that mandate rice fortification have the strongest evidence for achieving wide coverage and impact. The Rice Fortification Resource Group (RiFoRG), a global network of public and private partners that offers technical and advocacy support for rice fortification, has a vision of promoting rice fortification worldwide. It has a targeted approach, engaging multisector partners in key countries where the opportunities are greatest and there is receptivity to early adoption of large-scale rice fortification. The challenges are real, the imperative to address them is powerful, and the opportunities to deliver the promise of rice fortification are clear.

  1. Language deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Morehead, D M; Morehead, K E; Morehead, W A

    1980-01-01

    Research in cognition and language has provided useful constructs which suggests that specific deficits underlie language deficiencies in children. In addition, this research has provided procedures that the determine what a child knows about language at a particular level of development and has established a sequence of linguistic development that maps the specific content and structure of training programs. Two new areas of research offer additional approaches to assessment and remediation. One approach focuses on the actual principles and strategies that normal children use to learn language, making it possible to determine which methods are most efficient. The second research approach looks at the contextual conditions adults and children provide the first language learner. Preliminary work suggests that the natural conditions found universally in first language learning may be the best indicators of how to proceed with language-deficient children.

  2. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  3. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  4. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  5. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  6. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Addressing Consumer Questions and Concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining the food choices more closely to ensure t...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  9. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated? Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will depend ... may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  10. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  11. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  12. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  13. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  14. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  15. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  16. Placental steroid deficiency: association with arylsulfatase A deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Vidgoff, J; Buxman, M M; Shapiro, L J; Dimond, R L; Wilson, T G; Hepburn, C A; Tabei, T; Heinrichs, W R

    1982-01-01

    A family with an obstetric history consistent with placental sulfatase deficiency has X-linked ichthyosis. Steroid sulfatase deficiency was confirmed in placenta, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts of affected males; arylsulfatase A diminution was also observed in these tissues of both affected males and 2 generations of related females. No symptoms of metachromatic leukodystrophy are present in any family members. In this family, placental sulfatase deficiency, and arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency are nonallelic. PMID:6123259

  17. Iron deficiency: new insights into diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children and young women. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and/or parasitic infection, whereas vegetarian dietary choices, poor iron absorption, and chronic blood loss are common causes in high-income countries. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents can result in functional iron deficiency for erythropoiesis even when stores are iron-replete. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is straightforward, except when it occurs in the context of inflammatory disorders. Oral iron salts correct absolute iron deficiency in most patients, because low hepcidin levels facilitate iron absorption. Unfortunately frequent side effects limit oral iron efficacy. Intravenous iron is increasingly utilized, because currently available preparations allow rapid normalization of total body iron even with a single infusion and are effective also in functional iron deficiency and in iron deficiency associated with inflammatory disorders. The evidence is accumulating that these preparations are safe and effective. However, long-term safety issues of high doses of iron need to be further explored.

  18. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marília C; Araújo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly--before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status.

  19. Immune deficiency: changing spectrum of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Duraisingham, S S; Manson, A; Grigoriadou, S; Buckland, M; Tong, C Y W; Longhurst, H J

    2015-08-01

    Current UK national standards recommend routine bacteriology surveillance in severe antibody-deficient patients, but less guidance exists on virology screening and viral infections in these patients. In this retrospective audit, we assessed the proportion of positive virology or bacteriology respiratory and stool samples from patients with severe, partial or no immune deficiency during a 2-year period. Medical notes were reviewed to identify symptomatic viral infections and to describe the course of persistent viral infections. During the 2-year period, 31 of 78 (39·7%) severe immune-deficient patients tested had a positive virology result and 89 of 160 (55.6%) had a positive bacteriology result. The most commonly detected pathogens were rhinovirus (12 patients), norovirus (6), Haemophilus influenzae (24), Pseudomonas spp. (22) and Staphylococcus aureus (21). Ninety-seven per cent of positive viral detection samples were from patients who were symptomatic. Low serum immunoglobulin IgA levels were more prevalent in patients with a positive virology sample compared to the total cohort (P = 0·0078). Three patients had persistent norovirus infection with sequential positive isolates for 9, 30 and 16 months. Virology screening of symptomatic antibody-deficient patients may be useful as a guide to anti-microbial treatment. A proportion of these patients may experience persistent viral infections with significant morbidity.

  20. Primary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vélayoudom-Céphise, Fritz-Line; Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and vitamin D (VD) deficiency are frequent conditions due to the widespread application of assays for calcium and VD. PHPT presentation is dominated by diversity in its expression and the current predominance of asymptomatic forms. VD, which plays a major role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, is also involved in many physiological processes in this disease, such as lipid and glucose metabolism, and in the signalling pathways and functioning of many cell types. The bone and cardiometabolic complications described in PHPT are exacerbated by vitamin D deficiency, the prevalence of which varies according to many parameters (environment, skin pigmentation, associated chronic diseases, liver and kidney function, assay kit used, etc.). In response to this observation, experts in field from medical societies validated the indication for systematic assay of VD occurring with PHPT and the need for replacement in case of deficiency. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that replacement with natural vitamin D is well tolerated and safe in subjects with PHPT and VD deficiency. This supplementation reduces hyperparathormonemia, does not have symptomatic effects on calciuria, and especially improves the bone and functional condition of patients.

  1. Procedures for EPA to Address Deficient New Source Permits Under the Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Procedures for EPA to Address Deficient New Source Permits Under the Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. [Iron deficiency anemia. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    Iron deficiency is the most important cause of anemia. Preschooler children are particularly vulnerable; a recent analysis reported a prevalence rate higher than 35% among children below 2 year of age. Its early detection, right treatment, and suitable prophylaxis is currently a priority in our country. This guideline establishes the definition of anemia in relation to chronological age, gestational age, and habitat, reviews principal aspects of iron metabolism, enumerates main causes of iron deficiency, and set guidelines for diagnosis, detection, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of iron deficiency anemia.

  4. 26 CFR 301.6212-2 - Definition of last known address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by referring to data accumulated and maintained in the United States Postal Service (USPS) National... permanent address (8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail..., Big City, USA 13579. (ii) In October 2002 the IRS determines a deficiency for C and D's 2000 tax...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6212-2 - Definition of last known address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by referring to data accumulated and maintained in the United States Postal Service (USPS) National... permanent address (8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail..., Big City, USA 13579. (ii) In October 2002 the IRS determines a deficiency for C and D's 2000 tax...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6212-2 - Definition of last known address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by referring to data accumulated and maintained in the United States Postal Service (USPS) National... permanent address (8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail..., Big City, USA 13579. (ii) In October 2002 the IRS determines a deficiency for C and D's 2000 tax...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6212-2 - Definition of last known address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by referring to data accumulated and maintained in the United States Postal Service (USPS) National... permanent address (8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail..., Big City, USA 13579. (ii) In October 2002 the IRS determines a deficiency for C and D's 2000 tax...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6212-2 - Definition of last known address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... April 13, 2001, is 1234 Anyplace Street, Anytown, USA 43210. On May 15, 2001, A informs the USPS of a new permanent address (9876 Newplace Street, Newtown, USA 12345) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official... Street, Newtown, USA 12345. (ii) In June 2001 the IRS determines a deficiency for A's 1999 tax year...

  9. by Cu Deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Fu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-06-01

    This work revealed that the Cu-deficient ternary compounds Cu3- x SbSe4 free of Te and Pb exhibit enhanced thermoelectric performance. Cu3- x SbSe4 ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075) polycrystalline materials with high phase purity were fabricated by a facile method combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Effects of Cu deficiencies on crystal structures, microstructures, element chemical states, and thermoelectric properties were systematically studied. High carrier concentration was obtained for the compositions Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4 due to additional Cu vacancies, contributing to a remarkable increase in electrical conductivity. Together with a satisfactorily large Seebeck coefficient above 300 μV/K, a high power factor of about 890 μW/m-K2 at 523 K was achieved for Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4, almost 60% larger than that of the stoichiometric sample with x = 0. The maximum ZT value was increased to 0.50 at 673 K in the Cu2.925SbSe4 sample sintered at a high temperature (703 K); this is the highest value reported so far for the undoped Cu3SbSe4 system.

  10. Familial apolipoprotein E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, E J; Gregg, R E; Ghiselli, G; Forte, T M; Ordovas, J M; Zech, L A; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    A unique kindred with premature cardiovascular disease, tubo-eruptive xanthomas, and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) associated with familial apolipoprotein (apo) E deficiency was examined. Homozygotes (n = 4) had marked increases in cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), which could be effectively lowered with diet and medication (niacin, clofibrate). Homozygotes had only trace amounts of plasma apoE, and accumulations of apoB-48 and apoA-IV in VLDL, IDL, and low density lipoproteins. Radioiodinated VLDL apoB and apoE kinetic studies revealed that the homozygous proband had markedly retarded fractional catabolism of VLDL apoB-100, apoB-48 and plasma apoE, as well as an extremely low apoE synthesis rate as compared to normals. Obligate heterozygotes (n = 10) generally had normal plasma lipids and mean plasma apoE concentrations that were 42% of normal. The data indicate that homozygous familial apoE deficiency is a cause of type III HLP, is associated with markedly decreased apoE production, and that apoE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. Images PMID:3771793

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  12. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  13. Invertebrate Models for Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ayala, Daniel J.M.; Jiménez-Gancedo, Sandra; Guerra, Ignacio; Navas, Plácido

    2014-01-01

    The human syndrome of coenzyme Q (CoQ) deficiency is a heterogeneous mitochondrial disease characterized by a diminution of CoQ content in cells and tissues that affects all the electron transport processes CoQ is responsible for, like the electron transference in mitochondria for respiration and ATP production and the antioxidant capacity that it exerts in membranes and lipoproteins. Supplementation with external CoQ is the main attempt to address these pathologies, but quite variable results have been obtained ranging from little response to a dramatic recovery. Here, we present the importance of modeling human CoQ deficiencies in animal models to understand the genetics and the pathology of this disease, although the election of an organism is crucial and can sometimes be controversial. Bacteria and yeast harboring mutations that lead to CoQ deficiency are unable to grow if they have to respire but develop without any problems on media with fermentable carbon sources. The complete lack of CoQ in mammals causes embryonic lethality, whereas other mutations produce tissue-specific diseases as in humans. However, working with transgenic mammals is time and cost intensive, with no assurance of obtaining results. Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have been used for years as organisms to study embryonic development, biogenesis, degenerative pathologies, and aging because of the genetic facilities and the speed of working with these animal models. In this review, we summarize several attempts to model reliable human CoQ deficiencies in invertebrates, focusing on mutant phenotypes pretty similar to those observed in human patients. PMID:25126050

  14. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-04

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  15. Hereditary galactokinase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. G. H.; Don, N. A.; Mann, Trevor P.

    1971-01-01

    A baby with galactokinase deficiency, a recessive inborn error of galactose metabolism, is described. The case is exceptional in that there was no evidence of gypsy blood in the family concerned. The investigation of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia led to the discovery of galactosuria. As noted by others, the paucity of presenting features makes early diagnosis difficult, and detection by biochemical screening seems desirable. Cataract formation, of early onset, appears to be the only severe persisting complication and may be due to the biosynthesis and accumulation of galactitol in the lens. Ophthalmic surgeons need to be aware of this enzyme defect, because with early diagnosis and dietary treatment these lens changes should be reversible. PMID:5109408

  16. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  17. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Biotinidase deficiency and our champagne legacy.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2016-09-10

    Biotinidase is the enzyme that is necessary for the recycling of the vitamin, biotin. Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder. If untreated, individuals with biotinidase deficiency usually develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms that can result in coma or death. Symptomatic individuals can be markedly improved by treating them with pharmacological doses of biotin; however, some clinical features may be irreversible. Fortunately, essentially all symptoms can be prevented if treatment is initiated at birth or before the symptoms develop. Because of this, the disorder is currently screened for in newborns in all states in the United States and in many countries around the world. This is the story of one laboratory's work in bringing basic science research from the discovery of the disorder to its translation into clinical medicine and its impact on the individuals with the disorder and their families.

  19. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count ... anemia often do well with treatment. Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent ...

  1. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  2. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  3. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  4. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  5. Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2012-01-01

    The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

  6. Recent topics related to testosterone deficiency syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Androgens, the levels of which decrease with ageing, play many physiological roles in various organs. Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) has received widespread attention in the last several years. First-line treatment for TDS should be testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), which is reported to improve several TDS symptoms. Recently, a clinical practice manual for TDS was written and published by a collaborative team from the Japanese Urological Association and the Japanese Society for the Study of the Aging Male to recommend standard procedures for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and monitoring of adverse reactions to TRT and for post-treatment assessment. In this manual, intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate or human chorionic gonadotropin and the testosterone gel ‘Glowmin' were recommended as TRT. Currently, two topics related to TDS are being focused on in Japan: the relationship between TDS and metabolic syndrome and treatment options for eugonadal patients with TDS symptoms. In this review, the possibility of TRT for metabolic syndrome as well as the relationship between testosterone and adiponectin, which is a key molecule in metabolic syndrome, is discussed. Finally, the possibility of herbal medicines as a treatment option for patients with TDS is addressed, especially for eugonadal patients, because eugonadal men with TDS symptoms account for approximately 30% of the general population. The increase in the levels of several cytokines, such as IL-8, IL-13, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, after herbal medicine treatment may be the reason for this efficacy. PMID:21460860

  7. Iron deficiency: definition and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Skikne, B S

    1989-11-01

    There has been a continuous refinement over the past several decades of methods to detect iron deficiency and assess its magnitude. The optimal combination of measurements differs for clinical and epidemiological assessment. Clinically, the major problem is to distinguish true iron deficiency from other causes of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, such as the anaemia of chronic disease. Epidemiologically, techniques that provide quantified estimates of body iron are preferable. For both purposes, the serum ferritin is the focal point of the laboratory detection of iron deficiency. Serum ferritin measurements provide a reliable index of body iron stores in healthy individuals, a cost-effective method of screening for iron deficiency, and a useful alternative to bone marrow examinations in the evaluation of anaemic patients. Preliminary studies indicate that measurement of the serum transferrin receptor may be the most reliable way to assess deficits in tissue iron supply.

  8. How I treat ADA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, H Bobby; Aiuti, Alessandro; Porta, Fulvio; Candotti, Fabio; Hershfield, Michael S; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2009-10-22

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a disorder of purine metabolism leading to severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). Without treatment, the condition is fatal and requires early intervention. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the major treatment for ADA-SCID, although survival following different donor sources varies considerably. Unlike other SCID forms, 2 other options are available for ADA-SCID: enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with pegylated bovine ADA, and autologous haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (GT). Due to the rarity of the condition, the lack of large scale outcome studies, and availability of different treatments, guidance on treatment strategies is limited. We have reviewed the currently available evidence and together with our experience of managing this condition propose a consensus management strategy. Matched sibling donor transplants represent a successful treatment option with high survival rates and excellent immune recovery. Mismatched parental donor transplants have a poor survival outcome and should be avoided unless other treatments are unavailable. ERT and GT both show excellent survival, and therefore the choice between ERT, MUD transplant, or GT is difficult and dependent on several factors, including accessibility to the different modalities, response of patients to long-term ERT, and the attitudes of physicians and parents to the short- and potential long-term risks associated with different treatments.

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  16. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  17. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  18. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  19. 77 FR 1777 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-261, Electronic Choice of Address and Agent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...). Form Number: DS-261. Respondents: Immigrant beneficiaries requesting change of address or designation... an approved and current immigrant visa petition to provide the Department with his current...

  20. Deficiencies in Current and Emerging Rear Battle Doctrine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    CLASS. (of duoe repo"t) *Unclassified SCM EDL 1S. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17...resouring a third command post from active components . The VII US Corps has conducted the airland battle using a three command post concept (TAC, MAIN

  1. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  2. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health Past Issues / ... What types of research is NIDCR conducting on aging and oral health? We’re currently funding basic ...

  3. Bullying in Schools: Addressing Desires, Not Only Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Currently the main approach in responding to bullying in schools is to focus on undesired behaviours and to apply sanctions. This approach is often ineffective as well as failing to address the needs of children as persons as distinct from the behaviour they produce. A proposed alternative approach is to inquire into the motivation of children who…

  4. Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Technologies Keynote Address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. Victor

    2004-01-01

    Slides for the Keynote Address present graphics to enhance the discussion of NASA's vision, the National Space Exploration Initiative, current Mars exploration, and aeronautics exploration. The presentation also focuses on development of an Air Transportation System and transformation from present systems.

  5. Addressing Educational Accountability and Political Legitimacy with Citizen Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Sarah Stitzlein addresses a key current crisis in public education: accountability. Rather than centrally being about poor performance of teachers or inefficiency of schools, as we most often hear in media outlets and in education reform speeches, Stitzlein argues the crisis is at heart one about citizen responsibility and political…

  6. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Dick

    The importance of Native languages to Native Americans and the effort needed to maintain them are discussed in this keynote address at the ninth Native American Language Issues Institute. It is noted that the current cultural transition has demeaned Native languages and cultures and that strategies must be devised by Native Americans to counter…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Thrombophilia, hereditary, due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant ... my area? Other Names for This Condition hereditary thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency PROC deficiency Related ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder that ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is a rare movement disorder. ...

  10. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vitamins ... serious bleeding problems if not supplemented. What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB? Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or ...

  11. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" means it's ... parents to children through genes. Children who have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from ...

  12. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...

  13. Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Genetics & Inheritance

    MedlinePlus

    ... twitter share with linkedin Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Genetics & Inheritance Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Types of PIDDs Genetics & Inheritance Talking to Your Doctor Featured Research Credit: ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions lysosomal acid lipase deficiency lysosomal acid lipase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  15. The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Michael J.; Cleland, Elsa E.

    2001-01-01

    The current massive degradation of habitat and extinction of species is taking place on a catastrophically short timescale, and their effects will fundamentally reset the future evolution of the planet's biota. The fossil record suggests that recovery of global ecosystems has required millions or even tens of millions of years. Thus, intervention by humans, the very agents of the current environmental crisis, is required for any possibility of short-term recovery or maintenance of the biota. Many current recovery efforts have deficiencies, including insufficient information on the diversity and distribution of species, ecological processes, and magnitude and interaction of threats to biodiversity (pollution, overharvesting, climate change, disruption of biogeochemical cycles, introduced or invasive species, habitat loss and fragmentation through land use, disruption of community structure in habitats, and others). A much greater and more urgently applied investment to address these deficiencies is obviously warranted. Conservation and restoration in human-dominated ecosystems must strengthen connections between human activities, such as agricultural or harvesting practices, and relevant research generated in the biological, earth, and atmospheric sciences. Certain threats to biodiversity require intensive international cooperation and input from the scientific community to mitigate their harmful effects, including climate change and alteration of global biogeochemical cycles. In a world already transformed by human activity, the connection between humans and the ecosystems they depend on must frame any strategy for the recovery of the biota. PMID:11344295

  16. Vitamin D in adolescents: Are current recommendations enough?

    PubMed

    Smith, Taryn J; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2017-02-16

    Vitamin D is essential for bone development during adolescence and low vitamin D status during this critical period of growth may impact bone mineralization, potentially reducing peak bone mass and consequently increasing the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. Therefore, the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency in adolescent populations is of great concern. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, the widely accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, that defines adequacy, and the vitamin D intake requirements to maintain various 25(OH)D thresholds are not well established. While the current intake recommendations of 10-15μg/day may be sufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D<25-30nmol/l), greater intakes may be needed to achieve the higher threshold levels proposed to represent adequacy (25(OH)D>50nmol/l). This review will address these concerns and consider if the current dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents are sufficient.

  17. Iron deficiency and thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Holbro, A; Volken, T; Buser, A; Sigle, J P; Halter, J P; Passweg, J R; Tichelli, A; Infanti, L

    2017-01-01

    According to many textbooks, iron deficiency (ID) is associated with reactive thrombocytosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between serum ferritin levels and platelet counts in a large cohort of healthy blood donors. We included all whole blood and apheresis donors aged 18 years or older with at least one ferritin measurement and one platelet count performed at the same visit between 1996 and 2014. A total of 130 345 blood counts and ferritin measurements obtained from 22 046 healthy donors were analysed. Overall, no correlation between serum ferritin and platelet count was observed (r = -0.03, ρ = 0.04 for males, and r = 0.01, ρ = -0.02 for females, respectively). Associations remained clinically negligible after adjusting for age, time since previous blood donation, number of donations and restricting the analysis to ferritin deciles. In this large, retrospective single-centre study, correlations between low ferritin and platelet count in a large and homogeneous cohort of healthy donors were negligible. Further studies in patients with more severe anaemia and patients with inflammation are warranted.

  18. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  19. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  20. Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Council Conflict of Interest Statement Advisory and Peer Review Committees Careers & Training Career & Training Opportunities Fellowships, Internships, & Training Clinical Training Programs Allergy and Immunology Training Program Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program Current NIH ...

  1. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Council Conflict of Interest Statement Advisory and Peer Review Committees Careers & Training Career & Training Opportunities Fellowships, Internships, & Training Clinical Training Programs Allergy and Immunology Training Program Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program Current NIH ...

  2. Recent progress and concerns regarding the Japanese immunization program: addressing the "vaccine gap".

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2014-07-23

    Recent progress in the Japanese immunization program has partially closed the "vaccine gap," i.e., the deficiencies in that program relative to immunization programs in other developed countries. During the last several years, seven new vaccines (12 new products, excluding influenza vaccines) have been introduced in Japan. Five of these new vaccines are produced outside Japan and four are now included as routine vaccines in the National Immunization Program, which is a new development in the licensing and financial support of imported vaccines. However, along with this progress, important concerns have arisen regarding the Japanese immunization program. A rubella epidemic among adults, in 2012-2013, resulted in more than 40 cases of congenital rubella syndrome as of March 2014. In addition, the temporary withdrawal of the active governmental recommendation for human papilloma virus vaccines, in 2013-2014, highlighted challenges in the current Japanese immunization system. Furthermore, some important vaccines - including vaccines for hepatitis B virus, mumps, varicella, and rotavirus - are still not included in the National Immunization Program and have been categorized as voluntary vaccines since their introduction. The possibility of their inclusion in the National Immunization Program remains a matter for discussion. We hope that future initiatives will further address the vaccine gap and protect Japanese children from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    2016-08-11

    There are over 300 000 people in the UK affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with IBD, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance regarding vitamin D supplementation does not address the needs of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. However, there is growing evidence that vitamin D plays an important role in the management of IBD. Nurses caring for patients with IBD should have an understanding of the causes and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in this patient group. This article looks at the role vitamin D plays in the body and the challenges of treating deficiency. Consideration is given to diet, sun exposure and supplementation as possible treatments and acknowledges the limitations of treatments for patients with IBD. With a lack of clear national guidance, it is hoped that raising awareness of these issues will inform nursing practice and ensure a holistic approach to care.

  4. Iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, E J; Schwartz, G S

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a group of patients with limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency without prior diagnosis of a specific disease entity known to be causative of SC deficiency. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the records of all patients with ocular surface disease presenting to the University of Minnesota between 1987 and 1996. Patients were categorized according to etiology of limbal deficiency. Patients who did not have a specific diagnosis previously described as being causative for limbal deficiency were analyzed. Risk factors, clinical findings and sequelae were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight eyes of six patients with stem cell deficiency not secondary to a known diagnosis were described. All eyes had prior ocular surgery involving the corneoscleral limbus. Six eyes had been on chronic topical medications and all eyes had concurrent external disease such as pterygium, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, rosacea or herpes simplex virus keratitis. All eyes had superior quadrants affected corresponding to areas of prior limbal surgery. Sequelae of disease included corneal scarring and neo-vascularization, and five eyes had with visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. CONCLUSIONS: Because the epitheliopathy started peripherally and extended centrally in all patients, we feel it represents a stem cell deficiency. The fact that all patients were affected superiorly, at sites of a prior limbal surgical incision, points to surgical trauma to the SC as the likely major etiologic factor for the deficiency. The surgical trauma to the limbal SC probably made these cells more susceptible to damage from other external disease influences and toxicity from chronic topical medications. Because the stem cell deficiency is secondary to prior ocular surgery and chronic topical medications, we propose the term "iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency". Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B PMID:9440165

  5. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-05

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field.

  6. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the “atypical” microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merck Manual Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers: Thrombophilia National Blood Clot Alliance: Antithrombin Deficiency Orphanet: Hereditary thrombophilia due to congenital antithrombin deficiency Patient Support and ...

  8. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  9. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Version: Failure to Thrive Merck Manual Consumer Version: Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Merck Manual Professional Version: Vitamin B12 Orphanet: ... Neutropenia Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) ... Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) American ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Encyclopedia: Serum Phenylalanine Screening Health Topic: Newborn Screening Health Topic: Phenylketonuria Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency Educational Resources ( ...

  12. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency in Human and Murine Sepsis*

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Dhruv; Patel, Jaimin M.; Scott, Aaron; Lax, Sian; Dancer, Rachel C. A.; D’Souza, Vijay; Greenwood, Hannah; Fraser, William D.; Gao, Fang; Sapey, Elizabeth; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and ICU mortality but causality of these associations has not been demonstrated. To determine whether sepsis and severe sepsis are associated with vitamin D deficiency and to determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences the severity of sepsis. Design, Setting, and Patients: Sixty-one patients with sepsis and severe sepsis from two large U.K. hospitals and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Murine models of cecal ligation and puncture and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide were undertaken in normal and vitamin D deficient mice to address the issue of causality. Measurements and Main Results: Patients with severe sepsis had significantly lower concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 than patients with either mild sepsis or age-matched healthy controls (15.7 vs 49.5 vs 66.5 nmol/L; p = 0.0001). 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients who had positive microbiologic culture than those who were culture negative (p = 0.0023) as well as those who died within 30 days of hospital admission (p = 0.025). Vitamin D deficiency in murine sepsis was associated with increased peritoneal (p = 0.037), systemic (p = 0.019), and bronchoalveolar lavage (p = 0.011) quantitative bacterial culture. This was associated with reduced local expression of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide as well as evidence of defective macrophage phagocytosis (p = 0.029). In the intratracheal lipopolysaccharide model, 1,500 IU of intraperitoneal cholecalciferol treatment 6 hours postinjury reduced alveolar inflammation, cellular damage, and hypoxia. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in severe sepsis. This appears to contribute to the development of the condition in clinically relevant murine models and approaches to correct vitamin D deficiency in patients with sepsis should be developed. PMID:27632669

  14. 75 FR 10671 - Changes to and Consolidation of DEA Mailing Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...DEA is amending Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to update and consolidate existing mailing addresses. Mailing addresses are being removed from the individual sections in which they currently appear and are being consolidated into one table in a new part 1321. DEA is making this change to the CFR to ensure registrants have the most current and accurate information, reduce......

  15. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  16. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  17. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  18. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  19. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  20. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  1. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  2. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  3. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  4. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  5. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  6. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  8. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  9. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  10. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  11. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  12. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  13. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  14. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  15. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency – More Than Just an Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kathryn V.; Gaspar, Hubert B.

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is best known as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that results from mutations in the gene encoding ADA. Affected patients present with clinical and immunological manifestations typical of a SCID. Therapies are currently available that can target these immunological disturbances and treated patients show varying degrees of clinical improvement. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that deficiency of ADA has significant impact on non-immunological organ systems. This review will outline the impact of ADA deficiency on various organ systems, starting with the well-understood immunological abnormalities. We will discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and also highlight ways in which current treatments could be improved. In doing so, we aim to present ADA deficiency as more than an immunodeficiency and suggest that it should be recognized as a systemic metabolic disorder that affects multiple organ systems. Only by fully understanding ADA deficiency and its manifestations in all organ systems can we aim to deliver therapies that will correct all the clinical consequences. PMID:27579027

  16. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  17. Marginal Iodide Deficiency and Thyroid Function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of hypothyroidism. However, the implications of marginal iodine deficiency on function of the thyroid axis remain less well known. The current study examined t...

  18. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  19. Zinc deficiency alters soybean susceptibility to pathogens and pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate plant nutrition and biotic stress are key threats to current and future crop yields. Zinc deficiency and toxicity in major crop plants have been documented, but there is limited information on how pathogen and pest damage may be affected by differing plant zinc levels. In our study, we us...

  20. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency • 4: Molecular pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, D; Parfrey, H

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of α1-antitrypsin deficiency is reviewed and is shown to be due to the accumulation of mutant protein as ordered polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. The current goals are to determine the cellular response to polymeric α1-antitrypsin and to develop therapeutic strategies to block polymerisation in vivo. PMID:15170041

  1. Immune Gamma Globulin Therapeutic Indications in Immune Deficiency and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luanna; Wu, Eveline Y; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    Immune gamma globulin (IgG) has a long history in the treatment of both primary immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Disease indications continue to expand and new-generation products increase the versatility of delivery. This review encompasses a historical perspective as well as current and future implications of human immune globulin for the treatment of immune-mediated illness.

  2. Selenium deficiency, reversible cardiomyopathy and short-term intravenous feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J. B.; Jones, H. W.; Gordon, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Crohn's disease receiving short-term postoperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with trace elements who nevertheless became selenium deficient with evidence of a cardiomyopathy. This was fully reversible with oral selenium supplementation. Current parenteral feeding regimes may not contain enough selenium for malnourished patients. PMID:8183763

  3. The 2016 AANS Presidential Address: Leading the way.

    PubMed

    Batjer, H Hunt; Ban, Vin Shen

    2016-12-01

    This AANS presidential address focuses on enduring values of the neurosurgical profession that transcend the current political climate. The address was delivered by Dr. Batjer during a US presidential election year, but the authors have intentionally avoided discussing the current chaos of the American health care system in the knowledge that many pressing issues will change depending on the outcome of the 2016 elections. Instead, they have chosen to focus on clarifying what neurosurgeons, and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, in particular, stand for; identifying important challenges to these fundamental principles and values; and proposing specific actions to address these challenges. The authors cite "de-professionalism" and commoditization of medicine as foremost among the threats that confront medicine and surgery today and suggest concrete action that can be taken to reverse these trends as well as steps that can be taken to address other significant challenges. They emphasize the importance of embracing exceptionalism and never compromising the standards that have characterized the profession of neurosurgery since its inception.

  4. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  5. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  6. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  7. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  8. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  9. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  10. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  12. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  17. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  18. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  19. Favism: Current Problems and Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, E.

    1973-01-01

    Haemolytic favism is a severe, acute anaemia which occurs in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, usually following the ingestion of Vicia faba seeds. Current interest is focused on the nature of the active substances of Vicia faba and on the causes of the varying susceptibility among G6PD-deficient individuals to episodes of severe haemolysis. The results of experiments in vitro favour the hypothesis that Vicia faba contains several active substances which may act in a synergistic way. Red cell acid phosphatase and thalassaemia genes appear to play a remarkable role in conditioning the susceptibility to severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient subjects. In addition to erythrocyte enzymes and to enzymes which intervene in the absorption and metabolism of the active substances of Vicia faba, another field for future investigations may be that of plasma factors which influence the stability of reduced glutathione in the red cells. PMID:4714581

  20. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  1. Expanding School Improvement Policy to Better Address Barriers to Learning and Integrate Public Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article stresses that current school improvement policy in the USA marginalizes development of the type of system of student support necessary for enabling student success and well-being at school. Then we discuss how education policy can be expanded and operationalized to correct this deficiency. Finally, we explore the implications of the…

  2. Modeling of the influences of electron cyclotron current drive on neoclassical tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Long; Liu, Jinyuan; Sun, Jizhong; Sun, Guanglan; Duan, Ping

    2015-05-15

    Influences of external current drive on neoclassical tearing modes are studied numerically with a set of compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. By considering the effects of driven current parameters and its deposition timing, and by examining the relationship between driven current and the missing bootstrap current, the basic requirements of deposition width and external current density for effectively suppressing neoclassical tearing modes are investigated. When the driven current density is able to compensate the missing bootstrap current and the deposition region is comparable with the saturated island, the suppression results are notable. Meanwhile, the pre-emptive strategy of current deposition reported experimentally is also evaluated, and the results agree with the experimental ones that early current deposition can enhance suppression effectiveness greatly. In addition, the deficiencies of continuous driven current are discussed when the plasma rotation has been taken into account, and the application of modulated current drive, which is synchronized in phase with the rotating island, can restore the stabilizing role under some conditions. The favorable parameters of modulation such as duty cycle are also addressed.

  3. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: A review of current concepts in management

    PubMed Central

    Pihos, Andria M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is an ocular surface infection caused by adenovirus. To date, there are no approved topical antiadenoviral therapeutics to treat EKC. Recent research reveals that treatment with topical corticosteroids for symptomatic relief of EKC enhances adenovirus replication and delays cell shedding from the ocular surface which delays adenovirus elimination. The current management of EKC largely revolves around accurate diagnosis of the condition and implementation of disinfection protocol to prevent its spread. Development of an effective antiviral treatment that addresses inflammation and does not prolong viral shedding would provide significant benefit. The literature reports on a variety of therapeutics that could potentially satisfy this deficiency. Topical ganciclovir and povidone-iodine combination drops have shown the most recent potential, but both therapeutics need to be investigated in larger scale studies. Until an antiadenoviral option is produced, the treatment of EKC should maintain a judicious case by case approach aiming to contain its dissemination and prevent visual consequences.

  4. Deficiencies in the transfer and availability of clinical trials evidence: a review of existing systems and standards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Decisions concerning drug safety and efficacy are generally based on pivotal evidence provided by clinical trials. Unfortunately, finding the relevant clinical trials is difficult and their results are only available in text-based reports. Systematic reviews aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence in a specific area, but may not provide the data required for decision making. Methods We review and analyze the existing information systems and standards for aggregate level clinical trials information from the perspective of systematic review and evidence-based decision making. Results The technology currently used has major shortcomings, which cause deficiencies in the transfer, traceability and availability of clinical trials information. Specifically, data available to decision makers is insufficiently structured, and consequently the decisions cannot be properly traced back to the underlying evidence. Regulatory submission, trial publication, trial registration, and systematic review produce unstructured datasets that are insufficient for supporting evidence-based decision making. Conclusions The current situation is a hindrance to policy decision makers as it prevents fully transparent decision making and the development of more advanced decision support systems. Addressing the identified deficiencies would enable more efficient, informed, and transparent evidence-based medical decision making. PMID:22947211

  5. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity.

    PubMed

    García, Olga P; Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L

    2009-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age groups worldwide. While the effects of micronutrient deficiencies on human functions have been studied widely in different populations, there is limited information on how these micronutrient deficiencies affect obese populations. An examination of the available literature suggests associations exist between micronutrient deficiencies and obesity in different populations. These associations and possible mechanisms of the deficiencies' metabolic effects, such as their influence on leptin and insulin metabolism, are discussed here. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles of the different micronutrient deficiencies with respect to obesity and its comorbid conditions.

  6. A Review on Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeon; So, Tsz-Yin; Thackray, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and for maintaining bone health in the pediatric population. Vitamin D deficiency may develop from nutritional deficiencies, malabsorption, enzyme-inducing medications, and many other etiologies. It may present as hypocalcemia before bone demineralization at periods of increased growth velocity (infancy and adolescence) because the increased calcium demand of the body cannot be met. In children, inadequate concentrations of vitamin D may cause rickets and/or symptomatic hypocalcemia, such as seizures or tetany. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology behind vitamin D supplementation, laboratory assessments of vitamin D status, current literature concerning vitamin D supplementation, and various supplementation options for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population. PMID:24719588

  7. Glut1 deficiency syndrome and novel ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel

    2013-08-01

    The classical ketogenic diet has been used for refractory childhood epilepsy for decades. It is also the treatment of choice for disorders of brain energy metabolism, such as Glut1 deficiency syndrome. Novel ketogenic diets such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment have significantly improved the therapeutic options for dietary treatment. Benefits of these novel diets are increased palatability, practicability, and thus compliance-at the expense of lower ketosis. As high ketones appear essential to meet the brain energy deficit caused by Glut1 deficiency syndrome, the use of novel ketogenic diets in this entity may be limited. This article discusses the current data on novel ketogenic diets and the implications on the use of these diets in regard to Glut1 deficiency syndrome.

  8. A review on vitamin d deficiency treatment in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; So, Tsz-Yin; Thackray, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and for maintaining bone health in the pediatric population. Vitamin D deficiency may develop from nutritional deficiencies, malabsorption, enzyme-inducing medications, and many other etiologies. It may present as hypocalcemia before bone demineralization at periods of increased growth velocity (infancy and adolescence) because the increased calcium demand of the body cannot be met. In children, inadequate concentrations of vitamin D may cause rickets and/or symptomatic hypocalcemia, such as seizures or tetany. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology behind vitamin D supplementation, laboratory assessments of vitamin D status, current literature concerning vitamin D supplementation, and various supplementation options for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population.

  9. Proteomics dissection of plant responses to mineral nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cuiyue; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

    2013-02-01

    Plants require at least 17 essential nutrients to complete their life cycle. Except for carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, other essential nutrients are mineral nutrients, which are mainly acquired from soils by roots. In natural soils, the availability of most essential mineral nutrients is very low and hard to meet the demand of plants. Developing crops with high nutrient efficiency is essential for sustainable agriculture, which requires more understandings of crop responses to mineral nutrient deficiency. Proteomic techniques provide a crucial and complementary tool to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying crop adaptation to mineral nutrient deficiency in the rapidly processing postgenome era. This review gives a comparative overview about identification of mineral nutrient deficiency responsive proteins using proteomic analysis, and discusses the current status for crop proteomics and its challenges to be integrated into systems biology approaches for developing crops with high mineral nutrient efficiency.

  10. Hypocretin ligand deficiency in narcolepsy: recent basic and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Cayde; Okuro, Masashi; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Nishino, Seiji

    2010-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Both sporadic and familial forms exist in humans. Recently, the major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy was indicated, based on discovery, through animal study, of narcolepsy genes involved in the pathology of hypocretin/orexin ligand and its receptor. Hypocretin ligand deficiency is found in most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. This deficiency likely is the result of postnatal cell death of hypocretin neurons, and involvement of autoimmune mechanisms is suggested. Hypocretin deficiency also is found in symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness with neurologic conditions, including immune-mediated neurologic disorders. These findings have significant clinical relevance and promote understanding of hypocretin cell death mechanisms. Already, discoveries in humans have led to a new diagnostic test for narcolepsy. Currently, hypocretin replacement therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic option, and experiments using gene therapy and cell transplantation are in progress.

  11. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  12. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  13. Case report: pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J M

    1995-09-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital hemolytic anemia. Despite a paucity of reports, splenectomy resulted in successful outcomes for two siblings with this disorder. The sisters were diagnosed at birth with profound jaundice and congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of reactions that occurs in liver cells. This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, ... enzyme controls the final step of the urea cycle, which produces urea by removing nitrogen from arginine. In people with arginase deficiency , arginase ...

  15. Norepinephrine deficiency in Parkinson's disease: the case for noradrenergic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J; LeWitt, Peter A; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-12-01

    The dramatic response of most motor and some nonmotor symptoms to dopaminergic therapies has contributed to maintaining the long-established identity of Parkinson's disease (PD) as primarily a nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) deficiency syndrome. However, DA neurotransmission may be neither the first nor the major neurotransmitter casualty in the neurodegenerative sequence of PD. Growing evidence supports earlier norepinephrine (NE) deficiency resulting from selective degeneration of neurons of the locus coeruleus and sympathetic ganglia. Dopaminergic replacement therapy therefore would seem to neglect some of the motor, behavioral, cognitive, and autonomic impairments that are directly or indirectly associated with the marked deficiency of NE in the brain and elsewhere. Therapeutic strategies to enhance NE neurotransmission have undergone only limited pharmacological testing. Currently, these approaches include selective NE reuptake inhibition, presynaptic α2 -adrenergic receptor blockade, and an NE prodrug, the artificial amino acid L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. In addition to reducing the consequences of deficient noradrenergic signaling, enhancement strate gies have the potential for augmenting the effects of dopaminergic therapies in PD. Furthermore, early recognition of the various clinical manifestations associated with NE deficiency, which may precede development of motor symptoms, could provide a window of opportunity for neuroprotective interventions.

  16. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Evan Cole; De Meulemeester, Christine; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Gibson, K. Michael; Torres, Carlos; Guberman, Alan; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Ali-Ridha, Andre; Parviz, Mahsa; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following hospitalization for progressive decline, escalating seizures, and prolonged periods of altered consciousness. We present a detailed review of his clinical course and reviewed our SSADH deficiency database adult cohort to derive natural history information. Results: Of 95 patients in the database for whom age at diagnosis is recorded, there are 40 individuals currently aged 18 years or older. Only 3 patients were diagnosed after age 18 years. Of 25 adults for whom data are available after age 18, 60% have a history of epilepsy. Predominant seizure types are generalized tonic-clonic, absence, and myoclonic. EEGs showed background slowing or generalized epileptiform discharges in two-thirds of adults for whom EEG data were collected. History of psychiatric symptoms was prominent, with frequent anxiety, sleep disturbances, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Conclusions: We identified patients older than 18 years with SSADH deficiency in our database following identification and review of a patient diagnosed in the seventh decade of life. The illness had a progressive course with escalating seizures in the index case, with fatality at age 63. Diagnosis in adulthood is rare. Epilepsy is more common in the adult than the pediatric SSADH deficiency cohort; neuropsychiatric morbidity remains prominent. PMID:26268900

  17. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pons, Roser; Syrengelas, Dimitris; Youroukos, Sotiris; Orfanou, Irene; Dinopoulos, Arqirios; Cormand, Bru; Ormazabal, Aida; Garzía-Cazorla, Angels; Serrano, Mercedes; Artuch, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesias in patients with tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical observation was carried out on 6 patients who were diagnosed with tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and were treated with escalating doses of l-dopa. All 6 patients showed l-dopa-induced dyskinesias of variable intensity early in the course of treatment and regardless of the age of initiation. l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias were precipitated by increases in the dose of l-dopa and also by febrile illnesses and stress. They caused dysfunction and distress in 2 patients. The dyskinesias were improved by decreasing the l-dopa dose or by slowing its titration upward. Increasing the dose frequency was helpful in 2 patients, and introducing amantadine was helpful in another 2 patients. l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias are a common phenomenon in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. The current observations show that l-dopa-induced dyskinesias are frequent in a dopamine-deficient state in the absence of nigrostriatal degeneration. Although l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency are phenomenologically similar to those that occur in Parkinson's disease, they are different in a number of other respects, suggesting intrinsic differences in the pathophysiologic basis of l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in the 2 conditions. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency - what are the treatment options?

    PubMed

    Modrykamien, Ariel; Stoller, James K

    2009-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under-recognized genetic condition that predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Although AAT is mainly produced in the liver, its main function is to protect the lung against proteolytic damage from neutrophil elastase. The most common mutation responsible for severe AAT deficiency, the so-called Z variant, reduces serum levels by promoting polymerization of the molecule within the hepatocyte, thereby reducing secretion. Serum levels below the putative protective threshold level of 11 micromolar (mumol/L) increase the risk of emphysema. In addition to the usual treatments for emphysema, infusion of purified AAT from pooled human plasma represents a specific therapy for AAT deficiency and raises serum and epithelial lining fluid levels above the protective threshold. Substantial evidence supports the biochemical efficacy of this approach, particularly for the weekly infusion regimen. Definitive evidence of clinical efficacy is still needed, as the two available randomized controlled trials showed non-significant trends towards slowing rates of loss of lung density on lung computerized axial tomography. However, concordant results of prospective cohort studies suggest that augmentation therapy has efficacy in slowing the rate of decline of lung function in patients with moderate airflow obstruction and severe deficiency of AAT. Overall, augmentation therapy is well-tolerated and, despite its failure to satisfy criteria for cost-effectiveness, is recommended because it is the only currently available specific therapy for AAT deficiency.

  19. Inflammation protects copper deficient rats from carbon tetrachloride toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.L.; Joseph, E.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Copper deficient rats show low resistance to CCl{sub 4}, possibly due to low liver Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. If Cu-Zn SOD is involved, deficiency effects should be aggravated by inflammation which further lowers Cu-Zn SOD activities in deficient rats. On the contrary, inflammation from 0.1 ml turpentine (im, lef) protected these rats from CCl{sub 4} damage assessed by serum activities of 2 liver enzymes. CCl{sub 4} was given ip at 200 {mu}l/kg, 48 h after turpentine, 24 h before sacrifice. Rats were fed low copper for 40 days before CCl{sub 4} challenge. Inflammation also protected rats fed adequate copper from injury, though injury in noninflamed rats was less than with noninflamed deficients. Protection could result from the large increase observed in liver metallothionein, an induction not restricted by copper deficiency. Alternatively, inflammation may block P-450 activation of CCl{sub 4}. Both explanations are currently under investigation, as is the role, if any, of Cu-Zn SOD in resisting CCl{sub 4} injury.

  20. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  1. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  2. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J ... short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):814- ...

  4. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often develops shortly ... Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants whose parents declined vitamin K ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine Metabolism Disorders Orphanet: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Patient Support and ...

  6. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Werder, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1) Which patients should be tested? (2) What test should be ordered? (3) How are inferences made from such testing? (4) In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5) Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6) What is to be expected from treatment? (7) How is B12 deficiency treated? Methods On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment) and then reviewed in answering the above questions. Results The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed. Discussion Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test: 200 picograms per milliliter or less is low, and 201 to 350 picograms per milliliter is borderline low. Other tests may be indicated, including plasma

  7. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater mining in India is one of the biggest water related present and future challenges of South Asia. In the agricultural sector, the negative impact from groundwater depletion is complex and affects farmers directly and indirectly in different ways according to their existing dependence on access to groundwater for irrigation. It stems from a) a reduction in buffer capacity of groundwater as a source of backup supply in critical times of drought, b) the deprivation of access to groundwater of those farmers that cannot raise the capital to continuously drill deeper so as to chase the declining groundwater table and c) the constant reduction of per pump well yield due to the declining water tables given more or less constant pumping energy supply. As a result, rural incomes have become less reliable and household as well as national level food security are increasingly compromised. It is feared that the current deterioration of the national food security situation in India might not easily be reversed due to the unsustainable nature of consumptive groundwater use over the past decades. Access to electricity and subsidized power so as to pump groundwater for irrigation have played a critical role in increasing food production thus linking the energy and agricultural sector. The current rural public finance mechanism is highly ineffective, however, and trapped in an inefficient equilibrium. The deficiencies are that low cost and low quality electricity for agriculture likely translate into wasteful groundwater as well as inefficient energy use and thus lead to resource depletion and contribute to an erosion of the rural electricity distribution system. It is estimated that the current commercial losses to the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) amount to about 23 percent of the gross fiscal deficit of the states. The original intent of the rural subsidy program is thus lost and the current system in urgent need of repair. The uncertain future development of energy

  8. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  9. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  10. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  11. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  12. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  13. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  14. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  15. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  16. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  17. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  19. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  20. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  1. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  2. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  3. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  4. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  5. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  6. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  7. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  8. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  9. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  10. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  11. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  12. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  13. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  14. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  15. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  16. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  17. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  18. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  19. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Scabini, Roberta; Campo, Ilaria; Ottaviani, Stefania; Zorzetto, Michele; Gorrini, Marina; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2007-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) has evolved over the last 40 years since the first cases of the disorder were reported. It is currently performed in specialized centers, and it requires a combination of different biochemical methods: nephelometric AAT concentration, isoelectric focusing, genotyping, and sequencing. The availability of matrices such as the dried blood spot have facilitated the implementation of laboratory analyses for AATD, but they have also challenged laboratories to develop more reliable and reproducible techniques starting from dried blood. In this article, we describe the protocols we have optimized for AATD diagnosis from dried blood spot, in an attempt to hopefully provide useful information for physicians and scientists involved in this diagnostic line. We also describe the diagnostic flowchart for AATD detection that we have developed accordingly.

  1. Are Pediatricians Complicit in Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding?

    PubMed

    Weddle, Melissa; Empey, Allison; Crossen, Eric; Green, Aaron; Green, Joy; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2015-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns receive a single dose of intramuscular vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. How should the clinician respond when parents decline vitamin K? Although vitamin K deficiency bleeding can have devastating sequelae, they are uncommon; therefore, parents are generally allowed to decline vitamin K after counseling is provided. When parents ask for a vitamin K preparation of unproven effectiveness, should the clinician honor that request? To address these questions, we present a case of a healthy newborn whose parents declined intramuscular vitamin K and requested an oral preparation. Two general pediatricians discuss the medical and ethical issues these situations pose, and the parents describe their experience.

  2. D0 Detector Collision Hall Oxygen Deficiancy Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-06

    EN-258, D0 Platform ODH Analysts. provided the oxygen deficiency hazard analysts for the D0 detector in the Assembly Hall. This note covers the same analysis. but revised for the Collision Hall. Liquid cryogens. released and warming to atmosphere conditions, expand to, on average, seven hundred times their liquid volume, and displace vital atmospheric oxygen. An oxygen deficiency hazard analysis assesses the increased risk to personnel in areas containing cryogenic systems. The D0 detector Collision Hall ODH analysis has been approached five different ways using established methods. If the low beta quad magnets are powered, and the exhaust rate is below 4220 scfm, the area is ODH class 1. In any other case, the analysis shows the area to be ODH class 0 as equipped (with ventilation fans) and requiring no special safety provisions. System designers have provided for a reduced oxygen level detection and warning system as well as emergency procedures to address fault conditions.

  3. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  4. Addressing Disparities in Stroke Prevention for Atrial Fibrillation: Educational Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Berman, Adam E; Gross, Hartmut; Hess, David C; Jauch, Edward C; Viser, Paul E; Solenski, Nina J; Wolf, Andrew M D

    2016-07-01

    Disparities in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke and mortality persist, especially racial disparities, within the US "Stroke Belt." This study identified barriers to optimal stroke prevention to develop a framework for clinician education. A comprehensive educational needs assessment was developed focusing on clinicians within the Stroke Belt. The mixed qualitative-quantitative approach included regional surveys and one-on-one clinician interviews. Identified contributors to disparities included implicit racial biases, lack of awareness of racial disparities in AF stroke risk, and lack of effective multicultural awareness and training. Additional barriers affecting disparities included patient medical mistrust and clinician-patient communication challenges. General barriers included lack of consistency in assessing stroke and anticoagulant-related bleeding risk, underuse of standardized risk assessment tools, discomfort with novel anticoagulants, and patient education deficiencies. Effective cultural competency training is one strategy to reduce disparities in AF-related stroke and mortality by improving implicit clinician bias, addressing medical mistrust, and improving clinician-patient communication.

  5. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  6. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  7. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-02

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible.

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  9. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  10. Iron deficiency and brain development.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Georgieff, Michael K

    2006-09-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants worldwide. Rodent models show that ID during gestation/lactation alters neurometabolism, neurotransmitters, myelination, and gene/protein profiles before and after iron repletion at weaning. Human infants with iron deficiency anemia test lower in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and neurophysiologic development than comparison group infants. Iron therapy does not consistently improve developmental outcome, with long-term differences observed. Poorer outcome has also been shown in human and monkey infants with fetal/neonatal ID. Recent randomized trials of infant iron supplementation show benefits, indicating that adverse effects can be prevented and/or reversed with iron earlier in development or before ID becomes severe or chronic. This body of research emphasizes the importance of protecting the developing brain from ID.

  11. Oestrogen deficiency after tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J

    1985-04-13

    4 of 7 women who had undergone tubal ligation within the past seven years were found to have oestrogen excretion concentrations at ovulation below the tenth percentile. A disturbance in the oestrogen/progesterone ratio as a consequence of localised hypertension at the ovary, when the utero-ovarian arterial loop is occluded at tubal ligation, is proposed as a possible cause of oestrogen deficiency syndrome, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and menorrhagia after tubal ligation. Similar pathophysiology may occur after hysterectomy with ovarian conservation.

  12. Congenital deficiency of factor VII.

    PubMed

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  13. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  14. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  15. Vitamin D deficiency and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Michael J

    2017-03-24

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the onset of diabetes. This review summarizes the role of Vitamin D in maintaining the normal release of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells (β-cells). Diabetes is initiated by the onset of insulin resistance. The β-cells can overcome this resistance by releasing more insulin, thus preventing hyperglycaemia. However, as this hyperactivity increases, the β-cells experience excessive Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling that results in cell death and the onset of diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency contributes to both the initial insulin resistance and the subsequent onset of diabetes caused by β-cell death. Vitamin D acts to reduce inflammation, which is a major process in inducing insulin resistance. Vitamin D maintains the normal resting levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS that are elevated in the β-cells during diabetes. Vitamin D also has a very significant role in maintaining the epigenome. Epigenetic alterations are a feature of diabetes by which many diabetes-related genes are inactivated by hypermethylation. Vitamin D acts to prevent such hypermethylation by increasing the expression of the DNA demethylases that prevent hypermethylation of multiple gene promoter regions of many diabetes-related genes. What is remarkable is just how many cellular processes are maintained by Vitamin D. When Vitamin D is deficient, many of these processes begin to decline and this sets the stage for the onset of diseases such as diabetes.

  16. The Meniscus-Deficient Knee

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Allison J.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Yanke, Adam B.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injury, and partial meniscectomies are the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure. The injured meniscus has an impaired ability to distribute load and resist tibial translation. Partial or complete loss of the meniscus promotes early development of chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The primary goal of treatment for meniscus-deficient knees is to provide symptomatic relief, ideally to delay advanced joint space narrowing, and ultimately, joint replacement. Surgical treatments, including meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), are options that attempt to decrease the loads on the articular cartilage of the meniscus-deficient compartment by replacing meniscal tissue or altering joint alignment. Clinical and biomechanical studies have reported promising outcomes for MAT, HTO, and DFO in the postmeniscectomized knee. These procedures can be performed alone or in conjunction with ligament reconstruction or chondral procedures (reparative, restorative, or reconstructive) to optimize stability and longevity of the knee. Complications can include fracture, nonunion, patella baja, compartment syndrome, infection, and deep venous thrombosis. MAT, HTO, and DFO are effective options for young patients suffering from pain and functional limitations secondary to meniscal deficiency. PMID:26779547

  17. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance of studying different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy.

  18. Progesterone Deficiency and Premature Labour

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, A. I.; Pohanka, O.; Kaihola, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma oestradiol 17β and progesterone levels in 11 patients admitted to hospital for threatened premature labour of unknown aetiology were compared with those of women at similar stages of gestation whose pregnancy was normal. Oestradiol levels in the study group were slightly higher than in the normal controls but their progesterone levels were significantly lower. This progesterone deficiency increased the oestradiol/progesterone ratio in the study group patients, and it increased still more as the progesterone withdrawal continued during premature labour. Since uterine activity during pregnancy is regulated by a balanced action of several factors a deficiency in progesterone, an opponent of uterine activity, creates a regulatory imbalance which, if uncorrected, provokes premature labour. An increase in uterine volume stimulates uterine activity, and the present study reinforced our previous conclusion that the uterine-volume/plasma-progesterone ratio is a more accurate measure of the state of regulatory balance than the progesterone level alone. The cause of the progesterone deficiency in these cases remains unexplained, but we suggest that placental growth and function are contributory factors. We are investigating ways of correcting the resulting imbalance in the regulatory mechanism. PMID:4812406

  19. Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, María S.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gomez, Nidia N.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell function by serving as precursors for prostaglandins and other signaling molecules and modulating gene expression through the transcription activation. The components of the diet are determinant for cell functionality. In this review, the effects of macro and micronutrients deficiency on the quality, quantity and metabolism of different phospholipids and their distribution in cells of different organs is presented. Alterations in the amount of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E and folate, and other micronutrients, such as zinc and magnesium, are discussed. In all cases we observe alterations in the pattern of phospholipids, the more affected ones being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin. The deficiency of certain nutrients, such as essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and some metals may contribute to a variety of diseases that can be irreversible even after replacement with normal amount of the nutrients. Usually, the sequelae are more important when the deficiency is present at an early age. PMID:21731449

  20. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance to study different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. PMID:26846578

  1. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  2. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase malonic aciduria malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency MCD deficiency Related Information How ... molecular characterization of nine new patients with malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 ...

  4. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  5. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  6. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  7. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  8. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  9. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  10. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  11. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  12. Addressing concerns related to geologic hazards at the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility , TA-63, Los Alamos National Laboratory: focus on the current Los Alamos Seismic Network earthquake catalog, proximity of identified seismic events to the proposed facility , and evaluation of prev

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Peter M.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Kelley, Richard E.

    2012-04-02

    . Understanding the subtle differences between Tshirege Member cooling units and the nature of the contacts between cooling units is critical to identifying the presence or absence of faults associated with the Pajarito fault system on the Pajarito Plateau. The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) continuously monitors local earthquake activity in the Los Alamos area in support of LANL's Seismic Hazards program. Seismic monitoring of LANL facilities is a requirement of DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). LASN currently consists of nine permanent seismic instrument field stations that telemeter real-time sensitive ground motion data to a central recording facility. Four of these stations are located on LANL property, with three of those within 2.5 miles of TA-63. The other five stations are in remote locations in the Jemez Mountains, Valles Caldera, St Peters Dome, and the Caja del Rio plateau across the Rio Grande from the Los Alamos area. Local earthquakes are defined as those with locations within roughly 100 miles of Los Alamos. Plate 1 shows the current LASN station locations and all local earthquakes recorded from 1973 through 2011. During this time period, LASN has detected and recorded over 850 local earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Over 650 of these were located within about 50 miles of Los Alamos, and roughly 60 were within 10 miles. The apparent higher density of earthquakes close to Los Alamos, relative to the rest of north-central New Mexico, is due largely to the fact that LASN is a sensitive local seismic network, recording many very small nearby events (magnitude less than 1.0) that are undetectable at greater distances.

  13. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficiency in Transfusion Medicine: The Unknown Risks

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard O.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Pham, Huy P.; Hod, Eldad A.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce hemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing hemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage, and mechanisms of hemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed. PMID:23815264

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in transfusion medicine: the unknown risks.

    PubMed

    Francis, R O; Jhang, J S; Pham, H P; Hod, E A; Zimring, J C; Spitalnik, S L

    2013-11-01

    The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce haemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing haemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage and mechanisms of haemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed.

  16. Deficiencies in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia During Childhood.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jacquelyn M; Daniel, Catherine L; McCavit, Timothy L; Buchanan, George R

    2016-04-01

    Limited high-quality evidence supports the management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). To assess our institutional performance in this area, we retrospectively reviewed IDA treatment practices in 195 consecutive children referred to our center from 2006 to mid-2010. The majority of children were ≤4 years old (64%) and had nutritional IDA (74%). In 11- to 18-year-old patients (31%), the primary etiology was menorrhagia (42%). Many were referred directly to the emergency department and/or prescribed iron doses outside the recommended range. Poor medication adherence and being lost-to-follow-up were common. Substantial improvements are required in the management of IDA.

  17. Tissue Expanders in Skin Deficient Ventral Hernias Utilizing Component Separation

    PubMed Central

    Molinar, Vanessa E.; Molinar, Alonso; Palladino, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Skin deficient complex ventral hernias are complicated surgical cases that have multimodal approaches. There is no current consensus on the management of those patients who also have concomitant stomas or enterocutaneous fistula. We present 2 cases in which the senior authors were able to apply tissue expanders above and between the abdominal wall in patients with an enterocutaneous fistula or stoma. After expansion and final closure, the patients did not experience recurrent hernias. PMID:26893988

  18. The Case for Addressing Operator Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jeanne F; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep deficiency, which can be caused by acute sleep deprivation, chronic insufficient sleep, untreated sleep disorders, disruption of circadian timing, and other factors, is endemic in the U.S., including among professional and non-professional drivers and operators. Vigilance and attention are critical for safe transportation operations, but fatigue and sleepiness compromise vigilance and attention by slowing reaction times and impairing judgment and decision-making abilities. Research studies, polls, and accident investigations indicate that many Americans drive a motor vehicle or operate an aircraft, train or marine vessel while drowsy, putting themselves and others at risk for error and accident. In this chapter, we will outline some of the factors that contribute to sleepiness, present evidence from laboratory and field studies demonstrating how sleepiness impacts transportation safety, review how sleepiness is measured in laboratory and field settings, describe what is known about interventions for sleepiness in transportation settings, and summarize what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge of sleepiness and transportation safety.

  19. Addressing the vulnerabilities of pass-thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Danko, Amanda S.

    2016-05-01

    As biometrics become increasingly pervasive, consumer electronics are reaping the benefits of improved authentication methods. Leveraging the physical characteristics of a user reduces the burden of setting and remembering complex passwords, while enabling stronger security. Multi-factor systems lend further credence to this model, increasing security via multiple passive data points. In recent years, brainwaves have been shown to be another feasible source for biometric authentication. Physically unique to an individual in certain circumstances, the signals can also be changed by the user at will, making them more robust than static physical characteristics. No paradigm is impervious however, and even well-established medical technologies have deficiencies. In this work, a system for biometric authentication via brainwaves is constructed with electroencephalography (EEG). The efficacy of EEG biometrics via existing consumer electronics is evaluated, and vulnerabilities of such a system are enumerated. Impersonation attacks are performed to expose the extent to which the system is vulnerable. Finally, a multimodal system combining EEG with additional factors is recommended and outlined.

  20. The Case for Addressing Operator Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deficiency, which can be caused by acute sleep deprivation, chronic insufficient sleep, untreated sleep disorders, disruption of circadian timing, and other factors, is endemic in the U.S., including among professional and non-professional drivers and operators. Vigilance and attention are critical for safe transportation operations, but fatigue and sleepiness compromise vigilance and attention by slowing reaction times and impairing judgment and decision-making abilities. Research studies, polls, and accident investigations indicate that many Americans drive a motor vehicle or operate an aircraft, train or marine vessel while drowsy, putting themselves and others at risk for error and accident. In this chapter, we will outline some of the factors that contribute to sleepiness, present evidence from laboratory and field studies demonstrating how sleepiness impacts transportation safety, review how sleepiness is measured in laboratory and field settings, describe what is known about interventions for sleepiness in transportation settings, and summarize what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge of sleepiness and transportation safety. PMID:26056516

  1. Addressable nanoelectrode membrane arrays: fabrication and steady-state behavior.

    PubMed

    Zoski, Cynthia G; Yang, Nianjun; He, Peixin; Berdondini, Luca; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-02-15

    An addressable nanoelectrode membrane array (ANEMA) based on a Au-filled track-etched polycarbonate membrane was fabricated. The Au-filled membrane was secured to a lithographically fabricated addressable ultramicroelectrode (UME) array patterned with 25 regularly spaced (100 microm center to center spacing), 10 microm diameter recessed Pt UMEs to create 25 microregions of 10 microm diameter nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) on the membrane. The steady-state voltammetric behavior of 1.0 mM Ru(NH(3))(6)Cl(3) and 1.0 mM ferrocene methanol in 0.1 M KCl on each of the micro NEEs resulted in sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms which were reproducible across the ANEMA. This reproducibility of the steady-state current was attributed to the overlapping hemispherical diffusion layers at the Au-filled nanopores of each 10 microm diameter NEE of a ANEMA. The track-etched polycarbonate membranes were filled using a gold electroless deposition procedure into the 30 nm diameter pores in the membrane. Electrical connection between the Au-filled template array and the lithographic UME platform array was achieved by potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu from an acidic copper solution into each of the 25 recessed Pt UMEs on the UME array platform. A multiplexer unit capable of addressing 64 individual micro NEEs on an ANEMA is described. ANEMAs have advantages of high reproducibility, facile fabrication, multitime reuse of lithographically fabricated UME arrays, and purely steady-state behavior.

  2. Protective effects of zinc on oxidative stress enzymes in liver of protein-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Pardeep; Garg, M L; Dhawan, D K

    2005-01-01

    Persons afflicted with protein malnutrition are generally deficient in a variety of essential micronutrients like zinc, copper, iron, and selenium, which in turn affects number of metabolic processes in the body. To evaluate the protective effects of zinc on the enzymes involved in oxidative stress induced in liver of protein-deficient rats, the current study was designed. Zinc sulfate at a dose level of 227 mg/L zinc in drinking water was administered to female Sprague-Dawley normal control as well as protein-deficient rats for a total duration of 8 weeks. The effects of zinc treatment in conditions of protein deficiency were studied on rat liver antioxidant enzymes, which included catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reduced (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Protein deficiency in normal rats resulted in a significant increase in hepatic activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase and the levels of lipid peroxidation. A significant inhibition in the levels of reduced glutathione and the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase has been observed after protein deficiency in normal rats. Interestingly, Zn treatment to protein-deficient animals lowered already raised activity catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation to significant levels when compared to protein-deficient animals. Also, Zn treatment to the protein-deficient animals resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of GSH and SOD activity as compared to their respective controls, thereby indicating its effectiveness in regulating their levels in adverse conditions. It has also been observed that concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, and selenium were found to be decreased significantly in protein-deficient animals. However, the levels of these elements came back to within normal limits when zinc was administrated

  3. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  4. Addressing value in surgical oncology: Why and how.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Value, or outcome per cost, is increasingly emphasized in the current health care climate. With more sophisticated and expensive therapies available, treating a population with growing longevity, sustainability of current trends in health care spending is a significant challenge. And all too often, our devices and therapies are implemented without understanding the value that they offer; policy solutions for these issues are lagging. Certainly, cancer patients, in particular, are at the center of these value conundrums. A majority of patients with malignancy are elderly, with accumulated co-morbidities, and are disproportionately costly. To address these contemporary issues, we must first identify opportunities to maximize value through improved outcomes and/or decreased costs. Doing so in the setting of evolving delivery and payment models will provide providers, health systems and insurers an opportunity to flourish with demonstration of high quality, low cost care. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:263-267. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Iron status of the Pakistani population-current issues and strategies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Ali, Zulfiqar; Riaz, Muhammad; Ismail, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to highlight the magnitude of iron status of Pakistani population and possible remedies to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups. A computer-based search was carried out on "PubMed", "Google Search" and "Sciencedirect.com" to retrieve relevant scientific literature published in the last two decades. The search yielded 193 articles, of which 64 were culled and further screening was performed based on the type of vulnerable population groups, age, sex and pregnancy. A thorough review of current literature reveals that iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) widely persist in Pakistan and necessitate immediate remedial actions. Females of reproductive age and children under 5 years have been shown to be the most IDA affected population segment. Fortification of wheat flour has been suggested as the most viable approach aptly matching Pakistan's needs for combating IDA. The present review further stresses the need for global involvement to scale up efforts for mitigating ID and IDA to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are fundamentally based upon improving nutritional wellbeing of populations in developing economies by 2015.

  6. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: phenotypic spectrum from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joanne; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Erreger, Kevin; Li, Yan; Kakar, Naseebullah; Ahmad, Jamil; Thiele, Holger; Kubisch, Christian; Rider, Nicholas L.; Holmes Morton, D.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; D’Agnano, Daniela; Anikster, Yair; Carducci, Claudia; Hyland, Keith; Rotstein, Michael; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Borck, Guntram; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine ‘transportopathy’ to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5–34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having ‘juvenile parkinsonism’. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more

  7. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  8. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  9. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  10. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  11. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    PubMed

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2016-10-03

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction.

  12. Alcoholic Myelopathy and Nutritional Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Haruki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Shohei; Takahashi, Mie; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2017-01-01

    A patient with chronic alcoholism presented with myelopathy and low serum folate and cobalamin levels. A 42-year-old alcoholic man had gait disturbance for 4 months. A neurological examination revealed marked spasticity with increased deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses of the lower limbs. His cobalamin level was decreased and his serum folate level was particularly low. His plasma ammonia level was not increased. Abstinence and folic acid and cobalamin supplementation stopped the progression of his neurological deficits. This case indicates that nutritional deficiency should be monitored closely in patients with chronic alcoholism who present with myelopathy. PMID:28049986

  13. Thymic deficiency in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, S; Schlesinger, M; Handzel, Z; Hahn, T; Altman, Y; Czernobilsky, B; Boss, J

    1979-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome (DS) often have small and abnormal thymuses, with lymphocyte depletion, diminution of the cortex, and loss of corticomedullary demarcation--a picture resembling thymic involution. Besides this, they have markedly enlarged Hassall's corpuscles, some surrounded by a sheath of lymphocytes. Patients with DS are known to have increased numbers of respiratory infections; they also have a higher incidence of lymphatic leukemia than do individuals who do not have DS. Studies of cell-mediated (thymic-dependent) immunity demonstrate that children with DS have both diminished numbers of T cells as well as functional deficiency of these cells.

  14. Impaired synaptic vesicle recycling contributes to presynaptic dysfunction in lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhang, B; Yang, H; Wang, H; Liu, Y; Huang, A; Liu, T; Tian, X; Tong, Y; Zhou, T; Zhang, T; Xing, G; Xiao, W; Guo, X; Fan, D; Han, X; Liu, G; Zhou, Z; Chui, D

    2014-11-07

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is expressed at high levels in hippocampal neurons, although its function is unclear. We previously reported that LPL-deficient mice have learning and memory impairment and fewer synaptic vesicles in hippocampal neurons, but properties of synaptic activity in LPL-deficient neurons remain unexplored. In this study, we found reduced frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and readily releasable pool (RRP) size in LPL-deficient neurons, which led to presynaptic dysfunction and plasticity impairment without altering postsynaptic activity. We demonstrated that synaptic vesicle recycling, which is known to play an important role in maintaining the RRP size in active synapses, is impaired in LPL-deficient neurons. Moreover, lipid assay revealed deficient docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in the hippocampus of LPL-deficient mice; exogenous DHA or AA supplement partially restored synaptic vesicle recycling capability. These results suggest that impaired synaptic vesicle recycling results from deficient DHA and AA and contributes to the presynaptic dysfunction and plasticity impairment in LPL-deficient neurons.

  15. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Petry, Nicolai; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.; Rogers, Lisa M.; McLean, Erin; Greig, Alison; Garrett, Greg S.; Klemm, Rolf D. W.; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD) data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006), which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made. PMID:28245571

  16. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  17. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  18. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  19. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  20. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M; Surette, Marc E; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity.

  1. Hydrogen-deficient Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, H.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hamann, W.-R.; Pena, M.; Graefener, G.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.

    2015-06-01

    A significant number of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient and are considered as the progenitors of H-deficient white dwarfs. Almost all of these H-deficient CSPNe show a chemical composition of helium, carbon, and oxygen. Most of them exhibit Wolf-Rayet-like emission line spectra and are therefore classified as of spectral type [WC]. In the last years, CSPNe of other Wolf-Rayet spectral subtypes have been identified, namely PB 8 (spectral type [WN/WC]), IC 4663 and Abell 48 (spectral type [WN]). We performed spectral analyses for a number of Wolf-Rayet type central stars of different evolutionary stages with the help of our Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model code for expanding atmospheres to determine relevant stellar parameters. The results of our recent analyses will be presented in the context of stellar evolution and white dwarf formation. Especially the problems of a uniform evolutionary channel for [WC] stars as well as constraints to the formation of [WN] or [WN/WC] subtype stars will be addressed.

  2. Esophageal carcinogenesis in the rat: zinc deficiency, DNA methylation and alkyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Broitman, S; Schrager, T F

    1997-01-01

    Rats fed zinc-deficient diets and given an esophageal carcinogen, methylbenzylnitrosamine, develop tumors in greater incidence and with increased frequency compared to zinc-supplemented rats. This greater susceptibility is associated with a unique esophageal lesion, parakeratosis, with markedly increased epithelial necrosis and cell proliferation. Recent studies have shown that the increased susceptibility to tumorigenesis was further associated with a number of metabolic and biochemical alterations including increased binding of the carcinogen to DNA, shifts in O6-methylguanine (O6MeG)/7-methylguanine ratios and suggestions that the promutagen O6MeG lesion is not repaired effectively in the zinc-deficient esophagus; the latter was not reflected in the amount of O6-methyltransferase activity, however. The weight of evidence supports a presumption that zinc deficiency interferes with normal DNA repair mechanisms, the nature of which is not clear. An interesting additional finding was that zinc deficiency alone was associated with esophageal tumor induction, without carcinogen, which indicates that genetic material in the zinc-deficient esophageal epithelium is damaged sufficiently, without further chemical injury, to result in loss of control of cell proliferation. Manipulation of the time of exposure to zinc deficiency and carcinogen exposure defined the initiation period as most affected by the deficiency. Furthermore, reduced carcinogen exposure (and less toxicity), along with zinc deficiency, permits development of more tumors of the endophytic type, the form more relevant to human esophageal tumors. The groundwork, as described in this paper, has now been prepared to directly address the latter issue, endophytic tumors, and the putative relation of zinc deficiency to esophageal cancer in human populations.

  3. Management of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Lamance, Kerri; Sutton, V Reid; Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti; Van den Veyver, Ignatia

    2010-11-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common enzymatic deficiency in the urea cycle. In catabolic states, such as the intrapartum and immediate postpartum periods, hyperammonemic comas with permanent neurological damage and death can develop. We report six cases of OTC deficiency during pregnancy managed at our institution and review the literature on OTC deficiency during pregnancy. Using the patient database from our Metabolic Clinic, pregnant OTC deficiency carriers were identified. The antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods were analyzed. Corresponding literature was reviewed and an extensive multidisciplinary management plan developed. All six pregnant women had favorable outcomes. No hyperammonemic episodes occurred, and intensive care unit admissions and hemodialysis were not required. Although risk to women with OTC deficiency during the intra- and postpartum period exists, multidisciplinary management and a coherent plan usually result in successful labor, delivery, and postpartum. A comprehensive plan for patients who develop hyperammonemia is recommended.

  4. [Can I have some sunshine to cheer me up? vitamin D deficiency and depression in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Stalpers-Konijnenburg, S C; Marijnissen, R M; Gaasbeek, A B; Oude Voshaar, R C

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in the elderly, and the geriatric patient is probably at even greater risk. Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis; recent studies point to a possible causal link between vitamin D deficiency and the development and severity of depression. In this article we focus on an 80-year-old patient with depression and severe vitamin D deficiency and give advice on the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. To supplement the current multidisciplinary guidelines on depression, we recommend routine testing of serum vitamin D level prior to confirming the diagnosis of depression in the elderly.

  5. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  6. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  7. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-02-13

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated.

  8. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  9. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  10. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  11. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, John K

    2002-04-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession.

  12. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, John K.

    2002-01-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession. PMID:11939654

  13. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  14. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  15. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J.; Sage, Jeremy M.; Chiaverini, John

    2016-12-01

    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual 88Sr+ ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e2 radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10-2 and 4 × 10-4 at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  16. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucking thus creating a "wink" when chewing or sucking. Is Monocular Elevation Deficiency associated with other diseases or developmental problems? There is no known association between Monocular Elevation ...

  17. Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Tiar, A; Mekki, A; Nagara, M; Rhouma, F Ben; Messaoud, O; Halim, N Ben; Kefi, R; Hamlaoui, M T; Lebied, A; Abdelhak, S

    2014-02-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism leading to varying degrees of neurologic and cutaneous symptoms when untreated. In the present study, we report the clinical features and the molecular investigation of biotinidase deficiency in four unrelated consanguineous Algerian families including five patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and one child characterized as partial biotinidase deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed three novel mutations, c.del631C and c.1557T>G within exon 4 and c.324-325insTA in exon 3. Since newborn screening is not available in Algeria, cascade screening in affected families would be very helpful to identify at risk individuals.

  18. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N.; Anaissie, E. J.; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy. PMID:24349810

  19. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  20. Iron deficiency anemia in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Natasha P; Ghali, Jalal K

    2013-07-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are quite prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and may overlap. Both anemia and iron deficiency are associated with worse symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes. In the past few years, there has been an enormous interest in the subject of iron deficiency and its management in patients with HF. In this review, the etiology and relevance of iron deficiency, iron metabolism in the setting of HF, studies on iron supplementation in patients with HF and potential cardiovascular effects of subclinical iron overload are discussed.