Science.gov

Sample records for address environmental issues

  1. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  2. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  3. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  4. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.

  5. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 388, China Addresses Environmental Issues -- IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    period of national economic readjustment" promulgated by the State Council, and actively propose suggestions . Environmental protection is a...did not follow a routine. In March 1981, the State Planning Commission included the suggestions of the environmental protection departments in its...industrial waste residue (%) To better control environmental pollution, some comrades suggested adding several more planned goals, such as: the amounts of

  6. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  9. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  10. Issues and options in addressing the environmental consequences of livestock sector's growth.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P J; Vellinga, T V; Steinfeld, H

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, using eight percent of all water resources and threatening a wide range of endangered species. At the same time, livestock are also a crucial engine of rural growth and a tool for improving food security. Policies are required to guide the sector in achieving sometimes conflicting development objectives. Potential pathways include encouraging resource use efficiency, correcting for environmental externalities and accelerating technological change.

  11. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  12. Using the PACE EH model to mobilize communities to address local environmental health issues--a case study in Island County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Higman, Keith; Servatius, Celine; Webber, Whitney L; McDonald, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The Island County Environmental Health Initiative (ICEHI) is a demonstration project in the use of the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE EH) to build capacity in the 10 essential services of environmental health. The PACE EH methodology systematically applies the 10 essential services of environmental health through the completion of 13 tasks derived from a community-based environmental health assessment process. The ICEHI has successfully engaged community members, identified environmental health issues important to the community, and led to the implementation of action plans aimed at reducing environmental health risks through use of community resources. This paper describes the methodology utilized by the ICEHI to address locally important environmental health issues so that other local and state environmental health agencies may replicate the process in their communities.

  13. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  14. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  15. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  16. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  17. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  18. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  19. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  20. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  1. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  2. Further development of a robust workup process for solution-phase high-throughput library synthesis to address environmental and sample tracking issues.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Hird, Nick; Cork, David G

    2006-01-01

    During further improvement of a high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis system, new workup tools and apparatus for parallel liquid-liquid extraction and evaporation have been developed. A combination of in-house design and collaboration with external manufacturers has been used to address (1) environmental issues concerning solvent emissions and (2) sample tracking errors arising from manual intervention. A parallel liquid-liquid extraction unit, containing miniature high-speed magnetic stirrers for efficient mixing of organic and aqueous phases, has been developed for use on a multichannel liquid handler. Separation of the phases is achieved by dispensing them into a newly patented filter tube containing a vertical hydrophobic porous membrane, which allows only the organic phase to pass into collection vials positioned below. The vertical positioning of the membrane overcomes the hitherto dependence on the use of heavier-than-water, bottom-phase, organic solvents such as dichloromethane, which are restricted due to environmental concerns. Both small (6-mL) and large (60-mL) filter tubes were developed for parallel phase separation in library and template synthesis, respectively. In addition, an apparatus for parallel solvent evaporation was developed to (1) remove solvent from the above samples with highly efficient recovery and (2) avoid the movement of individual samples between their collection on a liquid handler and registration to prevent sample identification errors. The apparatus uses a diaphragm pump to achieve a dynamic circulating closed system with a heating block for the rack of 96 sample vials and an efficient condenser to trap the solvents. Solvent recovery is typically >98%, and convenient operation and monitoring has made the apparatus the first choice for removal of volatile solvents.

  3. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  4. Environmental Security: United Nations Doctrine for Managing Environmental Issues in Military Actions. Volume 2. Selected International Treaties, Conventions and Protocols that Address Environment-Related Issues. Selected International Organizations Relevant to Environmental Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    including, but not be limited to: 1) The common seas; 2) Land-resources and land-based pollution; 3) Tropical rain forests ; 4) Air quality; and 5...ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY THREATS 1. Ozone layer depletion 2. Global climate change (rising sea level, changing rain distribution) due to greenhouse gas...and earthquake-prone zones) and in ecologically sensitive zones (certain forest , desert, wetland and marine environments) 20. Human migration as

  5. Spaceport Hawaii - Environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, T.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The geographical, economic, and infrastructural factors of the Island of Hawaii make this island an ideal site for a privately owned and operated commercial launching facility for launching small- to medium-sized payloads into both equatorial and polar orbits. This paper describes the preparation of an environmental impact statement, which was initiated as a prelude to the eventual construction and operation of the commercial launching facility on the Island of Hawaii and which follows the Hawaii State law and the National Environmental Policy Act. The issues discussed are the regional characteristics of the Island of Hawaii, the candidate launch vehicles, the flight safety considerations, the spaceport development issues, and the potential impact of the future spaceport on the Mauna Kea Observatory on the Island of Hawaii.

  6. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RS-TEN-90-013 ZOCtOBER 1990 /fjit\\ (■■■■1 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Environmental Issues REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT ... Department called "deeply offensive", Mr. Naisali seemed to compare U.S. actions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. "Our problem here, I compare that one as...and (?portable) equip- ment that will be used to control pollution. The agreement, which was signed by the National Department of Mineral Production

  7. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Espaola, N.M.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced TEWA Woman United was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in Española, N. M. The grant enables the organization to cond

  8. Environmental issues in China

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  10. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  11. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  12. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  13. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  14. JPRS Report: Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-16

    environmental For the protection of giant pandas , 13 special reserves protection groups and put forward their specific plans were set up in the provinces of...Sichuan, Shaanxi and for environmental protection and control of environ- Gansu. Only about 1,000 pandas still exist in China. mental problems. And more

  15. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    complete elimination of environmental emissions of health-endangering substances (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, cyanides , phenols, and others...due solely to the shortage of raw materials and tobacco factories? No, the tobacco shortage was "planned" back when the Vladimirskiy Chemical Plant

  16. JPRS Report Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-28

    decisions intended for a long-term perspective be taken at summit level. In this connection the Soviet representative suggested that the committee...ecological revival of the earth. Such a plan should suggest solutions on such major issues as the financing of inter- national nature conservation...and Monitoring Network Administration Regulations" and welcome any con- structive comments or suggestions you may have in implementing this set of

  17. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    more and more banknotes in the Soviet empire, the main source of financing any ecology-oriented environmental research and investment projects in...monument protection, 17 percent to finance the workings of the ministry, nine percent for nature conservation, seven percent for the meteorolog...costs. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Finance is studying whether any of the budget reserves could be used to supplement the original allocation of the

  18. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-27

    independence. All the material riches of the world will be worth nothing if the people do not have a blue sky, clean air, unpoisoned earth and pure water ...inspections of Norwegian businesses that have agreements about the discharge of environmental toxins into the earth , water , and air. According to Kvam...Be Continued [Vienna KURIER 17 Jun] 22 Social Report Reveals Extensive Water , Noise Pollution [Frankfurt/Main FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE 15 May] 22

  19. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-06

    U.S. Proposal on Antarctic PY1911124490 Brasilia Radio National da Amazonia Network in Portuguese 0900 GMT 17 Nov 90 [Text] Brazil will support the...U.S. Press Advertisements for Amazon Land PY2611173290 Brasilia Radio National da Amazonia Network in Portuguese 0900 GMT 26 Nov 90 [Text] The...ment of this province. At present, this province’s environmental monitoring network is roughly in shape, and the scientific research on the

  20. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-12

    through burning gas, fuel oil , and coal. Naturally, global warming heavily depends on the energy policies of the ECE region’s countries. Did the...dioxide emissions, we must reduce our consumption of oil , coal, and natural gas. Help The information that is available today, one year after the...oping, according to which the use of environmental fees on fossil fuels such as coal, oil , and natural gas is the only way to reduce carbon

  1. Coal combustion byproducts and environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S.; Twardowska, I.; Punshon, T.; Alva, A.K.

    2006-07-01

    The book addresses the major implications and critical issues surrounding coal combustion products and their impact upon the environment. It provides essential information for scientists conducting research on coal and coal combustion products, but also serves as a valuable reference for a wide variety of researchers and other professionals in the energy industry and in the fields of public health, engineering, and environmental sciences.

  2. Environmental Issues, A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bettye G.

    Background information, discussion topics and questions, and suggested readings and references are compiled in this booklet dealing with environmental issues. Designed for integration into the senior high school curriculum, the issues and units are titled: (1) The Earth Develops Its Atmosphers, (2) Energy and Materials: Fundamentals, (3)…

  3. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health Past Issues / ... What types of research is NIDCR conducting on aging and oral health? We’re currently funding basic ...

  4. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  5. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  6. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  7. Addressing Environmental Justice in EPA Brownfields Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Brownfields Program has a rich history rooted in environmental justice. The Brownfields Program and the environmental justice movement have evolved over a similar timeline, fueling one another and helping to build strong communities.

  8. Strategies for addressing global environmental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Davis, E Ann

    2008-10-01

    While each region of the world faces unique public health challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations in Asia constitute a significant global public health challenge. Environmental threats to health are widespread and are increasing as nations in the region undergo rapid industrial development. One of the major predictors of ill health is poverty. Regional poverty puts large populations at risk for ill health, which exacerbates poverty and increases the exposure risk to environmental factors, such as pollution and disease. Patterns of illness have changed dramatically in the last century, and will continue to change in this century. Chemical toxicants in the environment, poverty, and little or no access to health care are all factors contributing to life-threatening diseases. Therefore, it is vital that we develop a better understanding of the mechanisms and interactions between nutrition, infectious disease, environmental exposures, and genetic predisposition in order to develop better prevention methods.

  9. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  10. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  11. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  12. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  13. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify the significance of intertextuality in students' realizations of low- and high-complexity discourses. In the high-complexity event, we show how students take on different roles and use modality and projection as grammatical resources for opening up, for different positions, multiple voices, and various contextual resources. Successful handling of complexity is construed by the interplay between students' roles in the discourse and resources in language for making multiple voices present. In the high-complexity event, the handling of complexity is guided by the students' sense of purpose. Handling complexity is demanding, and explicit scaffolding is necessary to prevent a potentially complex challenge from being treated as a simple one.

  14. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  15. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  16. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  17. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  18. Environmental issues in operations management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  19. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  20. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  1. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  2. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  3. Environmental Mis-Education? Addressing the Criticisms of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Speculates on the negative effects on children while focusing on saving the environment. Proposes that children have been frightened by the presentation of this information and suggests acceptable ways of integrating environmental education topics into the curriculum. (DDR)

  4. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves’ disease and Graves’ ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:28373861

  5. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  6. Critical Issues in K-12 Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Tech. Environmental Education Center, Bettendorf, IA.

    This document reviews the critical issues in K-12 environmental education discussed at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Morgan State University summer institute for kindergarten through grade 12 educators. Areas reviewed included curriculum, employment opportunities and career awareness, environmental equity, professional development, and…

  7. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  8. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Wainman, B.

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  9. 75 FR 12745 - SFIREG Environmental Quality Issues Working Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SFIREG Environmental Quality Issues Working Committee Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...)/State FIFRA Issues Research and Evaluation Group (SFIREG), Environmental Quality Issues (EQI)...

  10. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  11. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  12. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  13. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  14. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  15. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  16. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  17. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  18. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  19. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Issues in Teacher Education: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Homophobic harassment and bullying are persistent issues in Canadian schools despite recent initiatives to improve school climate. Among the reasons is that educators feel reluctant or ill-prepared to address these issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine how teacher education can help make schools safer by addressing LGBTQ issues and…

  2. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    PubMed

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  3. Environmental Issues in Managing Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-01-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  4. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  5. Addressing psychosocial issues in cancer survivorship: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    With a burgeoning population of cancer survivors, organizations in the USA and around the world are considering how to address the many long-term and late psychosocial effects of cancer and cancer treatment. This article reviews the changing landscape of survivorship care over the past 50 years, from the time when there were relatively few survivors to the future, when the number of cancer survivors in the USA alone is expected to reach close to 20 million. Institute of Medicine Reports, intra-organizational summits and accrediting standards that have influenced the development of survivorship care plans and programs and the roles of the Internet and smartphone applications along with oncology specialist and primary care providers are discussed.

  6. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  7. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  8. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society.

  9. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications.

  10. Development of an Instrument to Measure Technology Studies Teachers' Attitudes to Environmental and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rue, Peter; Gardner, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the extent to which environmental and social issues related to technology are being addressed in the teaching of technology studies. Describes the development of an instrument designed to measure teachers' attitudes towards environmental and societal issues and investigate the extent to which such issues are actually taught in practice.…

  11. An "Environmental Issues in Agronomy" Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the format and grading procedure of an Environmental Agronomy course offered at Colorado State University. Teaching methods include videotape use, field trips, and lectures addressing topics such as integrated pest management, land application of sewage sludge, pesticide degradation, and organic farming. Standard course…

  12. Foreword for Special Issue on Environmental Biophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue on Environmental Biophysics is presented in honor of Dr. John Norman. Over the past four decades, Dr. Norman has dedicated himself to building bridges between disparate scientific disciplines for a better understanding and prediction of biophysical interactions. The consummate i...

  13. The American Indian and Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costo, Rupert

    1980-01-01

    Traces the development of federal-Indian relations as a prelude to current Indian environmental issues. Illustrates the exploitation of reservation economies by energy corporations and the federal government, especially in the area of water rights. Notes problems within tribal governments as they attempt to coexist with the 20th century. (SB)

  14. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  15. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  16. Summary of commercial conservation programs environmental issues and program consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Beachler, M.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of the report is to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. In addition to environmental issues that Bonneville has addressed in environmental documents, this report also briefly examines new issues that may affect residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality. There are inconsistencies in how the Weatherization Program and the New Homes programs approach indoor air quality. However, these differences make sense, given the character and constraints affecting how each program operates. Newer issues that have arisen include global warming, potential health effects of mineral and glass fibers, and possible fire hazards associated with plastic foam and cellulose insulation. Bonneville staff are aware of these issues as they relate to conservation programs. No action appears necessary at this time.

  17. Environmental Education Teachers Manual. Environmental Education Issues in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Wendt, Neva

    This teacher's manual was developed to provide information on environmental education issues in the Pacific to teachers, extension officers, and other trainers to help make conservation an integral part of their teaching and training activities. The main focus of the activities contained in this manual is to achieve sustainability and enhance the…

  18. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  19. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  20. How the National Estuary Programs Address Environmental Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuaries face many challenges including, alteration of natural hydrologic flows, aquatic nuisance species, climate change, declines in fish and wildlife populations, habitat loss and degradation, nutrient loads, pathogens, stormwater and toxics.

  1. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  2. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  3. 49 CFR 192.933 - What actions must be taken to address integrity issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.933 What actions must be taken to address integrity issues? (a... issues? 192.933 Section 192.933 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  4. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  5. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. Environmental sampling: Issues for the cut-off regime

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    The fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) initiative under the Conference on Disarmament mandate is envisioned to include certain aspects of environmental sampling and monitoring. One of the intents of this treaty is to bring certain non-NPT signatories (e.g., threshold states) under this treaty agreement along with the nuclear weapon states (NWSs). This paper provides a brief overview of some of the relevant issues that may be involved in the implementation and use of environmental monitoring for (1) verification of the cut-off regime declarations, (2) the detection of undeclared activities, and, (3) application in non-routine inspections. The intent is to provide backstopping information important for treaty negotiators. Specific issues addressed within this paper include signature sampling, differences in the proposed detection regime, potential signature integrators, specific examples and spoofing concerns. Many of these issues must be carefully considered and weighed in order to create a credibly verifiable inspection regime. Importantly, the cut-off treaty must enable nondiscriminatory implementation, while carefully assuring that nonproliferation treaty requirements are maintained (i.e., preventing unintentional release of critical weapons design information--potentially through environmental sampling and analysis).

  7. The evolving role of partnerships in addressing community public health issues: policy and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monica L; Burdine, James N; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    The current state of health insurance coverage in the United States is deteriorating. Historically, efforts to address access at the federal level have met with insurmountable opposition. This article describes a model utilizing the Partnership Approach to Community Health Improvement to engage communities in developing creative ways of addressing local health issues, discusses the policy implications of such a model, and explores ethical issues inherent in the discussion of universal access. An argument is presented for a national dialogue seeking societal agreement to approach access and health from a perspective of solidarity.

  8. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    effective instrumentation and institutional support. Some environmental regulations have not succeeded as they do not match the technical requirements and economic reality of the country or region, or because they do not take the institutional capabilities of the society that has to implement them into consideration. For the survival and sustenance of the SMEs in the leather industry, it may be a viable alternative to carry out the tanning process in a decentralized fashion such that the raw to semi-finished process is carried out in the large scale sector while the semi-finished to finished process could either be reserved or open to competition as per the countries' requirements. But the issue of concern is whether it is fair that the raw to semi-finished tanning process, containing 70% of the pollution discharge should be undertaken by developing countries alone, especially if it is at the cost of their survival! However, the game analysed in the paper reveals that tanning units in developing countries would prefer to comply with the regulations and stay in the industry, the alternatives being to collude or to compete!

  9. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  10. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  11. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  12. 23 CFR 636.501 - What issues may be addressed in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues may be addressed in discussions? 636.501 Section 636.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  13. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  14. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  15. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  16. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  17. Intersexuality in Crustacea: an environmental issue?

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to give a historical overview of current understanding about intersexuality in crustaceans, assesses gaps in our knowledge and asks whether it should be an environmental concern. The oldest known cases of intersexuality come from 70 million year old fossil crabs whilst the oldest published case of intersex crustacean stems from a 1730 Royal Society report of a gynandromorph lobster. Many crustacean species are sequential hermaphroditic or simultaneous hermaphrodites. Consequently, there has been confusion as to whether accounts of intersex in the literature are correct. Intersexuality is fairly common throughout the Crustacea and it has been suggested that intersex may arise through different mechanisms. For example, sexual gynandromorphism may arise through disruption in early embryonic development whereas intersexuality may also arise through perturbations of androgenic gland hormone and sexual differentiation in later development. The causes of intersex are multifaceted and can occur through a number of mechanisms including parasitism, environmental sex determination, genetic abnormalities and increasingly pollution is being implicated. Despite many studies on the effects of endocrine disrupters on crustaceans, very few have focussed on wild populations or male related endpoints; rather many laboratory studies have been attempting to assess biomarkers of feminisation. This is surprising as many of the seminal papers on endocrine disruption focussed on effects found in the wild and male specimens. This paper argues that we might have been addressing the right questions (i.e. pollution induced intersex), but in the wrong way (feminisation); and therefore gives recommendations for future directions for research. Biomarker development has been hampered by paucity of genomic and endocrine knowledge of many crustacean model species; however this is rapidly changing with the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing.

  18. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  19. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so.

  20. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  1. A screening approach for identifying environmental justice issues in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Schexnayder, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    Executive Order 12898 and the accompanying memorandum addressed to Federal agency heads, both issued on February 11, 1994, require NEPA processes to incorporate environmental justice. The NEPA processes affected are: (1) public involvement formats, (2) analyses of potential impacts. The Executive Order clearly indicates that research strategies and mitigation measure should be developed with the input of the populations mentioned in the Executive Order, i.e., minority and low-income populations. However, an enhanced public involvement process may not occur because the NEPA activity may have been underway before the Executive Order was issued or because the agency chooses not to change traditional public participation mechanisms. It is also possible that enhanced mechanisms may not effectively elicit involvement. In either case, analysis that considers environmental justice must proceed. These analyses could be highly data-intensive--requiring new or modified methodological approaches-- and time-intensive, particularly if the process elements of the executive order are interpreted broadly, Federal agencies and NEPA project managers already have expressed concern about the potential cost of conducting exhaustive environmental justice related analyses where they may not be warranted. Also, the time and resources required to conduct a full environmental justice analysis is counter to recent trends to streamline the NEPA process. In light of this, a process to screen for indicators of the potential for environmental justice issues has been developed. The method incorporates separate screens for human health impacts, socioeconomic impacts, and social structural impacts. Positive results of any screen indicates the need for full-scale, environmental-justice-related analysis of that category of impact. The screen is intended as a useful tool in implementing environmental justice in environmental impact statements.

  2. The Environmental Scrapbook. A Collection of Articles on Environmental Issues for Use in Secondary Schools. Global Issues Reading Kit #1. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Andrew, Ed.; Ockenden, Sandy, Ed.

    This document presents student readings that address a variety of environmental issues. The individual articles present a global perspective that is both alarming and hopeful. Drawing from events and situations in both the northern and southern hemispheres, the articles describe a world in crisis. By critically examining the status quo, the…

  3. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.

  4. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  5. Addressing environmental health Implications of mold exposure after major flooding.

    PubMed

    Metts, Tricia A

    2008-03-01

    Extensive water damage resulting from major flooding is often associated with mold growth if materials are not quickly and thoroughly dried. Exposure to fungal contamination can lead to several infectious and noninfectious health effects impacting the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Adverse health effects can be categorized as infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, or toxic-irritant reactions. Workers and building occupants can minimize their exposure to mold by avoiding areas with excessive mold growth, using personal protective equipment, and implementing environmental controls. Occupational health professionals should encourage workers to seek health care if they experience any symptoms that may be linked to mold exposure.

  6. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  7. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  8. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  9. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  10. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000…

  11. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  12. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  13. Environmental Issue Area and Game Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuismin, Heikki O.

    1998-01-01

    Explores questions regarding cooperation versus competition, long- or short-term planning, and issues of economics and policy formation through a discussion of game theory. Contains 25 references. (Author/PVD)

  14. Summary of panel session 3 -- Environmental issues affecting CCT deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Hausker, K.

    1997-12-31

    The panelists discussed a variety of environmental issues that affect CCT deployment, and more broadly speaking, power development in general. The issues were both international and domestic in nature. The author summarizes the issues discussed. A summary is also presented which highlights ideas from the panelists that could be characterized as solutions to the demand for improved environmental performance and the surrounding uncertainties. The author offers some personal comments and observations.

  15. Mineral resources, environmental issues, and land use.

    PubMed

    Hodges, C A

    1995-06-02

    Contrary to predictions from the 1950s through the mid-1980s, persistent shortages of nonfuel minerals have not occurred, despite prodigious consumption, and world reserves have increased. Global availability of raw materials is relevant to policy decisions regarding mineral development and land use. Justification for environmental protection may exceed that for mining a specific ore body. Demand for environmental accountability is rising worldwide, and new technologies are enabling internalization of costs. Mineral-rich developing nations plagued by inefficient state-owned mining enterprises, high population growth rates, and environmental degradation could realize substantial benefit by reforming government policies to encourage foreign investment in resources and by appropriate allocation of mineral rents.

  16. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  17. HVDC power transmission environmental issues review

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.H.; Weil, D.E.; Stewart, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report strives to define the various environmental effects associated with HVDC lines, discusses the current knowledge of their potential effects on biological and non-biological systems, and compares these effects associated with ac lines where appropriate.

  18. The environmental issues of platform decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Susani, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the environmental impacts of offshore platform disposal, based on past activities and technical and research studies. Environmental impacts are considered in relation to four main decommissioning options. The most significant effects stem from explosive cutting, sediment resuspension and release of contamination during initial production shut-down, well purging and removal of the jacket structure from the seabed. Any decommissioning option that minimizes movement of structures and avoids explosive cutting must therefore be viewed as preferable from an ecological viewpoint. Complete removal is preferred on the grounds of energy conservation, fisheries and navigational safety, and controlled disposal of potential contaminants.

  19. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  20. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  2. Environmental Issues Related to Conventional Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-27

    Hydropower is the largest renewable electrical energy source in the world and has a total global capacity of approximately 1,010 GW from 150 countries. Although hydropower has many environmental advantages, hydropower dams have potential adverse ecological impacts such as fish passage, water quality, and habitat alterations.

  3. Issues and framework of environmental health in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Murad, Wahid

    2010-04-01

    Environmental health problems in Malaysia are mostly attributed to atmospheric pollution, water pollution, climate change, ozone depletion, and solid waste management, as well as toxic, chemical, and hazardous waste management. The Ministry of Health, Malaysia, has been vigorously pursuing the environmental health agenda by collaborating with other agencies at district, state, national, and international levels. This article discusses the issues and management framework of environmental health in Malaysia. Some issues requiring further investigation in order to clearly understand the trade-off between atmospheric change and environmental health are suggested. These suggestions are developed with particular reference to appraisals concerned with the development and implementation of environmental policy, programs, and practice. Research on the relevant issues is discussed and a framework is built involving a comprehensive review of the literature and existing framework of Malaysian environmental health.

  4. Identifying the mathematics middle year students use as they address a community issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Middle year students often do not see the mathematics in the real world whereas the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims for students to be "confident and creative users and communicators of mathematics" (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2012). Using authentic and real mathematics tasks can address this situation. This paper is an account of how, working within a Knowledge Producing Schools' framework, a group of middle year students addressed a real community issue, the problem of the lack of a teenage safe space using mathematics and technology. Data were collected for this case study via journal observations and reflections, semi-structured interviews, samples of the students' work and videos of students working. The data were analysed by identifying the mathematics the students used determining the function and location of the space and focused on problem negotiation, formulation and solving through the statistical investigation cycle. The paper will identify the mathematics and statistics these students used as they addressed a real problem in their local community.

  5. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  6. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. ); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  7. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  8. Which issues concerning multiple pregnancies should be addressed during psychosocial counselling?

    PubMed

    Emery, Marysa

    2007-01-01

    The global rise in multiple pregnancy rates due to assisted reproductive technology has led to the development of various strategies to diminish these rates without jeopardising pregnancy. Policies at treatment centres may include the option of fetal reduction, although each centre is subject to national laws and its own guidelines. However, personal opinions and goals may also influence practice. The development of clinical decisions, therefore, is complex and subject to change. Primary prevention is the best way to reduce multiple births. For preventative psychosocial counselling, some centres employ counsellors, but if not, this becomes the physician's task. An in-depth assessment is required to define how many embryos to transfer and what risk of multiple birth is acceptable to patients. Counselling should address the following: the relationship between pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the number of embryos transferred; benefits and risks of multiple pregnancy; and possibilities for primary and secondary prevention. Patients should voice how they feel facing these issues; which issues are worrisome; how they anticipate these possibilities; and what psychosocial support exists that could be mobilized. In summary, psychosocial counselling reinforces the partnership between couples and the assisted reproductive technology team, allowing for primary prevention and informed consent on multiple pregnancy issues.

  9. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  10. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  11. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  12. Development and Implementation of an Instructional Design for Effective Teaching of Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Elif Ozata; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instructional design whereby ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental issues are addressed with a holistic approach that provides more efficient teaching as well as to test the effectiveness of this design. A literature review was carried out and need-assessment was firstly made using the Readiness Test. This review…

  13. The Impact of Socioscientific Issues Based Curriculum Involving Environmental Outdoor Education for Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burek, Karey J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a divide between what students are being taught within the science classroom and what they experience out in the real world. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues embedded curriculum and outcome variables addressing environmental attitude and knowledge, oral and written argumentation and…

  14. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  15. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  16. Environmental restoration and statistics: Issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1991-10-01

    Statisticians have a vital role to play in environmental restoration (ER) activities. One facet of that role is to point out where additional work is needed to develop statistical sampling plans and data analyses that meet the needs of ER. This paper is an attempt to show where statistics fits into the ER process. The statistician, as member of the ER planning team, works collaboratively with the team to develop the site characterization sampling design, so that data of the quality and quantity required by the specified data quality objectives (DQOs) are obtained. At the same time, the statistician works with the rest of the planning team to design and implement, when appropriate, the observational approach to streamline the ER process and reduce costs. The statistician will also provide the expertise needed to select or develop appropriate tools for statistical analysis that are suited for problems that are common to waste-site data. These data problems include highly heterogeneous waste forms, large variability in concentrations over space, correlated data, data that do not have a normal (Gaussian) distribution, and measurements below detection limits. Other problems include environmental transport and risk models that yield highly uncertain predictions, and the need to effectively communicate to the public highly technical information, such as sampling plans, site characterization data, statistical analysis results, and risk estimates. Even though some statistical analysis methods are available off the shelf'' for use in ER, these problems require the development of additional statistical tools, as discussed in this paper. 29 refs.

  17. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the environmental restoration program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the impact of occupational safety and health (OSH) issues on the environmental restoration process at US Department of Energy sites. PNL selected three remediation projects to study: (1) the 618-9 Burial Ground Expedited Removal Action at the Hanford Site, (2) the Chemical Consolidation Interim Response Action at the Weldon Spring Site, (3) and the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Removal Action and VOC-Arid Integration Demonstration at the Hanford Site. The first two case studies involve sites where a remediation activity has been complete. The third case study involves a remediation activity in its early stages of development. This study identifies OSH issues related to actual cleanup, time, documentation, training, and technology development. These issues need to be considered by DOE before making long-term planning efforts. Section 4.0 of this report describes recommendations for addressing these issues.

  18. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  19. Engaging Children: Research Issues around Participation and Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert; Scott, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore a number of issues arising from the papers in this special issue of "Environmental Education Research." The papers focus on current examples of childhood environment research in the UK together with research reviews from the UK, the US and Australia. In order to provide a framework for considering and…

  20. From Education to Practice: Addressing Opioid Misuse through Healthcare Provider Training: A Special Issue of SAj.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Harding, John Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging. In this issue of the Substance Abuse journal, we examine the science and evidence base of educational interventions and public initiatives addressing opioid use and addiction. These initiatives include naloxone rescue awareness and programs, community-based training initiatives, and system or public health approaches to improve student, trainee, and clinician education/training revolving around opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. We call on stakeholders to fund more research to investigate and implement the proven means to educate undergraduate students, graduate trainees, and clinicians regarding pain and addiction. We also recognize the 2016 peer reviewers of our journal who have performed meritorious, volunteer service to advance the science of addiction.

  1. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  2. Closing the gaps in knowledge, policy and action to address water issues in forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul W.

    1993-10-01

    Water issues on forest lands involve many human elements and needs that are not addressed by advanced physical and biological research and technology. Major gaps in our knowledge of important patterns of climate, soils, and terrain can be filled by relatively basic data collection and monitoring programs. Careful analysis of existing data and field experience also can reveal appropriate directions for management. A focus on problem-solving can direct research more effectively towards the resolution of key issues. Despite their impact, resource policies have widely varying scientific foundations. Policy-makers need sound processes for policy development, including timely technical input that is clear, objective, and related to socio-economic considerations. Resource polices should be consistent and include not only regulation, but also research, education, assistance, and incentives. Knowledge and sound policies still may not produce the desired on-the-ground actions, however, because of variable awareness, understanding, skill, or supervision in the field. Education and training programs are important not only for resource technicians, but also for contractors, operators, and other forest workers. Good planning, communication, and field coordination further insure that problems are avoided and new opportunities for effective actions are identified.

  3. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  4. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality. PMID:20401332

  5. A Framework for Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown-Ice, Rosalyn; Dendinger, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A twelve-question framework for teaching, learning, and assessing environmental issues was created through analysis of environmental textbooks and interviews with professors and researchers who specialize in the environment. Concepts in the framework include: causes, scale, spatial distribution, longevity, consequences, risks, economic…

  6. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  7. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for...and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...requesters April 2014 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

  9. Current Issues in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume VIII. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education (11th, Silver Bay, New York, October 15-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B.; And Others

    Provided in three major sections are selected papers presented at the 1982 Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education. The first part contains four invited addresses on environmental issues and two symposium papers related to the Global 2000 Report to the President. Topics of addresses focus on education/citizen…

  10. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

  11. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  12. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  13. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE`s Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE`s environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE`s ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE`s environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites.

  14. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shih-Yew; Napier, Bruce A.

    2016-02-18

    The Program Area Committee 5 (PAC 5) of the National Council on Radiation protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The committee completed a number of reports in the subject areas, and specifically the most recent NCRP Report 175 (Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents). Historically PAC 5 addressed the emerging issues of the nation that pertain to radioactivity or radiation in the environment, or the radioactive waste issues due either to the natural origins or to the manmade activities

  3. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  4. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  5. Main issues addressed in the 2014-2015 revisions to the OECD Genetic Toxicology Test Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thybaud, Veronique; Lorge, Elisabeth; Levy, Dan D; van Benthem, Jan; Douglas, George R; Marchetti, Francesco; Moore, Martha M; Schoeny, Rita

    2017-03-07

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently revised the test guidelines (TGs) for genetic toxicology. This article describes the main issues addressed during the revision process, and the new and consistent recommendations made in the revised TGs for: (1) demonstration of laboratory proficiency; (2) generation and use of robust historical control data; (3) improvement of the statistical power of the tests; (4) selection of top concentration for in vitro assays; (5) consistent data interpretation and determination of whether the result is clearly positive, clearly negative or needs closer consideration; and, (6) consideration of 3R's for in vivo assay design. The revision process resulted in improved consistency among OECD TGs (including the newly developed ones) and more comprehensive recommendations for the conduct and the interpretation of the assays. Altogether, the recommendations made during the revision process should improve the efficiency, by which the data are generated, and the quality and reliability of test results. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c–statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy are assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations. PMID:26756274

  7. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  8. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  9. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  10. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ. PMID:27809294

  11. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

    1995-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  12. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  13. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  14. Environmental Issues Conflict Unit. Teacher's Guide and Student Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Richard A.; Borad, Bruce

    The two separate manuals focus on environmental issues of interest to secondary students. An introductory unit deals with basic ecology and is followed by another unit that explores man's ethic toward the use of environment. Emphasis is upon two major ecological conflicts: one over the use of a wilderness area, and the other over the use of living…

  15. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  16. Media Cartoons: Effects on Issue Resolution in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…

  17. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  18. Children's Literature and Environmental Issues: Heart over Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Rebecca; Monhardt, Leigh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project conducted by a classroom teacher to examine the effects of children's literature on students' existing attitudes and beliefs toward environmental issues. Outlines instructional procedures used in a unit for sixth grade science students who reexamined their beliefs about endangered species. Describes assessment procedures and…

  19. Experience This! The Experiential Approach to Teaching Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloof, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Experiential education has been promoted by John Dewey and Paulo Freire since the first half of the twentieth century. Freire called the type of teaching where students are passive "banking education." In this first person account I describe my shift from teaching environmental issues in the traditional style to teaching in an experiential style.…

  20. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  1. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  2. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  3. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  4. Impact of Environmental Issues on the High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of environmental issues on the design and operation of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This proposal for a new generation commercial supersonic transport is being pursued by NASA and its US industry partners in the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program. A second related paper describes the overall HSR Program, including a history of supersonic transport development that led to the present program, and a brief outline of the structure of the two-phase program and its management structure. The specific objectives are to address the four major barrier environmental issues and show their impact on the design of the airplane and potentially, its mode of operation. A brief historical perspective shows how HSR Phase I addressed these environmental topics and, with the successful completion of that program, led to the successful advocacy for the Phase II effort that followed. The Phase II program elements were discussed in the earlier paper and addressed technology programs to enhance the economic viability of the HSCT. Since many of the regulations that may effect the certification and operation of the HSCT are either not in place or well documented, a brief treatise is provided to address the status of the rules and the potential impact on the viability of the HSCT.

  5. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  6. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  7. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  8. International environmental issues and requirements for new power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Maltby, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation was to discuss the emerging role of financial entities in determining environmental requirements for international power projects. The paper outlines the following: emerging conditions; examples of announced privatization energy projects by country; types of government and international financial entity sources; problems for IPPs; similarity and differences between the World Bank and the USEPA; comparison of the international standards and regulations for power plants; recent trends/issues involving international power project approval; and recommendations for understanding/expediting the financial entities` environmental approval process and how to expedite this process.

  9. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  10. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  11. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue…

  12. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  13. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  14. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building Demolition at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    DATE APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building...prepared. This analysis fulfills the requirements ofNEPA and the CEQ Regulations. Date Signature on f ile, Signed 12 April 2010 MICHAELS. DUVALL...after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004

  15. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  16. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  17. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  18. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  19. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  20. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  1. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  2. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  3. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  4. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  5. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  6. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  7. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed. PMID:8793340

  8. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  9. Rural Special Education Curriculum Issues: Competency-Based Curriculum Addressing Graduation and Grading Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Norlis

    The paper introduces issues regarding graduation of handicapped students. Modifications to graduation requirements include course substitutions; curricular, method, evaluation or materials modification; and additional time allotted for completion of the degree requirements. Requirements for graduation from Show Low High School are listed under the…

  10. Contemporary Issues on Campuses: Today's Activities Professionals Must Address Everything from AIDS Education to Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopes, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Some approaches to dealing with contemporary issues on campus include Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome awareness--safe sex parties; crime prevention--students helping students, legislation, workshops and conferences; alcohol awareness--designated driver program and starting a nonalcoholic bar; cults on campus; sexual assault--"Hours Til…

  11. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  12. School-Based Programs Addressing Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Youth Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Homosexual adolescents are at risk within schools for many health problems. Hostile school environments can often exacerbate their problems. This article summarizes research on issues related to youth sexual orientation, noting controversies surrounding school involvement in the United States and describing programs instituted by school…

  13. The Spiritual Dimension of Education--Addressing Issues of Identity and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In a shrinking world where events across the globe become relevant for the lives of masses of people regardless of the distances that divide them, some serious issues have arisen which have particular significance for education policies and practice. Too many children are growing up against a backdrop of polarised views and attitudes which is a…

  14. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  15. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  16. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  17. A Critical Look at Physical Education and What Must Be Done to Address Obesity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pennington, Todd; Zanandrea, Maria; Wilkinson, Carol; Hager, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Historically, physical education (PE) has been designed to do one thing--teach sport skills. However, it is now being asked to deal with lifestyle issues such as obesity and inactivity. Since the target and purposes of PE have changed, a fundamental shift in the way it is delivered is essential to its survival. This article highlights some…

  18. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  19. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  20. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-06-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community.

  1. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  2. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  3. 30 CFR 280.31 - Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.31 Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues? (a... submission for approval. (b) In cases where an environmental assessment is to be prepared, the Director...

  4. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  5. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    It is now commonly understood that much of the worldwide burden of environmental ill health falls disproportionately on poorer peoples [1,2]. There is also substantial evidence that much environmental damage internationally is the result of the actions of richer nations or richer groups within nations—with impacts on poorer nations and poorer groups within nations [1,3,4]. It is becoming clear also that poorer peoples internationally experience multiple environmental harms, and that these may have a cumulative effect. The world is becoming more urbanized, and cities are becoming the locus for many of the local issues of environmental damage and environmental harm [4,5]. But cities are also responsible for substantial international environmental damage: for example, it is increasingly evident that cities are one of the main generators of climate change, and that the actions of people in cities in the rich world are deeply linked to the well-being of the overall ecosystem and of people worldwide. Environmental justice is a concept that links the environmental health science documenting these harms, to debates around rights, justice and equity. It fundamentally deals with the distribution of environmental goods and harms—and looks at who bears those harms and who is responsible for creating those harms, in both a practical sense but also in terms of policy decisions. It is a radical environmental health movement that has evolved from civil society groups, angered at what they perceive as the `unjust' distribution of environmental resources for health and, conversely the `unjust' distribution of environmental harms. The movement now includes a collaboration of non-governmental organizations with environmental scientists, public health professionals, and lawyers, all working on the issue of the distributions of environmental harms and the rights of everyone to a healthy environment. This special issue is both timely and important. Environmental justice is moving

  6. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  7. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  8. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  10. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  11. Environmental issues in dentistry--mercury. FDI Commission.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Arenholt-Bindslev, D; Schmalz, G; Halbach, S; Berendsen, H

    1997-04-01

    One of the consequences of placing amalgam restorations is that mercury is required for the trituration process. In turn, this raises the issue of the possible environmental impact of mercury. This report considers ways in which any impact can be modified and reduced by careful attention to mercury usage and hygiene in the dental practice, the use of filters and separators in waste water pipes and the appropriate disposal of waste contaminated with amalgam. The total amount of mercury discharged into the environment varies considerably in different parts of the world due to both natural and human activities. The extent to which dentistry adds to this total also varies according to local circumstances and requirements. Recommendations are given for further development of ways to reduce mercury discharge and for further research into the environmental impact of the metal.

  12. Environmental durability issues for solar power systems in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.K. de; Banks, B.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  13. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  14. The Impact of Socioscientific Issues Based Curriculum Involving Environmental Outdoor Education for Fourth Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Karey J.

    There is a divide between what students are being taught within the science classroom and what they experience out in the real world. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues embedded curriculum and outcome variables addressing environmental attitude and knowledge, oral and written argumentation and critical thinking skills. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine both within and between class differences as well as individual differences between the beginning and end of a semester of elementary school. Results indicated that socioscientific issues assist students in developing their critical thinking skills while also providing students the opportunity to be exposed to and participate in local and global environmental issues influencing the community at large. Statistical significance was found between groups in regards to attitude toward the environment, the qualitative interviews did indicate that some students provided more advanced argumentation skills by articulating alternate viewpoints on controversial environmental topics. Theoretical implications regarding the use of socioscientific issues in the classroom are presented.

  15. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: (a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, (b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, (c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors.

  17. Advocacy to action: addressing coordinated school health program issues with school boards.

    PubMed

    Wiley, David C; Howard-Barr, Elissa M

    2005-01-01

    As the need for Coordinated School Health Programs (CSHP) increases, so does recognition of the importance for advocating with local school boards for their support. Identifying the diversified make up of school board members and implementing effective strategies to advocate for coordinated school health can help facilitate the successful inclusion of such a program. With increasing emphasis placed on standardized testing and the "basic" curriculum, school board members need to become aware of specific benefits a CSHP can provide their district. With the relationship between health status and academic achievement confirmed in scientific research, school boards may begin paying more attention to providing high-quality health services and health instruction for students. This article presents items to consider and steps to take before, during, and after addressing a local school board for their support in implementing a CSHP.

  18. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  19. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  20. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  1. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  2. A set of scientific issues being considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding pollinator risk assessment framework.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 11-14, 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the Office of Pesticides Program’s (OPP) proposed “Pollinator Risk Assessment Framework”. Several sources have reporte...

  3. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  4. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  5. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  6. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  7. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  8. Addressing practical issues related to nursing care for international visitors to Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Niiya, Kiyoka; Okayasu, Masako

    2014-04-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  9. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    PubMed Central

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development. We propose that limits on research with SHEEFs be based as directly as possible on the generation of such features, and recommend that the research and bioethics communities lead a wide-ranging inquiry aimed at mapping out solutions to the ethical problems raised by them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20674.001

  10. Power and environmental assessment: Introduction to the special issue

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim

    2013-02-15

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently with the issue of power. The introduction represents a ground-clearing exercise intended to clarify the terms of the debate about power in the EA field, and to contribute to the development of a research agenda. Research trends in the field are outlined, and potential analytic and normative lines of inquiry are identified. The contributions to this special issue represent contrasting conceptual and methodological approaches that navigate the analytical and normative terrain of power dynamics in EA. Together, they demonstrate that power cannot be removed from EA policy or practices, and is a necessary research focus for the development of the field. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduces the themed section on power Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides an overview of the papers in the themed section Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identifies research trends and directions for future research.

  11. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  12. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  13. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  14. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  15. Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Crona, Beatrice I

    2017-01-15

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013), but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  16. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  17. Difficult to measure constructs: conceptual and methodological issues concerning participation and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2009-11-01

    For rehabilitation and disability research, participation and environment are 2 crucial constructs that have been placed center stage by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). However, neither construct is adequately conceptualized by the ICF, and both are difficult to measure. This article addresses conceptual and methodologic issues related to these ICF constructs, and recommends an improved distinction between activities and participation, as well as elaboration of environment. A division of the combined ICF categories for activity and participation into 2 separate taxonomies is proposed to guide future research. The issue of measuring participation from objective and subjective perspectives is examined, and maintaining these distinct conceptual domains in the measurement of participation is recommended. The methodological issues contributing to the difficulty of measuring participation are discussed, including potential dimensionality, alternative metrics, and the appropriateness of various measurement models. For environment, the need for theory to focus research on those aspects of the environment that interact with individuals' impairments and functional limitations in affecting activities and participation is discussed, along with potential measurement models for those aspects. The limitations resulting from reliance on research participants as reporters on their own environment are set forth. Addressing these conceptual and methodological issues is required before the measurement of participation and environmental factors can advance and these important constructs can be used more effectively in rehabilitation and disability observational research and trials.

  18. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  19. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  20. Urban malaria control situation and environmental issues, Madras City, India.

    PubMed

    Hyma, B; Ramesh, A; Chakrapani, K P

    1983-01-01

    Madras was one of 22 urban places in India where centrally sponsored urban malaria control schemes were introduced in 1971-1972. Yet since 1970, malaria cases have actually registered a significant increase in Madras. This paper deals with some critical environmental issues facing malaria control schemes. The overall spatial trends and patterns of malaria incidence are illustrated through maps for the years 1975-1981. Areas of high incidence are shown in the northern part of the city which is also traditionally an endemic area. The City Corporation has identified 17 high risk divisions accounting for 75% of the total registered cases in the city. High risk areas were found to be related to environmentally deteriorating areas such as high density, older, residential areas, slums and squatter settled areas along stretches of two rivers and a canal which traverse the city, and the low-lying poorly drained areas scattered over many parts of the city. The typical breeding grounds and sources of major vectors (anophelines and culicines) are presented. A relationship exists between the density of breeding sources (of Anopheles stephensi), such as private and public wells (in use and in disuse), overhead tanks and cisterns, and malaria cases. Field observations were made in detail in four selected high risk areas. Each area presents different environmental, epidemiological and human (social) factors in understanding malaria resurgence situation and demand different types of control measures. The problems of implementation of urban control schemes are found to be political, administrative, economic, social as well as environmental in nature. The persistence of malaria problems in the city has been attributed to slackening of malaria eradication measures, rapid urban growth and deteriorating environmental conditions with sewage, drainage and sanitation programmes lagging far behind the plans. The advantages and drawbacks of various antimalaria (mostly larval) measures in

  1. Partnering To Build a Quality Workforce: Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges. A Report of the National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges (Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra; Senew, Mike

    The National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges addressed critical issues relevant to environmental technology education in the United States. Forty-three participants from across the country who attended the 1995 Forum represented business and industry, two-year colleges, four-year colleges and…

  2. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige

    2002-07-01

    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  3. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T.

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  4. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  5. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  6. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework.

  7. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  8. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  9. Moving past framing climate change as an environmental issue (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Continuing to frame climate change as an environmental issue can limit understanding by decision-makers and the public of the magnitude of the challenges faced by human and natural systems as the climate continues to change. Environmental issues are typically researched and managed using methods and tools that have been effective in dealing with other environmental concerns, from tropospheric ozone to lead exposure. Risk assessment is a commonly used approach to understanding the risk(s) posed by an agent, with four basic steps: (1) hazard identification; (2) dose-response assessment; (3) exposure assessment; and (4) risk characterization. This framing does not fully capture the complex interrelationships and feedbacks that often characterize the risks of climate change; understanding these can lead to better-informed decisions. Challenges with using traditional risk assessment to understand the health risks of climate change, for example, include the 'exposure' can range from increases in the mean and/or variance of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables, to ocean acidification. Each is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, with many associations indirect and/or nonlinear. Further, uncertainty about the magnitude, timing, and nature of changes in the climate system results in a need to estimate the potential impacts under a range of possible scenarios. In addition, most climate-sensitive health outcomes have multiple, contributing causes that may be interrelated, making it difficult to single out the influence of climate change against a backdrop of other risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, that also will change over time. In short, the primary assumption underlying traditional risk assessment -- that a defined exposure to a specific agent causes an adverse health outcome to identifiable exposed populations -- does not apply to climate change. Climate literacy can be improved by moving the framing from a relatively linear

  10. Incorporating Environmental and Sustainability Issues into the Curriculum in a Mineralogy Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    A traditional curriculum in mineralogy addresses classic subject matter such as crystal chemistry, crystallography, systematic mineralogy and optical mineralogy. This is entirely reasonable and appropriate, as these time-honored aspects of mineralogy are fundamental to students' understanding of Earth Materials; they are also important building blocks for an understanding of other geologic disciplines such as petrology, structural geology, and sedimentology. Due to the impressive breadth and amount of subject material that is covered in most mineralogy courses, time constraints do not allow instructors to branch out into more contemporary subjects. In our increasingly technologically-advanced (and crowded) modern society, issues pertaining to the environment and sustainability are at the forefront of scientific thought. In many introductory physical geoscience courses these issues are addressed and incorporated into the curriculum, thereby giving students valuable scientific background in modern environmental issues. However, in upper division classes (such as mineralogy) there is little time or motivation for instructors to add new content or to connect the course content with current environmental or societal concerns, even though there may be significant and meaningful opportunities to do so throughout the quarter or semester. Consequently, many students' understanding of environmental issues remains at an introductory or cursory level. In my mineralogy class at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), I teach a traditional curriculum with a modern approach that uses dynamic lectures, makes use of multimedia, and also utilizes current best teaching practices. As a department, we have recently made an increased effort to educate our students about environmental issues. Accordingly, I have integrated environmental and sustainability topics (when they are pertinent) into the curriculum as a regular component of the course. These topics typically relate to how

  11. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  12. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  13. China Report: Science and Technology, No. 209. China Addresses Environmental Issues -- 1/83

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-12

    determines suc- cess or failure of a plan. The steps in planning can be divided into two stages , preparation and planning. The preparation stage ...Noise Control Legislation Requirements Surveyed (Wen Bobing; FAXUE YANJIU, No 6, 1982)........... 21 System of Two -Fines in...with constant improvement in economic results, it is necessary to adopt the two phase strategic plan of laying a good foundation in the first 10 years

  14. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  15. Global Issues and Environmental Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    An action of an individual or a societal action that has an impact on other societies constitutes a "global issue." Global climate change, airborne toxins, ozone depletion, and solid waste management are a few of the global issues concerning the environment. This digest discusses methods by which students learn about global issues and…

  16. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  17. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  18. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  19. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  20. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  1. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  2. Satellite Imaging in the Study of Pennsylvania's Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This document focuses on using satellite images from space in the classroom. There are two types of environmental satellites routinely broadcasting: (1) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and (2) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Imaging and visualization techniques provide students with a better…

  3. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  4. The Effect of Using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach in Teaching Environmental Issues on Improving the Students' Ability of Making Appropriate Decisions towards These Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zo'bi, Abdallah Salim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nature of students' decisions patterns towards environmental issues and the possibility to improve these decisions during teaching process using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach. And to achieve this, the researcher prepared and developed tools of the study represented by a test of open questions focused on…

  5. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  6. Preface--Environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the essential commodity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the rapidly increasing world population (Edwards, 1997). In 2003, petroleum was the source for 62.1% of global energy, and projections by energy information administration (EIA) indicate that oil and gas will continue their dominance, supplying 59.5% of global energy in 2030 (EIA, 2007). Unfortunately petroleum and coal consumption carry major detrimental environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, including air pollution, global climate change and oil spills. This special volume of Applied Geochemistry, devoted to “Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Exploration and Production”, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global climate change are issues related primarily to the burning of petroleum and coal, and major oil spills generally occur during ocean transport, such as the Exxon Valdez 1989 spill of 42,000 m3 (260,000 bbl) oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  7. Proceedings of the Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Technologies Technical and Environmental Issues Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-01

    Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of non-polluting alternatives to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. Two emerging categories of renewable energy technologies, hydrokinetic and wave energy conversion devices, offer ways to tap the energy of moving water without impoundment (dams) or diversion required by many conventional hydroelectric facilities. These technologies include devices designed for deployment in natural streams, tidal estuaries, ocean currents, and constructed waterways, as well as devices designed to capture the energy of ocean waves. On October 26-28, 2005, 54 representatives from government, non-governmental organizations, and private business met to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave technology devices, their stages of development, and the projected cost to bring each to market; (2) identify where these technologies can best operate; (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures; (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. These workshop proceedings include detailed summaries of the 24 presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  8. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  9. Final Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction of a New Civil Engineering Workshop at Bellows Air Force Station, O’ahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai?i 96795-1903. Requests can also be made by addressing...this document should be directed to Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai‘i 96795-1903...be conducted to rul611 Sect. 106, and CZMA requirements. 5. Please provide comments directly to Mr. Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Civil

  10. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P.…

  11. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  12. Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Third Edition. Taking Sides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Theodore D., Ed.

    The student who has thoughtfully examined opposing viewpoints on an issue should perceive what other position can be occupied on that issue and should learn to carefully consider antithetical viewpoints. The development of this critical approach is the purpose of this book. An introduction, postscript summary, and pro and con articles or published…

  13. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  14. NAFTA, public health, and environmental issues in border states

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, A.

    1994-12-31

    During the last decade, the ties that draw countries together both economically and environmentally have become increasingly apparent. This was clearly exposed in the recent debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and in recent decisions interpreting the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Environmental aspects of other international treaties have also come under close scrutiny. This article examines the effects NAFTA and its companion, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, may have on public health and environmental regulation in border states.

  15. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  17. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  18. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-08-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  19. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Ham, Kenneth; Kszos, Lynn A; Loar, James M; McCracken, Kitty; Morris, Gail Wright; Peterson, Mark J; Ryon, Michael G; Smith, John G; Southworth, George R; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  20. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  1. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  2. A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  3. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  4. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  6. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2015-12-15

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  7. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  8. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-01-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  9. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-11-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  10. Managing environmental issues during international electric power project development

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.W.

    1998-07-01

    Responsible international project developers most often view environmental matters with quite mixed emotions. Those with whom Dynalytics has worked would certainly never contemplate jeopardizing the health of anyone in the world. But while they want their projects realized, and are willing to implement reasonable requirements, they are often asked to do more than is appropriate, more than is technologically possible, and more than is financially possible. The paper discusses the following: who is in charge of environmental matters; whose environmental standards apply; the role of technology; accelerating timetables and reducing costs; documentation and applications; and post-construction requirements.

  11. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  12. The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordon, Robert M.

    Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination must…

  13. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  14. Environmental issues in the post-communist Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, N; Cook, H F; Woodgate, G

    2001-09-01

    The Ukraine, which gained independence in 1991, faces serious problems related to environmental degradation. Environmental problems contribute to a deterioration in human health and a negative trend in population growth. Both form part of a raft of socio-economic problems encountered during the country's transition to a free market economy. The most serious problems are found in cities and areas near the Black and Azov Seas, the Dnipro river basin and in the Polissya region. This paper provides an overview of the situation. Social and managerial implications of environmental management are considered alongside associated environmental and human health problems in the country. It is concluded that a desired change in the mindset of policy makers and, indeed, the population at large, is required in parallel with legal and technocratic instruments, while real improvements can only be achieved through economic development, which can be facilitated by Western assistance.

  15. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  16. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  17. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  18. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  19. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  20. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims. 536.35 Section 536.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  1. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  2. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  3. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  4. Addressing Impairment and Its Relationship to Professional Boundary Issues: A Response to Forrest, Elman, Gizara, and Vacha-Haase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the Forrest et al article on counselor trainee impairment. Expands on several issues discussed in the article including evaluation and accreditation issues. Discusses professional boundaries as having relevance to anticipating and/or minimizing impairment. (Author/MKA)

  5. Report: EPA Has Not Implemented Adequate Management Procedures to Address Potential Fraudulent Environmental Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #14-P-0270, May 29, 2014. The EPA is not ensuring that fraudulent laboratory environmental data is being communicated to appropriate program offices and data users, reviewed, and analyzed for its impact on human health and the environment.

  6. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental...

  8. The Garbage Crisis: Environmental Issues for Adult ESL Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Helen

    This module on the garbage crisis is for intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language. It seeks to inform learners about this issue and to give them an opportunity to direct their concerns about the environment into positive action. The guide uses the problem-posing methodology of Paulo Freire. This methodology has three…

  9. Cognitive Illusions as Hindrances to Learning Complex Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of short-term interventions on preservice elementary teachers' understanding of the topic of ozone depletion and whether complex issues can be dealt with successfully through short-term intervention. Reports that preservice teachers' understanding improved through a short-term intervention using a mix of…

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    nanotechnolgies and nanosciences report has been issued by the Innovation Society Ltd., an independent consulting company, based at the Technology Centre of...foodproductiondaily.com/news/ng.asp?n=67935- nanotechnolgy -fsa-novel Germany Begins Risk Survey on Nanotechnology http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news

  11. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  12. Land use and transportation issues in environmental control.

    PubMed Central

    Liff, S D; Bellomo, S J

    1975-01-01

    Analyses have been made of the effects of environmental controls and planning at regional, subarea, and project levels. The results obtained at the regional level are reviewed for a proposed highway development around Baltimore, Md. The findings for both short-term and long-term effects of alternative transport policies are summarized in respect of population and employment, economic indicators, traffic and travel, air quality, water and solid waste, noise, and environmentally sensitive areas. Problems at subarea and project levels are briefly considered. PMID:1157795

  13. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  15. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    applicability to hazardous material detection in a variety of situations. Security organizations should also prepare for criminal and terrorist...Related Security Implications: These developments, if/when they reach a level of practical applicability , could make a definite contribution to...reducing the environmental footprint of installation buildings and/or provide power to remote or mobile devices. Their progress should be monitored

  17. METHANOL: THE CURRENT STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol has been a topic of interest both as an environmental pollutant and as a fuel. The Clean Air Act (CAA) includes methanol in a list of 189 toxic air pollutants that the U.S. Congress identified for special consideration in the 1990 CAA Amendments. In addition, growing i...

  18. Cognitive Illusions as Hindrances to Learning Complex Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred; Pugh, Ava

    This study examined the effectiveness of an environmental science course for teaching college students about the ozone depletion problem. In the spring of 2000, students in the course, "Life in the Environment," were pretested and posttested with a 38-item questionnaire consisting of 3 sets of Likert-style statements plus multiple choice…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry over the period of 2004-2005. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2006 are also included. Analytical Chemistry's current policy is to limit reviews to include 100-200 s...

  20. Energy Crisis: Environmental Issue Exacerbates Power Supply Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, Philip M.

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes problems of providing sufficient electrical power in terms of inefficiency of industry and of the conflict between need for power and need for environmental quality. Suggests ways of slowing the growth in demand, and indicates needed research into energy production. (EB)

  1. Issues in assessing environmental exposures to manufactured nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Loux, Nicholas T; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M

    2011-09-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10(-9) m to 10(-7) m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10(-9) m to 10(-6) m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10(-7) m to 10(-6) m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments.

  2. Issues in Assessing Environmental Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Loux, Nicholas T.; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10−9 m to 10−6 m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10−7 m to 10−6 m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments. PMID:22016703

  3. The importance of defining technical issues in interagency environmental negotiations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, B.L.; Burkardt, N.; Taylor, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the role of technical clarity in successful multi-party negotiations. Our investigations involved in-depth interviews with individuals who were the principal participants in six consultations conducted under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) hydroelectric power project licensing process. Technical clarity was especially important in the cases we studied because they concerned questions that were science-based. The principal issues in the six cases were fish passage, instream flow for fish habitat, and entrainment of fish in hydropower turbines. We concluded that technical clarity was one of the most critical elements in these conflicts. The most successful negotiations were marked by a shared understanding of technical issues among the parties.

  4. Environmental Cleanup Issues Associated with Closing Military Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    34 Superfund " site--about 12 years to progress from identification to completed L;\\.v-iKu,\\;l\\iEi~TAi CLEANUP ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH CLOSING MILITARY...standards are stiffened, it will probably cost more to meet them. If the experience of remediation at Superfund sites is a reliable guide, costs could...grow significantly above the initial baseline estimates. At the lower end of the range of estimates, a General Accounting Office study of Superfund

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Cooperation in Africa to Counter Wildlife Trafficking……………………7 6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology…...7...6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues...Commission on Bioethics calls for enhanced federal oversight of synthetic biology http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=19449.php New Directions -The

  6. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  7. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  8. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment and Dredged Material Management: Issues and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Co-Chair Jeff Ward Peter Seligman John Wakeman Mark Siipola Chapter 2 Exposure Assessment Workgroup Summary 13 Effects Assessment Workgroup...Doug Nester Dick Peddicord - Co-Chair Mark Reiss Brian Ross Linda Schmeising Patrick Sheehan Leanne Stahl Donna Vorhees - Co-Chair Bill Wild...STATION ES-Q 3909 HALLS FERRY ROAD VICKSBURG MS 39180-6199 601-634-3874/3129 ruizc@exl .wes.army.mil LINDA SCHMEISING PTI ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

  10. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due to Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental chemical analysis methods are developed and used to chemically fingerprint new and modified External Tank materials made necessary by changing environmental requirements. Chemical fingerprinting can detect and diagnose variations in material composition. To chemically characterize each material, fingerprint methods are selected from an extensive toolbox based on the material's chemistry and the ability of the specific methods to detect the material's critical ingredients. Fingerprint methods have been developed for a variety of materials including Thermal Protection System foams, adhesives, primers, and composites.

  11. Environmental microbiology as a mosaic of explored ecosystems and issues.

    PubMed

    Faure, Denis; Bonin, Patricia; Duran, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Microbes are phylogenetically (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses) and functionally diverse. They colonize highly varied environments and rapidly respond to and evolve as a response to local and global environmental changes, including those induced by pollutants resulting from human activities. This review exemplifies the Microbial Ecology EC2CO consortium's efforts to explore the biology, ecology, diversity, and roles of microbes in aquatic and continental ecosystems.

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    concentration phosphate deposits are laced with radioactive elements like uranium and thorium , or heavy metals like cadmium, environmental concerns might...New measures emerge for measuring carbon emissions, both corporate and municipal http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/business- brains /new...Production to End of Life o Nanotechnology Regulation: Policies Proposed by Three Organizations for the Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  13. Atlanta Conference Highlights How College Students are Helping Underserved Communities Address Environmental Problems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 office in Atlanta, Ga., hosted a day-long conference about the College/Underserved Community Partnership Program (CUPP) at the Sam Nunn Federal Center. EPA's Senior Advisor to

  14. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Regulations. Date cc: Attachment ROBERT L. MANESS, Colonel, USAF Commander FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ADDRESSING CONSTRUCTION...effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004. The USEPA

  15. Aluminium recycling and environmental issues of salt slag treatment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanping; Reuter, Markus A; Boin, Udo

    2005-01-01

    Environmental friendly recycling is the trend toward total recycling of aluminium metal. In the secondary aluminium industry, due to the complexity of compositions and contaminants in the various types of aluminium scraps, an understanding of the behavior of different scraps during melting is crucial in the recycling process. Salt slags are the byproducts of the secondary aluminium industry, which should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This article provides qualitative assessment on 10 different commercial aluminium scraps for their relative recyclability via well-designed and controlled laboratory experiments. It confirms that more nonmetallic contaminants, smaller size, and higher ratio of surface area to body volume generally lead to a lower metal recovery. Recycling the scraps with lower recyclability normally generates more salt slags. High slag viscosity leads to more fine aluminum metal entrapped in the salt slag and thus increases the load of salt slag recycling. It was found that viscosity of the salt flux is increased with the amount of entrapped nonmetallic components, which affect the settling of heavier materials. In addition, the slag samples from the melting tests were leached and analyzed to evaluate the behavior of carbon containing scrap. The elevated carbon content in the scrap resulted in more carbide formation in salt slags and thus more methane generation in salt slag recycling with a higher environmental impact.

  16. Environmental Assessment For the Proposed Construction of A Hazardous Materials Issue Facility and a Hazardous Wastes Storage Facility at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Center for Environmental...1-3 1-2 Scheduled Facility Projects at BAFB .................................................................. 1-4 2-1 Summary Comparison...however, time lines are subject to change and projects may be constructed at earlier or later dates. The hazardous materials issue facility and

  17. Environment. Development. How Can Societies Develop To Meet Basic Needs and Nurture Economies without Undermining the Natural Resources and Environmental Integrity on Which They Depend? Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachergram, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for the senior secondary level, these activities and articles explore critical issues between the environment and development. Two causes of environmental degradation are wasteful affluence and desperate poverty. The problems with development and the environment addresses Canadian and global situations. An article presents three…

  18. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the Environmental Restoration Program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.C.

    1994-08-01

    Since the 1940s, US Department of Energy (DOE) sites have been used for nuclear materials processing and production, warhead testing, and weapons research and development. These activities have resulted in extensive environmental contamination. DOE has established a goal to cleanup and restore the groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water at its facilities across the nation. To achieve this goal, many workers will be needed to conduct the cleanup. These workers will need training and will be required to follow occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations and guidelines. Compliance with the OSH regulations and guidelines will have an anomous influence on the schedule, money, and technology needed for environmental restoration. Therefore, one area that must be considered in the early stages of long-term planning is the impact of OSH issues on the environmental restoration process. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigate the impact of these issues on the environmental restoration process.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  20. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    PubMed

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  1. Environmental and safety issues of the fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety concerns inherent in the development of fusion energy, and the current Department of Energy programs seeking to: (1) develop safe and reliable techniques for tritium control; (2) reduce the quantity of activation products produced; and (3) provide designs to limit the potential for accidents that could result in release of radioactive materials. Because of the inherent safety features of fusion and the early start that has been made in safety problem recognition and solution, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial power.

  2. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  3. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  4. Learning in and about rural places: Connections and tensions between students' everyday experiences and environmental quality issues in their community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.

    2017-03-01

    Guided by sociocultural perspectives on the importance of place as a resource for learning, we investigated 14- and 15-year old students' understandings of their community and water quality during a school-based watershed unit. Methods included a theory-driven thematic analysis of field notes and video transcripts from four biology classrooms, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 67 pairs of matched pre- and post-intervention mindmaps, and a content analysis of 73 student reflections. As they learned about water quality, learners recognized the relevance of the watershed's health to the health of their community. Students acknowledged the impacts of local economically driven activities (e.g., natural gas wells, application of agrichemicals) and leisure activities (e.g., boating, fishing) on the watershed's environmental health. As students learned in and about their watershed, they experienced both connections and tensions between their everyday experiences and the environmental problems in their community. The students suggested individual sustainability actions needed to address water quality issues; however, the students struggled to understand how to act collectively. Implications of rural experiences as assets to future environmental sciences learning are discussed as well as the implications of educational experiences that do not include an advocacy component when students uncover environmental health issues. We suggest further consideration is needed on how to help young people develop action-oriented science knowledge, not just inert knowledge of environmental problems, during place-based education units.

  5. Learning in and about rural places: Connections and tensions between students' everyday experiences and environmental quality issues in their community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.

    2016-09-01

    Guided by sociocultural perspectives on the importance of place as a resource for learning, we investigated 14- and 15-year old students' understandings of their community and water quality during a school-based watershed unit. Methods included a theory-driven thematic analysis of field notes and video transcripts from four biology classrooms, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 67 pairs of matched pre- and post-intervention mindmaps, and a content analysis of 73 student reflections. As they learned about water quality, learners recognized the relevance of the watershed's health to the health of their community. Students acknowledged the impacts of local economically driven activities (e.g., natural gas wells, application of agrichemicals) and leisure activities (e.g., boating, fishing) on the watershed's environmental health. As students learned in and about their watershed, they experienced both connections and tensions between their everyday experiences and the environmental problems in their community. The students suggested individual sustainability actions needed to address water quality issues; however, the students struggled to understand how to act collectively. Implications of rural experiences as assets to future environmental sciences learning are discussed as well as the implications of educational experiences that do not include an advocacy component when students uncover environmental health issues. We suggest further consideration is needed on how to help young people develop action-oriented science knowledge, not just inert knowledge of environmental problems, during place-based education units.

  6. Environmental Policy Issues Affecting the United States Army in Its Overseas Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    of Ministers of the European Economic Community (EEC) approved Council Directive 85/337/EEC on "The assessment of the effects of certain public and...in regulatory requirements in Europe and the growing political and public concern K’ . about environmental issues generally. 1 Do). . The meeting was...followed by presentations and discussion on NEPA, the EEC Directive and environmental trends in Europe. Finally, the issues of auditing , baseline data and

  7. Addressing the Highest Risk: Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Elaine E

    2012-06-08

    Report topics: Current status of cleanup; Shift in priorities to address highest risk; Removal of above-ground waste; and Continued focus on protecting water resources. Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff has enabled unprecedented cleanup progress. Progress on TRU campaign is well ahead of plan. To date, have completed 130 shipments vs. 104 planned; shipped 483 cubic meters of above-ground waste (vs. 277 planned); and removed 11,249 PE Ci of material at risk (vs. 9,411 planned).

  8. Battersea Power Station and environmental issues 1929-1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    From inception (1920s) to partial demolition (1980s) London's Battersea Power Station provoked public concern over environmental impacts. Adverse reaction during the early stages concerned siting and the effects of air pollutants on the urban surroundings. Potential air pollution problems resulted in a restrictive 'condition' being inserted in the consent for Battersea which required smoke and sulphur dioxide to be controlled. The 'condition' did not reassure either the public or special interest groups who campaigned against the construction of the station. However plans were too advanced to be halted and the official response focused on ensuring successful implementation of flue gas desulphurization. Though the subsequent effectiveness of emission control during the station's working life is arguable, the building itself rapidly became a popular London landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascination that surrounds technology. Objections to its decommissioning and demolition in the 1980s once again placed Battersea Power Station at the centre of public protest. Reactions to the station illustrate the rapidity with which our perception of environmental threats may change.

  9. Application of clinical laboratory measurements to issues of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rej, R; Silkworth, J B; DeCaprio, A P

    1992-03-13

    Monitoring of biochemical constituents in serum is an important component in revealing potential toxicity in humans and experimental animals due to exposure to a variety of xenobiotic agents. The relative toxicity of pure compounds, usually at large doses, has helped elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and their relative risk. However, most actual cases of environmental exposure present an extensive range of components and the potential for synergistic or inhibitory interactions. In this paper we review two such environmental cases: The Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the transformer fire at the State Office Building in Binghamton, NY. We focus on the clinical laboratory measurements obtained in these studies (including serum glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium and potassium), their usefulness, limitations, and application to such cases. Significant alterations in serum triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase levels were found in guinea pigs due to exposure to dioxins. These two tests were useful in estimating the 'equivalent' concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in complex chemical mixtures.

  10. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

  11. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2004-09-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to rainforests, and from the Arctic to the tropics. Human activities that increase waterborne concentrations of selenium are on the rise and the threat of widespread impacts to aquatic life is greater than ever before. Important sources of selenium contamination in aquatic habitats are often overlooked by environmental biologists and ecological risk assessors due to preoccupation with other, higher priority pollutants, yet selenium may pose the most serious long-term risk to aquatic habitats and fishery resources. Failure to include selenium in the list of constituents measured in contaminant screening/monitoring programs is a major mistake, both from the hazard assessment aspect and from the pollution control aspect. Once selenium contamination begins, a cascade of bioaccumulation events is set into motion which makes meaningful intervention nearly impossible. However, this cascade of events need not happen if adequate foresight and planning are exercised. Early evaluation and action are key. Prudent risk management based on environmentally sound hazard assessment and water quality goals can prevent biological impacts.

  12. Environmental Resource Management Issues in Agronomy: A Lecture/Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Sciences Technology T272 is a course with a laboratory addressing problems in soil and water quality and organic wastes utilization to serve students from associate degree programs in laboratory science and environmental resources management at a 2-year technical college. Goals are to build basic lab skills and understand the role…

  13. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  14. Environmental issues and work: women with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Juliene G; Doiron, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is an acquired condition in which exposure to low levels of chemicals causes symptoms in multiple organ systems. Some 12%-16% of the U.S. population has some level of chemical sensitivity, 80% of whom are women. Attempts to reduce chemical exposures leads to enormous life difficulties at home, school, and workplace. We base our article on an ethnographic study of MCS in the United States and Canada. We describe here themes related to work issues in terms of a general trajectory of becoming sick from work exposures, coping with toxic physical environments and dealing with coworkers and, when unable to continue working, applying for workers' compensation, or disability status, or both.

  15. Expanding scale, increasing risk: population as an environmental issue.

    PubMed

    Engelman, R

    1994-11-01

    Rather than blaming our environmental problems on population growth alone or on dramatic increases in per capita consumption and rather than making dire predictions about the collapse of resources such as food supplies, it should be recognized that population growth puts pressure on the carrying capacity of the planet simply by increasing human activity. The environmental indicators which cause concern about the future include the fact that productivity has been sapped in almost 11% of the earth's surface, that 15.4 million hectares of tropical rain forest disappeared each year during the 1980s, that 1.7 billion people lack access to adequate drinking water, that pollution has depleted the ozone shield and threatens global warming, and that each year 27,000 species become extinct. The deforestation of Easter Island, which occurred as population grew between the 5th or 6th century and 1500 A.D., is an example of an ecosystem destroyed by population growth. When events like this happened in the past, people either colonized other places or survived in smaller numbers. However, today the world is full, and successful migration depends upon the good will of the receiving community (which is usually in short supply). As humanity concentrates in urban areas, emerging diseases will continue to take their toll. Researchers are attempting to develop models and identify mechanisms to contribute to our understanding of the many indirect ways that population affects the environment. Complicating factors include the fact that wealthier nations have a disproportionate (to their population numbers) effect on the environment and the fact that some ecosystems or resource bases are more vulnerable than others. In the meantime, population momentum will assure that population will continue to grow at unprecedented rates before it stabilizes when fertility declines outpace mortality declines. This stabilization is necessary to halt and ultimately reverse environmental degradation. This

  16. Delphi analysis: a technique for identifying and ranking environmental and natural resource policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, J.A.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A Delphi-type survey and a consensus-building workshop were carried out to identify the most significant natural resource issues and problems emerging in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain states. Approximately 107 issues initially were identified through a literature search and an inquiry Delphi round. Delphi round enabled the list to be narrowed to 25 issues. While consensus was found on the top 25 issues as a group, neither the Delphi panel nor the workshop participants agreed on the top five. Specific issues related to water and energy comprised the majority of those identified as most significant. Overall, the Delphi method appears to be a powerful and flexible tool for evaluating emerging environmental issues and problems. The analysis suggests that Delphi findings are quite robust with respect to minor changes in panel composition. Delphi thus appears to be an approach that may find increasing application in environmental policy analysis. 11 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  18. Perchlorate and thyroid function: what are the environmental issues?

    PubMed

    Hershman, Jerome M

    2005-05-01

    Ammonium perchlorate, used in the solid-propellant of rocket engines, has contaminated some water supplies and represents a potential public health hazard. Its toxicity is the result of the inhibition of the sodium iodide symporter resulting in reduced iodide uptake, possibly leading to reduced production of thyroid hormone. The fetus is the most vulnerable subject. Studies of newborn screening for thyroid function have yielded conflicting results and have not measured perchlorate or iodine intake. Based on short-term clinical studies in adults, less than 0.5 mg perchlorate per 70-kg adult will not lower thyroid uptake of radioiodine, while 1.6 mg/kg per day will lower thyroid uptake by 20%. To avoid interference with thyroid function, the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment recommended a public health goal of 6 microg perchlorate per liter of drinking water, but approximately three times that concentration is likely to be safe.

  19. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  20. Computational intelligence in earth sciences and environmental applications: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cherkassky, V; Krasnopolsky, V; Solomatine, D P; Valdes, J

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces a generic theoretical framework for predictive learning, and relates it to data-driven and learning applications in earth and environmental sciences. The issues of data quality, selection of the error function, incorporation of the predictive learning methods into the existing modeling frameworks, expert knowledge, model uncertainty, and other application-domain specific problems are discussed. A brief overview of the papers in the Special Issue is provided, followed by discussion of open issues and directions for future research.

  1. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  2. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.9 Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews...

  3. Environmental Issues in the Media--Students' Perceptions in the Three Nordic-Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keinonen, Tuula; Yli-Panula, Eija; Svens, Maria; Vilkonis, Rytis; Persson, Christel; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2014-01-01

    The media, as a source of information, is supposed to have a significant role in effecting people's environmental knowledge and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find students' perceptions of environmental issues as presented in the media and how students in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden used these media sources in the matters related to…

  4. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  5. Illustrating Environmental Issues by Using the Production-Possibility Frontier: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Nancy; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a new classroom experimental game to illustrate environmental issues by using the production-possibility frontier in an introductory economics course. Waste evolves as a byproduct of the production of widgets. Environmental cleanup is produced by reallocating scarce resources away from the production of the dirty good. In…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  7. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  8. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  9. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  10. Chinese-American headway on some environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Although Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji may have failed to gain entrance for his country into the World Trade Organization during his April visit to the United States, the two countries concluded a series of agreements as part of the Second Session of the 2-year-old U.S.-China Policy Forum on Environment and Development.A memorandum of understanding on a $100 million clean energy program accelerates the export of clean U.S. environmental technologies in the area of energy efficiency renewable energy, and pollution reduction. A statement of intent on the development of a Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Feasibility Study calls for China to develop a study to test the effectiveness of emissions trading in China as a market-based approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. And a Memorandum of Understanding on a natural gas pipeline project, signed by the Enron Corporation and the China National Petroleum Corporation, opens the way to jointly developing a natural gas pipeline to help offer an alternative to fossil fuels.

  11. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A. ); Monahan, R. ); Stacey, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development.

  12. Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Jago-on, Karen Ann Bianet; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujikura, Ryo; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Toru; Zhang, Junyi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Katsuya; Lee, Backjin; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    This paper synthesizes existing information and knowledge on subsurface environments to understand the major cause and effect relationships of subsurface environmental issues by using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response) approach as the framework of analysis. Description is given to the major subsurface environmental issues common among the selected Asian cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei and Tokyo), such as excessive groundwater abstraction, land subsidence and groundwater contamination. The DPSIR framework is used to analyze the issues and problems of subsurface in key stages and suggestions are made for additional indicators to improve our description of the stages of urban development for the future.

  13. Genomics, environmental genomics and the issue of microbial species.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Cohan, F M; Bhaya, D; Heidelberg, J F; Kühl, M; Grossman, A

    2008-02-01

    A microbial species concept is crucial for interpreting the variation detected by genomics and environmental genomics among cultivated microorganisms and within natural microbial populations. Comparative genomic analyses of prokaryotic species as they are presently described and named have led to the provocative idea that prokaryotes may not form species as we think about them for plants and animals. There are good reasons to doubt whether presently recognized prokaryotic species are truly species. To achieve a better understanding of microbial species, we believe it is necessary to (i) re-evaluate traditional approaches in light of evolutionary and ecological theory, (ii) consider that different microbial species may have evolved in different ways and (iii) integrate genomic, metagenomic and genome-wide expression approaches with ecological and evolutionary theory. Here, we outline how we are using genomic methods to (i) identify ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) predicted by theory to be species-like fundamental units of microbial communities, and (ii) test their species-like character through in situ distribution and gene expression studies. By comparing metagenomic sequences obtained from well-studied hot spring cyanobacterial mats with genomic sequences of two cultivated cyanobacterial ecotypes, closely related to predominant native populations, we can conduct in situ population genetics studies that identify putative ecotypes and functional genes that determine the ecotypes' ecological distinctness. If individuals within microbial communities are found to be grouped into ecologically distinct, species-like populations, knowing about such populations should guide us to a better understanding of how genomic variation is linked to community function.

  14. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  15. Race and Racism: The Efforts of Counseling Psychology to Understand and Address the Issues Associated With These Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on race and racism with the underlying hope and expectation that in the near future the terms race and racism will be more accurately understood and, when necessary, more appropriately and selectively addressed by the field of counseling psychology. With respect to the term racism, it is hoped that the efforts of counseling…

  16. Poetry and Prose as Pedagogical Tools for Addressing Difficult Knowledges: Translocational Positionality and Issues of Collective Political Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on the possibilities that poetry and prose offer as pedagogical tools that can both accommodate and address difficult and painful knowledges. The paper presents and analyses poems and prose written by students at a non-traditional secondary school for disadvantaged girls (many of whom identify as Indigenous Australian).…

  17. Current issues and actions

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  18. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  19. Progress on resolution of major surety issues. [Safety, environmental protection, safeguards, reliability, quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts.

  20. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  1. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  2. Face Values: The Use of Sensitive Error Correction to Address Adolescents' "Face" Issues in the Modern Languages Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel; Templeton, Brian; Valdera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety about "performing" in a foreign language in front of classmates may inhibit learners' contributions in the modern languages class through fear of embarrassment over possible error production. The issue of "face", perceived social standing in the eyes of others, presents a sensitive matter for young adolescents…

  3. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  4. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  5. Mindless decision making and environmental issues: gestalt/feature-intensive processing and contextual reasoning in environmental decisions.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Matthew J; Hess, Adam B; Ranes, Bethany

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of relevant information in working memory during decision consideration, respondents tend to rely on a style of cognitive processing that may result in premature or inaccurate decision making (M. J. Sharps, 2003). M. J. Sharps and S. S. Martin (2002) demonstrated this effect in executive decision making. In the present study, the authors extended these methods to decisions about environmental issues. Respondents rated decisions about issues such as overpopulation, energy policy, and food production in the presence or absence of simple pertinent information. The presence of such information in the immediate context of environmental decisions, and therefore in working memory, significantly improved respondents' ability to understand negative decision consequences. These results demonstrate the importance of contextual information in environmental decision making.

  6. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  7. Environmental Education in Sparsely Populated Areas: Conflicting Attitudes in Student's Conception of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaib, Mohamed

    1988-01-01

    Two studies in southeastern Sweden examined rural children's conflicting attitudes toward environmental change in the local community. Following a yearlong curriculum in environmental studies, 14 fifth and sixth graders in Ramkvilla were presented with an imaginary scenario involving the construction of a new factory. Their small, somewhat idyllic…

  8. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  9. Center for Strategic Leadership Issue Paper, August 2007, Volume 8-07. Military Education Workshop Addresses Threats to Stability and Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    support of partner countries to address such destabilizing issues as competition for scare resources, forced migration, food security, changing weather...upcoming National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), the National Inteligence Council (NIC) has reached out to a broad group of U.S. government organizations and...resource competition and conflict; water and food security; health and disease, and the stability of governments. The Army should be prepared to adapt

  10. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Next Steps for Addressing EPA-Issued Step 2 Prevention of Significant Deterioration Greenhouse Gas Permits and Associated Requiremnts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  13. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Millennium Project, WFUNA http://www.millennium-project.org WORLDWIDE EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AFFECTING THE U.S. MILITARY Control No. (TCN...Resolution on Arctic Governance……………..…….9 8.8 Rights of Forest Peoples Need to Be Observed in Anti- deforestation Efforts…..….10 8.9 Coral Triangle May...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. October 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  15. A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. "Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Todd H.

    An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in…

  16. Review of environmental studies and issues on compressed-air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This report is a summary of the environmental and regulatory issues associated with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) technology. It reviews from an environmental perspective the progress and results of extensive engineering research and technology development directed at commercial development of CAES technology. A comprehensive analysis of the legal and regulatory issues associated with CAES is also summarized. Significant conclusions are: the environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of CAES facilities are generally similar to or less severe than those associated with construction of conventional electrical generating facilities; adverse subsurface and surface environmental impacts can be largely avoided by thorough geological characterization of subsurface conditions, careful evaluation of surface environmental factors, and avoidance of unsuitable sites; the US has a large number of suitable sites; siting flexibility for CAES facilities is much greater than for other energy storage technologies; land use requirements are generally significantly less than for conventional generating facilities of similar genrating capacity; petroleum fuel use is much less than for conventional peak power generating facilities; CAES technology offers the potential for increased efficiency of utilization of utility system generating capacity which results in reduced overall resources commitment and reduced environmental impacts; and, due to lack of implementation experience, uncertainty still surrounds the legal and regulatory issues associated with CAES.

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental issues throughout planning and project development so that the environmental impacts of a project are considered... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75...

  18. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA). Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis. PMID:28335464

  19. A Global Environmental Agenda for the United States: Issues for the New U.S. Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Sant, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    The new presidential administration faces an array of urgent challenges. Complex public policy choices are necessary to address the near-term challenges of climate change and resource degradation which will help the United States deal with the chronic problems of global inequity and human deprivation. Outlines the environmental problems…

  20. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  1. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  2. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  3. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  4. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  5. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis: the certification of NIST standard reference material 676a.

    PubMed

    Cline, James P; Von Dreele, Robert B; Winburn, Ryan; Stephens, Peter W; Filliben, James J

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% ± 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  6. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  7. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  8. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  9. Ethical Issues in Environmental Health Research Related to Public Health Emergencies: Reflections on the GuLF STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aubrey K.; Kwok, Richard K.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Health research in the context of an environmental disaster with implications for public health raises challenging ethical issues. This article explores ethical issues that arose in the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (GuLF STUDY) and provides guidance for future research. Ethical issues encountered by GuLF STUDY investigators included a) minimizing risks and promoting benefits to participants, b) obtaining valid informed consent, c) providing financial compensation to participants, d) working with vulnerable participants, e) protecting participant confidentiality, f) addressing conflicts of interest, g) dealing with legal implications of research, and h) obtaining expeditious review from the institutional review board (IRB), community groups, and other committees. To ensure that ethical issues are handled properly, it is important for investigators to work closely with IRBs during the development and implementation of research and to consult with groups representing the community. Researchers should consider developing protocols, consent forms, survey instruments, and other documents prior to the advent of a public health emergency to allow for adequate and timely review by constituents. When an emergency arises, these materials can be quickly modified to take into account unique circumstances and implementation details. PMID:26325057

  10. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Current Status, Issues, and Suggestions for Further Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of metal-induced embrittlement, hydrogen-embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking are discussed, and long-standing controversies are addressed by reviewing critical observations. Recommendations are also made regarding further work (including repetition of previous work using more advanced measurement and characterisation techniques) that should be carried out in order to resolve some of the contentious issues. The evidence to date suggests that adsorption-based mechanisms, involving weakening of substrate interatomic bonds so that dislocation emission or decohesion is facilitated, accounts for embrittlement in many systems. Embrittling adsorbed species include some metal atoms, hydrogen, and complex ions produced by de-alloying. Other viable mechanisms of embrittlement include those based on (1) dissolution of anodic grain-boundary regions, and (2) decohesion at grain boundaries owing to segregated hydrogen and impurities. The hydrogen-enhanced localised-plasticity mechanism, based on solute hydrogen facilitating dislocation activity in the plastic zone ahead of cracks, makes a contribution in some cases, but is relatively unimportant compared with these other mechanisms for most fracture modes. The film-induced cleavage mechanism, proposed especially for stress-corrosion cracking in systems involving de-alloying at crack tips, is questionable on numerous grounds, and is probably not viable. Rate-controlling processes for environmentally assisted cracking are not well established, except for solid-metal induced embrittlement where surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms to crack tips controls cracking kinetics. In some systems, adsorption kinetics are probably rate-controlling for liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-environment embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. In other cases, rate-controlling processes could include the rate of anodic or cathodic reactions at and behind crack tips (responsible for producing embrittling

  11. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  12. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  13. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  14. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  15. Educational Configurations for Teaching Environmental Socioscientific Issues within the Perspective of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonneaux, Jean; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Education for Sustainability has become an institutional requirement in many countries. It takes many forms that can integrate the teaching of environmental Socioscientific Issues (SSIs). In this context, we present the French notion of Socially Acute Questions (SAQs). We develop a theoretical frame to analyse educational configurations applied to…

  16. Final Environmental Assessment: Central Issue Facility at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    United States Geological Survey UST Underground storage tank UXO Unexploded ordnance VOC Volatile organic carbon Final...Tons per year TSP Total suspended particulate U.S. United States USACE United States Army Corps of Engineers Final EA for the Central Issue...Facility May 2013 Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst ii USAR United States Army Reserve USEPA United States Environmental Protection

  17. Integrating Scientific Method and Critical Thinking in Classroom Debates on Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge and skills to deal with current environmental issues should be included in biology teaching, which involves classroom debate that is ideal to develop knowledge. Increasing students' participation, acquiring interpersonal and oral communication skills and developing better understanding are some of the advantages of debates in the…

  18. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  19. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  20. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  1. Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  2. 75 FR 37790 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project June 23, 2010. On... Hydroelectric Project. On April 22, 2010, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District (Corps)...

  3. 30 CFR 280.31 - Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues? 280.31 Section 280.31 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE...

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Issues. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Students learn about the…

  5. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  6. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  7. Addressing end of life care issues in a tertiary treatment centre: lessons learned from surveying parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Midson, Rosie; Carter, Bernie

    2010-03-01

    Much of the work in children's hospitals is rightly focused on treatments aimed towards cure but this means that death is often seen as a failure and, as such, it may not be discussed or acknowledged as a possibility until very late in a child's stay in hospital. However, this reluctance can deny the child and their family the opportunity to be informed, prepare and make choices. A survey of the care received by parents whose child had died in a children's tertiary treatment centre led to a greater understanding of the parents' experiences and the ways in which care could be enhanced. Parents talked of the way in which the geography of the hospital could be disruptive and dislocating and yet they often had no place to be alone or in private. Communication was identified as a core issue with many parents being positive about the quality and timing of communication. However, other parents expressed a preference for more preparation about the possibility that their child might die. Some parents had positive experiences of follow-up visits after their child's death, whilst others remained frustrated and some felt this visit had made them re-live the experiences. The importance of kind, supportive and consistent care was clearly evidenced by the parents when they spoke about their feelings and emotions. The findings helped to develop and implement an End of Life Care Pathway and a pathway tool which aimed to enhance parents' experiences and to improve care. A further survey was triggered by the concern that the pathway was not being fully utilized and it became apparent that, despite the tool, staff were still reluctant to provide anticipatory guidance, even though many practical aspects of care scored well. The need for good communication that prepares parents for the eventuality that their child might or will die is one of the clearest lessons from the second survey. This is important as anticipatory guidance opens up parents - and children's - choices, and their

  8. Parametric tools over crowdsourced maps as means for participatory consideration of environmental issues in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Paula; Ballesteros, José; Gervás, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity of space use and resource cycles in cities, demands an understanding of the built environment as "ecological": enabling mutation while remaining balanced and biologically sustainable. Designing man`s environment is no longer a question of defining types, but rather an act of inserting changes within a complex system. Architecture and urban planning have become increasingly aware of their condition as system-oriented disciplines, and they are in the process of developing the necessary languages, design tools, and alliances. We will argue the relevance of parametric maps as one of the most powerful of those tools, in terms of their potential for adaptive prototype design, convergence of disciplines, and collaborative work. Cities need to change in order to survive. As the main human landscape (by 2050 75% of the world's population will live in urban areas) cities follow biological patterns of behaviour, constantly replacing their cells, renovating infrastructure systems and refining methods for energy provision and waste management. They need to adapt constantly. As responsive entities, they develop their own protocols for reaction to environmental change and challenge the increasing pressure of several issues related to scale: population, mobility, water and energy supply, pollution... The representation of these urban issues on maps becomes crucial for understanding and addressing them in design. Maps enhanced with parametric tools are relational and not only they register environmental dynamics but they allow adaptation of the system through interwoven parameters of mutation. Citizens are taking part in decisions and becoming aware of their role as urban experts in a bottom-up design process of the cities where they live. Modern tools for dynamic visualisation and collaborative edition of maps have an important role to play in this process. More and more people consult maps on hand-held devices as part of their daily routine. The advent

  9. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  10. Strategies and recommendations for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Forest service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, J.A.; Starr, G.L.; Quigley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute held three types of meetings to obtain public and scientific input into strategies for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Seven strategies are proposed: (2) plan and implement management on a landscape level, (2) enhance training on natural resources, (3) facilitate public involvement in planning and decision making, (4) develop an integrated landscape-level database, (5) develop an integrated monitoring system, (6) assess economic and social effects and assist with adaptation to change, and (7) identify barriers to improving the protesting forest health and recommend changes.

  11. Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Strategies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Oct 2009 Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de...les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Special Course under...HFM-180 Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées (RTO-EN-HFM-180) Synthèse L’objectif des

  12. Addressing Mental Health Disparities through Clinical Competence Not Just Cultural Competence: The Need for Assessment of Sociocultural Issues in the Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. PMID:18778881

  13. Electric industry restructuring and environmental issues: A comparative analysis of the experience in California, New York, and Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1996-08-01

    Since the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued its April 20, 1994, Blue Book proposal to restructure the regulation of electric utilities in California to allow more competition, over 40 states have initiated similar activities. The question of how major public policy objectives such as environmental protection, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and assistance to low-income customers can be sustained in the new competitive environment is also an important element being considered. Because many other states will undergo restructuring in the future, the experience of the {open_quotes}early adopter{close_quotes} states in addressing public policy objectives in their electric service industry restructuring processes can provide useful information to other states. The Competitive Resource Strategies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Utility Technologies, is interested in documenting and disseminating the experience of the pioneering states. The Center for Energy Analysis and Applications of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory assisted the Office of Utility Technologies in this effort with a project on the treatment of environmental issues in electric industry restructuring.

  14. Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

  15. Complex dynamics of life at different scales: from genomic to global environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Anteneodo, C; da Luz, M G E

    2010-12-28

    This introduction to the Theme Issue, Complex dynamics of life at different scales: from genomic to global environmental issues, gives a short overview on why the ideas and concepts in complexity and nonlinearity are relevant to the understanding of life in its different manifestations. Also, it discusses how life phenomena can be thought of as composing different scales of organization. Finally, the articles in this thematic publication are briefly commented on in terms of their relevance in helping to understand the complexity of life systems.

  16. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  17. Applying choice experiments to valuing the different types of environmental issues in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Jun; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2007-08-01

    In this study, improvements of different types of environmental issues in Japan, (i) reduction of mortality risk due to exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM), (ii) improvement of the water quality of an urban river, and (iii) protection of goshawks, were evaluated in monetary terms using choice experiments. It was found that the reduction of mortality risk and the improvement of the water quality were highly valued, while residents did not place high value on the protection of goshawks. However, scope sensitivity was not observed in the evaluation of each issue and the presence of moral satisfaction was revealed. Excluding the effect of lexicographic choices could partly solve the problem concerning scope sensitivity. The results suggested that non-scope sensitive values that were unrelated to or inconsistent with the level of environmental improvement could be estimated through choice experiments in this research.

  18. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    GMOs Controversy Continues in July 2005 and other related items on the same issue in previous environmental security reports.] Military Implications...250,000 and 500,000 people globally each year, but health experts expect a pandemic could emerge that would kill many more. The main threat now is the...virulent H5N1 avian flu virus infecting chickens in parts of Asia and Europe. It has so far infected 123 people and killed half of them. But it could

  20. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  1. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  2. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  3. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  4. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  5. Summary of Executive Order 12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes E.O. 12898, which focuses on the environmental and human health effects of federal actions on minority and low-income populations. It directs each agency to develop a strategy for implementing environmental justice.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  7. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  8. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  9. A note on attitudes and knowledge concerning environmental issues in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Boman, Mattias; Mattsson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    As part of a larger research effort, the empirical basis for this note is responses to four out of many questions in a mailed survey, which primarily focused on national environmental objectives in Sweden. The results show that out of eight broad areas for use of tax money, five-including environment-are rated as important by over 90% of the respondents. Respondents appear to be less willing to discriminate between different issues covered by national environmental objectives, as all of these are rated as important by more than 80% of the respondents. The function of the ozone layer is an example of an environmental issue where the knowledge among people is relatively high, while this is not the case when it comes to the amount of pesticides used in agriculture. The results also show less support for actions at the individual level to improve the environment, as compared to support for actions taken by society at large through, e.g., technological improvement or policy intervention.

  10. High-quality collection and disposal of WEEE: Environmental impacts and resultant issues.

    PubMed

    Baxter, John; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Askham, Cecilia; Hanssen, Ole Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment of the collection, transport and recycling of various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Norway shows that small amounts of critical materials (refrigerants, precious/trace metals) are vital for the overall environmental accounts of the value chains. High-quality recycling ensures that materials and energy are effectively recovered from WEEE. This recovery means that responsible waste handling confers net environmental benefits in terms of global warming potential (GWP), for all types of WEEE analysed. For refrigeration equipment, the potential reduction of GWP by high-quality recycling is so large as to be of national significance. For all waste types, the magnitude of the net benefit from recovering materials and energy exceeds the negative consequences of irresponsible disposal. One outcome of this may be widespread misunderstanding of the need for recycling. Furthermore, framing public communication on recycling in terms of avoiding negative consequences, as is essentially universal, may not convey an appropriate message. The issue is particularly important where the consumer regards products as relatively disposable and environmentally benign, and/or where the "null option" of retaining the product at end-of-life is especially prevalent. The paper highlights the implications of all these issues for policy-makers, waste collectors and recyclers, and consumers.

  11. Images of climate change in the news: Visual framing of a global environmental issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebich Hespanha, S.; Rice, R. E.; Montello, D. R.; Retzloff, S.; Tien, S.

    2012-12-01

    News media play a powerful role in disseminating and framing information and shaping public opinion on environmental issues. Choices of text and images that are made by the creators and distributors of news media not only influence public perception about which issues are important, but also surreptitiously lead consumers of these media to perceive certain aspects or perspectives on an issue while neglecting to consider others. Our research was motivated by a desire to obtain comprehensive quantitative and qualitative understanding of the types of information - both textual and visual -- that have been provided to the U.S. public over the past several decades through news reports about climate change. As part of this project, we documented and examined 118 themes in 19 categories presented in 350 randomly-selected visual images from U.S. news coverage of global climate change between 1969 and late 2009. This study examines how the use of imagery in print news positions climate change within public and private arenas and how it emphasizes particular geographic, political, scientific, technological, sociological, and ideological aspects of the issue.

  12. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Redeploys Military to Defend Water and Oil ……………………….…….3 Item 6. Technological Breakthroughs with Environmental Security Implications………….4 6.1 Portable...ice sheets and floating sea ice. Military Implications: In view of the increasing importance of the Arctic in military planning and the oil reserves...range oil issues, and possible emerging new policies. Sources: ESA contribution to International Polar Year 2007-2008 http://www.esa.int/esaCP

  13. Educational Configurations for Teaching Environmental Socioscientific Issues Within The Perspective of Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonneaux, Jean; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Education for Sustainability has become an institutional requirement in many countries. It takes many forms that can integrate the teaching of environmental Socioscientific Issues (SSIs). In this context, we present the French notion of Socially Acute Questions (SAQs). We develop a theoretical frame to analyse educational configurations applied to the teaching of SAQs within the perspective of sustainability. This frame is built with a reference to a matrix integrating attributes of knowledge (universal, plural, engaged or contextualised), teachers' epistemological postures (scientism, utilitarianism, skepticsm or relativism) and various didactic strategies (doctrinal, problematizing, critical or pragmatic). To illustrate this frame, three situations of teaching-learning are compared.

  14. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...

  16. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  17. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Minutes No. 21015-04. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding integrated endocrine bioactivity and exposure-based prioritization & screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On December 2-4, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Integrated Endocrine Bioactivity and Exposure-Based Prioritization and Screening” methods. EPA is proposing ...

  18. 77 FR 1079 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement To Address Grazing Permit Renewals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (NEPA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Owyhee Field Office in Marsing, Idaho intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS), and by this notice, is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and......

  19. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  20. EPA Hosts Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group Meeting in Atlanta to address Concerns in North Birmingham Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (ATLANTA - February 17, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will host a Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice Meeting (EJ IWG) on Thursday, February 18, 2016 in the Sam Nunn Federal Building in Atlanta, GA. The EJ IWG