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Sample records for address design issues

  1. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  2. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  3. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  4. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  5. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  6. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  7. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  8. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  9. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  10. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  11. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  12. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  13. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health Past Issues / ... What types of research is NIDCR conducting on aging and oral health? We’re currently funding basic ...

  14. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  15. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  16. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  17. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  18. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  19. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  20. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  1. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  2. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  3. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  4. 23 CFR 636.501 - What issues may be addressed in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues may be addressed in discussions? 636.501 Section 636.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  5. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  6. Design issues for Mars planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon K. F.; Dejarnette, Fred R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some of the design issues and vehicle requirements that need to be addressed for the Mars planetary rovers. Some of the designs currently being investigated, including the JPL rover, the Martin Marietta vehicle, and the French Space Agency's VAP project, are examined. The rover must satisfy such mission requirements as surveying the terrain, preparing the landing sites, loading and unloading components for base operations, and aiding in the recovery of in situ materials.

  7. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  8. Starting Over: Current Issues in Online Catalog User Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of online catalogs focuses on issues in interface design. Issues addressed include understanding the user base; common user access (CUA) with personal computers; common command language (CCL); hyperlinks; screen design issues; differences from card catalogs; indexes; graphic user interfaces (GUIs); color; online help; and remote users.…

  9. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  10. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  11. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  12. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  13. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  14. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  15. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  16. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Issues in Teacher Education: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Homophobic harassment and bullying are persistent issues in Canadian schools despite recent initiatives to improve school climate. Among the reasons is that educators feel reluctant or ill-prepared to address these issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine how teacher education can help make schools safer by addressing LGBTQ issues and…

  19. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  20. Addressing psychosocial issues in cancer survivorship: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    With a burgeoning population of cancer survivors, organizations in the USA and around the world are considering how to address the many long-term and late psychosocial effects of cancer and cancer treatment. This article reviews the changing landscape of survivorship care over the past 50 years, from the time when there were relatively few survivors to the future, when the number of cancer survivors in the USA alone is expected to reach close to 20 million. Institute of Medicine Reports, intra-organizational summits and accrediting standards that have influenced the development of survivorship care plans and programs and the roles of the Internet and smartphone applications along with oncology specialist and primary care providers are discussed.

  1. Addressing criminality in childhood: is responsivity the central issue?

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Ellis, Tom; Morris, Paul; Wilson, Amy

    2013-11-01

    The responsivity principle is the third element of the now well-established risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation. Accruing evidence suggests it is often sacrificed in intervention programs. We aim to demonstrate the central importance of this principle when designing offender interventions by describing the results of a successful, highly responsive intervention for very young children (aged 7 upward) who have offended. A small slice of the offending population as a whole, child offenders are nevertheless tomorrow's serious, violent, and prolific lawbreakers, yet little is understood about what reduces their risk. Recent developments on responsivity are reviewed, before presenting the evaluation indicating significant and sustained drops in risk of recidivism. In-program factors such as the nature and dosage of interventions are examined, alongside outcome data. The article discusses how RNR and other models might apply to this particularly young and underresearched age group.

  2. Design Issues in Transgender Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  3. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  4. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    one hand, the sensor's high cost of design, development, and deployment, and on the other hand, a lack of reliable long-term power sources. Solutions to both of these drawbacks require significant investments driven by real-life applications. Possible applications for sensor networks at Sandia National Laboratories include dense data collection techniques for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. For example, an array of distributed wireless macro-scale sensors can record the structural response of soils and reinforced concrete during explosive loading. Another example is an array of surface mounted micro-sensors that can record the modal response of nuclear weapon components. The collected data would be used to validate existing numerical codes and to identify new physical mechanisms to improve Sandia's computational models.

  5. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  6. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  7. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  8. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. ); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  9. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  10. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  11. 49 CFR 192.933 - What actions must be taken to address integrity issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.933 What actions must be taken to address integrity issues? (a... issues? 192.933 Section 192.933 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  12. Designing Interactive Multimedia Instruction to Address Soldiers’ Learning Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    learners’ experiences , background knowledge, and job-specific requirements. Here, we describe the process used and rationale for our approach to...According to Clark and Mayer (2008), these critical design features address three goals: (a) reducing extrinsic cognitive processing , (b) managing...intrinsic cognitive processing , and (c) facilitating generative processing . Table 5 summarizes the features of well-designed IMI identified by Mayer

  13. Instructional Design Issues for Current and Future Interactive Video Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, James A.; Bentley, Joanne; Christiansen, Todd P.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses some of the issues that instructional designers will face in the near future and ways to deal with new instructional affordances and constraint, including: Menu and Audio, Video, Subpicture Interleaved, Streamlining Digital Media (MAVSI-SDM); three-dimensional flowcharting; designing multi-faceted storyboards and scripts; managing video,…

  14. Design Issues for Technology-Enhanced Formal Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Class, Barbara; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns the design, implementation and evaluation of a blended training course for interpreter trainers. Some of the complex issues pertaining to professional development in a rich web-based learner-centered environment are addressed. Findings confirm a socio-constructivist design within which participants developed the expected…

  15. Issues in designing transport layer multicast facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Bert J.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Multicasting denotes a facility in a communications system for providing efficient delivery from a message's source to some well-defined set of locations using a single logical address. While modem network hardware supports multidestination delivery, first generation Transport Layer protocols (e.g., the DoD Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (15) and ISO TP-4 (41)) did not anticipate the changes over the past decade in underlying network hardware, transmission speeds, and communication patterns that have enabled and driven the interest in reliable multicast. Much recent research has focused on integrating the underlying hardware multicast capability with the reliable services of Transport Layer protocols. Here, we explore the communication issues surrounding the design of such a reliable multicast mechanism. Approaches and solutions from the literature are discussed, and four experimental Transport Layer protocols that incorporate reliable multicast are examined.

  16. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  17. The evolving role of partnerships in addressing community public health issues: policy and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monica L; Burdine, James N; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    The current state of health insurance coverage in the United States is deteriorating. Historically, efforts to address access at the federal level have met with insurmountable opposition. This article describes a model utilizing the Partnership Approach to Community Health Improvement to engage communities in developing creative ways of addressing local health issues, discusses the policy implications of such a model, and explores ethical issues inherent in the discussion of universal access. An argument is presented for a national dialogue seeking societal agreement to approach access and health from a perspective of solidarity.

  18. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  19. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  20. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  1. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  2. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  3. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  4. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  5. Derated ion thruster design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary activities to develop and refine a lightweight 30 cm engineering model ion thruster are discussed. The approach is to develop a 'derated' ion thruster capable of performing both auxiliary and primary propulsion roles over an input power range of at least 0.5 to 5.0 kilo-W. Design modifications to a baseline thruster to reduce mass and volume are discussed. Performance data over an order of magnitude input power range are presented, with emphasis on the performance impact of engine throttling. Thruster design modifications to optimize performance over specific power envelopes are discussed. Additionally, lifetime estimates based on wear test measurements are made for the operation envelope of the engine.

  6. Main issues addressed in the 2014-2015 revisions to the OECD Genetic Toxicology Test Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thybaud, Veronique; Lorge, Elisabeth; Levy, Dan D; van Benthem, Jan; Douglas, George R; Marchetti, Francesco; Moore, Martha M; Schoeny, Rita

    2017-03-07

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently revised the test guidelines (TGs) for genetic toxicology. This article describes the main issues addressed during the revision process, and the new and consistent recommendations made in the revised TGs for: (1) demonstration of laboratory proficiency; (2) generation and use of robust historical control data; (3) improvement of the statistical power of the tests; (4) selection of top concentration for in vitro assays; (5) consistent data interpretation and determination of whether the result is clearly positive, clearly negative or needs closer consideration; and, (6) consideration of 3R's for in vivo assay design. The revision process resulted in improved consistency among OECD TGs (including the newly developed ones) and more comprehensive recommendations for the conduct and the interpretation of the assays. Altogether, the recommendations made during the revision process should improve the efficiency, by which the data are generated, and the quality and reliability of test results. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  8. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.

  9. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  10. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  11. Design issues for population growth models

    PubMed Central

    López Fidalgo, J.; Ortiz Rodríguez, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review and discuss design issues for population growth and decline models. We then use a flexible growth and decline model as an illustrative example and apply optimal design theory to find optimal sampling times for estimating model parameters, specific parameters and interesting functions of the model parameters for the model with two real applications. Robustness properties of the optimal designs are investigated when nominal values or the model is mis-specified, and also under a different optimality criterion. To facilitate use of optimal design ideas in practice, we also introduce a website for generating a variety of optimal designs for popular models from different disciplines. PMID:21647244

  12. Contemporary Issues on Campuses: Today's Activities Professionals Must Address Everything from AIDS Education to Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopes, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Some approaches to dealing with contemporary issues on campus include Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome awareness--safe sex parties; crime prevention--students helping students, legislation, workshops and conferences; alcohol awareness--designated driver program and starting a nonalcoholic bar; cults on campus; sexual assault--"Hours Til…

  13. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  14. A Critical Look at Physical Education and What Must Be Done to Address Obesity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pennington, Todd; Zanandrea, Maria; Wilkinson, Carol; Hager, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Historically, physical education (PE) has been designed to do one thing--teach sport skills. However, it is now being asked to deal with lifestyle issues such as obesity and inactivity. Since the target and purposes of PE have changed, a fundamental shift in the way it is delivered is essential to its survival. This article highlights some…

  15. Dynamic issues in launch vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.; Jewell, Ronald E.

    1993-01-01

    Launch vehicles, in general, have been defined using performance requirements and generic payload characteristics which dictated the propulsion system and the payload carrier. The vehicle concept is then selected using these requirements in conjunction with basic criteria and standards. During the design phase, the selected concept must be modified in order to cope with the numerous dynamic and other problems that occur during design and development. This is costly and is, to some extent, unnecessary. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for bringing the dynamic issues into focus during concept selection, where the greatest payoff exists. Delaying consideration of the issues to the design phases creates many problems, not the least of which are the impacts levied against the payload community. Volumes of information exist from prior programs on these dynamic issues and serve as the guidelines for this paper.

  16. Design Issues for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Batygin, Yu.K.; Pitthan, R.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; Gronberg, J.; Stein, W.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2006-02-15

    A positron source for the International Linear Collider (ILC) can be designed using either a multi-GeV electron beam or a multi-MeV photon beam impinging on a metal target. The major design issues are: choice of drive beam and its generation, choice of target material, the target station, positron capture section, target vault and beam transport to the ILC positron damping ring complex. This paper lists the ILC positron source requirements and their implications for the design of the positron source. A conceptual design for the ILC is expected to be finished in the next two years. With emphasis on this timescale, source design issues and possible solutions are discussed.

  17. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  18. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige

    2002-07-01

    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  19. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  20. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  1. Identifying the mathematics middle year students use as they address a community issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Middle year students often do not see the mathematics in the real world whereas the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims for students to be "confident and creative users and communicators of mathematics" (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2012). Using authentic and real mathematics tasks can address this situation. This paper is an account of how, working within a Knowledge Producing Schools' framework, a group of middle year students addressed a real community issue, the problem of the lack of a teenage safe space using mathematics and technology. Data were collected for this case study via journal observations and reflections, semi-structured interviews, samples of the students' work and videos of students working. The data were analysed by identifying the mathematics the students used determining the function and location of the space and focused on problem negotiation, formulation and solving through the statistical investigation cycle. The paper will identify the mathematics and statistics these students used as they addressed a real problem in their local community.

  2. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  3. Which issues concerning multiple pregnancies should be addressed during psychosocial counselling?

    PubMed

    Emery, Marysa

    2007-01-01

    The global rise in multiple pregnancy rates due to assisted reproductive technology has led to the development of various strategies to diminish these rates without jeopardising pregnancy. Policies at treatment centres may include the option of fetal reduction, although each centre is subject to national laws and its own guidelines. However, personal opinions and goals may also influence practice. The development of clinical decisions, therefore, is complex and subject to change. Primary prevention is the best way to reduce multiple births. For preventative psychosocial counselling, some centres employ counsellors, but if not, this becomes the physician's task. An in-depth assessment is required to define how many embryos to transfer and what risk of multiple birth is acceptable to patients. Counselling should address the following: the relationship between pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the number of embryos transferred; benefits and risks of multiple pregnancy; and possibilities for primary and secondary prevention. Patients should voice how they feel facing these issues; which issues are worrisome; how they anticipate these possibilities; and what psychosocial support exists that could be mobilized. In summary, psychosocial counselling reinforces the partnership between couples and the assisted reproductive technology team, allowing for primary prevention and informed consent on multiple pregnancy issues.

  4. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  5. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.

  6. Scalability, Timing, and System Design Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address several issues pertinent to intrinsic evolvable hardware (EHW). The first issue is scalability; namely, how the design space scales as the programming string for the programmable device gets longer. We develop a model for population size and the number of generations as a function of the programming string length, L, and show that the number of circuit evaluations is an O(L2) process. We compare our model to several successful intrinsic EHW experiments and discuss the many implications of our model. The second issue that we address is the timing of intrinsic EHW experiments. We show that the processing time is a small part of the overall time to derive or evolve a circuit and that major improvements in processor speed alone will have only a minimal impact on improving the scalability of intrinsic EHW. The third issue we consider is the system-level design of intrinsic EHW experiments. We review what other researchers have done to break the scalability barrier and contend that the type of reconfigurable platform and the evolutionary algorithm are tied together and impose limits on each other.

  7. From Education to Practice: Addressing Opioid Misuse through Healthcare Provider Training: A Special Issue of SAj.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Harding, John Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging. In this issue of the Substance Abuse journal, we examine the science and evidence base of educational interventions and public initiatives addressing opioid use and addiction. These initiatives include naloxone rescue awareness and programs, community-based training initiatives, and system or public health approaches to improve student, trainee, and clinician education/training revolving around opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. We call on stakeholders to fund more research to investigate and implement the proven means to educate undergraduate students, graduate trainees, and clinicians regarding pain and addiction. We also recognize the 2016 peer reviewers of our journal who have performed meritorious, volunteer service to advance the science of addiction.

  8. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  9. Closing the gaps in knowledge, policy and action to address water issues in forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul W.

    1993-10-01

    Water issues on forest lands involve many human elements and needs that are not addressed by advanced physical and biological research and technology. Major gaps in our knowledge of important patterns of climate, soils, and terrain can be filled by relatively basic data collection and monitoring programs. Careful analysis of existing data and field experience also can reveal appropriate directions for management. A focus on problem-solving can direct research more effectively towards the resolution of key issues. Despite their impact, resource policies have widely varying scientific foundations. Policy-makers need sound processes for policy development, including timely technical input that is clear, objective, and related to socio-economic considerations. Resource polices should be consistent and include not only regulation, but also research, education, assistance, and incentives. Knowledge and sound policies still may not produce the desired on-the-ground actions, however, because of variable awareness, understanding, skill, or supervision in the field. Education and training programs are important not only for resource technicians, but also for contractors, operators, and other forest workers. Good planning, communication, and field coordination further insure that problems are avoided and new opportunities for effective actions are identified.

  10. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for...and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...requesters April 2014 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

  12. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  13. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  14. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements.

    PubMed

    Litton, C E

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  15. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  20. Group 1: Scenario design and development issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    All LOFT scenarios and flight segments should be designed on the basis of a detailed statement of specific objectives. These objectives must state what kind of situation is to be addressed and why. The origin, routing, and destination of a particular scenario should be dictated by the specific objectives for that scenario or leg. Other factors to be considered are the desired weather, climate, etc. Simulator visual system, as well as other capabilities and limitations must be considered at a very early stage of scenario design. The simulator navigation area must be apropriate and must coincide with current Jeppeson charts. Much of the realism of LOFT is destroyed if the crew is unable to use current manuals and other materials.

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  4. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  5. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c–statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy are assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations. PMID:26756274

  6. Aeroheating Design Issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of basic aeroheating design issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which addresses the application of hypersonic ground-based testing, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering codes, is presented. Challenges inherent to the prediction of aeroheating environments required for the successful design of the RLV Thermal Protection System (TPS) are discussed in conjunction with the importance of employing appropriate experimental/computational tools. The impact of the information garnered by using these tools in the resulting analyses, ultimately enhancing the RLV TPS design is illustrated. A wide range of topics is presented in this overview; e.g. the impact of flow physics issues such as boundary-layer transition, including effects of distributed and discrete roughness, shock-shock interactions, and flow separation/reattachment. Also, the benefit of integrating experimental and computational studies to gain an improved understanding of flow phenomena is illustrated. From computational studies, the effect of low-density conditions and of uncertainties in material surface properties on the computed heating rates a r e highlighted as well as the significant role of CFD in improving the Outer Mold Line (OML) definition to reduce aeroheating while maintaining aerodynamic performance. Appropriate selection of the TPS design trajectories and trajectory shaping to mitigate aeroheating levels and loads are discussed. Lastly, an illustration of an aeroheating design process is presented whereby data from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests are integrated with predictions from CFD codes and engineering methods to provide heating environments along an entry trajectory as required for TPS design.

  7. Aeroheating Design Issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of basic aeroheating design issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which addresses the application of hypersonic ground-based testing, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering codes, is presented. Challenges inherent to the prediction of aeroheating environments required for the successful design of the RLV Thermal Protection System (TPS) are discussed in conjunction with the importance of employing appropriate experimental/computational tools. The impact of the information garnered by using these tools in the resulting analyses, ultimately enhancing the RLV TPS design is illustrated. A wide range of topics is presented in this overview; e.g. the impact of flow physics issues such as boundary-layer transition, including effects of distributed and discrete roughness, shockshock interactions, and flow separation/reattachment. Also, the benefit of integrating experimental and computational studies to gain an improved understanding of flow phenomena is illustrated. From computational studies, the effect of low-density conditions and of uncertainties in material surface properties on the computed heating rates are highlighted as well as the significant role of CFD in improving the Outer Mold Line (OML) definition to reduce aeroheating while maintaining aerodynamic performance. Appropriate selection of the TPS design trajectories and trajectory shaping to mitigate aeroheating levels and loads are discussed. Lastly, an illustration of an aeroheating design process is presented whereby data from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests are integrated with predictions from CFD codes and engineering methods to provide heating environments along an entry trajectory as required for TPS design.

  8. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  9. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  10. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  11. Manned Mars aerobrake vehicle design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Powell, Richard W.; Braun, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines the preliminary definition of the stagnation region aerothermodynamic environment, the effect of convective/radiative effect of trim angle-of-attack mispredictions, packaging issues, and the implications of wake flow for vehicles not having an aft aeroshell. The implications of each of these factors for a Mars aerobrake configuration with a L/D in the range of 0.3-0.5 is evaluated. It is shown that packaging and wake flow requirements have a significant impact on the final design of a low L/D aerobrake. Due to the large proportion of carbonaceous species in the Martian atmosphere, radiative heating is seen to play a more dominant role in the stagnation region aerothermodynamics than for an equivalent earth entry. It is concluded that this radiation amplification is an additional reason to consider a multiple aerobrake system.

  12. Improving diaper design to address incontinence associated dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) is an inflammatory skin disease mainly triggered by prolonged skin contact with urine, feces but also liberal detergent use when cleansing the skin. To minimize the epidermal barrier challenge we optimized the design of adult incontinence briefs. In the fluid absorption area we interposed a special type of acidic, curled-type of cellulose between the top sheet in contact with the skin and the absorption core beneath containing the polyacrylate superabsorber. The intention was to minimize disturbance of the already weak acid mantle of aged skin. We also employed air-permeable side panels to minimize skin occlusion and swelling of the stratum corneum. Methods The surface pH of diapers was measured after repeated wetting with a urine substitute fluid at the level of the top sheet. Occlusive effects and hydration of the stratum corneum were measured after a 4 hour application of different side panel materials by corneometry on human volunteers. Finally, we evaluated skin symptoms in 12 patients with preexisting IAD for 21 days following the institutional switch to the optimized diaper design. Local skin care protocols remained in place unchanged. Results The improved design created a surface pH of 4.6 which was stable even after repeated wetting throughout a 5 hour period. The "standard design" briefs had values of 7.1, which is alkaline compared to the acidic surface of normal skin. Side panels made from non-woven material with an air-permeability of more than 1200 l/m2/s avoided excessive hydration of the stratum corneum when compared to the commonly employed air-impermeable plastic films. Resolution of pre-existing IAD skin lesions was noted in 8 out of 12 patients after the switch to the optimized brief design. Conclusions An improved design of adult-type briefs can create an acidic pH on the surface and breathable side panels avoid over-hydration of the stratum corneum and occlusion. This may support the

  13. Addressing the demand for cultural relevance in intervention design.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen S; Coe, Kathryn; Moore, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the development of a model to promote physical activity in Hispanic women that embeds a life course perspective and culture to enhance comparative effectiveness in intervention design. When working with diverse cultural groups, researchers often struggle with intervention designs and strategies to enhance cultural relevance; they do so based on the assumption that this will enhance efficacy and make interventions more sustainable. In this article, the authors discuss how the model was used in two interventions designed for younger and older Hispanic women. These interventions were guided by a life course perspective, incorporated social support, and included salient elements from the women's culture. Three considerations underpinned the development of the model: (a) infusing concepts and values of a culture and tradition into the interventions, (b) viewing participants through a life course perspective to assess how an intervention can build on developmental transitions, and (c) determining how social support operates within two groups that, although sharing history and thus some cultural practices, diverge widely in those practices. The authors propose that by incorporating elements of this model into their interventions, researchers can increase program efficacy and effectiveness.

  14. Designing Technology to Address Parent Uncertainty in Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Caroline F; Szulczewski, Lauren; Strahlendorf, Laura F; Lane, J Blake; Mullins, Larry L; Pai, Ahna L H

    2016-01-01

    The stress and uncertainty created by a child's cancer diagnosis and treatment can affect parent and child functioning. Health technology provides a potential avenue for intervention delivery. Interviews were conducted with parents of children diagnosed with cancer to discover their needs following diagnosis and design a relevant mobile application. Treatment experience was the overarching theme. Subthemes included the emotional response, use of information, and environmental factors. Technology was used primarily to seek out information and communicate with others. Health technologies are gaining popularity and have the potential to be beneficial for patients and families throughout the treatment experience.

  15. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  16. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  17. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  18. Addressing metabolic activation as an integral component of drug design.

    PubMed

    Doss, George A; Baillie, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Formation of reactive intermediates by metabolism of xenobiotics represents a potential liability in drug discovery and development. Although it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict toxicities of drug candidates accurately, it is prudent to try to minimize bioactivation liabilities as early as possible in the stage of drug discovery and lead optimization. Measurement of covalent binding to liver microsomal proteins in the presence and the absence of NADPH, as well as the use of trapping agents such as glutathione or cyanide ions to provide structural information on reactive intermediates, have been used routinely to screen drug candidates. These in vitro experiments are often supplemented with in vivo covalent binding data in rats. The resulting data are not only used to eliminate potentially risky compounds, but, more importantly, they provide invaluable information to direct the Medicinal Chemistry group efforts to design analogs with less propensity to undergo bioactivation. Select case histories are presented in which this approach was successfully applied at Merck.

  19. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  20. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  1. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue…

  2. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  3. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  4. Design of a Blended Learning Environment: Considerations and Implementation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedik, Nuray; Kiraz, Ercan; Ozden, M. Yasar

    2013-01-01

    This study identified critical issues in the design of a blended learning environment by examining basic design considerations and implementation issues. Following a design-based research approach with the phenomenological tradition of qualitative research, the study investigated instructor experiences relating to the design, development, and…

  5. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  6. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  7. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  8. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  9. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  10. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  11. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  12. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  13. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  14. Development and Implementation of an Instructional Design for Effective Teaching of Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Elif Ozata; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instructional design whereby ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental issues are addressed with a holistic approach that provides more efficient teaching as well as to test the effectiveness of this design. A literature review was carried out and need-assessment was firstly made using the Readiness Test. This review…

  15. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  16. Rural Special Education Curriculum Issues: Competency-Based Curriculum Addressing Graduation and Grading Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Norlis

    The paper introduces issues regarding graduation of handicapped students. Modifications to graduation requirements include course substitutions; curricular, method, evaluation or materials modification; and additional time allotted for completion of the degree requirements. Requirements for graduation from Show Low High School are listed under the…

  17. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  18. School-Based Programs Addressing Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Youth Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Homosexual adolescents are at risk within schools for many health problems. Hostile school environments can often exacerbate their problems. This article summarizes research on issues related to youth sexual orientation, noting controversies surrounding school involvement in the United States and describing programs instituted by school…

  19. The Spiritual Dimension of Education--Addressing Issues of Identity and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In a shrinking world where events across the globe become relevant for the lives of masses of people regardless of the distances that divide them, some serious issues have arisen which have particular significance for education policies and practice. Too many children are growing up against a backdrop of polarised views and attitudes which is a…

  20. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  1. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  2. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  3. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  4. Lunar missions using chemical propulsion: System design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    To transport lunar base elements to the Moon, large high-energy propulsion systems will be required. Advanced propulsion systems for lunar missions can significantly reduce launch mass and increase the delivered payload, resulting in significant launch cost savings. In this report, the masses in low Earth orbit (LEO) are compared for several propulsion systems: nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH), oxygen/methane (O2/CH4), oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2), and metallized O2/H2/Al propellants. Also addressed are payload mass increases enabled with these systems; system design issues involving the engine thrust levels, engine commonality between the transfer vehicle and the excursion vehicle; the number of launches to place the lunar mission vehicles into LEO; and analyses of small lunar missions launched from a single Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) flight.

  5. Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan; Joseph, Diana; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2004-01-01

    The term "design experiments" was introduced in 1992, in articles by Ann Brown (1992) and Allan Collins (1992). Design experiments were developed as a way to carry out formative research to test and refine educational designs based on principles derived from prior research. More recently the term design research has been applied to this kind of…

  6. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-06-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community.

  7. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  8. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  9. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  10. Mechanical design issues associated with mounting, maintenance, and handling of an ITER divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, P.L.; Fogarty, P.J.; Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Several designs that address plasma-facing plate configurations and thermal-hydraulic design issues have been developed for the ITER divertor. Design criteria growing out of physics requirements, physical constraints, and remote handling requirements impose severe mechanical requirements on the support structure and its attachments. These pose a challenge to the mechanical design of a divertor, which must be addressed before a functional divertor is practical -- that is, one that can be remotely handled, aligned, and maintained; that functions reliably under thermal loading and disruptions; and that gives the required life in the nuclear environment predicted for ITER. This paper discusses the design criteria for the divertor mounting structure and identifies the mechanical design issues that need to be addressed. Achieving the criteria may require the development of new components and innovative configurations, specifically a new class of remote fasteners and electrically resistant material for mounts. The possible design of such components and an R D program to develop them are described, and issues specific to the high-aspect-ratio design (HARD) configuration are summarized. Analysis and experiments that will resolve these issues and concerns and lead to a final ITER design are identified. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  12. Advocacy to action: addressing coordinated school health program issues with school boards.

    PubMed

    Wiley, David C; Howard-Barr, Elissa M

    2005-01-01

    As the need for Coordinated School Health Programs (CSHP) increases, so does recognition of the importance for advocating with local school boards for their support. Identifying the diversified make up of school board members and implementing effective strategies to advocate for coordinated school health can help facilitate the successful inclusion of such a program. With increasing emphasis placed on standardized testing and the "basic" curriculum, school board members need to become aware of specific benefits a CSHP can provide their district. With the relationship between health status and academic achievement confirmed in scientific research, school boards may begin paying more attention to providing high-quality health services and health instruction for students. This article presents items to consider and steps to take before, during, and after addressing a local school board for their support in implementing a CSHP.

  13. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  14. Feedback control of polysilicon etching: Controller design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rauf, S.; Kushner, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    Feedback control can considerably improve the performance of rf plasma processing reactors. It has been recently demonstrated that plasma simulations can be useful in developing feedback control strategies and controllers. In this paper, the authors extend that work to address issues related to the improvement of controller design, experimental validation, and advanced control strategies for polysilicon etching in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP). The computational tool used in this study, the Virtual Plasma Equipment Model (VPEM), is based on a detailed 2-dimensional hybrid plasma equipment simulation. To validate the control aspects of the VPEM, they simulated a magnetic bucket ICP reactor currently being used for real time feedback control experiments at the University of Wisconsin. Results for the use of capacitively coupled power to control etch rate in real time will be discussed for both PID and PID-feed forward controllers. It has been demonstrated that controllers designed using response surface based techniques can control actuator drifts, compensate for external disturbances and nullify the effect of long term drifts in reactor characteristics. For these controllers to be generally useful, they must be able to handle variances such as sensor noise and process drift. They will discuss and demonstrate design improvements which make the controllers more robust, insensitive to noise and adaptive.

  15. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  16. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  17. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  18. Addressing Career Success Issues of African Americans in the Workplace: An Undergraduate Business Program Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Belinda Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Career success as measured by the objective, traditional criteria of the composite of high number of promotions, high annual compensation, and high organizational level in corporate America has eluded the majority of African Americans. This article describes an undergraduate business program career success intervention designed to assist African…

  19. Key micromechanics issues in integrated material design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays the acceleration of material discovery is essential more than ever to hold the fast evolving requirements of innovative products. This acceleration depends on our ability to set up a material design process for tailoring materials from targeted engineering performances. One of the important building block passages, in the material design journey, is the bridging of micro-scale to meso-scale through micromechanical models. Unfortunately, these models include a lot of uncertainties resulting from their inbuilt ad-hoc assumptions, which inevitably impacts the material design process performance. In the present paper, robust design methods are reviewed and subsequently applied to quantify uncertainty in micromechanical models and mitigate its impact on material design performances. This includes examining principles for evaluating the level degree of uncertainty on material design process, and their use in micromechanical models. Also, developing robust design approaches to alleviate uncertainty effects and improve the quality of the design performance. Ultimately, the limitations of these approaches are discussed and the research opportunities, to overcome the shortness of actual approaches in respect to micromechanical models, are clarified.

  20. Screen Design for Children's Reading: Some Key Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sue; Reynolds, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Draws attention to design issues that are likely to affect the way that children interact with screen-based information texts. Presents information based on the findings of the Interactive Multimedia in Primary Schools (IMPS) project funded by the British Library. Summarizes the design-related aspects of the project, highlighting those issues that…

  1. KrF amplifier design issues and application to ICF system design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.A.; Allen, G.R.; Berggren, R.R.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Harris, D.B.; Jones, M.E.; Krohn, B.J.; Kurnit, N.A.; Leland, W.T.; Mansfield, C.; McLeod, J.; McCown, A.W.; McLeod, J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Rose, E.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Thomas, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has assembled an array of experimental and theoretical tools to optimize amplifier design for future KrF lasers. The next opportunity to exercise these tools is with the design of the second generation NIKE system under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major issues include laser physics (energy extraction in large modules with amplified spontaneous emission) and diode performance and efficiency. High efficiency and low cost are increasingly important for larger future KrF amplifiers. In this paper we present our approach to amplifier scaling and discuss the more important design considerations for large KrF amplifiers. We point out where improvements in the fundamental data base for KrF amplifiers could lead to increased confidence in performance predictions for large amplifiers, and we address the currently unresolved issues of anomalous absorption near line center and the possibility of diode instabilities for low impedance designs. Los Alamos has designed a 100-kJ KrF laser-fusion system for both direct- and indirect-drive target physics experiments using 60-kJ amplifier modules. The design of this system will be reviewed. 38 refs., 110 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  3. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  4. Addressing practical issues related to nursing care for international visitors to Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Niiya, Kiyoka; Okayasu, Masako

    2014-04-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  5. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    PubMed Central

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development. We propose that limits on research with SHEEFs be based as directly as possible on the generation of such features, and recommend that the research and bioethics communities lead a wide-ranging inquiry aimed at mapping out solutions to the ethical problems raised by them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20674.001

  6. Designation of Issues -- World Color Press

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  8. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  9. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1997-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  10. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  11. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  12. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2005-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Path finder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  13. Liability Issues of the Design Profession.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    underwater construction of a tunnel . The bulkhead subsequently leaked, damaging several pieces of equipment of another contractor. The courts found that the...case, Ramos v Shumavon (21 ,XD. 2d 4), the designer was not liable for the collapse of some formwork . However, in Mi//er v Dew/ti (37 IIl. 2d 273

  14. Introducing Organisational Behaviour: Issues in Course Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costea, Bogdan; Crump, Norman

    1999-01-01

    Design of an introductory organizational behavior course contrasted a Cartesian scientific approach with phenomenological and hermeneutic perspectives intended to overcome limits of traditional approaches. The new course situates management in an historical context and focuses on management, then organizations, then the self. (SK)

  15. Policy Issues and Research Design. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    A study was undertaken of federal and state secondary and higher education policy research design that used a new approach. It systematically used the parties interested in policy development to identify the specific policies within their domain that are in current contention and also identify the arguments and claims on all sides of the policy in…

  16. Resolution of thermal-hydraulic safety and licensing issues for the system 80+{sup {trademark}} design

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentino, S.E.; Ritterbusch, S.E.; Schneider, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The System 80+{sup {trademark}} Standard Design is an evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) with a generating capacity of 3931 MWt (1350 MWe). The Final Design Approval (FDA) for this design was issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in July 1994. The design certification by the NRC is anticipated by the end of 1995 or early 1996. NRC review of the System 80+ design has involved several new safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere. In addition, conformance with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) required that the System 80+ plant address nuclear industry concerns with regard to design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. A large number of these issues/concerns deals with previously unresolved generic thermal-hydraulic safety issues and severe accident prevention and mitigation. This paper discusses the thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations performed for the System 80+ design to resolve safety and licensing issues relevant to both the Nuclear Stream Supply System (NSSS) and containment designs. For the NSSS design, the Safety Depressurization System mitigation capability and resolution of the boron dilution concern are described. Examples of containment design issues dealing with containment shell strength, robustness of the reactor cavity walls and hydrogen mixing under severe accident conditions are also provided. Finally, the overall approach used in the application of NRC`s new (NUREG-1465) radiological source term for System 80+ evaluation is described. The robustness of the System 80+ containment design to withstand severe accident consequences was demonstrated through detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations. This advanced design to shown to meet NRC severe accident policy goals and ALWR URD requirements without any special design features and unnecessary costs.

  17. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  18. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-21

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  19. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  20. Lighting Design and Ordinance Issues in Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianna, P. A.

    2001-12-01

    Good exterior lighting design practice and lighting ordinances are often in conflict, although both may be intended to reduce light pollution. Ordinance examples include mounting height limitations, spill light limits at property lines, and the occasional truly bizarre and/or unenforceable code provision. An impediment to developing lighting ordinances in the Commonwealth of Virginia is that localities may not enact such ordinances without the express permission of the state legislature. At this writing counties do, but towns and cities do not enjoy such authorization. With continued rapid population growth, preserving the still 'dark' places in Virginia will be a difficult challenge.

  1. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discuss the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EHW) as the complexity of the circuit grows. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, ngen, based on L, the length of the programming string. We show that the processing time of the computer becomes negligible for intrinsic EHW since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation, suggesting there is room for use of more complex evolutionary algorithms m intrinsic EHW. F i y , we review the state of the practice and discuss the notion of a system design approach for intrinsic EHW.

  2. Safety Issues for HIFU Transducer Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Gérard; Berriet, Rémi; Chapelon, Jean Yves; ter Haar, Gail; Lafon, Cyril; Le Baron, Olivier; Chupin, Laurent; Pichonnat, Fabrice; Lenormand, Jérôme

    2005-03-01

    In contrast with most ultrasound modalities for medical applications, (especially ultrasound imaging), High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) involves technologies and procedures which may present risk to the patient. These risks, resulting from the high power levels required for effective therapy, should be taken into account at the earliest stages in the design of a system dedicated to HIFU treatment. An understanding of these risks must thus be shared amongst the many players in the field of therapy using high power ultrasound. Moreover, since the number of applications of HIFU has increased appreciably over recent years and the technology is ready to move from the research to the industrial level, it is worth now considering solutions that should be put in place to guarantee the safety of the patient during HIFU treatment. This paper reports thoughts on this, identifies some risks to the patient that must be taken into consideration in the design of HIFU transducers, and proposes some solutions that could prevent the deleterious consequences of transducer misuse or failure. For the main risks identified, such as exceeding the desired acoustic power or poor control of tissue targeting, a description of transducer performance that could potentially result in problems is systematically sought. This allows proposals for precautions to be taken during operation to be made. Parameters which should be monitored to ensure safe use are also suggested. This type of approach, which should be undertaken for the different components of a therapeutic system, highlights the challenges that must be faced in the immediate future for the development and safe exploitation of HIFU systems. The necessity for standard definitions of the parameters to be checked or monitored during HIFU treatments is crucial in this approach, as is the availability of reliable dedicated measurement devices. Co-ordinated action on these topics in the HIFU community would contribute to the

  3. A Model To Address Design Constraints of Training Delivered via Satellite. Study Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montler, Joseph; Geroy, Gary D.

    This document: summarizes how some companies are addressing the design constraints involved in using satellite technology to deliver training, presents a model aimed at examining cost effectiveness of the satellite option, and includes a guide to designing instructional materials for delivery by satellite. A survey of 39 organizations, 12…

  4. Design issues in toxicogenomics using DNA microarray experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Daehee . E-mail: dhkang@snu.ac.kr

    2005-09-01

    The methods of toxicogenomics might be classified into omics study (e.g., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and population study focusing on risk assessment and gene-environment interaction. In omics study, microarray is the most popular approach. Genes falling into several categories (e.g., xenobiotics metabolism, cell cycle control, DNA repair etc.) can be selected up to 20,000 according to a priori hypothesis. The appropriate type of samples and species should be selected in advance. Multiple doses and varied exposure durations are suggested to identify those genes clearly linked to toxic response. Microarray experiments can be affected by numerous nuisance variables including experimental designs, sample extraction, type of scanners, etc. The number of slides might be determined from the magnitude and variance of expression change, false-positive rate, and desired power. Instead, pooling samples is an alternative. Online databases on chemicals with known exposure-disease outcomes and genetic information can aid the interpretation of the normalized results. Gene function can be inferred from microarray data analyzed by bioinformatics methods such as cluster analysis. The population study often adopts hospital-based or nested case-control design. Biases in subject selection and exposure assessment should be minimized, and confounding bias should also be controlled for in stratified or multiple regression analysis. Optimal sample sizes are dependent on the statistical test for gene-to-environment or gene-to-gene interaction. The design issues addressed in this mini-review are crucial in conducting toxicogenomics study. In addition, integrative approach of exposure assessment, epidemiology, and clinical trial is required.

  5. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  6. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  7. Multimedia for Language Learning: Some Course Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Denise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the design and production of multimedia Danish language materials for classroom or self-access use by learners of Danish as a Second Language and examines issues applicable to other uses of multimedia in language learning. (23 references) (MDM)

  8. Lunar missions using advanced chemical propulsion: System design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    To provide the transportation of lunar base elements to the moon, large high-energy propulsion systems will be required. Advanced propulsion systems for lunar missions can provide significant launch mass reductions and payload increases. These mass reductions and added payload masses can be translated into significant launch cost savings for the lunar base missions. The masses in low Earth orbit (LEO) were compared for several propulsion systems: nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH), oxygen/methane (O2/CH4), oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2), and metallized O2/H2/Al propellants. Also, the payload mass increases enabled with O2/H2 and O2/H2/Al systems were addressed. In addition, many system design issues involving the engine thrust levels, engine commonality between the transfer vehicle and the excursion vehicle, and the number of launches to place the lunar mission vehicles into LEO will be discussed. Analyses of small lunar missions launched from a single STS-C flight are also presented.

  9. Integrating post-manufacturing issues into design and manufacturing decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, Charles F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation is conducted on research into some of the fundamental issues underlying the design for manufacturing, service and recycling that affect engineering decisions early in the conceptual design phase of mechanical systems. The investigation focuses on a system-based approach to material selection, manufacturing methods and assembly processes related to overall product requirements, performance and life-cycle costs. Particular emphasis is placed on concurrent engineering decision support for post-manufacturing issues such as serviceability, recyclability, and product retirement.

  10. Issues and Design Drivers for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers applied expertise gained in Lunar Lander development to the conceptual design of a long-duration, deep space habitat for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) missions. The design reference mission involved two launches to assemble 5-modules for a 380-day round trip mission carrying 4 crew members. The conceptual design process yielded a number of interesting debates, some of which could be significant design drivers in a detailed Deep Space Habitat (DSH) design. These issues included: Design to minimize crew radiation exposure, launch loads, communications challenges, docking system and hatch commonality, pointing and visibility, consumables, and design for contingency operations.

  11. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  12. Addressing Mental Health Disparities through Clinical Competence Not Just Cultural Competence: The Need for Assessment of Sociocultural Issues in the Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. PMID:18778881

  13. Thermal-hydraulic design issues and analysis for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Watson, R.D. ); Hassanien, A.M. ); Goranson, P.L. . Fusion Engineering Design Center); Salmonson, J.C. . Special Projects)

    1990-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF), also called burnout, is one of the major design limits for water-cooled divertors in tokamaks. Another important design issue is the correct thermal modeling of the divertor plate geometry where heat is applied to only one side of the plate and highly subcooled flow boiling in internal passages is used for heat removal. This paper discusses analytical techniques developed to address these design issues, and the experimental evidence gathered in support of the approach. Typical water-cooled divertor designs for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are analyzed, and design margins estimated. Peaking of the heat flux at the tube-water boundary is shown to be an important issue, and design concerns which could lead to imposing large design safety margins are identified. The use of flow enhancement techniques such as internal twisted tapes and fins are discussed, and some estimates of the gains in the design margin are presented. Finally, unresolved issues and concerns regarding hydraulic design of divertors are summarized, and some experiments which could help the ITER final design process identified. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Reinforce Design and Construction Issues with a Comprehensive Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schemmel, John J.

    In 1996, a comprehensive project was introduced in the first course of Reinforced Concrete Design, CVEG 4303 at the University of Arkansas. The primary purpose of this project was to highlight issues related to the construction of reinforced concrete elements. This semester-long project involves the design, fabrication, and testing of 8-foot long…

  15. Issues in Text Design and Layout for Computer Based Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…

  16. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  17. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  18. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  19. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling design criteria address? 250.413 Section 250.413 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN...

  20. Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Design

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

  1. Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2001-01-31

    This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

  2. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Browne, Michael C.

    2012-08-13

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  3. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  4. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  5. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  6. Design and Implementation Issues for Modern Remote Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, E. G.; Cardozo, E.; Moraes, D. H.; Coelho, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of remote laboratories present different levels of complexity according to the nature of the equipments operated by the remote laboratory, the requirements imposed on the accessing computers, the network linking the user to the laboratory, and the type of experiments the laboratory supports. This paper addresses the…

  7. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  8. Designing robots for the elderly: appearance issue and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Fassert, Christine; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the results of three focus groups organized in the framework of the ROBADOM project, aiming at designing a service type assistive robot for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment living at home. The main objective of these focus groups was to give some recommendations to engineers in charge of the design of the robot's appearance. Results showed that although many humanoid robots were criticized by most participants, some small creative humanoid robots were appreciated. However, beyond the issue of the robot appearance, many ethical and social issues were raised. These focus groups offered an opportunity for participants to discuss the very idea of an assistive robot and to challenge some implicit preconceptions of the roboticists. Finally, we discuss how assistive robots could be designed considering the social context of the elderly and how to implicate the elderly as future end-users in the design process.

  9. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  10. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  11. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P.…

  12. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  13. A review of design issues specific to hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziroczak, D.; Smith, H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current technical issues and challenges associated with the design of hypersonic vehicles. Two distinct classes of vehicles are reviewed; Hypersonic Transports and Space Launchers, their common features and differences are examined. After a brief historical overview, the paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach to these vehicles, discusses various design aspects, and technical challenges. Operational issues are explored, including mission profiles, current and predicted markets, in addition to environmental effects and human factors. Technological issues are also reviewed, focusing on the three major challenge areas associated with these vehicles: aerothermodynamics, propulsion, and structures. In addition, matters of reliability and maintainability are also presented. The paper also reviews the certification and flight testing of these vehicles from a global perspective. Finally the current stakeholders in the field of hypersonic flight are presented, summarizing the active programs and promising concepts.

  14. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  15. Professional Development Planning and Design. Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoton, Jack; Bowers, Patricia

    This book focuses on the professional development of teachers and discusses issues related to the planning and design of professional development programs. The content of the book is divided into three parts. Part 1, Standards-Based Reform and Professional Development includes: (1) "National Science Education Standards as a Catalyst for…

  16. Peeling the Onion: Okapi System Architecture and Software Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses software design issues for Okapi, an information retrieval system that incorporates both search engine and user interface and supports weighted searching, relevance feedback, and query expansion. The basic search system, adjacency searching, and moving toward a distributed system are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  17. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  18. Instructional Design and Adaptation Issues in Distance Learning Via Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a qualitative research study conducted in a distance-learning environment using satellite delivery. Describes changes in instructional design and adaptation issues which faculty and professionals involved in satellite-delivery learning situations used to be successful. (Author/AEF)

  19. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  20. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  1. A Comparison of Interactive Multimedia Instruction Designs Addressing Soldiers Learning Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    in selecting content to target their learning needs, similar to what more knowledgeable learners may already do. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Army...need it (TRADOC, 2011), with content and instructional design to address Soldiers’ learning needs. In addition, IMI provides a viable means to... content on breadth of information to help learners become familiar with a topic, and prepare them for additional learning . Core/refresher IMI

  2. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  3. Issues in the design of high dexterity, force reflective teleoperators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stephen C.; Iversen, E. K.; Davis, C. C.; Biggers, K. B.; Backman, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Engineering and Design at the University of Utah is developing an anthropomorphic, hydraulically actuated, teleoperated arm. The system includes a sixteen degree-of-freedom slave manipulator controlled by a kinematically identical, sixteen degree-of-freedom force-reflective, exoskeletal master. The project has focused on four areas: (1) formulating a realistic set of design objectives which balance, against technical realities, the desire for performance, reliability and economy; (2) understanding control issues; (3) designing and fabricating new subsystems necessary for the construction of a successful machine; and (4) integrating subsystems, through a series of prototype stages, into an operational teleoperation system.

  4. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  5. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  6. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joe

    2006-09-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  7. Addressing Impairment and Its Relationship to Professional Boundary Issues: A Response to Forrest, Elman, Gizara, and Vacha-Haase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the Forrest et al article on counselor trainee impairment. Expands on several issues discussed in the article including evaluation and accreditation issues. Discusses professional boundaries as having relevance to anticipating and/or minimizing impairment. (Author/MKA)

  8. Design issues for a laboratory high gain fusion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.

    1987-11-02

    In an inertial fusion laboratory high gain facility, experiments will be carried out with up to 1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. The experiment area of such a facility will include many systems and structures that will have to operate successfully in the difficult environment created by the sudden large energy release. This paper estimates many of the nuclear effects that will occur, discusses the implied design issues and suggests possible solutions so that a useful experimental facility can be built. 4 figs.

  9. Specific issues of the design for the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesi, S. B.; Groza, H. L.; Ianoşi, A.; Dimitrova, A.; Mândru, D.

    2016-08-01

    The actual demographic studies show that number of the elderly people is increasing constantly. Considering their motor, sensorial and cognitive constrains and restrictions, a new field of Assistive Technology is developing, focussed on the design and development of a wide range of devices, apparatus, equipment and systems dedicated to their independent and safe life. In this paper, a systematisation of existing gero-technical systems is proposed, emphasising the today trends in this field. The specific issues of designing this kind of products are identified and analysed. Two approaches of the authors are finally presented: wearable suits for aging and disabilities simulation and tele-monitoring of the elderly.

  10. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-12-19

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  11. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23253229

  12. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  13. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  14. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  15. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  16. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  17. Design issues for propulsion systems using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Rapp, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants that contain metal particles. These particles are suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Aluminum is used as the metal additive. The addition of metal to conventional propellants can increase their specific impulse and their density over conventional propellants, and consequently, the payload delivered on Mars and lunar transportation vehicles, Earth-to-Orbit vehicles and upper stages for robotic planetary missions. Gelled fuels also provide increased safety during accidental propellant leakage or spills. To take full advantage of these potential performance increases, there are changes that must be made to the vehicle design. The differences are discussed between metallized propellant and traditional liquid propellants and their effect on the propulsion system design. These differences include the propellant density, mixture ratio, engine performance, and propellant rheology. Missions related to the Space Exploration Initiative are considered as design examples to illustrate these issues.

  18. Compact DEMO, SlimCS: design progress and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, K.; Nishio, S.; Enoeda, M.; Kawashima, H.; Kurita, G.; Tanigawa, H.; Nakamura, H.; Honda, M.; Saito, A.; Sato, S.; Hayashi, T.; Asakura, N.; Sakurai, S.; Nishitani, T.; Ozeki, T.; Ando, M.; Ezato, K.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hirose, T.; Hoshino, T.; Ide, S.; Inoue, T.; Isono, T.; Liu, C.; Kakudate, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Mori, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Nishi, H.; Nozawa, T.; Ochiai, K.; Ogiwara, H.; Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Seki, Y.; Shibama, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Tsuru, D.; Yamanishi, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2009-07-01

    The design progress in a compact low aspect ratio (low A) DEMO reactor, 'SlimCS', and its design issues are reported. The design study focused mainly on the torus configuration including the blanket, divertor, materials and maintenance scheme. For continuity with the Japanese ITER-TBM, the blanket is based on a water-cooled solid breeder blanket. For vertical stability of the elongated plasma and high beta access, the blanket is segmented into replaceable and permanent blankets and a sector-wide conducting shell is arranged inbetween these blankets. A numerical calculation indicates that fuel self-sufficiency can be satisfied when the blanket interior is ideally fabricated. An allowable heat load to the divertor plate should be 8 MW m-2 or lower, which can be a critical constraint for determining a handling power of DEMO.

  19. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.

  20. Smart Grid as a Service: A Discussion on Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Chou; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as “smart” as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system. PMID:25243214

  1. The perfect boring situation-Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peldszus, Regina; Dalke, Hilary; Pretlove, Stephen; Welch, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary orbital missions, workloads are so high and varied that crew may rarely experience stretches of monotony. However, in historical long duration missions, occurrences of monotony were, indeed, reported anecdotally by crew. Of the effective countermeasures that appear to be at hand, many rely on visual or logistical proximity to the Earth, and are not feasible in the remote context of an extended deep space mission scenario. There, particularly in- and outbound cruising stages would be characterised by longer, comparably uneventful periods of low workload, coupled with confinement and unchanging vehicle surroundings. While the challenge of monotony has been pointed out as an exploration-related research area, it has received less explicit attention from a habitation design perspective than other human behaviour and performance issues. The paper addresses this gap through a literature review of the theory and application of design-based mitigation strategies. It outlines models of emergence of monotony, situates the phenomenon in a remote mission context as a problem of sensory, social and spatio-temporal isolation, and discusses proposed countermeasures related to habitability. The scope of the literature is extended to primary sources in the form of a qualitative review of six onboard diaries from orbital and simulator missions, highlighting a range of habitat-related design themes. These are translated into the autonomous deep space setting with the overall rationale of integrating affordances into onboard habitation systems and placing emphasis on reinforcing positive situational characteristics.

  2. Issues and Design Drivers for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Rucker, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers applied expertise gained in Lunar Lander development to the conceptual design of a long-duration, deep space habitat for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) missions. The design reference mission involved two launches to assemble a 5-module vehicle for a 380-day round trip mission carrying 4 crew members. The conceptual design process yielded a number of interesting debates, some of which could be significant design drivers in a detailed Deep Space Habitat (DSH) design. These issues include: a) Launch loads: Potentially drives layout of equipment mounted to module floors or walls, and whether temporary internal structure is required to distribute launch loads to minimize shell mass; b) Unmanned loiter time: When added to an already lengthy mission, loiter time further drives risk and reliability, and poses issues for equipment shelf life such as material degradation or cryogenic fluids boil-off; c) Pointing and Visibility: A habitat embedded in a 5-module stack may drive Communications, Tracking, Guidance, and Navigation equipment out onto long booms to maintain line-of-sight visibility with targets. However, long booms will be more susceptible to disruption from exercise-induced vibration, potential damage during docking/undocking operations, and increased power distribution mass; d) Water: although it is assumed that a water processor will collect and recycle water, several interesting question were posed, such as: How much water to start with? Should potable water serve double-duty as radiation protection? And if so, should it be stowed in a single large tank, or smaller, portable containers? e) Design for repairability: one of the worst-case scenarios identified was a cabin depressurization that required suited repair from inside the module, potentially driving the need for long umbilical hoses or special equipment to allow smaller, mated modules to be used as safe havens for up to 180 days;

  3. Key design issues for user terminals operating with HEO satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojkovic, I.; Alonso, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Coverage of high-latitude areas in the northern hemisphere using geostationary satellites can not be achieved with good elevation angles, and highly inclined elliptical orbits (HEO) present one possible way to overcome this problem. The high elevation angles they achieve and the relative motion of the satellites across the sky, including satellite hand-over, present a specific set of requirements for the design of user terminals, be they for communication or broadcast-reception purposed. This paper reviews key design issues for user terminals operating with satellites in highly inclined elliptical orbits. While all aspects of user terminal design are broadly covered, special emphasis is given to the antenna and RF front-end design. The types of terminals discussed include communications terminals: the hand-held, the notebook, and the vehicle-mounted types, as well as the vehicle-mounted digital audio broadcasting (DAB) receiver terminal. A number of solutions are outlined, based on tradeoffs with respect to the most significant system interface parameters such as G/T and equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular patch and helical antennas with the principal aim of deriving low cost, yet effective solutions. Issues related to achieving best EIRP for the communications terminals are presented, taking into account radiation safety limits. The differences in the design of receive only versus receive/transmit RF front-ends for HEO system terminals are highlighted and solutions for both proposed. This paper summarizes the results of internal ESTEC studies and external ESA-sponsored work concerning major user terminal parameters and design aspects performed for Archimedes -- a HEO satellite constellation for multimedia broadcasting and communications.

  4. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  5. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  6. Key issues in the design of pay for performance programs.

    PubMed

    Eijkenaar, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Pay for performance (P4P) is increasingly being used to stimulate healthcare providers to improve their performance. However, evidence on P4P effectiveness remains inconclusive. Flaws in program design may have contributed to this limited success. Based on a synthesis of relevant theoretical and empirical literature, this paper discusses key issues in P4P-program design. The analysis reveals that designing a fair and effective program is a complex undertaking. The following tentative conclusions are made: (1) performance is ideally defined broadly, provided that the set of measures remains comprehensible, (2) concerns that P4P encourages "selection" and "teaching to the test" should not be dismissed, (3) sophisticated risk adjustment is important, especially in outcome and resource use measures, (4) involving providers in program design is vital, (5) on balance, group incentives are preferred over individual incentives, (6) whether to use rewards or penalties is context-dependent, (7) payouts should be frequent and low-powered, (8) absolute targets are generally preferred over relative targets, (9) multiple targets are preferred over single targets, and (10) P4P should be a permanent component of provider compensation and is ideally "decoupled" form base payments. However, the design of P4P programs should be tailored to the specific setting of implementation, and empirical research is needed to confirm the conclusions.

  7. Social Issues: Making Them Relevant and Appropriate to Undergraduate Student Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design education is now considered a core issue for industrial/product design courses, however research has shown that the predominant focus tends to be on environmental issues, as social issues are much harder to tackle. Similarly, social issues are rarely considered in industrial practice. If student designers are to become…

  8. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  9. Mi-STAR: Designing Integrated Science Curriculum to Address the Next Generation Science Standards and Their Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, E. E.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Mi-STAR (Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform, http://mi-star.mtu.edu/) was funded by the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation to reform K-12 science education to present science as an integrated body of knowledge that is applied to address societal issues. To achieve this goal, Mi-STAR is developing an integrated science curriculum for the middle grades that will be aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Similar to the geosciences, the curriculum requires the integration of science, engineering and math content to explore 21st-century issues and demonstrates how these concepts can be used in service of society. The curriculum is based on the Mi-STAR Unit Specification Chart which pairs interdisciplinary themes with bundled NGSS Performance Expectations. Each unit is developed by a collaborative team of K-12 teachers, university STEM content experts and science education experts. Prior to developing a unit, each member on the team attends the on-line Mi-STAR Academy, completing 18+ hours of professional development (PD). This on-line PD program familiarizes teachers and experts with necessary pedagogical and content background knowledge, including NGSS and three-dimensional learning. With this background, teams use a staged, backwards design process to craft a multi-week unit based on a series of performance based tasks, or 'challenges' that engage students in actively doing science and engineering. Each unit includes Disciplinary Core Ideas from multiple disciplines, which focus on local and familiar examples that demonstrate the relevance of science in student's lives. Performance-based assessments are interwoven throughout the unit. Mi-STAR units will go through extensive pilot testing in several school districts across the state of Michigan. Additionally, the Mi-STAR program will develop teacher professional development programs to support implementation of the curriculum and design a pre-service teacher program in integrated

  10. Usability Issues of an Augmented Virtuality Environment for Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Irene Rui

    This paper presents a usability evaluation of an Augmented Virtuality (AV)-based system dedicated for design. The philosophy behind the concept of the system is discussed based on the dimensions of transportation and artificiality in shared-space technologies. This system is introduced as a method that allows users to experience the real remote environment without the need of physically visiting the actual place. Such experience is realized by using AV technology to enrich the virtual counterparts of the place with captured real images from the real environment. The combination of the physicality reality and virtual reality provides key landmarks or features of the to-be-visited place, live video streams of the remote participants, and 3D virtual design geometry. The focus of this paper describes the implementation and a usability evaluation of the system in its current state and also discusses the limitations, issues and challenges of this AV system.

  11. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  12. A compact roller-gear pitch-yaw joint module: Design and control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohring, Mark E.; Anderson, William J.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Rohn, Douglas A.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic systems have been proposed as a means of accomplishing assembly and maintenance tasks in space. The desirable characteristics of these systems include compact size, low mass, high load capacity, and programmable compliance to improve assembly performance. In addition, the mechanical system must transmit power in such a way as to allow high performance control of the system. Efficiency, linearity, low backlash, low torque ripple, and low friction are all desirable characteristics. This work presents a pitch-yaw joint module designed and built to address these issues. Its effectiveness as a two degree-of-freedom manipulator using natural admittance control, a method of force control, is demonstrated.

  13. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  14. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  15. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  16. Race and Racism: The Efforts of Counseling Psychology to Understand and Address the Issues Associated With These Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on race and racism with the underlying hope and expectation that in the near future the terms race and racism will be more accurately understood and, when necessary, more appropriately and selectively addressed by the field of counseling psychology. With respect to the term racism, it is hoped that the efforts of counseling…

  17. Poetry and Prose as Pedagogical Tools for Addressing Difficult Knowledges: Translocational Positionality and Issues of Collective Political Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on the possibilities that poetry and prose offer as pedagogical tools that can both accommodate and address difficult and painful knowledges. The paper presents and analyses poems and prose written by students at a non-traditional secondary school for disadvantaged girls (many of whom identify as Indigenous Australian).…

  18. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  19. Face Values: The Use of Sensitive Error Correction to Address Adolescents' "Face" Issues in the Modern Languages Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel; Templeton, Brian; Valdera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety about "performing" in a foreign language in front of classmates may inhibit learners' contributions in the modern languages class through fear of embarrassment over possible error production. The issue of "face", perceived social standing in the eyes of others, presents a sensitive matter for young adolescents…

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  1. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  2. Corrosion Issues in Solder Joint Design and Service

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-11-24

    Corrosion is an important consideration in the design of a solder joint. It must be addressed with respect to the service environment or, as in the case of soldered conduit, as the nature of the medium being transported within piping or tubing. Galvanic-assisted corrosion is of particular concern, given the fact that solder joints are comprised of different metals or alloy compositions that are in contact with one-another. The (thermodynamic) potential for corrosion to take place in a particular environment requires the availability of the galvanic series for those conditions and which includes the metals or alloys in question. However, the corrosion kinetics, which actually determine the rate of material loss under the specified service conditions, are only available through laboratory evaluations or field data that are found in the existing literature or must be obtained by in-house testing.

  3. Design issues of a reinforcement-based self-learning fuzzy controller for petrochemical process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Daugherity, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers have some often-cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control, including easier implementation, accommodation to natural language, and the ability to cover a wider range of operating conditions. One major obstacle that hinders the broader application of fuzzy logic controllers is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify their rules; as a result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on trial and error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is a self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) that uses reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of its fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of a self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on its design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for application to a petrochemical process are discussed, and its performance is compared with that of a PID and a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

  4. Design issues for a reinforcement-based self-learning fuzzy controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Dauherity, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers have some often cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control: easy implementation, its accommodation to natural language, the ability to cover wider range of operating conditions and others. One major obstacle that hinders its broader application is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify its rules and as result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on try-error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is self-learning fuzzy logic controllers (SFLC) that use reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on the design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for the application to chemical process are discussed and its performance is compared with that of PID and self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

  5. Issues in the design and implementation of psychoneuroimmunology research.

    PubMed

    Robinson, F Patrick; Mathews, Herbert L; Witek-Janusek, Linda

    2002-04-01

    Research that uses a psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) framework seeks to determine whether valid associations exist among stress, immune function, and health. These associations are difficult to conclusively determine due to the fact that PNI research is fraught with methodological difficulties. These difficulties arise from the multifaceted and complex nature of the neuro-endocrine-immune network that is the phenomenon of interest in PNI. This article discusses multiple issues of which investigators should be aware when designing and implementing PNI research including (1) the control of potentially immunomodulating variables related to demographics, behavior, and lifestyle; (2) the manner in which stress, endocrine function, immunity, and health outcomes are measured in consideration of the theoretical relevance to the research question, population, or disease entity understudy; (3) the way physiological specimens are procured and stored; and (4) the methods by which assays are performed.

  6. A Buffer Management Issue in Designing SSDs for LFSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaegeuk; Seol, Jinho; Maeng, Seungryoul

    This letter introduces a buffer management issue in designing SSDs for log-structured file systems (LFSs). We implemented a novel trace-driven SSD simulator in SystemC language, and simulated several SSD architectures with the NILFS2 trace. From the results, we give two major considerations related to the buffer management as follows. (1) The write buffer is used as a buffer not a cache, since all write requests are sequential in NILFS2. (2) For better performance, the main architectural factor is the bus bandwidth, but 332MHz is enough. Instead, the read buffer makes a key role in performance improvement while caching data. To enhance SSDs, accordingly, it is an effective way to make efficient read buffer management policies, and one of the examples is tracking the valid data zone in NILFS2, which can increase the data hit ratio in read buffers significantly.

  7. Technological issues and experimental design of gene association studies.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Johanna K; Taverna, Darin M

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the genome are genotyped in individuals who are phenotypically well characterized, -currently represent the most popular strategy for identifying gene regions associated with common -diseases and related quantitative traits. Improvements in technology and throughput capability, development of powerful statistical tools, and more widespread acceptance of pooling-based genotyping approaches have led to greater utilization of GWAS in human genetics research. However, important considerations for optimal experimental design, including selection of the most appropriate genotyping platform, can enhance the utility of the approach even further. This chapter reviews experimental and technological issues that may affect the success of GWAS findings and proposes strategies for developing the most comprehensive, logical, and cost-effective approaches for genotyping given the population of interest.

  8. Survey of ethical issues reported by Indian medical students: basis for design of a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India.

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. Center for Strategic Leadership Issue Paper, August 2007, Volume 8-07. Military Education Workshop Addresses Threats to Stability and Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    support of partner countries to address such destabilizing issues as competition for scare resources, forced migration, food security, changing weather...upcoming National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), the National Inteligence Council (NIC) has reached out to a broad group of U.S. government organizations and...resource competition and conflict; water and food security; health and disease, and the stability of governments. The Army should be prepared to adapt

  11. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Employee counseling services evaluation system: design, issues and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Masi, D A; Teems, L A

    1983-01-01

    Employee Counseling Services (ECS) programs have emerged as an effective method for dealing with employees whose job performance has deteriorated due to personal problems such as alcoholism or drug abuse. It is estimated that 18% of any work force is effected by such problems at any given time and that these employees cost industry billions of dollars annually in lost productivity, abuse of sick leave, etc. One of the critical concerns of this emerging field is the need for comprehensive evaluation that can demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefits of ECS programs. This paper will describe the model Federal ECS developed at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as well as the components of the evaluation system designed to determine its effectiveness. The system is the first of its kind and will be a valuable contribution to the field. The paper then raises issues and develops conclusions about designing such an evaluation within the context of a large bureaucracy.

  14. Designing an Advanced Instructional Design Advisor: Incorporating Visual Materials and Other Research Issues. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    education cannot really take place outside the context of curriculum research in general. Conclusions Each of the issues raised above converges on a...instructional strategies 70 educational psychology intrctional systems design (ISD) 16.PRICECODE instructional design 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...development is the lack of Air Force personnel who are well- trained in the areas of instructional technology and educational psychology. More often than

  15. Further development of a robust workup process for solution-phase high-throughput library synthesis to address environmental and sample tracking issues.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Hird, Nick; Cork, David G

    2006-01-01

    During further improvement of a high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis system, new workup tools and apparatus for parallel liquid-liquid extraction and evaporation have been developed. A combination of in-house design and collaboration with external manufacturers has been used to address (1) environmental issues concerning solvent emissions and (2) sample tracking errors arising from manual intervention. A parallel liquid-liquid extraction unit, containing miniature high-speed magnetic stirrers for efficient mixing of organic and aqueous phases, has been developed for use on a multichannel liquid handler. Separation of the phases is achieved by dispensing them into a newly patented filter tube containing a vertical hydrophobic porous membrane, which allows only the organic phase to pass into collection vials positioned below. The vertical positioning of the membrane overcomes the hitherto dependence on the use of heavier-than-water, bottom-phase, organic solvents such as dichloromethane, which are restricted due to environmental concerns. Both small (6-mL) and large (60-mL) filter tubes were developed for parallel phase separation in library and template synthesis, respectively. In addition, an apparatus for parallel solvent evaporation was developed to (1) remove solvent from the above samples with highly efficient recovery and (2) avoid the movement of individual samples between their collection on a liquid handler and registration to prevent sample identification errors. The apparatus uses a diaphragm pump to achieve a dynamic circulating closed system with a heating block for the rack of 96 sample vials and an efficient condenser to trap the solvents. Solvent recovery is typically >98%, and convenient operation and monitoring has made the apparatus the first choice for removal of volatile solvents.

  16. Addressing Feeding Disorders in Children on the Autism Spectrum in School-Based Settings: Physiological and Behavioral Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twachtman-Reilly, Jennifer; Amaral, Sheryl C.; Zebrowski, Patrecia P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this article are to define the nature of feeding difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of feeding disorders specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within the…

  17. Design of comprehensive Alzheimer's disease centers to address unmet national needs.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, John Q; Arnold, Steven E; Karlawish, Jason H; Brunden, Kurt; Cary, Mark; Davatzikos, Christos; Detre, John; Gaulton, Glen; Grossman, Murray; Hurtig, Howard; Jedrziewski, Kathryn; McCluskey, Leo; Naylor, Mary; Polsky, Daniel; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Siderowf, Andrew; Shaw, Leslie M; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Wang, Li-San; Werner, Rachel; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2010-03-01

    The problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exemplifies the challenges of dealing with a broad range of aging-related chronic disorders that require long-term, labor-intensive, and expensive care. As the baby boom generation ages and brain diseases become more prevalent, the need to confront the pending health care crisis is more urgent than ever before. Indeed, there is now a critical need to expand significantly the national effort to solve the problem of AD, with special focus on prevention. The Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer's Disease by 2020 (PAD2020) aims to create a new paradigm for planning and supporting the organization of worldwide cooperative research networks to develop new technologies for early detection and treatments of aging-related memory and motor impairments. PAD 2020 is developing an implementation plan to justify (1) increasing the federal budget for research, (2) developing novel national resources to discover new interventions for memory and motor disorders, and (3) creating innovative and streamlined decision-making processes for selecting and supporting new ideas. Since 1978 the National Institute on Aging or National Institute of Health (NIH) established an extensive national network of AD research facilities at academic institutions including AD Centers (ADCs), Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD, AD Cooperative Study (ADCS), AD Drug Discovery Program, National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, National Cell Repository for AD, and AD Neuroimaging Initiative. However, despite the success of these programs and their critical contributions, they are no longer adequate to meet the challenges presented by AD. PAD 2020 is designed to address these changes by improving the efficiency and effectiveness of these programs. For example, the ADCs (P30s and P50s) can be enhanced by converting some into Comprehensive Alzheimer's Disease Centers (CADCs) to support not only research, but also by being demonstration projects on care/treatment, clinical

  18. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  19. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA). Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis. PMID:28335464

  20. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  1. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  2. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis: the certification of NIST standard reference material 676a.

    PubMed

    Cline, James P; Von Dreele, Robert B; Winburn, Ryan; Stephens, Peter W; Filliben, James J

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% ± 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  3. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  4. Addressing the Context of E-Learning: Using Transactional Distance Theory to Inform Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani

    2009-01-01

    The rapidly expanding range of options available for innovative e-learning approaches based on emerging technologies has given renewed importance to teaching and learning issues that have long been familiar to distance educators. These issues arise from the separation between learners, and between teacher and learners, which occurs when learning…

  5. Safety Design Requirements for Active Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...environments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active Hazard Mitigation Device insensitive munitions fast cook-off slow...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVE HAZARD MITIGATION DEVICE (AHMD) EMPLOYED TO ADDRESS FAST AND SLOW COOK-OFF THERMAL THREATS DOD Fuze Engineering

  6. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  7. Addressing end of life care issues in a tertiary treatment centre: lessons learned from surveying parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Midson, Rosie; Carter, Bernie

    2010-03-01

    Much of the work in children's hospitals is rightly focused on treatments aimed towards cure but this means that death is often seen as a failure and, as such, it may not be discussed or acknowledged as a possibility until very late in a child's stay in hospital. However, this reluctance can deny the child and their family the opportunity to be informed, prepare and make choices. A survey of the care received by parents whose child had died in a children's tertiary treatment centre led to a greater understanding of the parents' experiences and the ways in which care could be enhanced. Parents talked of the way in which the geography of the hospital could be disruptive and dislocating and yet they often had no place to be alone or in private. Communication was identified as a core issue with many parents being positive about the quality and timing of communication. However, other parents expressed a preference for more preparation about the possibility that their child might die. Some parents had positive experiences of follow-up visits after their child's death, whilst others remained frustrated and some felt this visit had made them re-live the experiences. The importance of kind, supportive and consistent care was clearly evidenced by the parents when they spoke about their feelings and emotions. The findings helped to develop and implement an End of Life Care Pathway and a pathway tool which aimed to enhance parents' experiences and to improve care. A further survey was triggered by the concern that the pathway was not being fully utilized and it became apparent that, despite the tool, staff were still reluctant to provide anticipatory guidance, even though many practical aspects of care scored well. The need for good communication that prepares parents for the eventuality that their child might or will die is one of the clearest lessons from the second survey. This is important as anticipatory guidance opens up parents - and children's - choices, and their

  8. Using the PACE EH model to mobilize communities to address local environmental health issues--a case study in Island County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Higman, Keith; Servatius, Celine; Webber, Whitney L; McDonald, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The Island County Environmental Health Initiative (ICEHI) is a demonstration project in the use of the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE EH) to build capacity in the 10 essential services of environmental health. The PACE EH methodology systematically applies the 10 essential services of environmental health through the completion of 13 tasks derived from a community-based environmental health assessment process. The ICEHI has successfully engaged community members, identified environmental health issues important to the community, and led to the implementation of action plans aimed at reducing environmental health risks through use of community resources. This paper describes the methodology utilized by the ICEHI to address locally important environmental health issues so that other local and state environmental health agencies may replicate the process in their communities.

  9. Strategies and recommendations for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Forest service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, J.A.; Starr, G.L.; Quigley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute held three types of meetings to obtain public and scientific input into strategies for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Seven strategies are proposed: (2) plan and implement management on a landscape level, (2) enhance training on natural resources, (3) facilitate public involvement in planning and decision making, (4) develop an integrated landscape-level database, (5) develop an integrated monitoring system, (6) assess economic and social effects and assist with adaptation to change, and (7) identify barriers to improving the protesting forest health and recommend changes.

  10. Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Strategies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Oct 2009 Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de...les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Special Course under...HFM-180 Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées (RTO-EN-HFM-180) Synthèse L’objectif des

  11. Ethical Issues in the Design and Use of Internet-Based Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Lumsden, Jill A.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses ethical issues regarding Internet career assessment: reliability, validity, user readiness, administration, lack of practitioner awareness, equitable access, confidentiality, and privacy. Makes recommendations in the areas of research and development, training, standards, and stable funding of assessment development. (SK)

  12. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N2 connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed. PMID:27690029

  13. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  14. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  15. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  16. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-09-27

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N² connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed.

  17. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  18. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  19. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  20. Navigating Cross-Cultures, Curriculum and Confrontation: Addressing Ethics and Stereotypes in Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck-Coleman, Audra

    2010-01-01

    Graphic design's messages can reach across streets and across the globe; they can bring together countries, communities and strangers for a common cause; they can also serve to divide otherwise amenable neighbors. Design students must fully understand this potential reach and thus the responsibility they have to create tolerant, informed messages.…

  1. Addressing Diversity in an Early Years Mathematics Unit: A Matter of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article the manifold aims and theorised benefits of Learning by Design are explored and evaluated through the practices and experiences of an early years mathematics teacher. The article examines and elaborates the ways in which this teacher took up and embraced Learning by Design as both a professional meta-language and as a design…

  2. Addressing risk in the design of new healthcare services: a step-by-step methodology.

    PubMed

    Remus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    New service design can be done effectively through enterprise risk management (ERM) by identifying the clinical and administrative risks within the new service design. This article proposes a 10-step process describing the business team's tasks and integrating risk management, quality management and patient safety concepts.

  3. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barberà, Elena; Layne, Ludmila; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing…

  4. Computerizing the Classroom: Issues in Architectural Design and Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, William M., Jr.; Biancavilla, Dean

    1991-01-01

    The process of computerizing the classroom includes the following: (1) selection of the architect and engineer; (2) survey of existing premises; (3) solidifying program of usage and design; (4) school board approval and bond vote; and (5) final design and construction. Also discusses electrical system engineering, spatial design, illumination,…

  5. GT-MHR power conversion system: Design status and technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Etzel, K.; Baccaglini, G.; Schwartz, A.; Hillman, S.; Mathis, D.

    1994-12-01

    The Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) builds on 30 years of international gas-cooled reactor experience utilizing the unique properties of helium gas coolant, graphite moderator and coated particle fuel. To efficiently utilize the high temperature potential of the MHR, an innovative power conversion system has been developed featuring an intercooled and recuperated gas turbine. The gas turbine replaces a conventional steam turbine and its many auxiliary components. The Power Conversion System converts the thermal energy of the helium directly into electrical energy utilizing a closed Brayton cycle. The Power Conversion System draws on even more years of experience than the MHR: the world`s first closed-cycle plant, fossil fired and utilizing air as working fluid, started operation in Switzerland in 1939. Shortly thereafter, in 1945, the coupling of a closed-cycle plant to a nuclear heat generation system was conceived. Directly coupling the closed-cycle gas turbine concept to a modern, passively safe nuclear reactor opens a new chapter in power generation technology and brings with it various design challenges. Some of these challenges are associated with the direct coupling of the Power Conversion System to a nuclear reactor. Since the primary coolant is also the working fluid, the Power Conversion System has to be designed for reactor radionuclide plateout. As a result, issues like component maintainability and replaceability, and fission product effects on materials must be addressed. Other issues concern the integration of the Power Conversion System components into a single vessel. These issues include the selection of key technologies for the power conversion components such as submerged generator, magnetic bearings, seals, compact heat exchangers, and the overall system layout.

  6. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  7. Measurement Issues in the Design of State Accountability Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph; Estrada, Susan; Parkes, Jay

    The practices, policies, and procedures used in all 50 states for evaluating school and school district effectiveness were examined, with a focus on the study of methodological and measurement issues in the collection, analysis, and reporting of information for accountability purposes. Data were collected through computerized literature and Web…

  8. Design challenges and coordination issues in hotel projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Melvin L., IV; Marsh, David

    2002-11-01

    The design of a Five Star hotel facility encompasses a myriad of design dilemmas. On the same note, the design of a One Star or Two Star hotel has many dilemmas of its own. The ability of an acoustical consultant, as an integral part of the design team, to recognize the differences between these types of projects can be the difference between a successful hotel project and miserable failure. Different quality hotels require different levels of design criteria. Proper coordination and timing between trades and installations, such as loudspeakers, ceiling coffers, chandeliers, sprinkler heads, and ductwork, is also very important for the success of the overall project. This paper will discuss techniques and methods to produce successful hotel projects, as well as various noise sources throughout these spaces. It will also highlight a number of tips learned through many hotel design experiences.

  9. Usability Issues in the Design of Novice Programming Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    metaphor or model that the language is based on, the notation that is used in the language, and the environment. For example, the Turing language...address is the first step toward fixing this, although a more complex model is required when variables occur in iterative or recursive programs in imper...inability to develop an adequate men- tal model of the looping structure [Kessler 1989, Pirolli 1985]. Sometimes the bugs in novices’ mental models are

  10. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  11. Issues in the Design and Implementation of Act2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    like to extend special thanks to Henry Lieberman and Jonathan Amsterdam for their implementation of Scripter and an Apiary , without which an Act2...storage management, transmission of communications, migration of actors, and load-balancing. Languages built of top of an Apiary can ignore such issues...they cooperate by sending messages to each other over the network. 26 j_.*. . ii n ^ n I he Apiary architecture is responsible for providing

  12. Resolution of an Orbital Issue: A Designed Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Design of Experiments (DOE) is a systematic approach to investigation of a system or process. A series of structured tests are designed in which planned changes are made to the input variables of a process or system. The effects of these changes on a pre-defined output are then assessed. DOE is a formal method of maximizing information gained while minimizing resources required.

  13. Major Issues in the Design of New Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    The necessity of design and planning for school restructuring with a macro focus on education systems design is discussed in this paper. Eight support and implementation strategies are identified: utilization of a formal change process; planned coordination; multiple sponsorship; formation of a grassroots collaboration network; external and…

  14. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  15. Increasing Accessibility: Using Universal Design Principles to Address Disability Impairments in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Candice N.; Heiselt, April K.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of students enrolling in distance education, there is a need to consider the accessibility of course materials in online learning environments. Four major groups of disabilities: mobility, auditory, visual, and cognitive are explored as they relate to their implementation into instructional design and their impact on…

  16. Educated Guesses and Other Ways to Address the Pharmacological Uncertainty of Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Berning, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their “trying out” of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings. This article reflects on how forum participants experiment with designer drugs, their trust in suppliers and the testimonials of others, the use of ethno-scientific techniques that involve numerical weighing, “allergy dosing,” and the use of standardized trip reports. We suggest that these techniques contribute to a sense of control in the face of the possible toxicity of unknown or little-known designer drugs. The online reporting of effects allows users to experience not only the thrill of a new kind of high but also connection with others in the self-experimenting drug community. PMID:27721526

  17. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country...

  18. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country...

  19. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  20. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  1. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  2. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  3. Physics issues in diffraction limited storage ring design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Bai, ZhengHe; Gao, WeiWei; Feng, GuangYao; Li, WeiMin; Wang, Lin; He, DuoHui

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction limited electron storage ring is considered a promising candidate for future light sources, whose main characteristics are higher brilliance, better transverse coherence and better stability. The challenge of diffraction limited storage ring design is how to achieve the ultra low beam emittance with acceptable nonlinear performance. Effective linear and nonlinear parameter optimization methods based on Artificial Intelligence were developed for the storage ring physical design. As an example of application, partial physical design of HALS (Hefei Advanced Light Source), which is a diffraction limited VUV and soft X-ray light source, was introduced. Severe emittance growth due to the Intra Beam Scattering effect, which is the main obstacle to achieve ultra low emittance, was estimated quantitatively and possible cures were discussed. It is inspiring that better performance of diffraction limited storage ring can be achieved in principle with careful parameter optimization.

  4. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion. 17 refs.

  5. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  6. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design.

    PubMed

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  7. Initial MPTS study results: Design considerations and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    One of the key issues identified during investigations of microwave power transmission systems from 1965 to 1976 was the need to assure that the billions of diodes on ground-based rectennas are sufficiently reliable to support long life times of approximately 30 years. Major systems studies conducted focused on waveguides; radio frequency interference and biological considerations; the relationship between performance, weight, and cost; risk assessment; crossed field directional amplifier noise; a 48 kW klystron; effects of the environment on propagation and phase control; rectenna technology; a rationale for the ground power density region; alternate technologies for orbital assembly; ionospheric effects and phase control; and reception conversion (rf to dc collector/converter).

  8. The Design of Online Learning Communities: Critical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambos, Vrasidas; Michalinos, Zembylas; Chamberlain, Richard

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss findings from evaluations we conducted and share lessons we learned as developers of online education during the last 10 years. The purpose is to analyse some of the complexities in the design of online communities for professional development and continuing education. We present STAR-Online (Supporting Teachers with…

  9. Supporting Learning with Process Tools: Theory and Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, David A.; Knuth, Randy A.

    This report begins by discussing the implications of a constructivist epistemology for instructional design and development, as well as drawbacks of the content database in instruction, the lack of special tools to help the learner actively construct knowledge, and emphasis on learning environments based on individual learning. The whole learning…

  10. Standby rate design: current issues and possible innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Bahceci, Serkan

    2007-05-15

    While options pricing principles have some relevance for the design a standby distribution rates, insurance pricing may provide an even better model. An insurance-based approach using an outage probability methodology also provides powerful incentives to the utility to connect additional DG resources to the grid. (author)

  11. Monkeys on the Screen?: Multicultural Issues in Instructional Message Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    With the shift in numbers between Canadian-born students in the university classroom and the increased number of international students, it is a primary concern for instructors and instructional designers to know and understand learner characteristics in order to create effective instructional messages and materials. Recognizing how culture might…

  12. Instructional Design Issues Facing E-Learning: East Meets West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ping-Yeh; Rendon, Betty; Cornell, Richard

    The rapid emergence of e-learning in business and industry has been accompanied by a number of problems when instructional design concerns are incorporated into the overall curriculum development. This paper examines two companies in two distinct geographical extremes of Shin-Ju, Taiwan and Central Florida to see if, when comparisons are made,…

  13. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  14. Temporal Issues in the Design of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan; Obeid, Jihad

    1995-01-01

    Describes design methods used to influence user perception of time in virtual learning environments. Examines the use of temporal cues in medical education and clinical competence testing. Finds that user perceptions of time affects user acceptance, ease of use, and the level of realism of a virtual learning environment. Contains 51 references.…

  15. Issues in Software Engineering of Relevance to Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Software engineering is popularly misconceived as being an upmarket term for programming. In a way, this is akin to characterizing instructional design as the process of creating PowerPoint slides. In both these areas, the construction of systems, whether they are learning or computer systems, is only one part of a systematic process. The most…

  16. Design issues for lunar in situ aluminum/oxygen propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Design issues for lunar ascent and lunar descent rocket engines fueled by aluminum/oxygen propellant produced in situ at the lunar surface were evaluated. Key issues are discussed which impact the design of these rockets: aluminum combustion, throat erosion, and thrust chamber cooling. Four engine concepts are presented, and the impact of combustion performance, throat erosion and thrust chamber cooling on overall engine design are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each engine concept are presented.

  17. Addressing the variables in LED product design to ensure product reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keebler, Philip F.; Sharp, Frank D.

    2011-10-01

    Continuing developments in LED lighting are leading to more lighting products for illumination in LED fixtures for the residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Most of the research in the past ten years has been aimed at developing LEDs with higher brightness, higher efficacies, good color performance and longer life. Many efforts have been accomplished to develop LED driver circuits to drive LED arrays, even drivers that are dimmable. Manufacturers are increasing their level of concern with the performance and life of the whole LED product with a renewed emphasis on reliability. Reliability for LED products not only involves thermal management, fixture design, and driver loading but also how products respond to electrical disturbances that occur in the building electrical environments where the products must function. EPRI research has demonstrated that the immunity of LED lighting systems to common everyday electrical disturbances is critical to establishing the reliability needed to ensure expected performance and for their survival during product life. Test results showing the application of voltage surges, transients, and sags among other disturbances will be presented. This paper will discuss the application of the results of EPRI research in this area, the test protocol associated with EPRI system compatibility concept, examples of how applying the concept has identified reliability problems in LED products, and how the reliability of these LED systems can be easily improved.

  18. Time for T? Immunoinformatics addresses vaccine design for neglected tropical and emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Frances E; Moise, Leonard; Martin, Rebecca F; Torres, Melissa; Pilotte, Nils; Williams, Steven A; De Groot, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines have been invaluable for global health, saving lives and reducing healthcare costs, while also raising the quality of human life. However, newly emerging infectious diseases (EID) and more well-established tropical disease pathogens present complex challenges to vaccine developers; in particular, neglected tropical diseases, which are most prevalent among the world’s poorest, include many pathogens with large sizes, multistage life cycles and a variety of nonhuman vectors. EID such as MERS-CoV and H7N9 are highly pathogenic for humans. For many of these pathogens, while their genomes are available, immune correlates of protection are currently unknown. These complexities make developing vaccines for EID and neglected tropical diseases all the more difficult. In this review, we describe the implementation of an immunoinformatics-driven approach to systematically search for key determinants of immunity in newly available genome sequence data and design vaccines. This approach holds promise for the development of 21st century vaccines, improving human health everywhere. PMID:25193104

  19. Overview of strategies for addressing BRIs in drug discovery: Impact on optimization and design.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, W Griffith

    2011-06-30

    The sensitive and specific detection of adducts derived from reactive intermediates during discovery metabolite profiling has been made feasible by advances in LC-MS/MS instrumentation. Many companies employ screens with nucleophilic trapping agents as a routine part of early screening efforts. Although certainly not as straightforward as initial adduct detection, the positives in the profiling experiment can be followed-up with determination of exact adduct structure. This information feeds naturally into drug design efforts as the structural motifs responsible for reactive metabolite formation can be altered to reduce the property. While the process of generation of reactive metabolite data has become more straightforward, the conversion of that data into an optimization paradigm remains challenging. Recent studies have shown a very loose correlation between extent of reactive metabolite formation and observed toxicity, so setting stringent criteria likely leads to discarding compounds that would not have problems. On the other hand, the central role of reactive metabolites in most accepted mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity points to the fact that there is value in minimizing the property. Decision making based on information on reactive metabolite formation remains a difficult process in all phases of drug discovery and development. Decisions on compounds in discovery can be made based on a fixed threshold value or relative to a reference point within a chemical series, but should be made with a firm understanding of the limitation of the data.

  20. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  1. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed.

  2. Surveying clinicians by web: current issues in design and administration.

    PubMed

    Dykema, Jennifer; Jones, Nathan R; Piché, Tara; Stevenson, John

    2013-09-01

    The versatility, speed, and reduced costs with which web surveys can be conducted with clinicians are often offset by low response rates. Drawing on best practices and general recommendations in the literature, we provide an evidence-based overview of methods for conducting online surveys with providers. We highlight important advantages and disadvantages of conducting provider surveys online and include a review of differences in response rates between web and mail surveys of clinicians. When administered online, design-based features affect rates of survey participation and data quality. We examine features likely to have an impact including sample frames, incentives, contacts (type, timing, and content), mixed-mode approaches, and questionnaire length. We make several recommendations regarding optimal web-based designs, but more empirical research is needed, particularly with regard to identifying which combinations of incentive and contact approaches yield the highest response rates and are the most cost-effective.

  3. Key issues in constellation design optimization for NGSO satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents various constellation design criteria for satellite systems in non-geostationary orbits (NGSO). Key design parameters, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed for two classes of orbits: circular and non-circular. Circular orbits, such as the low earth orbits (LEO), the medium earth orbits (MEO), and the highly inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO), have equal coverage period for both north and south hemispheres while non-circular orbits such as the various type of elliptical orbits provide more focused coverage period at certain specific geographic locations. Different services require various constraints including delay, power economics, coverage region, frequency sharing, total capacity, satellite and launch-vehicle numbers. Detailed discussion of the relationship between these constraints and constellations are provided. A comparison between a proposed benchmark MEO system with other proposed broadband NGSO satellite systems is presented to demonstrate the importance of constellation design to enhance frequency-sharing capability. A potential ``satellite highway'' accommodating families of elliptical geosynchronous satellites is also presented. This is a novel approach to regulatory NGSO constellations which will facilitate sharing valuable resources of spectrum and useful spatial areas.

  4. A design of three-stage addressing sweep frequency signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihui; Fan, Muwen; Zhou, Luchun

    2015-10-01

    In order to test the working state of adaptive optics system, it is necessary to design an online sweep-frequency circuit module to test the frequency response of the adaptive system. Sweep-frequency signal generator based on Direct Digital frequency Synthesis (DDS) is one of the core components. But the classic DDS technology also has some drawbacks: the truncation error of phase, the truncation error of magnitude (caused by memory FWL) and high occupancy of ROM. These are also the optimization directions in this paper. This paper presents a FPGA-based DDS sweep-frequency signal generator suitable in adaptive optics. It has a low occupancy rate with ROM. And in the case of low-ROM, the paper reduces the noise generated by the truncation error of phase and the truncation error of magnitude of DDS sweepfrequency signal generator by method of linear interpolation. The results show that, when the reference frequency is 100 MHz, the frequency resolution can be as low as 0.025 Hz. It only takes up 0.5 KB ROM with the ROM compression ratio of 64:1 in the optimized scheme in the paper and has higher precision due to the method of linear interpolation than the unoptimized scheme, which can meet the engineering needs. Compared with other schemes, the scheme in the paper improves signal accuracy in the case of reducing the truncation error of phase, the truncation error of magnitude and the occupancy rate with ROM, but only adds a multiplication and division circuit, which is a practical solution.

  5. “Fair Play”: A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame “Fair Play” in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing “quests” to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. Materials and Methods: University of Wisconsin–Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play “Fair Play” or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. Results: As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). Conclusions: A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking. PMID:26192644

  6. Design issues in the semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks.

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, Stephen L.

    2013-07-01

    The asynchronous task model serves as a useful vehicle for shared memory parallel programming, particularly on multicore and manycore processors. As adoption of model among programmers has increased, support has emerged for the integration of task parallel language constructs into mainstream programming languages, e.g., C and C++. This paper examines some of the design decisions in Cilk and OpenMP concerning semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks with the aim of informing the efforts of committees considering language integration, as well as developers of new task parallel languages and libraries.

  7. Spatial issues in user interface design from a graphic design perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    The user interface of a computer system is a visual display that provides information about the status of operations on data within the computer and control options to the user that enable adjustments to these operations. From the very beginning of computer technology the user interface was a spatial display, although its spatial features were not necessarily complex or explicitly recognized by the users. All text and nonverbal signs appeared in a virtual space generally thought of as a single flat plane of symbols. Current technology of high performance workstations permits any element of the display to appear as dynamic, multicolor, 3-D signs in a virtual 3-D space. The complexity of appearance and the user's interaction with the display provide significant challenges to the graphic designer of current and future user interfaces. In particular, spatial depiction provides many opportunities for effective communication of objects, structures, processes, navigation, selection, and manipulation. Issues are presented that are relevant to the graphic designer seeking to optimize the user interface's spatial attributes for effective visual communication.

  8. Proton Effects and Test Issues for Satellite Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Marshall, Paul W.

    1999-01-01

    Microelectronic and photonic systems in the natural space environment are bombarded by a variety of charged particles including electrons, trapped protons, cosmic rays, and solar particles (protons and other heavy ions). These incident particles cause both ionizing and non-ionizing effects when traversing a device, and the effects can be either transient or permanent. The vast majority of the kinetic energy of an incident proton is lost to ionization, creating the single event effects (SEES) and total ionizing dose (TID) effects. However, the small portion of energy lost in non-ionizing processes causes atoms to be removed from their lattice sites and form permanent electrically active defects in semiconductor materials. These defects, i.e., "displacement damage," can significantly degrade device performance. In general, most of the displacement damage effects in the natural space environment can be attributed to protons since they are plentiful and extremely energetic (and therefore not readily shielded against). For this reason, we consider only proton induced displacement damage in this course. (Nevertheless, we identify solar cells as an important example of a case where both electron and proton damage can be important since only very light shielding is feasible.) The interested reader is encouraged to explore the three previous NSREC and RADECS short courses which also treat displacement damage issues for satellite applications. Part A of this segment of the short course introduces the space environment, proton shielding issues, and requirements specifications for proton-rich environments. In order to exercise the displacement damage analysis tools for on-orbit performance predictions, the requirements document must provide the relevant proton spectra in addition to the usual total ionizing dose-depth curves. Ion-solid interactions and the nature of the displacement damage they generate have been studied extensively for over half a century, yet they still

  9. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. )

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

  10. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-04-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  11. Framework for Asynchronous Discussion Design Decisions: Applied Principles from Special Issue Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    After a discussion of the state of both misaligned and informative online and distance education research, the authors in this special issue (hereafter called the collective) extract evidence-based principles about strategies that work. Both are addressed in this article. First, their criticisms centered on the value of comparative research. Those…

  12. LHeC ERL Design and Beam-dynamics Issues

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Bogacz, I. Shin, D. Schulte, F. Zimmermann

    2011-09-01

    We discuss machine and beam parameter choices for a Linac-Ring option of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) based on the LHC. With the total wall-plug power limited to 100 MW and a target current of about 6 mA the desired luminosity of 1033 cm-2 s-1 can be reached, providing one exploits unique features of the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Here, we describe the overall layout of such ERL complex located on the LHC site. We present an optimized multi-pass linac optics enabling operation of the proposed 3-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) in the Energy Recovery mode. We also describe emittance preserving return arc optics architecture; including layout and optics of the arc switch-yard. Furthermore, we discuss importance of collective effects such as: beam breakup in the RLA, as well as ion accumulation, with design-integrated mitigation measures, and the electron-beam disruption in collision. Finally, a few open questions are highlighted.

  13. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  14. Solid state sandwich concept: Designs, considerations and issues. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in analysis and design of solid state approaches to the solar power satellite microwave power transmission system is reviewed with special emphasis on the Sandwich concept and the issues of maintenance of low junction temperatures for amplifiers to assure acceptable lifetime. Ten specific issues or considerations are discussed and their resolution or status is presented.

  15. Making intelligent systems team players: Case studies and design issues. Volume 1: Human-computer interaction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Woods, David D.; Potter, Scott S.; Johannesen, Leila; Holloway, Matthew; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results are reported from a multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for systems with real time fault management capabilities. Intelligent fault management systems within the NASA were evaluated for insight into the design of systems with complex HCI. Preliminary results include: (1) a description of real time fault management in aerospace domains; (2) recommendations and examples for improving intelligent systems design and user interface design; (3) identification of issues requiring further research; and (4) recommendations for a development methodology integrating HCI design into intelligent system design.

  16. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  17. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  18. Design and analysis issues of integrated control systems for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, Craig A.; Feather, John B.; Dykman, John R.; Page, Mark A.; Hodgkinson, John

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify, rank, and define development plans for the critical guidance and control design and analysis issues as related to economically viable and environmentally acceptable high-speed civil transport. The issues were identified in a multistep process. First, pertinent literature on supersonic cruise aircraft was reviewed, and experts were consulted to establish the fundamental characteristics and problems inherent to supersonic cruise aircraft. Next, the advanced technologies and strategies being pursued for the high-speed civil transport were considered to determine any additional unique control problems the transport may have. Finally, existing technologies and methods were examined to determine their capabilities for the design and analysis of high-speed civil transport control systems and to identify the shortcomings and issues. Three priority levels - mandatory, highly beneficial, and desirable - were established. Within each of these levels, the issues were further ranked. Technology development plans for each issue were defined. Each plan contains a task breakdown and schedule.

  19. Usability Evaluation Survey for Identifying Design Issues in Civil Flight Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozve Aminian, Negin; Izzuddin Romli, Fairuz; Wiriadidjaja, Surjatin

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomics assessment for cockpit in civil aircraft is important as the pilots spend most of their time during flight on the seating posture imposed by its design. The improper seat design can cause discomfort and pain, which will disturb the pilot's concentration in flight. From a conducted survey, it is found that there are some issues regarding the current cockpit design. This study aims to highlight potential mismatches between the current cockpit design and the ergonomic design recommendations for anthropometric dimensions and seat design, which could be the roots of the problems faced by the pilots in the cockpit.

  20. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  1. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  2. Extending Engineering Design Graphics Laboratories to Have a CAD/CAM Component: Implementation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juricic, Davor; Barr, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a project that extended the Engineering Design Graphics curriculum to include instruction and laboratory experience in computer-aided design, analysis, and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Discusses issues in project implementation, including introduction of finite element analysis to lower-division students, feasibility of classroom prototype…

  3. Design and emplacement of an integrated lunar power system - Issues and concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Robin, James E.; Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Cataldo, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Issues regarding the construction and operation of a stationary lunar surface power system that must be resolved in order to create a permanent manned presence on the moon are addressed. The issues considered include: (1) the centralization or decentralization of the electrical power system; (2) whether power transmission should be ac or dc; (3) what mix of power generating technology should be used; and (4) the physical interface requirements between the power-system hardware and the construction equipment to be used in placing the hardware on the lunar surface.

  4. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm(2), exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  5. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  6. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  7. Key Cognitive Issues in the Design of Electronic Displays of Instrument Approach Procedure Charts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    issues and 108 design principlet. Its basic premisas is a recoilnition of the need for the pilot to get unambiguous information as quickly and casily as...visual representation as a retrieval cue, tnakirig recall even casier. I 0 3. PERCEPTION AND COGNITION 3.1 Visul Search One of the most important issues...1988). Relevance: The basic purpose of the EIAP is to provide the pilot with the explicit knowledge needed for the task. It is important to make the

  8. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  9. Progress Towards the Investigation of Technical Issues Relevant to the Design of an Aircraft Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Wake vortex separations applied to aircraft during instrument operations have been shown to potentially introduce inefficiencies in air traffic operations during certain weather conditions conducive to short duration wake hazards between pairs of landing aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) demonstrated an integration of technologies that provided real-time observations and predictions of aircraft wake behavior, from which reduced wake spacing from the current criteria was derived. In order to take this proof of concept to an operational prototype system, NASA has been working in cooperation with the FAA and other government and industry members to design operational concepts for a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). In addition to concept development, open research issues are being addressed and activities to quantify system requirements and specifications are currently underway. This paper describes the technological issues relevant to WakeVAS development and current NASA efforts to address these issues.

  10. Instructional Design Issues in a Distributed Collaborative Engineering Design (CED) Instructional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Wu, Yiyan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in engineering practices have spawned changes in engineering education and prompted the use of distributed learning environments. A distributed collaborative engineering design (CED) course was designed to engage engineering students in learning about and solving engineering design problems. The CED incorporated an advanced interactive…

  11. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  12. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  13. Not Yes or No, But What If: An Examination of Policies and Issues to be Addressed with Open Homosexuality in the US Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Dont ask, dont tell. Gay rights organizations argue that it is a human rights issue and cite several countries that have lifted the ban on open...don’t tell.” Gay rights organizations argue that it is a human rights issue and cite several countries that have lifted the ban on open homosexuality...Barrack Obama as the forty-fourth President of the United States, the countries’ gay rights groups are looking to finally reap the rewards of their

  14. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given.

  15. Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seokho H; Berry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

  16. Design Rules and Issues with Respect to Rocket Based Combined Cycles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Section Analysis As we seek for the accelerator, the inlet design is quite art of compromise. To make benefits due to air- breathing propulsion, the...Design Rules and Issues with Respect to Rocket Based Combined Cycles 3 - 4 RTO-EN-AVT-185 2.1.2 Combustor Section Analysis Embedded rocket chamber...cause thrust augmentation due to the ejector effects, which in turn, can reduce the requirement for the rocket engine output. In the speed regime with

  17. Research and Design Issues Concerning the Development of Educational Software for Children. Technical Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Char, Cynthia

    Several research and design issues to be considered when creating educational software were identified by a field test evaluation of three types of innovative software created at Bank Street College: (1) Probe, software for measuring and graphing temperature data; (2) Rescue Mission, a navigation game that illustrates the computer's use for…

  18. Inclusive Design: Building Educator Evaluation Systems That Support Students with Disabilities. Special Issues Brief. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This Special Issues Brief from the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) offers recommendations for the design and implementation of educator evaluation systems that support the academic and social growth of students with disabilities. Teachers of students with disabilities work closely with specialized instructional support personnel…

  19. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  20. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  1. 10 CFR 2.1115 - Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing. 2.1115 Section 2.1115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1115 - Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing. 2.1115 Section 2.1115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors §...

  3. 10 CFR 2.1115 - Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing. 2.1115 Section 2.1115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage...

  4. 10 CFR 2.1115 - Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing. 2.1115 Section 2.1115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors §...

  5. 10 CFR 2.1115 - Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1115 Designation of issues for adjudicatory hearing. (a) After... reactor already licensed to operate at the site, or any civilian nuclear power reactor for which a... the issuance of a construction permit or operating license for a civilian nuclear power reactor...

  6. Design Issues in a Hypertext-Based Information System for Bibliographic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitroff, Alexandra; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1993-01-01

    Describes initial design considerations and implementation issues for a hypertext retrieval system for structured bibliographic data. Previous research on information retrieval and hypertext is reviewed; HyperLynx, a hypertext prototype information retrieval system that emphasized ease of use and browsing capabilities, is explained; and further…

  7. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  8. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  9. The Real Controversy about Child Sexual Abuse Research: Contradictory Findings and Critical Issues Not Addressed by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in Their 1998 Outcomes Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Pamela Paradis; Whittenburg, John A.; Baker, Gail L.; Lemmey, Dorothy E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a review of all types of child sexual abuse research ignored by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in their 1998 meta-analytic study. Eight major findings are addressed. Altogether these findings demonstrate the narrow focus of the meta-analysis. By restricting a broad meta-analysis to only some of the research and population in question,…

  10. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  11. Developing an integrated concept for the E-ELT Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOSAIC): design issues and trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Myriam; Dalton, Gavin; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Chemla, Fanny; Morris, Tim; Hammer, Francois; Puech, Mathieu; Evans, Christopher; Jagourel, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    We present a discussion of the design issues and trade-offs that have been considered in putting together a new concept for MOSAIC,1, 2 the multi-object spectrograph for the E-ELT. MOSAIC aims to address the combined science cases for E-ELT MOS that arose from the earlier studies of the multi-object and multi-adaptive optics instruments (see MOSAIC science requirements in [3]). MOSAIC combines the advantages of a highly-multiplexed instrument targeting single-point objects with one which has a more modest multiplex but can spatially resolve a source with high resolution (IFU). These will span across two wavebands: visible and near-infrared.

  12. Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Conference: Using a Revised Morbidity and Mortality Format to Focus on Systems-Based Patient Safety Issues in a VA Hospital: Design and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, Wendy H; Ledford, Judith; Cooper, Jacqueline; Lloyd, Melissa G; Moore, Timothy; Harji, Farzana; Twitty, Vivian; Brooks, Annette; Oliver, Rosalinda C; Goff, James M

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Healthcare Administration (VA) has embraced patient safety and quality improvement in the quest to improve care for veterans. The New Mexico VA Health Care System introduced a new morbidity and mortality conference, called the Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Conference (IQIC), using patient case presentations to focus on underlying systems in the clinical care environment. The revised conference design also effectively teaches the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core requirements for resident education. A formal process was established for case selection, presentation, systems issue identification, tracking, and follow-up. The IQIC has enabled the identification of more than 20 system issues at the study institution. Outcome data show lasting improvement in system issues that were addressed by this mechanism. The VA IQIC is an effective method to both identify and correct systems issues that affect patient care and is an effective method for teaching residents the 6 ACGME requirements for residency education.

  13. Map Design and Production Issues for the Utah Gap Analysis Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, J.A.; Wittmann, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The cartographic preparation and printing of four maps for the Utah GAP Project presented a wide range of challenges in cartographic design and production. In meeting these challenges, the map designers had to balance the purpose of the maps together with their legibility and utility against both the researchers' desire to show as much detail as possible and the technical limitations inherent in the printing process. This article describes seven design and production issues in order to illustrate the challenges of making maps from a merger of satellite data and GIS databases, and to point toward future investigation and development.

  14. Project 10 Handbook: Addressing Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. A Resource Directory for Teachers, Guidance Counselors, Parents and School-Based Adolescent Care Providers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Project 10, Inc.

    This handbook was developed by Project 10, an on-campus counseling program within the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The handbook covers many of the issues and problems that arise for homosexual high school students. Introductory material includes a history of the informal beginnings of Project 10. The first chapter describes…

  15. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  16. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  18. Designing for Differences: Cultural Issues in the Design of WWW-based Course-support Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Examines factors affecting the cultural appropriateness of Web-based course-support sites. Identifies a strategy for accommodating different values of these factors in Web-based course-support systems, based on a set of 10 design guidelines. Describes and evaluates the TeleTOP Method from the University of Twente (The Netherlands) to illustrate…

  19. A workout for virtual bodybuilders (design issues for embodiment in multi-actor virtual environments)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Steve; Bowers, John; Fahlen, Lennart E.; Greenhalgh, Chris; Snowdon, Dave

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of user embodiment within collaborative virtual environments. By user embodiment we mean the provision of users with appropriate body images so as to represent them to others and also to themselves. By collaborative virtual environments we mean multi-user virtual reality systems which support cooperative work (although we argue that the results of our exploration may also be applied to other kinds of collaborative systems). The main part of the paper identifies a list of embodiment design issues including: presence, location, identity, activity, availability, history of activity, viewpoint, action point, gesture, facial expression, voluntary versus involuntary expression, degree of presence, reflecting capabilities, manipulating the user's view of others, representation across multiple media, autonomous and distributed body parts, truthfulness and efficiency. Following this, we show how these issues are reflected in our own DIVE and MASSIVE prototype collaborative virtual environments.

  20. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  1. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  2. General issues and precautions in the design for clinical trials of investigational new drugs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei

    2011-02-01

    The general problems existing in the clinical trials of investigational new drugs involve some key aspects such as the guiding principles, research designs, quality controls and statistical analyses. This paper explores the eight general issues in the clinical trials of investigational new drugs and presents precautionary measures with high operability. Research on the clinical trials of investigational new drugs is a complex project, which should be carried out strictly according to the policies, laws, criteria and operating rules set by related agencies. The neglect of research designs and data analyses will lead clinical trials to failure.

  3. AsthmaCritic: issues in designing a noninquisitive critiquing system for daily practice.

    PubMed

    Kuilboer, Manon M; van Wijk, Marc A M; Mosseveld, Mees; van der Lei, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The noninquisitive critiquing system, AsthmaCritic, uses routinely recorded electronic patient data to select and analyze records of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The system generates critiquing comments and adds these comments to the patient record. The system was developed by using and expanding an existing generic critiquing system. After a brief overview of the system, this report focuses on the authors' design choices in light of existing literature and the issues that underlie these design choices. Currently, AsthmaCritic is used by primary care physicians and is undergoing clinical evaluation.

  4. Beam-waveguide antenna servo design issues for tracking low earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Upcoming NASA missions will require tracking of low-orbit satellites. As a consequence, NASA antennas will be required to track satellites at higher rates than for the current deep space missions. This article investigates servo design issues for the 34-m beam-waveguide antennas that track low-orbit satellites. This includes upgrading the servo with a feedforward loop, using a monopulse controller design, and reducing tracking errors through either proper choice of elevation pinion location, application of a notch filter, or adjustment of the elevation drive amplifier gain. Finally, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio through averaging of the over-sampled monopulse signal is described.

  5. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117 PMID:22017924

  6. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses four issues related to music: (1) music as a form of intelligence and the misconceptions that have arisen; (2) music as a discipline focusing on mastering the discipline of music and obstacles to musicality; (3) a rationale for music education; and (4) the future of music education. (CMK)

  7. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  8. Work design and analysis for space-based manufacturing: a case analysis of initial design issues.

    PubMed

    Casler, J G; Cook, J R

    2003-01-15

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the nature of potential manufacturing tasks humans may execute in a space environment. The success of space-based manufacturing (SBM) is suggested to be a precursor to permanent human presence in space. A working hypothesis for this study was that human work in the SBM environment would be substantially different from terrestrial manufacturing work. To investigate this hypothesis, a case analysis approach was developed that employed a function allocation and task analysis of a representative SBM process: the production of tailored industrial crystals. This research approach was chosen as the current state of engineering design for SBM is in the conceptual and early flow sheeting phases of a system life cycle. Results of the task analysis and function allocation process suggest response to corrective maintenance functions and to abnormal system conditions should be allocated to humans as opposed to automation. These results are discussed in relation to human factors engineering challenges associated with long-duration human presence in an SBM environment.

  9. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  10. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  11. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  13. 3-D imaging using row-column-addressed arrays with integrated apodization - part i: apodization design and line element beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row-column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row-column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row-column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row-column-addressed array with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer-integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions. In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements.

  14. Emerging issues in improving food and physical activity environments: strategies for addressing land use, transportation, and safety in 3 California-wide initiatives.

    PubMed

    Aboelata, Manal J; Navarro, Amanda M

    2010-11-01

    Mounting research has suggested linkages between neighborhood safety, community design, and transportation patterns and eating and activity behaviors and health outcomes. On the basis of a review of evaluation findings from 3 multisite healthy eating and activity initiatives in California, we provide an overview of 3 community process strategies-engaging local advocates, linking safety to health, and collaborating with local government officials-that may be associated with the successful development and implementation of long-term community-improvement efforts and should be explored further.

  15. Issues and Challenges in the Design of Culturally Adapted Evidence-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Barrera, Manuel; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines issues and challenges in the design of cultural adaptations that are developed from an original evidence-based intervention (EBI). Recently emerging multistep frameworks or stage models are examined, as these can systematically guide the development of culturally adapted EBIs. Critical issues are also presented regarding whether and how such adaptations may be conducted, and empirical evidence is presented regarding the effectiveness of such cultural adaptations. Recent evidence suggests that these cultural adaptations are effective when applied with certain subcultural groups, although they are less effective when applied with other subcultural groups. Generally, current evidence regarding the effectiveness of cultural adaptations is promising but mixed. Further research is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of culturally adapted EBIs. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented to guide the development of a new generation of culturally adapted EBIs. PMID:20192800

  16. Learning to Learn, Pre-Kindergarten--Kindergarten Design Implications. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen

    2006-01-01

    As the current K-12 generation approaches societal maturity they will encounter issues that are changing almost as fast as they are identified. Fast on the heels of the elementary population are the pre-kindergarten children who will be facing an ever-changing global society. Business and educational leaders have called for universal preschool…

  17. Design principles and issues of rights expression languages for digital rights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    2005-07-01

    Digital rights management (DRM) provides a unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing digital rights throughout the entire life cycle of digital assets. Using a declarative rights expression language (REL) for specifying rights and conditions in the form of licenses, as opposite to some other approaches (such as data structures and imperative languages), has been considered and adopted as a superior technology for implementing effective, interoperable and scalable DRM systems. This paper discusses some principles and issues for designing RELs, based on the experiences of developing a family of REL"s (DPRL, XrML 1.x, XrML 2.0 and MPEG REL). It starts with an overview of a family tree of the past and current REL"s, and their development history, followed by an analysis of their data models and a comparison with access-control oriented models. It then presents a number of primary design principles such as syntactic and semantic un-ambiguity, system interoperability, expressiveness in supporting business models and future extensibility, and discusses a number of key design issues such as maintaining stateful information, multi-tier issuance of rights, meta rights, identification of individual and aggregate objects, late-binding of to-beidentified entities, as well as some advanced ones on revocation and delegation of rights. The paper concludes with some remarks on REL profiling and extension for specific application domains.

  18. Pilot opinions on high level flight deck automation issues: Toward the development of a design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Rogers, William H.; Pew, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    There has been much concern in recent years about the rapid increase in automation on commercial flight decks. The survey was composed of three major sections. The first section asked pilots to rate different automation components that exist on the latest commercial aircraft regarding their obtrusiveness and the attention and effort required in using them. The second section addressed general 'automation philosophy' issues. The third section focused on issues related to levels and amount of automation. The results indicate that pilots of advanced aircraft like their automation, use it, and would welcome more automation. However, they also believe that automation has many disadvantages, especially fully autonomous automation. They want their automation to be simple and reliable and to produce predictable results. The biggest needs for higher levels of automation were in pre-flight, communication, systems management, and task management functions, planning as well as response tasks, and high workload situations. There is an irony and a challenge in the implications of these findings. On the one hand pilots would like new automation to be simple and reliable, but they need it to support the most complex part of the job--managing and planning tasks in high workload situations.

  19. Contemporary issues for experimental design in assessment of medical imaging and computer-assist systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Sacks, William M.

    2003-05-01

    The dialog among investigators in academia, industry, NIH, and the FDA has grown in recent years on topics of historic interest to attendees of these SPIE sub-conferences on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Several of the most visible issues in this regard have been the emergence of digital mammography and modalities for computer-assisted detection and diagnosis in breast and lung imaging. These issues appear to be only the "tip of the iceberg" foreshadowing a number of emerging advances in imaging technology. So it is timely to make some general remarks looking back and looking ahead at the landscape (or seascape). The advances have been facilitated and documented in several forums. The major role of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conferences i well-known to all of us. Many of us were also present at the Medical Image Perception Society and co-sponsored by CDRH and NCI in September of 2001 at Airlie House, VA. The workshops and discussions held at that conference addressed some critical contemporary issues related to how society - and in particular industry and FDA - approach the general assessment problem. A great deal of inspiration for these discussions was also drawn from several workshops in recent years sponsored by the Biomedical Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute on these issues, in particular the problem of "The Moving Target" of imaging technology. Another critical phenomenon deserving our attention is the fact that the Fourth National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology was recently held in Bethesda, MD., February 6-7, 2003. These forums are presented by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). They are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (NIH/FAES). These forums led to the development of the NCI

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  1. 1999 NSREC Short Course: Proton Effects and Test Issues for Satellite Designers: Displacement Effects. Section 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Marshall, Paul W.

    1999-01-01

    This portion of the Short Course is divided into two segments to separately address the two major proton-related effects confronting satellite designers: ionization effects and displacement damage effects. While both of these topics are deeply rooted in "traditional" descriptions of space radiation effects, there are several factors at play to cause renewed concern for satellite systems being designed today. For example, emphasis on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies in both commercial and government systems increases both Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Effect (SEE) concerns. Scaling trends exacerbate the problems, especially with regard to SEEs where protons can dominate soft error rates and even cause destructive failure. In addition, proton-induced displacement damage at fluences encountered in natural space environments can cause degradation in modern bipolar circuitry as well as in many emerging electronic and opto-electronic technologies.

  2. Design issues and priorities in team and nonpharmacological arthritis care research.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Maura Daly; Petersson, Ingemar F

    2006-09-01

    Nonpharmacologic and team care research present unique design challenges. Nonpharmacologic care by nature is multifaceted and complex. Rarely do patients receive an intervention in isolation. The delivery of a single or group of interventions can be provided by one provider but is frequently provided by teams. Therefore, it is imperative that clinical researchers design studies that evaluate single and multimodal interventions as well as studies that best reproduce the team model of service delivery to accurately examine interventions. While it is well accepted that the research question drives the design, it is imperative to recognize that certain aspects of nonpharmacologic and team care restrict the implementation or effectiveness of specific design components. For example, as patients are required to actively engage in lifestyle changes, double-blinding cannot be employed. In addition, there is no accepted operational definition of team care in arthritis. It is important to keep in mind the characteristics of these interventions in the selection of a research design and develop strategies to best examine these interventions. Combining aspects of randomized controlled trials with qualitative methods is one technique to enrich data collected on these interventions. Certain features of pharmacovigilance studies may also serve as an alternative model. The use of national or regional registries for longterm clinical followup as seen in orthopedic surgery may prove to be applicable in the design of studies for evaluation of team care. Our article will discuss issues related to the design and synthesis of arthritis care research, and the role of patients in the design of clinical trials; describe collaborative international activities furthering team and nonpharmacological arthritis care research; and identify research activities that may influence future practice and the health of people with arthritis.

  3. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  4. Physics issues in the design of a recirculating induction accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-04-15

    A substantial savings in size and cost over a linear machine may be achieved in an induction accelerator in which a heavy ion beam makes many (< {approximately} 50) passes through one or more circular induction accelerators. We examine how the requirement of high beam quality and the requirement of pulse simultaneity at the target constrain the design of such an accelerator. Some of the issues that we have considered include beam interactions with residual gas, beam-beam charge exchange, emittance growth around bends, and beam instabilities. We show some of the interplay between maximization of beam quality and recirculator efficiency, and the minimization of recirculator cost, in arriving at a recirculator design. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. [Development of molecular targeting drugs for the treatment of cancer-therapeutic potential and issues to be addressed in global development].

    PubMed

    Akaza, H; Aiba, K; Isonishi, S; Ogawa, O; Shibuya, M; Sone, S; Tsuruo, T; Noguchi, S; Hinotsu, S; Kono, S; Mikami, O; Blackledge, G; Vose, B; Stribling, D

    2000-10-01

    /II studies for further evaluation in phase II or III studies which are designed to show the expected patient benefit. The tumour target, the stage of the disease and the possible need for concomitant therapy will also have to be considered according to the mechanism of action of the product.

  6. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  8. 41 CFR 102-76.20 - What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.20... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section...

  9. 41 CFR 102-76.20 - What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.20... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section...

  10. 41 CFR 102-76.20 - What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.20... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section...

  11. 41 CFR 102-76.20 - What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.20... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section...

  12. Challenging Issues in Clinical Trial Design: Part 4 of a 4-Part Series on Statistics for Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Stuart J; Clayton, Tim C; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-12-29

    As a sequel to last week's paper on the fundamentals of clinical trial design, this paper tackles related controversial issues: noninferiority trials, the value of factorial designs, the importance and challenges of strategy trials, Data Monitoring Committees (including when to stop a trial early), and the role of adaptive designs. All topics are illustrated by relevant examples from cardiology trials.

  13. Use of an Authentic, Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratory Project to Address Engineering Design and Scientific Inquiry in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbuena, Debra M.; Kirsch, F. Adam; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended for engineering educators, high school curriculum designers, and high school teachers interested in integrating authentic, project-based learning experiences into their classes. These types of projects may appear complex, but have many advantages. We characterize the successful implementation of one such project, the…

  14. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  15. The Distance Education Evolution: Issues and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monolescu, Dominique; Schifter, Catherine; Greenwood, Linda

    2004-01-01

    "The Distance Education Evolution: Case Studies" addresses issues regarding the development and design of online courses, and the implementation and evaluation of an online learning program. Several chapters include design strategies for online courses that range from the specific to the universal. Many authors address pedagogical issues from both…

  16. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  17. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. Evolution of clinical trials for irritable bowel syndrome: issues in end points and study design.

    PubMed

    Trentacosti, Ann Marie; He, Ruyi; Burke, Laurie B; Griebel, Donna; Kennedy, Dianne L

    2010-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involves a broad range of physiological and psychological alterations that may affect brain-gut dysregulation, gut function, visceral perception, and mucosal integrity and function. Despite advances in our understanding of basic neuroenteric mechanisms and the role of effectors and transmitters in the brain-gut axis, a reliable biologic marker of IBS has yet to be identified. IBS diagnosis and status depend entirely on an assessment of IBS signs and symptoms. This has made development of optimal end points and study design for evaluation of efficacy of IBS drugs a challenge. This article addresses three main topics: the evolution of primary end points for IBS clinical trials; a potential path forward for IBS end points in new clinical trials; and recommendations for the future development of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for use in IBS clinical trials.

  19. Designing e-Health Interventions for Low-Health-Literate Culturally Diverse Parents: Addressing the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Kahlor, LeeAnn; Tyler, Diane; Gustafson, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Child and adolescent obesity is a significant problem contributing to long-term trends in adult obesity. Educating parents about strategies for raising healthy children is complicated by the problem of low health literacy. E-health provides new opportunities to educate low-health-literate audiences, and this project was intended as formative research to guide design of interventions for low-health-literate parents. Focus groups were conducted with African American, Hispanic, and white parents (n = 43), 18 years of age or older, and at or below median income for the region. Each focus group included the following: a discussion of parents' general use of the Internet for health information, the demonstration of a Web site designed specifically for low-health-literate users, and asking participants about ideas under consideration for future interventions. Participants use search engines to look for health information and use heuristics, such as position in search results, to evaluate Web site quality. Some participants avoid information from .edu and .gov domains due to perceived complexity, and there was an almost-universal lack of trust in the government for health information. University researchers, by contrast, were trusted sources as information providers. Content and usability that meet the needs of extremely low-literate audiences may be perceived as slow and lacking depth by more literate and Internet-savvy users. E-health can be used to educate low-health-literate audiences, but interventions designed for these users must be layered in terms of content and usability to meet varying levels of functional and media literacy. PMID:19694596

  20. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  1. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  2. Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shih-Hua; Linscott, Jamie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications…

  3. Design issues of optical router for metropolitan optical network (MON) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zeng, QingJi

    2001-10-01

    The popularity of the Internet has caused the traffic on the Metro Area Network (MAN) to grow drastically every year. It is believed that Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) has become a cornerstone technology in the MAN. Solutions to provide a MAN with high bandwidth, good scalability and easy management are being constantly searched from both IP and WDM. In this paper we firstly propose a metro optical network architecture based on GMPLS--a flexible, highly scalable IP over WDM optical network architecture for the delivery of public network IP services. Two kinds of node including Electronic Label Switching Router (E-LSR) and Optical Router (O-LSR) are involved in this metro optical network architecture. Secondly, we mainly focus on design issues of OR including multi-granularity electro-optical hybrid switching fabrics, intelligent OTU, contro l plane software and etc. And we also discuss some issues such as routing, forwarding and management of OR. Finally, we reach conclusions that OR based on GMPLS and hybrid-switching fabrics is suitable for current multi-services application environment of MON and optimistic for IP traffic transfer.

  4. Geoseismic issues considered for design of the Samalayuca pipeline, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.; Beckwith, G.H.; Medina, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Samalayuca, Pipeline is a proposed 20-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline extending approximately 21 miles from the Hueco Compressor Station on the El Paso Natural Gas main line to the International Boundary with Mexico near Clint, Texas, about 25 miles southeast of El Paso. The purpose of the project is to supply gas for power generation at a plant south of Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Geoseismic issues considered in the design of the Samalayuca Pipeline consisted of surface fault rupture, earthquake-induced landslides, and liquefaction-induced ground displacement.Faults represent two kinds of hazard to pipeline facilities: surface displacement and strong shaking. Earthquake-induced landslides and liquefaction require strong shaking to occur before these processes represent hazards to buried pipelines.

  5. MET meets the real world: design issues and clinical strategies in the Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Farentinos, Chris; Ball, Samuel A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Libby, Bryce; Morgenstern, Jon; Obert, Jeanne L.; Polcin, Doug; Woody, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The Clinical Trials Network (CTN) represents a major initiative intended to bridge the gap between research and practice in substance abuse treatment by implementing a range of studies evaluating behavioral, pharmacologic, and combined treatments in community-based drug abuse treatment programs across the country. This article describes the development of CTN protocols evaluating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Motivational Interviewing. Design, training, and implementation challenges associated with conducting a clinical trial of brief behavioral treatments in community programs are discussed. Issues requiring attention included the diversity in treatments offered across sites, heterogeneity in the study sample, and training of clinicians drawn from the staff of community programs to deliver the study treatments. PMID:12220604

  6. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Patricia P.

    2003-01-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings. PMID:12883559

  7. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  8. Multi-target strategy to address Alzheimer's disease: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new tacrine-based dimers.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stefano; Bisi, Alessandra; Bartolini, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Andrisano, Vincenza; Rampa, Angela

    2011-09-01

    The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) offers us a textbook example where parental compounds, mostly marketed, are modified with the aim of improving and/or conferring two or even more biological activities to contrast or less frequently revert the disease's symptoms. This is the case of tacrine and its dimeric derivative bis(7)-tacrine which, for instance, paved the way for the development of a broad collection of very interesting homo- and heterodimeric structures, conceived in light of the emerging multi-target approach for AD-related drug discovery. As a contribution to the topic, we report here the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 12 compounds referable to bis(7)-tacrine. In addition to the cholinesterase activity, some of the selected compounds (7-9 and 12) were capable of inhibiting the non-enzymatic function of AChE and/or showed a remarkable activity against BACE1. Thus, the present study outlines a series of newly synthesized molecules, structurally related to bis(7)-tacrine, endowed with extended biological profile in agreement with the emerging multi-target paradigm.

  9. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  10. Multitarget Strategy to Address Alzheimer's Disease: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computational Studies of Coumarin-Based Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Serena; Bartolini, Manuela; Neviani, Paolo; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Pruccoli, Letizia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Falchi, Federico; Andrisano, Vincenza; Miszta, Przemysław; Cavalli, Andrea; Filipek, Sławomir; Bisi, Alessandra; Rampa, Angela

    2016-06-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major public health challenge that faces an aging global population. Current drug treatment has demonstrated only symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for a new generation of disease-modifying therapies. Following the multitarget-directed ligand approach, a small library of coumarin-based derivatives was designed and synthesized as a follow-up to our studies on AP2238, aimed at expanding its biological profile. The coumarin substitution pattern at the 6- or 7-position was modified by introducing alkyl chains of variable lengths and with different terminal amino functional groups. 3-(4-{[Benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-({5-[(7-methoxy-6H-indeno[2,1-b]quinolin-11-yl)amino]pentyl}oxy)-2H-chromen-2-one, bearing the bulkiest amine, emerged as a non-neurotoxic dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor, potentially suitable for the treatment of the middle stage of AD. Furthermore, the introduction of a diethylamino spacer, as in 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-{[5-(diethylamino)pentyl]oxy}-2H-chromen-2-one and 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, led to nanomolar human AChE inhibitors endowed with significant inhibitory activity toward Aβ42 self-aggregation, whereas the reference compound was completely ineffective. Furthermore, 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one also showed promising neuroprotective behavior, which makes it a potential candidate for development into a disease-modifying agent.

  11. Where science meets policy: comparing longitudinal and cross-sectional designs to address diarrhoeal disease burden in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Amanda R; Goldstick, Jason E; Levy, Karen; Cevallos, William; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Trostle, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies are considered preferable to cross-sectional studies for informing public health policy. However, when resources are limited, the trade-off between an accurate cross-section of the population and an understanding of the temporal variation should be optimized. When risk factors vary more across space at a fixed moment in time than at a fixed location across time, cross-sectional studies will tend to give more precise estimates of risk factor effects and thus may be a better source of data for policy judgments. Methods We conducted a diarrhoeal disease surveillance of 5616 individuals within 19 Ecuadorian villages. This data set was used to mimic cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by restricting focus to a single week and a single village, respectively. We compared the variability in risk factor effect estimates produced from each type of study. Results For household risk factors, the effect estimates produced by the longitudinal studies were more variable than their cross-sectional counterparts, which can be explained by greater spatial than temporal variability in the risk factor distribution. For example, the effect estimate of improved sanitation was almost twice as variable in longitudinal studies. Conclusions In our study, cross-sectional designs yielded more consistent evaluations of diarrhoea disease risk factors when those factors varied more between villages than over time. Cross-sectional studies can provide information that is representative across large geographic regions and therefore can provide insight for local, regional and national policy decisions. The value of the cross-sectional study should be reconsidered in the public health community. PMID:22253314

  12. Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1988-01-01

    Youth services programs and cholesterol in children's diets, two topics that may emerge as issues in schools and school districts in the near future, are addressed. Resources for further information are listed. (CB)

  13. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Windrich, Michael; Grimmer, Martin; Christ, Oliver; Rinderknecht, Stephan; Beckerle, Philipp

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a review on design issues and solutions found in active lower limb prostheses. This review is based on a systematic literature search with a methodical search strategy. The search was carried out across four major technical databases and the retrieved records were screened for their relevance. A total of 21 different active prostheses, including 8 above-knee, 9 below-knee and 4 combined knee-ankle prostheses were identified. While an active prosthesis may help to restore the functional performance of an amputee, the requirements regarding the actuation unit as well as for the control system are high and the development becomes a challenging task. Regarding mechanical design and the actuation unit high force/torque delivery, high efficiency, low size and low weight are conflicting goals. The actuation principle and variable impedance actuators are discussed. The control system is paramount for a "natural functioning" of the prosthesis. The control system has to enable locomotion and should react to the amputee's intent. For this, multi-level control approaches are reviewed.

  14. Reactor Coolant Pump seal issues and their applicability to new reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs) of various types are used to circulate the primary coolant through the reactor in most reactor designs. RCPs generally contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized reactor coolant along the pump drive shaft into the containment. The relatively large number of RCP seal and seal auxiliary system failures experienced at US operating plants during the 1970`s and early 1980`s raised concerns from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that gross failures may lead to reactor core uncovery and subsequent core damage. Some seal failure events resulted in a loss of primary coolant to the containment at flow rates greater than the normal makeup capacity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. This is an example of RCP seal failures resulting in a small Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper discusses observed and potential causes of RCP seal failure and the recommendations for limiting the likelihood of a seal induced small LOCA. Issues arising out of the research supporting these recommendations and subsequent public comments by the utility industry on them, serve as lessons learned, which are applicable to the design of new reactor plants.

  15. Decentralization for High-Quality Education: Elements and Issues of Design. RTI Research Report Series. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry, III; Crouch, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The impact of education decentralization on high-quality education has been mixed at best. This can be attributed to a variety of factors including decentralization itself, ineffectual implementation, political-economic friction, and poor design. This paper focuses largely on the issue of design, contending that if governments or donors aim to…

  16. Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M.; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D.; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.

    2006-01-01

    The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements of a large panel of indoor environmental agents, in-home infant assessments, and review of all prenatal and postnatal medical records through the first year of life. We found multiple environmental pollution sources and potential health risks in study homes including high infant exposure to tobacco smoke. The prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 54%; postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was nearly 90%. The majority (73%) of homes showed signs of dampness. Participants' lives were complicated by poverty, unemployment and single-parenthood. Thirty-three percent of fathers were not involved with their children, and 62% of subjects moved at least once during the study period. These socioeconomic issues had an impact on project implementation and led to modification of study eligibility criteria. Extensive outreach, follow up, and relationship-building were required in order to recruit and retain families and resulted in considerable work overload for study staff. Our experiences implementing the project will inform further studies on this and other similar populations. Future reports on this cohort will address the role of multiple environmental variables and their effects on wheezing outcome during the first year of life. PMID:16845500

  17. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  18. Statistical and practical issues in the design of a national probability sample of births for the Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Montaquila, Jill M; Brick, J Michael; Curtin, Lester R

    2010-06-15

    The National Children's Study is a national household probability sample designed to identify 100,000 children at birth and follow the sampled children for 21 years. Data from the study will support examining numerous hypotheses concerning genetic and environmental effects on the health and development of children. The goals of the study present substantial challenges. For example, the need for preconception, prenatal, and postnatal data requires identifying women in the early stages of pregnancy, the collection of many types of data, and the retention of the children over time. In this paper, we give an overview of the sample design used in a pilot study called the Vanguard Study, and highlight the approaches used to address these challenges. We will also describe the rationale for the sampling choices made at each stage, the unique organizational structure of the NCS and issues we expect to face during implementation.

  19. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  20. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2011-05-15

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  1. Design strengths and issues of SAMHSA's Women, Co-occurring Disorders, and Violence Study.

    PubMed

    Noether, Chanson D; Finkelstein, Norma; VanDeMark, Nancy R; Savage, Andrea; Reed, Beth Glover; Moses, Dawn Jahn

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration launched the Women, Co-occurring Disorders, and Violence Study (WCDVS). The WCDVS developed, implemented, and evaluated the outcomes and costs of comprehensive, trauma-informed treatment programs for women with a history of violence and trauma who have substance use and mental health disorders. This article discusses the overall design features of the study, issues related to such a design, results of the outcomes and cost evaluations, and suggestions for future research. The nine WCDVS sites were located across the continental United States, with six sites on the East Coast, two on the West Coast, and one in Colorado. A total of 2,729 women (1,415 in the intervention condition and 1,314 in the comparison condition) were enrolled over the 13.5-month baseline accrual period (January 2001 through February 2002). Follow-up interviews were conducted with all participants at three, six, nine and 12 months post-baseline. Women in the intervention and the comparison groups showed improvement in outcomes in four areas: alcohol use, drug use, mental health, and trauma. At six months women in the intervention group scored modestly better than women in the usual-care group for outcome measures for drug use, trauma, and mental health. At 12 months women in the intervention group maintained their improvement in drug use outcomes and continued to improve in mental health and trauma outcomes. After a start-up period, costs for services were not significantly different between the intervention and comparison groups at both follow-up points. Despite their very modest nature, the WCDVS results are promising.

  2. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV {times} 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} meson system, as well as beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment ({approximately}25% B{sup +}B{sup -}, B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0}); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and {bar B} decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B {yields} CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B {yields} {Psi}K{sub s}, an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  4. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  5. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  6. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  7. Notes on Accounting Capstone Course Design: Contemporary Issues versus Case Analysis Enhances Student Interest and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehoff, Clemense, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents how the Internet can be used to bring contemporary issues into the accounting capstone course to enhance student interest and learning. While existing cases have been reviewed and structured, they focus on issues that may not be at the forefront of the items currently under examination and/or debate by the accounting…

  8. Design issues and caching strategies for CD-ROM-based multimedia storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Vijnan; Rajaraman, V.; Jamadagni, H. S.; Venkat-Rangan, P.; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari

    1996-03-01

    CD-ROMs have proliferated as a distribution media for desktop machines for a large variety of multimedia applications (targeted for a single-user environment) like encyclopedias, magazines and games. With CD-ROM capacities up to 3 GB being available in the near future, they will form an integral part of Video on Demand (VoD) servers to store full-length movies and multimedia. In the first section of this paper we look at issues related to the single- user desktop environment. Since these multimedia applications are highly interactive in nature, we take a pragmatic approach, and have made a detailed study of the multimedia application behavior in terms of the I/O request patterns generated to the CD-ROM subsystem by tracing these patterns. We discuss prefetch buffer design and seek time characteristics in the context of the analysis of these traces. We also propose an adaptive main-memory hosted cache that receives caching hints from the application to reduce the latency when the user moves from one node of the hyper graph to another. In the second section we look at the use of CD-ROM in a VoD server and discuss the problem of scheduling multiple request streams and buffer management in this scenario. We adapt the C-SCAN (Circular SCAN) algorithm to suit the CD-ROM drive characteristics and prove that it is optimal in terms of buffer size management. We provide computationally inexpensive relations by which this algorithm can be implemented. We then propose an admission control algorithm which admits new request streams without disrupting the continuity of playback of the previous request streams. The algorithm also supports operations such as fast forward and replay. Finally, we discuss the problem of optimal placement of MPEG streams on CD-ROMs in the third section.

  9. Design and Development of an Emerging Issues Tracking System for State-Level Educational Policy- and Decisionmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Joyce S.; Rood, Magdalena M.

    This paper discusses the design, development, and results of a one-year pilot implementation of an emerging issues tracking system by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) for state-level educational policymakers and decision makers known as SEDL-SCAN. SEDL-SCAN offers policy-makers lead time on crises by flagging emerging…

  10. Student Perceptions in the Design of a Computer Card Game for Learning Computer Literacy Issues: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria; Papastergiou, Marina; Psomos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was twofold. First, an empirical study was designed aimed at investigating the perceptions that entry-level non-computing majors--namely Physical Education and Sport Science (PESS) undergraduate students--hold about basic Computer Literacy (CL) issues. The participants were 90 first-year PESS students, and their perceptions…

  11. The design process for a pumpkin balloon: structural synthesis, structural analysis, and analytical assessment of some critical design issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W. W.

    Effects of varying parameters in the design of super-pressure balloons of the "pumpkin" shape such as gore design, tendon stiffness, and structural lack-of-fit between tendons and gore seams are exhibited in analytical studies. The importance of an accurate representation of Poisson's effect for the film is demonstrated. Important design aspects that affect load paths and robustness of the design are discussed together with their resolution and quantification where applicable.

  12. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  13. Issues associated with a total systems approach to designing dependable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A total system approach, developed by the nuclear-reactor-safety community, is extrapolated to the design of complex, critical systems. The essential properties of these systems are described, and a generic paradigm for subsequent designs is proposed.

  14. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  15. Cognitive Issues in the Design and Deployment of Interactive Hypermedia: Implications for Authoring WWW Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersole, Samuel

    1997-01-01

    In designing effective interactive media, cognitive psychology, human factors, psycholinguistics, semiotics, and communication theory should be considered. This article defines interactive media, considers interactive hypermedia design and the cognitive processes of designer and user, and examines the World Wide Web and Netscape Navigator, a…

  16. Non-technical Issues in Design and Development of Personal Portable Devices.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Lenka; Cheshire, Paul; Pharow, Peter; Macku, David

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are constantly evolving and with the development of Internet of Things we can expect continuous increase of various applications. Mobile technologies have undeniable opportunities to play an important role in health services. Concerning purely technical aspects, almost every problem can be solved. However, there are still many unsolved and unclear issues related with ethics and governance mechanisms for mobile phone applications. These issues are even more critical in medical and health care applications of mobile technologies. This paper tries to analyse ethical, and privacy-related challenges that may occur when introducing Personal Portable Devices (PPD) to collect and record personal health data in health care and welfare environment.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  19. Methodological, Theoretical, Infrastructural, and Design Issues in Conducting Good Outcome Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael P.; Moore, Tessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a set of methodological, theoretical, and other issues relating to the conduct of good outcome studies. The article begins by considering the contribution of evidence-based medicine to the methodology of outcome research. The lessons which can be applied in outcome studies in nonmedical settings are described. The article…

  20. A Course Designed for Undergraduate Biochemistry Students to Learn about Cultural Diversity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2006-01-01

    Biology, biochemistry, and other science students are well trained in science and familiar with how to conduct and evaluate scientific experiments. They are less aware of cultural issues or how these will impact their careers in research, education, or as professional health care workers. A course was developed for advanced undergraduate science…

  1. Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passi, B. K.; Mishra, Sudarshan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research…

  2. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  3. The Impact of Housing on the Characteristics of Ceramic Pressure Sensors--An Issue of Design for Manufacturability.

    PubMed

    Santo Zarnik, Marina; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2015-12-14

    An exploratory study of the impact of housing on the characteristics of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) pressure sensor is presented. The ceramic sensor structure is sealed in a plastic housing. This may have non-negligible effect on the final characteristics and should be considered in the early design phase. The manufacturability issue mainly concerning the selection of available housing and the most appropriate materials was considered with respect to different requirements for low and high pressure ranges of operation. Numerical predictions showed the trends and helped reveal the critical design parameters. Proper selection of the adhesive material remains an essential issue. Curing of the epoxy adhesive may introduce non-negligible residual stresses, which considerably influence the sensor's characteristics.

  4. The Impact of Housing on the Characteristics of Ceramic Pressure Sensors—An Issue of Design for Manufacturability

    PubMed Central

    Santo Zarnik, Marina; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2015-01-01

    An exploratory study of the impact of housing on the characteristics of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) pressure sensor is presented. The ceramic sensor structure is sealed in a plastic housing. This may have non-negligible effect on the final characteristics and should be considered in the early design phase. The manufacturability issue mainly concerning the selection of available housing and the most appropriate materials was considered with respect to different requirements for low and high pressure ranges of operation. Numerical predictions showed the trends and helped reveal the critical design parameters. Proper selection of the adhesive material remains an essential issue. Curing of the epoxy adhesive may introduce non-negligible residual stresses, which considerably influence the sensor’s characteristics. PMID:26694386

  5. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The…

  6. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The historical analysis and the textbook analysis focus on the concepts of charge, octet, electron pair, ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. Finally, a table of recommendations is made for teacher and student in the light of four fundamental questions and the six alternative conceptions to enhance the quality of the curriculum resources available and the level of student engagement.

  7. Small Sample Research Designs for Evidence-based Rehabilitation: Issues and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This paper examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on ten or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using three examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:22580169

  8. Small sample research designs for evidence-based rehabilitation: issues and methods.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Karmarkar, Amol M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-08-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This article examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on 10 or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using 3 examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed.

  9. Instructional Designers at Work: A Study of How Designers Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Dennis; Ives, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) in its short life has been dominated by behaviourist approaches despite critique focusing on issues of practice as well as theory. Nonetheless, little research has addressed two fundamental questions: "What constitutes good instructional design?" and "How do instructional designers create good design?"…

  10. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  11. Multiscale Issues and Simulation-Based Science and Engineering for Materials-by-Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-15

    through better understanding of the multiscale fundamentals in their scale effects and the handshake relationship when one marches from one scale to...and continuity relationship . In doing so, most of the time, one is forced to give-up the chemistry and physics fundamentals at the interfaces and its...own discipline point of view. For example, the mechanics treatment of the material science issues has been based on the continuity relationship with

  12. Design Issues in Qualitative Research: The Case of Knowledge Utilization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Gwaltney, Margaret K.

    The purpose of this review was to examine research designs in studying knowledge utilization. The results are based on 32 studies of knowledge utilization, and the report describes the various types of research designs and their strengths and weaknesses. Survey research methods are appropriate for dealing with either of two aspects of a…

  13. Intervention Research and Program Evaluation in the School Setting: Issues and Alternative Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties in conducting intervention research or evaluating intervention programs in a school setting. In particular, the problems associated with randomization and obtaining control groups are examined. The use of quasi-experimental designs, specifically a paired comparison design using the individual as his or her…

  14. From Fulcher to PLEVALEX: Issues in Interface Design, Validity and Reliability in Internet Based Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Interface design and ergonomics, while already studied in much of educational theory, have not until recently been considered in language testing (Fulcher, 2003). In this paper, we revise the design principles of PLEVALEX, a fully operational prototype Internet based language testing platform. Our focus here is to show PLEVALEX's interfaces and…

  15. On-Line Help: Design Issues for Authoring Systems. CDC Technical Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Thomas M.; Langston, M. Diane

    Part of the Communications Design Center's (CDC) on-going research on communication and document design, this report emphasizes the importance of a multi-level computer help system that goes beyond simple command descriptions to include assistance with goals and strategies within the application domain--in this case, automated authoring. The help…

  16. Issues to Consider in Designing WebQuests: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Serhat

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an inquiry-based online learning technique. This technique has been widely adopted in K-16 education. Therefore, it is important that conditions of effective WebQuest design are defined. Through this article the author presents techniques for improving WebQuest design based on current research. More specifically, the author analyzes…

  17. Trends and Issues in the Integration of Sociocultural Content in Instructional Design and Technology Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinuthia, Wanjira

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of culture and instructional design and technology (IDT) continues to grow but the research in the area remains limited. More so, the number of online courses and programs are also on the rise, as is the number of geographically dispersed and culturally diverse students. In response, this study was designed to examine…

  18. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  19. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  20. Multi-angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer (MISR) Design Issues Influened by Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, C. J.; White, M. L.; Chrien, N. C. L.; Villegas, E. B.; Raouf, N.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an Earth Remote Sensing Sensor, such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), begins with a set of science requirements and is quickly followed by a set of instrument specifications.