Science.gov

Sample records for address ethical issues

  1. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right…

  2. The evolving role of partnerships in addressing community public health issues: policy and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monica L; Burdine, James N; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    The current state of health insurance coverage in the United States is deteriorating. Historically, efforts to address access at the federal level have met with insurmountable opposition. This article describes a model utilizing the Partnership Approach to Community Health Improvement to engage communities in developing creative ways of addressing local health issues, discusses the policy implications of such a model, and explores ethical issues inherent in the discussion of universal access. An argument is presented for a national dialogue seeking societal agreement to approach access and health from a perspective of solidarity.

  3. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  4. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  5. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  6. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  7. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  8. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  9. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  10. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  11. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    PubMed Central

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development. We propose that limits on research with SHEEFs be based as directly as possible on the generation of such features, and recommend that the research and bioethics communities lead a wide-ranging inquiry aimed at mapping out solutions to the ethical problems raised by them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20674.001

  12. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production including laying hens are continusly changing based on ethical and scientific results. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions (social stress) between animals. Selective...

  13. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  14. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  15. Issues in biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Vevaina, J R; Nora, L M; Bone, R C

    1993-12-01

    Bioethics is the discipline of ethics dealing with moral problems arising in the practice of medicine and the pursuit of biomedical research. Physicians may confront ethical dilemmas regularly in their individual relationships with patients and in institutional and societal decisions on health care policy. Ethical problem solving requires the application of certain ethical rules and principles to specific situations. Although ethical theories differ, certain ethical rules and principles appear consistently. These include nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for individual autonomy, confidentiality, and justice. This article discusses some of the ethical issues that arise in clinical practice, including informed consent, do-not-resuscitate orders, noninitiation and termination of medical therapy, genetic intervention, allocation of scarce health resources, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some of these problems require ethical analysis at the bedside; others require physician involvement on a broader level. Perspectives on the different ethical issues are presented; however, absolute answers to these ethical dilemmas are not provided. Interpretation of the ethical principles and the application of these principles to each clinical situation demands the thoughtful attention of the practitioner.

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  18. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  19. Ethical issues occurring within nursing education.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D; Davis, Anne J

    2013-03-01

    The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.

  20. Ethical issues and addiction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women.

  1. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right

  2. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    McHenry, L

    2006-07-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

  3. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  4. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  5. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  6. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia.

  7. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients.

  8. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  9. Ethical issues in infertility.

    PubMed

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  10. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  11. Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634

  12. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

    2013-10-11

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  13. Marriage and Family Therapy Research: Ethical Issues and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of marriage and family therapy requires many ethical considerations due to the complexity of relationships among family members and the sensitive information involved. The AAMFT Code of Ethics and ethical standards for research attempt to address these concerns. The guidelines cover issues such as risk management, informed…

  14. Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering

    This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

  15. Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

    2010-09-01

    As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like.

  16. Ethical issues in medical malpractice.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Robert C

    2006-08-01

    The interrelationships between biomedical ethics and the law are perhaps nowhere as starkly apparent as in the realm of medical malpractice. Although ethical and legal conduct and practices are often in harmony, in many areas ethical principles and the issues surrounding medical liability appear to come into conflict. Disclosure of errors; quality improvement activities; the practice of defensive medicine; dealing with patients who wish to leave against medical advice; provision of futile care at the insistence of patients or families; and the various protections of Good Samaritan laws are just a few of these. In addition, the ethical principles governing the conduct of physicians serving as expert witnesses in medical malpractice cases have become a subject of intense interest in recent years.

  17. Facial transplants: current situation and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    The first transplantation of a face from a cadaver was performed in 2005, since when about thirty have been performed globally. The technique is now beginning to appear in Italy. Face transplants are performed exclusively on persons who have suffered devastating lesions to the face. The ethical problems involved are very considerable, particularly where personal identity is concerned. The case records reveal surprisingly positive outcomes regarding both clinical follow-up and functional recovery, as well as psychological aspects and social integration. Thus, while early documents addressing the ethical issues involved in facial transplants were somewhat cautious or even unfavourable on the subject of this technique, a positive approach is now more prevalent.

  18. Ethical issues in pandemic planning.

    PubMed

    Torda, Adrienne

    2006-11-20

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, many ethical issues will arise in terms of health risks, resource allocation, and management decisions. Planning decisions may be controversial, such as rationing of antivirals, resource allocation (including hospital beds and vaccinations), occupational risk, rostering of staff, responsibilities of health care workers, quarantine measures, and governance issues. A clear ethical framework is needed to enable understanding of the decision-making process and optimise acceptance of decisions by health care workers and other members of an affected community. Planning decisions need to start being examined now, and will require input from a broad group of experts: health care providers, infrastructure managers, lawyers, ethicists, public health physicians, and community members. The process will need to be open, honest and dynamic.

  19. Ethical issues in human organoid and gastruloid research.

    PubMed

    Munsie, Megan; Hyun, Insoo; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2017-03-15

    Research involving human organoids and gastruloids involves ethical issues associated with their derivation as well as their current and future uses. These include unique issues related to the extent of maturation that can be achieved in vitro or through chimeric research, as well as fundamental ethical considerations such as those concerning the provenance of human biomaterials and the use of gene-editing technologies. Many of these issues are not specifically addressed by existing ethics oversight mechanisms, but these mechanisms might be easily extended to help ensure that human organoid and related research moves forward in an ethically appropriate manner.

  20. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  1. Respecting and Breaking Confidences: Conceptual, Ethical and Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Nurses need to understand what information is confidential and what constitutes breach of confidentiality. Ethical issues involved in informed consent and grounds for breaking confidentiality should be addressed in nursing-education curriculum. (SK)

  2. Science and Ethics: Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…

  3. Ethical issues in stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-05-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramming of somatic cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical problems specific to embryonic stem cell research. In any hSC research, however, difficult dilemmas arise regarding sensitive downstream research, consent to donate materials for hSC research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and oversight of hSC research. These ethical and policy issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. This article provides a critical analysis of these issues and how they are addressed in current policies.

  4. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramming of somatic cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical problems specific to embryonic stem cell research. In any hSC research, however, difficult dilemmas arise regarding sensitive downstream research, consent to donate materials for hSC research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and oversight of hSC research. These ethical and policy issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. This article provides a critical analysis of these issues and how they are addressed in current policies. PMID:19366754

  5. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate

  6. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  7. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  8. Ethical issues in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Elkins, T E

    1988-06-01

    Prenatal diagnosis raises complex ethical issues not only in terms of individual decision making, but also in the development of clinical services and the formulation of public policy regarding access and funding. The motivation behind prenatal diagnosis is generally to provide the family with information regarding the pregnancy so that the outcome can be improved or, in the case of severely affected pregnancies, a decision can be made about pregnancy termination. Although many of the ethical issues involved in prenatal diagnosis and treatment overlap those common to all types of diagnostic procedures, the former situation is complicated by controversy about the moral status of the fetus and the use of selective abortion as a form of treatment. While there is general agreement that pregnancy termination after the 2nd trimester can be justified if the fetus is afflicted with a condition that is incompatible with postnatal survival or characterized by the virtual absence of cognitive functioning, the disposition of a fetus afflicted with a non-life-threatening physical or mental disability (e.g., Down's syndrome) is more controversial. An additional concern is that women with positive screening test results may choose elective abortion rather than undergo a definitive work-up. The issue of maternal versus fetal rights is perhaps the single most controversial dilemma. Here, the basic ethical dilemma is the conflict between respecting maternal autonomy versus acting beneficently toward the fetus. As a general rule, the more invasive the medical technique and the less certain the benefit to the fetus (e.g., laparotomy), the more difficult it is to make a convincing argument for forced interventions involving the mother's body. Situations in which compelling arguments can be made for forced interventions against the will of the mother are those where an otherwise healthy infant will die without immediate intervention or failure to perform a procedure will result in the

  9. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  10. [Ethical issues in personal genome research].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuto; Minari, Jusaku

    2013-03-01

    The rapid expansion of techniques for studying human genomics has remarkably changed research and practice. It is expected that more progress will be made in the field of medical and biological research owing to the technological advances. Genomics researchers collect human genetic material, including DNA and cells, from a large number of individuals and carry out "personal genome analysis"; as a result, new types of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) have arisen, including issues such as informed consent procedures, data sharing, protection of genetic information, and return of research results. To address these issues, many large research projects have established specialist groups that are devoted to manage ELSI of their research. The guidelines for genomics research set by the government are also expected to be revised accordingly. In this paper, we present an overview of ELSI of personal genome research and discuss necessary measures to tackle these issues.

  11. Ethical issues involving the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.J.; Kallman, E.A.; Lelewer, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

  12. Ethical issues in conducting migrant farmworker studies.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sharon P; Heitman, Elizabeth; Fox, Erin E; Quill, Beth; Knudson, Paula; Zahm, Sheila H; MacNaughton, Nancy; Ryder, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers should be considered a vulnerable population because they work in a hazardous industry, are often members of an ethnic minority, have known difficulty in accessing health care, and are often of lower socioeconomic status. For these reasons, too, it is extremely important to conduct health-related research with this often-underserved group. However, because migrant farmworkers are vulnerable, investigators must be especially vigilant in protecting them from the potential harms of research and in ensuring that the special ethical issues that arise in research with this population are identified and addressed for every project. In response to the National Cancer Institute's concerns about the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies among migrant farmworkers, researchers undertook four feasibility studies near the Texas-Mexico border. Each study raised different, complex ethical questions that challenged the investigators, but whose resolution turned out to be crucial to the success of the studies.

  13. [Ethical issues of artificial nutritional support].

    PubMed

    Weimann, Arved

    2014-03-01

    This review article discusses some ethical issues of clinical nutrition according to the Beauchamp and Childress principles of bioethics: "respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice".

  14. Ethical Issues in School Health: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Glenn E.; Jose, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    The need for a code of ethics for health educators is discussed, and results of a survey of school health educators' opinions on curriculum-related ethical issses are reported. Ethical issues of concern include use of scare tactics, efforts to change behavior and attitudes, and appropriate subject matter. (PP)

  15. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in…

  16. New Age Ethics: Ethical Implications on Critical Future Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia W.

    Twentieth century scientific advancement has produced a "New Age" requiring a new ethics. The nature of human action has been profoundly and irrevocably modified. Theoretically, an ethics for the New Age must take into account humankind's new relationships to human interaction and to the natural world. New issues requiring important ethical…

  17. Ethical Issues in Computer Use. Article Reprints from "The Computing Teacher," August/September 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Computers in Education, Eugene, OR.

    Five articles and two columns reprinted from 1984 and 1985 issues of "The Computing Teacher" address various ethical and legal issues involved in computer use. In "A Question of Ethics," Larry S. Hannah and Charles B. Matus suggest guidelines for dilemma discussion in the classroom to address social and moral issues and to help…

  18. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    PubMed

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business.

  19. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is…

  20. Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions.

    PubMed

    Fedigan, Linda Marie

    2010-09-01

    Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's" for humane treatment of captive experimental subjects (replacement, reduction and refinement), which are only debatably relevant to field research. Scientists who study wild, free-ranging primates in host countries experience many ethical dilemmas seldom dealt with in animal care forms. This paper reviews the ethical issues many field primatologists say they face and how these might be better addressed by animal care forms. The ethical issues arising for field researchers are divided into three categories: "Presence, Protocols and People" and for each the most frequent issues are described. The most commonly mentioned ethical concern arising from our presence in the field is the possibility of disease transmission. Although most primate field studies employ only observational protocols, the practice of habituating our study animals to close human presence is an ethical concern for many since it can lessen the animals' fear of all humans, thereby facilitating undesirable behaviors (e.g., crop-raiding) and rendering them vulnerable to harm. Field primatologists who work in host countries must observe national laws and local traditions. As conservationists, primatologists must often negotiate between the resource needs and cultural practices of local people and the interests of the nonhuman primates. Many say they face more ethical dilemmas arising from human interactions than from research on the animals per se. This review concludes with suggestions for relevant questions to ask on animal care forms, and actions that field primatologists can take to better inform animal care committees about the common ethical issues we experience as well as how to develop guidelines for

  1. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  2. Ethical Issues in Parent Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    1982-01-01

    Four areas of ethical concern are voiced in the training of parents of handicapped children: (1) selection of program goals, (2) problems involved with both positive reinforcement and punishment, (3) conflicts between experimentation and therapeutic intervention, and (4) level of parent training. Consideration of ethical issues at each step of…

  3. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a…

  4. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  5. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide.

  6. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    PubMed Central

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. Objectives The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. Methods The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). Findings and discussion The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. Conclusion The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability. PMID:27396747

  7. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  8. Nutrition: ethical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted.

  9. Ethical issues in molecular medicine of relevance to surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Mark; Bampoe, Joseph; Daar, Abdallah S.

    2004-01-01

    The technology associated with the care of surgical patients and the level of sophistication of biomedical research accompanying it are evolving at a rapid pace. Both new and old bioethical issues are assuming increasing levels of prominence and importance, particularly in this age of molecular medicine. The authors explore bioethical issues pertinent and relevant to surgeons. Four specific areas that are exemplary by presenting both major scientific and ethical challenges are briefly addressed: privacy of information, stem cells, gene therapy, and conflict of interest in biomedical research. All of these can be generalized to all surgeons. As bioethical issues today play a greater role in surgical practice than they did even a decade ago, it is hoped that this brief review on ethical issues in molecular medicine will help stimulate present and future generations of surgeons in thinking about the ethical dimensions of their work. PMID:15646439

  10. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.

  11. Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  12. Ethics: The Role of Adult and Vocational Education. Trends and Issues Alert No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    Ethics and social responsibility are the subject of both curriculum materials and research in adult and vocational education. State academic standards and curriculum frameworks address citizenship and personal and social responsibility. Ethical and legal issues for specific occupations are addressed in curricula issued by states, professional…

  13. Meeting report: Fifth International Conference on Ethical Issues in Biomedical Engineering.

    PubMed

    El-Gendi, Hebah; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues in biomedical engineering is a crucial topic that must be addressed. In the spring of 2009, attendees from various professions attended a conference regarding ethical issues at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Abstracts representing distinct aspects of the engineering and biotechnology fields and associated ethical concerns were presented. The event featured a debate that engaged participants and panel members in intriguing ethical discussions, and concluded with a social banquet.

  14. Postmortem Confidentiality: An Ethical Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increased need and expectation for confidentiality, the counseling record of the deceased client challenges confidentiality. Using ethical codes and legal mandates, the authors explore whether the counseling record of a deceased client should be released when the client's will and the client's counseling records are silent on this…

  15. Ethical Issues in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Peter; Coad, Raylene

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that a literature survey can alert students to real-life ethical problems surrounding many organic compounds. Topic areas students could explore include: hazards in the workplace, toxic chemicals, and nerve gas structures. Background information and an extensive bibliography are given. (DH)

  16. Ethical Issues of Military Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    entitled "How Ethical Are Businessmen?", conducted by Harvard Business Review , I found the following comments under the title "Pressure:" Acontroller...service to their country. Interestingly enough, the Harvard Business Review study also indicated that there were pressures from bosses which helped

  17. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  18. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  19. Ethical Issues in Editing Scholarly Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Sheldon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues that arise when serving as an editor of a scholarly journal. Suggests treating these issues using paradigm-based decisions; decisions based on personal sociological predilections and commitments; and reasonable referee-assignment policies. Notes how conflicts of interest inevitably accompanying such a position. (NL)

  20. Mandatory neurotechnological treatment: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Focquaert, Farah

    2014-02-01

    What if neurofeedback or other types of neurotechnological treatment, by itself or in combination with behavioral treatment, could achieve a successful "rewiring" of the psychopath's brain? Imagine that such treatments exist and that they provide a better long-term risk-minimizing strategy compared to imprisonment. Would it be ethical to offer such treatments as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release? In this paper, I argue that it can be ethical to offer effective, non-invasive neurotechnological treatments to offenders as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release provided that: (1) the status quo is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (2) the treatment option is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (3) the treatment is in the best interests of the offender, and (4) the offender gives his/her informed consent.

  1. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems

  2. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  3. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Motilal Chandu; Dalvi, Shashank D

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don't really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient's lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario.

  4. Ethics, Issues and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1992-01-01

    For the past two years at NTU, I have been running a fourth year Bachelor of Education course on science issues. The majority of those doing the course are working primary teachers from a variety of backgrounds. The first part of the course consists of the history and philosophy of science, whilst the second part concerns science issues. The…

  5. International Nursing Consultation: A Perspective on Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Margaret M.; Fargotstein, Barbara P.

    1986-01-01

    The ethical issues faced by international nurse consultants are examined, and the ways in which ethical theories can be useful to nurses dealing with ethical conflicts while serving as consultants of other countries are explored. (Author/MLW)

  6. Ethical issues in infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido; Mertes, Heidi

    2012-12-01

    Two currently contentious domains in infertility treatment are discussed: assisted reproduction for same-sex couples and fertility preservation for women with cancer. Despite an increasing recognition of the rights of same-sex couples, in many countries they are still not eligible for assisted reproductive technology. The main justification for excluding same-sex couples from treatment is that the welfare of the future children would be compromised. Empirical evidence, however, shows that this is not the case. Another group of non-infertile women seeking assistance from reproductive medicine are women with cancer who are at risk of impaired or lost fertility as a result of their illness or cancer treatment. In this field, the future holds many promising options. Several of these, however, are currently in an experimental phase, which elicits ethical concerns about participant recruitment and research participation of children.

  7. Withdrawal from dialysis: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H

    1998-04-01

    Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.

  8. Ethical and policy issues in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur L; Callahan, Daniel; Haas, Janet

    1987-08-01

    The field of medical rehabilitation is relatively new.... Until recently, the ethical problems of this new field were neglected. There seemed to be more pressing concerns as rehabilitation medicine struggled to establish itself, sometimes in the face of considerable skepticism or hostility. There also seemed no pressing moral questions of the kind and intensity to be encountered, say, in high-technology acute care medicine or genetic engineering.... Those in biomedical ethics could and did easily overlook the quiet, less obtrusive issues of rehabilitation.... The Hastings Center set out in 1985 to rectify that situation.... To explore the issues, the Center assembled a group of practitioners in the field, Hastings Center staff members, and individuals experienced in other areas of medical ethics.... The report that follows was written by Arthur Caplan and Daniel Callahan, assisted by Dr. Janet Haas of the Moss Rehabilitation Hospital in Philadelphia....

  9. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  10. Ethical issues in participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Löfman, Päivi; Pelkonen, Marjaana; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.

  11. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

  12. Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

  13. A review of ethical issues in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, R

    1994-01-01

    Unavoidable and unique characteristics of the transplant surgeon's practice require difficult moral judgments. The two major areas of moral quandary are organ procurement and organ allocation. This paper outlines the key ethical issues in transplantation and draws attention to some of the recent literature that argues more specific issues in greater detail. The subjects discussed include brain death, living organ donation, procurement policies, organ sales, distributive justice, free riders (nondonators), duties and debts, and research.

  14. Ethical Issues in Recruiting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of deceptive recruitment are highlighted in a review of questionable practices used to attract students both from within the United States and abroad. Major issues for action are identified as sacrificing quality for numbers, the hiring of marketing consultants, professional training of admissions directors, and federal regulation.…

  15. Web-Based Resources for Legal and Ethical Issues in School Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot-Miller, Lynne; Partin, Patricia W.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies major sources of legal and ethical information relevant to school counselors that is available on the World Wide Web. Summaries and Web addresses are provided for major Web sites that address legal and ethical issues in school counseling. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  16. Legal and ethical issues in research

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Camille; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. PMID:27729698

  17. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, Shashank D.

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don’t really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient’s lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario. PMID:27190833

  18. Ethical issues in preconception genetic carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Kihlbom, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Population-based preconception genetic carrier screening programmes (PCS) with expanded panels are currently being developed in the Netherlands. This form of genetic screening for recessive traits differs from other forms of genetic testing and screening in that it is offered to persons not known to have an increased risk of being carriers of genetic traits for severe recessive diseases and in that they include tests for a large number of traits, potentially several hundred. This raises several ethical issues around justice, consequences, and autonomy. It will be argued that most of these ethical problems call for cautious reflection when setting up PCS and similar programmes within preconception care. It is moreover argued that it is ethically problematic to have an official aim and failing to mention possibly legitimate public aims that actually drive the development of PCS. PMID:27388477

  19. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  20. Ethical issues in the use of the bogus pipeline.

    PubMed

    Aguinis, H; Handelsman, M M

    1997-04-01

    This article addresses the ethics of utilizing the bogus pipeline (BPL) procedure in social psychological research. A debate is presented between 2 positions: One challenges the use of the BPL based on ethical principles, and the other confronts these challenges. The debate addresses the void in previous BPL literature regarding concerns about the ethics of using this technique, and raises awareness about potential ethical dilemmas faced by BPL users. The BPL is discussed from utilitarian and deontological ethical perspectives.

  1. Leishmaniasis entomological field studies: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando; Canto-Lara, Silvia B; Del Rosario Garcia-Miss, Maria

    2009-12-01

    Occupational health remains neglected in developing countries because of competing social, economic and political challenges. Ethical issues in the workplace related to the hazards and risks of becoming infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, through the bite of naturally infected sand flies, is another area of concern that has been neglected as well. We report here the results of reviewing two entomological field studies carried out in our research center from 2003 to 2006. Eight students from our School of Biology were invited to catch sand flies. A total of six of the eight (75%) developed a typical clinical picture of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by L. (L.) mexicana. In this article we identify the ethical issues related to these kinds of studies and propose some guidelines for conducting them.

  2. Ethical Issues in the Design and Use of Internet-Based Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Lumsden, Jill A.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses ethical issues regarding Internet career assessment: reliability, validity, user readiness, administration, lack of practitioner awareness, equitable access, confidentiality, and privacy. Makes recommendations in the areas of research and development, training, standards, and stable funding of assessment development. (SK)

  3. Ethical issues in naturalistic versus controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2011-01-01

    Ethical core issues in research with human subjects are related to informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. This is valid for all types of studies. However, there has been much greater focus of ethical considerations on controlled clinical trials than on naturalistic trials, probably because the former are interventional in nature and may have unknown and perhaps severe somatic risks, whereas naturalistic studies seem not to intervene but only to observe, and therefore are assumed to have fewer or almost no risks. However, there are also ethical implications in naturalistic trials, although their weight is differently accentuated, more with potential, more with potential psychological burdens of the observational procedures and more with potential physical risks in interventional trials. This will be elaborated with examples of placebo-controlled trials and of incidental findings in screenings, of marketing influences on observational studies, and of psychological burdens by survey interviews. The ethical implications wilt be analyzed within a more general framework, Finally, recommendations will be offered. PMID:21842614

  4. Challenge studies of human volunteers: ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Hope, T; McMillan, J

    2004-01-01

    There is a long history of medical research that involves intentionally infecting healthy people in order to study diseases and their treatments. Such research—what might be called "human challenge studies"—are an important strand of much current research—for example, in the development of vaccinations. The many international and national guidelines about the proper conduct of medical research do not specifically address human challenge studies. In this paper we review the guidelines on the risk of harm that healthy volunteers may be exposed to in the course of medical research. We examine the ethical arguments that are implicit or explicit in these guidelines. We then ask whether there is reason for limiting such studies on grounds independent of risk of harm. We conclude that the major ethical concern with challenge studies is that of risk of harm and that the fact that a study is a challenge study is not a wrong in itself. PMID:14872087

  5. Counseling Suicidal Adolescents within Family Systems: Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…

  6. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward. PMID

  7. Katrina: macro-ethical issues for engineers.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Byron

    2010-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst disasters in United States history. Failures within New Orleans' engineered hurricane protection system (levees and floodwalls) contributed to the severity of the event and have drawn considerable public attention. In the time since Katrina, forensic investigations have uncovered a range of issues and problems related to the engineering work. In this article, my goal is to distill from these investigations, and the related literature that has accumulated, some overarching macro-ethical issues that are relevant for all engineers. I attempt to frame these issues, using illustrative examples taken from Katrina, in a way that might be of pedagogical use and benefit for engineering educators interested in engaging their students in discussions of engineering ethics, societal impact of engineered systems, engineering design, or related topics. Some of the issues discussed are problems of unanticipated failure modes, faulty assumptions, lack or misuse of information, the importance of resiliency, the effects of time, balancing competing interests, attending to the details of interfaces, the fickleness of risk perception, and how the past constrains the present.

  8. [Ethical and legal issues in late stage of dementia].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lia

    2008-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, growth of the elderly population, the costs of care, and the advances of medical science and technology will continue to have an impact on the patient-physician relationship. Transformation of the health care system will also raise ethical issues inherent to changing roles. The special nature of Alzheimer's patients and the natural course of their disease require special care on the part of physicians to meet the ethical challenges and establish medical goals, in conjunction with their patients and their families. In spite of these rapid advances in biomedical sciences, were not sufficiently developed in the most fitness answers, regarding special moral and ethical attitudes, which must be taken into account, in particular when we try to understand the experience of people with dementia. This article explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of mental capacity, testamentary capacity, power of attorney, court of protection, advance directives, decision making, participation in research and treatment, informed consent and older people driving. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction, trying to deal with the challenge of protecting, but not overprotecting, people with dementia. Late stage of dementia is a terminal disease where the goal of the care may not be prolongation of life at all costs, but rather achievement: quality of life, dignity and comfort. In the initial late dementia, quality of life is the target, treating medical problems and psychiatric symptoms. The dignity of

  9. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution.

  10. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Lewis, Sharon R.; Smith, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics. PMID:27133509

  11. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Lewis, Sharon R; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics.

  12. Legal, Professional and Ethical Issues: The Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drier, Harry N.

    This monograph deals with normative ethics, or the application of ethical principles in judging the rightness or wrongness of actions. Specifically, the monograph addresses normative ethics in the use of automated systems in the field and practice of counseling and guidance. It is noted that the immense growth planned for computer applications in…

  13. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  14. Ethical Issues with Managed Care: Challenges Facing Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Caren C.; Gottleib, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the evolution of managed care and reviews basic biomedical ethics and ethical decision-making models. Examines specific ethical issues and offers suggestions for practice, research, and education and training. Concludes with a research agenda, a review of projected general trends in health care delivery, and a discussion of counseling…

  15. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  16. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  17. Common ethical issues in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Awaya, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    One of the common ethical issues in regenerative medicine is progress in 'componentation' (= being treated as parts) of the human body, and the enhancement of the view of such "human body parts." 'Componentation' of the human body represents a preliminary step toward commodification of the human body. The process of commodification of the human body follows the steps of 'materialization' (= being treated as a material object) [first step] -- 'componentation' [second step] -- 'resourcialization' (= being treated as resources) [third step] -- commodification [fourth step]. Transplantation medicine and artificial organ developments have dramatically exposed the potential of organs and tissues as parts, and regenerative medicine has a role in advancing 'componentation' of the human body and further enhancing the view of human body parts. The 'componentation' of the human body, regardless of the degree of regenerative medicine's contribution to it, is considered as a challenge to the traditional view of human bodies and the abstract value of "Human Dignity" in the same way or alongside the 'resourcialization' and commodification. However, in the future, a new perspective of human bodies that means "a perspective whereby human bodies, organs, tissues, and even the bodies themselves are perceived as disposable tools like disposable cameras, syringes, or contact lens" and therefore a new ethical view, suitable for a new reality, may emerge.

  18. The social and ethical issues of post-genomic human biobanks.

    PubMed

    Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2004-11-01

    Biobanking - the organized collection of biological samples and associated data - ranges in scope from small collections of samples in academic or hospital settings to large-scale national repositories. Biobanks raise many ethical concerns, to which authorities are responding by introducing specific regulations. Genomics research, which thrives on the sharing of samples and information, is affected by two prominent ethical questions: do ethical principles prevent or promote the sharing of stored biological resources? How does the advent of large-scale biobanking alter the way in which ethical issues are addressed?

  19. Ethical Issues in Cross-Cultural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…

  20. Key issues in the ethics of dementia care.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    2000-11-01

    This article discusses nine important medical ethical issues following the progression of irreversible dementia from diagnosis to dying. Issues include prevention, research, truth telling, advance planning, cognitive-enhancing drugs, driving restrictions, respectful caring, distribution, justice, and natural dying.

  1. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  2. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  3. A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

  4. Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific

  5. Nurses' perceptions of ethical issues related to patients' rights law.

    PubMed

    Yakov, Gila; Shilo, Yehudit; Shor, Tzippy

    2010-07-01

    August 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of landmark legislation when Israel's parliament passed the unique Patient's Rights Law. This law underscores the importance of medical ethics in Israeli society. During a seminar at the Shaare Zedek School of Nursing, third-year students performed a qualitative research study investigating ethical issues arising in the field of nursing, and how nursing staff dealt with these issues in relation to the law. The research was conducted using semistructured questionnaires. The results showed that the staff participants knew the law, but did not differentiate between legal and ethical problems. The establishment of a framework for dealing with these issues would help to promote professional ethics, encourage broad-based agreements related to ethical decisions, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law on patients' rights.

  6. Asserting the Possible: Gunzenhauser's "Ethics of the Everyday." Response to the Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Presidential address, "Ethics for the New Political Economy: What Can It Mean to Be Professionally Responsible?" in which Michael G. Gunzenhauser defines, names, and proposes a professional ethics for educators: an ethics of the everyday. The author introduces her response by stating that…

  7. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation.

  8. Social/Ethical Issues in Predictive Insider Threat Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Zabriskie, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Combining traditionally monitored cybersecurity data with other kinds of organizational data is one option for inferring the motivations of individuals, which may in turn allow early prediction and mitigation of insider threats. While unproven, some researchers believe that this combination of data may yield better results than either cybersecurity or organizational data would in isolation. However, this nontraditional approach creates a potential conflict between goals, such as conflicts between organizational security improvements and individual privacy considerations. There are many facets to debate. Should warning signs of a potential malicious insider be addressed before a malicious event has occurred to prevent harm to the organization and discourage the insider from violating the organization’s rules? Would intervention violate employee trust or legal guidelines? What about the possibilities of misuse? Predictive approaches cannot be validated a priori; false accusations can affect the career of the accused; and collection/monitoring of certain types of data may affect employee morale. In this chapter, we explore some of the social and ethical issues stemming from predictive insider threat monitoring and discuss ways that a predictive modeling approach brings to the forefront social and ethical issues that should be considered and resolved by stakeholders and communities of interest.

  9. Age estimation for forensic purposes in Italy: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2014-05-01

    Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal.

  10. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  11. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  12. Water Development: A Philosophical and Ethical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D.

    2015-12-01

    As one reviewer said about John McPhee's Encounters With the Archdruid:"So the real issues relate to what is natural? How should lands be used? What role do humans have in using, caring for, being part of the land and can we do so responsibly?" This quote applies equally to more than just land development -- it applies to water project too. Although Marc Reisner wrote Cadillac Desert in 1986, the lessons it presents about water development are current today. Not much has changed really in the past three decades. People still live in arid places where, perhaps, they should not live. Engineers still redesign nature to meet human needs, only to find out later that there are unintended consequences. About the only thing that has changed is that today the Bureau of Reclamation and other agencies do not spend megabucks to construct huge water projects. And, insignificant by comparison, some restoration and dam removal projects have begun on a limited scale. We developed an exercise, based on selected chapters from Reisner's book and a video derived from the book, to help students develop critical thinking and ethical reasoning skills. As we did so, we realized that there was much more that could be included. The ethical dilemmas associated with water development and related engineering projects are many. So, now, the original exercise has been expanded to 7 units. The original five units are based on Cadillac Desert. The sixth is based on a recent great documentary film, DamNation. The last unit is inspired by a terrific chapter from John McPhee's 1971 book Encounters with the Archdruid. The format is that student read articles and book chapters and then write responses to questions designed to get them to reflect on what they read. So, the exercises may be assigned as homework, but for the most value there must be some significant group discussions. If all units are used, this provides several weeks of homework for students, but instructors may cherry pick the units

  13. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  14. Exploring the ethical and regulatory issues in pragmatic clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care.

  15. Identifying ethical issues of the Department of the Army civilian and Army Nurse Corps certified registered nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Constance L; Elliott, Aaron R; Harris, Janet R

    2006-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the ethical issues Department of the Army civilian and Army Nurse Corps certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) encountered in their anesthesia practice and how disturbed they were by these issues. This descriptive study used a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of Army Nurse Corps officers and Department of the Army civilian registered nurses (N = 5,293). The CRNA subset (n = 97) was obtained from questionnaires that indicated a primary practice setting as anesthesia. The most frequently occurring ethical issue identified was conflict in the nurse-physician relationship, whereas the most disturbing issue was working with incompetent/impaired colleagues. Unresolved ethical conflicts can negatively influence the nurses' morale, leading to avoidance of the issue and contributing to burnout. Identifying the ethical issues and disturbance level experienced by CRNAs should contribute to the development of an ethics education program that addresses issues encountered in CRNA practice.

  16. Addressing the ethical challenges in genetic testing and sequencing of children.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ellen Wright; McCullough, Laurence B; Biesecker, Leslie G; Joffe, Steven; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Wolf, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recently provided two recommendations about predictive genetic testing of children. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium's Pediatrics Working Group compared these recommendations, focusing on operational and ethical issues specific to decision making for children. Content analysis of the statements addresses two issues: (1) how these recommendations characterize and analyze locus of decision making, as well as the risks and benefits of testing, and (2) whether the guidelines conflict or come to different but compatible conclusions because they consider different testing scenarios. These statements differ in ethically significant ways. AAP/ACMG analyzes risks and benefits using best interests of the child and recommends that, absent ameliorative interventions available during childhood, clinicians should generally decline to order testing. Parents authorize focused tests. ACMG analyzes risks and benefits using the interests of the child and other family members and recommends that sequencing results be examined for additional variants that can lead to ameliorative interventions, regardless of age, which laboratories should report to clinicians who should contextualize the results. Parents must accept additional analysis. The ethical arguments in these statements appear to be in tension with each other.

  17. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  18. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

  19. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  20. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 3: Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 3 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "The Law and Ethical Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Theodore P.…

  1. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  2. Ethical issues in health workforce development.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed. PMID:15868019

  3. Ethical Issues in Marketing and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)

  4. Ethical issues in human genome research.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1991-01-01

    In addition to provocative questions about science policy, research on the human genome will generate important ethical questions in at least three categories. First, the possibility of greatly increased genetic information about individuals and populations will require choices to be made about what that information should be and about who should control the generation and dissemination of genetic information. Presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, workplace genetic screening, and testing by insurance companies pose significant ethical problems. Second, the burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes raises a number of important ethical questions. Third, increasing knowledge about genetic contributions to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors will challenge our self-understanding and social institutions.

  5. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  6. A survey of genetic counselors' strategies for addressing ethical and professional challenges in practice.

    PubMed

    Bower, Matthew A; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Bartels, Dianne M; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2002-06-01

    There is limited research about ethical and professional dilemmas that genetic counselors encounter in their practice and their strategies for addressing them. In this study, 454 genetic counselors rated the frequency with which they encounter each of 16 ethical/professional challenges identified and categorized previously (McCarthy Veach P., Bartels DM, LeRoy BS (2001) J Genet Couns 10(2):97-119). Over 40% indicated these issues occurred frequently: patient emotions, diversity, financial constraints, uncertainty, and colleague error. Two hundred and fifty-five respondents provided personal anecdotes describing exceptionally challenging situations and recommended strategies for addressing them. Most of their anecdotes involved informed consent, value conflicts, confidentiality, colleague error, withholding information, and resource allocation. The most frequently recommended strategies were further discussion with patients, consultation with other professionals, and referral to other health sources. Thirty-five respondents were unable to/did not offer strategies. Respondent demographics were not related to frequency of issues, type of anecdote, or recommended strategies. Practice, policy, and research implications are discussed.

  7. [Specialist and lay ethical expertise in public health: issues and challenges for discourse ethics].

    PubMed

    Massé, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise.

  8. Ethical Issues in Rehabilitation Counselor Supervision and the New 2010 Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glosoff, Harriet L.; Matrone, Kathe F.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 revision of the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" addresses changes in ethical standards related to rehabilitation counselor supervision. In an effort to promote awareness of these changes, this article offers a brief overview of the revisions and implications for practice including the responsibility of…

  9. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health Past Issues / ... What types of research is NIDCR conducting on aging and oral health? We’re currently funding basic ...

  10. Genetic susceptibility testing for neurodegenerative diseases: Ethical and practice issues

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.

    2013-01-01

    As the genetics of neurodegenerative disease become better understood, opportunities for genetic susceptibility testing for at-risk individuals will increase. Such testing raises important ethical and practice issues related to test access, informed consent, risk estimation and communication, return of results, and policies to prevent genetic discrimination. The advent of direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility testing for various neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and certain prion diseases) means that ethical and practical challenges must be faced not only in traditional research and clinical settings, but also in broader society. This review addresses several topics relevant to the development and implementation of genetic susceptibility tests across research, clinical, and consumer settings; these include appropriate indications for testing, the implications of different methods for disclosing test results, clinical versus personal utility of risk information, psychological and behavioral responses to test results, testing of minors, genetic discrimination, and ethical dilemmas posed by whole-genome sequencing. We also identify future areas of likely growth in the field, including pharmacogenomics and genetic screening for individuals considering or engaged in activities that pose elevated risk of brain injury (e.g., football players, military personnel). APOE gene testing for risk of Alzheimer’s disease is used throughout as an instructive case example, drawing upon the authors’ experience as investigators in a series of multisite randomized clinical trials that have examined the impact of disclosing APOE genotype status to interested individuals (e.g., first-degree relatives, persons with mild cognitive impairment). PMID:23583530

  11. Some Ethical Legal Issues in Heart Disease Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pyng Jing

    2014-01-01

    Ethical concerns, cultural norms, and legal issues must be carefully considered when treating a patient with heart disease. Although physicians or surgeons must play a role in course of treatment decision making, they should be guided by evidence-based data and the preferences of patients and/or the patient’s parents. However, there is no obligation to provide this type of informed consultation and approval unless these ethical issues become law - which typically occurs through litigation. In this review, we examined common ethical principles that are integral to the regular decisions made by clinicians every day. Some special ethical issues and associated litigation, if any, which might occur perioperatively will also be reviewed. Finally, the final judgments of civil and criminal courts of Taiwan, particularly lawsuits involving physicians associated with coronary artery disease care or aortic aneurysm, will also be introduced. PMID:27122831

  12. Ethical Issues of ICT Use by Teacher Trainers: Use of E-Books in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to address the issue of ethics in ICT use by university teacher trainers, the current study aimed to investigate academics' downloading and sharing e-books as well as the reasons that led them to be involved in this piracy. The participants included 140 teacher trainers working at faculties of education in Turkey, and a questionnaire…

  13. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if significant…

  14. Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical…

  15. How Do We Teach What Is Right? Research and Issues in Ethical and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    Enhances understanding of values-education issues by addressing research on moral and ethical development. Presents Damon's tripartite distinction among moral reflection, moral emotion, and moral conduct--head, heart, and habit--to show moral development's complexity. Although promoting prosocial behavior is parents' responsibility, literature is…

  16. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

  17. Researching Street Children: Methodological and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz, Claudio S.; And Others

    This paper describes the ethical and methodological problems associated with studying prosocial moral reasoning of street children and children of low and high SES living with their families, and problems associated with studying sexual attitudes and behavior of street children and their knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS.…

  18. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  19. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  20. Internet research and ethics: transformative issues in nursing education research.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Pamela Young

    2014-01-01

    As practice in the educational and clinical settings seeks to be evidence based, faculty are increasingly required to conduct research and publish the results to advance the science of our profession. The purpose of this article is to discuss transformative research ethics because Internet use is an increasing component of current research studies. How nurse educators can engage in research-utilizing methodologies inclusive of technology while adhering to ethical standards developed before the advance of the Internet is reviewed. Recommendations are cited to address the new questions that arise at institutional review board meetings resulting from potential ethical implications of using students or research participants in cyber space.

  1. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

  2. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  3. Sin boldly: ethical issues of DRGs.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Chuck

    1986-01-01

    The current system of diagnostic related groups poses a series of ethical concerns for patients, practitioners, and hospital administrators. In addition to reducing access to health care by those groups most in need, the system results in diminished quality, health care rationing based on cost/benefit projections, and en eventual two-tiered method of health care delivery. Most important, the author suggests that a radical change is occurring in the image of health care from service/mission to production/business with concomitant attitudinal changes in staff and administration. Capitulation to the business ethic results in the devaluation of "patients as products." Guidelines are offered to continue prudent fiscal management with service-oriented delivery to recover the historical mission of health care provision in hospitals.

  4. Mitochondrial Modification Techniques and Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tatay, Lucía; Hernández-Andreu, José M; Aznar, Justo

    2017-02-24

    Current strategies for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease to offspring include techniques known as mitochondrial replacement and mitochondrial gene editing. This technology has already been applied in humans on several occasions, and the first baby with donor mitochondria has already been born. However, these techniques raise several ethical concerns, among which is the fact that they entail genetic modification of the germline, as well as presenting safety problems in relation to a possible mismatch between the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, maternal mitochondrial DNA carryover, and the "reversion" phenomenon. In this essay, we discuss these questions, highlighting the advantages of some techniques over others from an ethical point of view, and we conclude that none of these are ready to be safely applied in humans.

  5. Mitochondrial Modification Techniques and Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Tatay, Lucía; Hernández-Andreu, José M.; Aznar, Justo

    2017-01-01

    Current strategies for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease to offspring include techniques known as mitochondrial replacement and mitochondrial gene editing. This technology has already been applied in humans on several occasions, and the first baby with donor mitochondria has already been born. However, these techniques raise several ethical concerns, among which is the fact that they entail genetic modification of the germline, as well as presenting safety problems in relation to a possible mismatch between the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, maternal mitochondrial DNA carryover, and the “reversion” phenomenon. In this essay, we discuss these questions, highlighting the advantages of some techniques over others from an ethical point of view, and we conclude that none of these are ready to be safely applied in humans. PMID:28245555

  6. Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.

    PubMed

    Kleijnen, J

    2011-09-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling.

  7. Moral and ethical issues in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straughan, R

    2000-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has recently become the focus of heated controversy and media attention, particularly in the UK. The most obvious concerns have centred upon the possible effects of the technology on the environment and on human health, but a broader and more fundamental set of considerations has also been evident in much of the debate, these are usually referred to as 'moral' or 'ethical' concerns.

  8. Ethics and National Defense: The Timeless Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    discusses Operation Valkyrie , the attempted assassination of Hitler by senior German officers. Raymond uses the ethical dilemmas faced by these officers to...and civilian rule are subordinate to other principles. If Operation Valkyrie was legiti- mate, a Pandora’s Box is opened. Perhaps, the lid would only be...prosecuting an unjust war?3 If those not involved in Operation Valkyrie were correct in adhering to the principle of duty, other problems arise. Some might

  9. Engineering ethics in Puerto Rico: issues and narratives.

    PubMed

    Frey, William J; O'Neill-Carrillo, Efraín

    2008-09-01

    This essay discusses engineering ethics in Puerto Rico by examining the impact of the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico (CIAPR) and by outlining the constellation of problems and issues identified in workshops and retreats held with Puerto Rican engineers. Three cases developed and discussed in these workshops will help outline movements in engineering ethics beyond the compliance perspective of the CIAPR. These include the Town Z case, Copper Mining in Puerto Rico, and a hypothetical case researched by UPRM students on laptop disposal. The last section outlines four future challenges in engineering ethics pertinent to the Puerto Rican situation.

  10. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  11. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  12. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  13. Risk and supervised exercise: the example of anorexia to illustrate a new ethical issue in the traditional debates of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2005-01-01

    Sport and physical activity is an area that remains relatively unexplored by contemporary bioethics. It is, however, an area in which important ethical issues arise. This paper explores the case of the participation of people with anorexia nervosa in exercise. Exercise is one of the central features of anorexia. The presence of anorexics in exercise classes is becoming an increasingly sensitive issue for instructors and fitness professionals. The ethics of teaching exercise to anorexics has, however, seldom, if ever, been addressed. Codes of ethics and legislation do not offer guidelines pertinent to the case and it is left unclear whether anorexics should be allowed to participate in exercise classes. It is shown by this paper that there are strong ethical reasons to let anorexics participate in exercise classes. However, the paper also explains why, despite these apparently cogent ethical reasons, there is no moral obligation to allow a person with anorexia to take part in exercise/sports activities. PMID:15634747

  14. Risk and supervised exercise: the example of anorexia to illustrate a new ethical issue in the traditional debates of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2005-01-01

    Sport and physical activity is an area that remains relatively unexplored by contemporary bioethics. It is, however, an area in which important ethical issues arise. This paper explores the case of the participation of people with anorexia nervosa in exercise. Exercise is one of the central features of anorexia. The presence of anorexics in exercise classes is becoming an increasingly sensitive issue for instructors and fitness professionals. The ethics of teaching exercise to anorexics has, however, seldom, if ever, been addressed. Codes of ethics and legislation do not offer guidelines pertinent to the case and it is left unclear whether anorexics should be allowed to participate in exercise classes. It is shown by this paper that there are strong ethical reasons to let anorexics participate in exercise classes. However, the paper also explains why, despite these apparently cogent ethical reasons, there is no moral obligation to allow a person with anorexia to take part in exercise/sports activities.

  15. Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Haustein, Dušan; Landeweerd, Laurens

    2016-07-18

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human cognitive enhancement (in general) and in the study of the technical aspects of smart-glasses. Identified papers were subject to traditional content analysis: 739 references were identified of which 247 were regarded as relevant for full text examinations, and 155 were included in the study. A wide variety of ethical issues with smart-glasses have been identified, such as issues related to privacy, safety, justice, change in human agency, accountability, responsibility, social interaction, power and ideology. Smart-glasses are envisioned to change individual human identity and behavior as well as social interaction. Taking these issues into account appears to be relevant when developing, deliberating, deciding on, implementing, and using smart-glasses.

  16. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position.

  17. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues.

  18. Nuclear Power as an Ethical Issue: Utilitarian Ethics and Egalitarian Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

    1990-01-01

    Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)

  19. Ethical issues in nanomedicine: Tempest in a teapot?

    PubMed

    Allon, Irit; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Dekel, Raz; Solbakk, Jan-Helge; Weltring, Klaus-Michael; Siegal, Gil

    2017-03-01

    Nanomedicine offers remarkable options for new therapeutic avenues. As methods in nanomedicine advance, ethical questions conjunctly arise. Nanomedicine is an exceptional niche in several aspects as it reflects risks and uncertainties not encountered in other areas of medical research or practice. Nanomedicine partially overlaps, partially interlocks and partially exceeds other medical disciplines. Some interpreters agree that advances in nanotechnology may pose varied ethical challenges, whilst others argue that these challenges are not new and that nanotechnology basically echoes recurrent bioethical dilemmas. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the ethical issues related to nanomedicine and to reflect on the question whether nanomedicine generates ethical challenges of new and unique nature. Such a determination should have implications on regulatory processes and professional conducts and protocols in the future.

  20. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  1. Reflections on ethical issues in psychopharmacology: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Psychopharmacology has revolutionized psychiatric practice but raises a number of ethical issues. This review from an American perspective first describes ethics analyses and attempts to portray the ethical practitioner. Pressures that interfere with appropriate prescribing come from outside the prescriber and from within, including from insurers, other treatment staff and the prescriber's own will to act for the patient. Clinicians also face binds in which alternate choices seem to have merit and leave the prescriber feeling pulled in contradictory directions, frequently related to risk-benefit dilemmas. The ethics of psychopharmacology poses many questions that cannot yet be answered at the current state of the field. Pharmacology also seems to promote extremes of attitudes, such as "All such drugs are poisons" and the like. This review then provides some risk management principles, and concludes that such a review, though not comprehensive, may serve to open questions that are not always considered by clinicians.

  2. Ethical Issues in Adolescents' Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyingbo, Morolake; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. There is a perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may therefore not fully comprehend the risk they may be taking when engaging in research. This paper examines the various ethical issues that may impact stakeholders' decision making when considering engaging adolescents in SRH research in Nigeria. It makes a case for lowering the age of consent for adolescents. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescents' participation in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices compared to adults. The particular challenges of applying the fundamental principles of research ethics to adolescent research, especially research about sex and sexuality, will only become clear if more studies are conducted.

  3. Coverage with evidence development: ethical issues and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Pearson, Steven D

    2008-07-01

    Coverage with evidence development (CED) is an evolving method of providing provisional access to novel medical interventions while generating the evidence needed to determine whether unconditional coverage is warranted. In this article we review the policy rationale for CED and present a normative analysis that addresses ethical concerns and policy implications.

  4. Ethical issues in the qualitative researcher--participant relationship.

    PubMed

    Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David

    2008-03-01

    Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice.

  5. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  6. Genetic information and insurance: some ethical issues.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, O

    1997-01-01

    Life is risky, and insurance provides one of the best developed ways of controlling risks. By pooling, and so transferring risks, those who turn out to suffer antecedently uncertain harms can be assured in advance that they will be helped if those harms arise; they can then plan their lives and activities with confidence that they are less at the mercy of ill fortune. Both publicly organized and commercial insurance can organize the pooling of risk in ways that are beneficial for all concerned. They provide standard ways of securing fundamental ethical values such as solidarity and mutuality. Although policy holders do not know or contract with one another, each benefits from the contribution of others to a shared scheme for pooling and so controlling risk. Although there is a limit to the degree to which commercially-based insurance, where premiums depend on risk level, can go beyond mutuality towards solidarity, in practice it too often achieves a measure of solidarity by taking a broad brush approach to pooling risk. However, the ordinary practices of insurance, and in particular of commercial insurance, also raise ethical questions. These may be put in simple terms by contrasting the way in which an insurance market discriminates between different people, on the basis of characteristics that (supposedly) determine their risk level, and our frequent abhorrence of discrimination, in particular on the basis on religious, racial and gender characteristics. Are the discriminations on which insurance practice relies upon as standard acceptable or not? The increasing availability of genetic information, which testing (of individuals) and screening (of populations) may provide, could lend urgency to these questions. Genetic information may provide a way of obtaining more accurate assessment of individual risks to health and life. This information could be used to discriminate more finely between the risk levels of different individuals, and then to alter the

  7. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  8. Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

    2005-01-01

    With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

  9. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality. PMID:20401332

  10. Ethical Issues in Using Interactive Radio in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…

  11. Ethical Issues in Withholding Care from Severely Handicapped Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    1981-01-01

    Ethical issues are examined that involve withholding medical treatment from severely handicapped infants. Although current laws do not sanction euthanasia, severely handicapped infants are often assisted in dying. Discussion includes society's apparent acceptance of this practice and several solutions to the problems. (Author)

  12. Social and Ethical Issues. Paper Presentations: Session A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains nine papers from the social and ethical issues section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Attitudes of University Faculty Members toward Students with Disabilities" (Marie F. Kraska);…

  13. HIV prevention research ethics: an introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B

    2014-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.

  14. Ethical issues in brain-computer interface research, development, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Vlek, Rutger J; Steines, David; Szibbo, Dyana; Kübler, Andrea; Schneider, Mary-Jane; Haselager, Pim; Nijboer, Femke

    2012-06-01

    The steadily growing field of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th International BCI meeting (Asilomar, California, 2010), six panel members from various BCI laboratories and companies set out to identify and disentangle ethical issues related to BCI use in four case scenarios, which were inspired by current experiences in BCI laboratories. Results of the discussion are reported in this article, touching on topics such as the representation of persons with communication impairments, dealing with technological complexity and moral responsibility in multidisciplinary teams, and managing expectations, ranging from an individual user to the general public. Furthermore, we illustrate that where treatment and research interests conflict, ethical concerns arise. On the basis of the four case scenarios, we discuss salient, practical ethical issues that may confront any member of a typical multidisciplinary BCI team. We encourage the BCI and rehabilitation communities to engage in a dialogue, and to further identify and address pressing ethical issues as they occur in the practice of BCI research and its commercial applications.

  15. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  16. The Ethical Imperative of Addressing Oral Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.Y.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged population groups. Reducing health disparities has been identified as an ethical imperative by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health and numerous other national and international bodies. Significant progress has been made over the past years in identifying vulnerable groups, and ‘distal’ factors including political, economic, social, and community characteristics are now considered pivotal. It is thus unsurprising that the remarkable advances in the science and practice of dentistry have not led to notable reductions in oral health disparities. In this review, we summarize recent work and emphasize the need for a solid theoretical framing to guide oral health disparities research. We provide a theoretical framework outlining pathways that operate across the continuum of oral health determinants during the lifecourse and highlight potential areas for intervention. Because oral health disparities emanate from the unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources, tangible progress is likely to be realized only by a global movement and concerted efforts by all stakeholders, including policymakers, the civil society, and academic, professional, and scientific bodies. PMID:24189268

  17. Survey of ethical issues reported by Indian medical students: basis for design of a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India.

  18. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Cancer.gov

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  19. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  20. Ethical Issues for Public Health Approaches to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Suzanna M; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. Because individual-level interventions have been unsuccessful at curbing obesity rates, there is an emphasis on public health approaches. In addition to testing the effectiveness of any public health interventions, it is important to consider the ethical implications of these interventions in order to protect the public's rights and promote overall well-being. In this paper, we review public health approaches to obesity in three broad domains (changes to the socio-communicative environment, changes to the economic environment, and changes to the physical environment/access) and consider the potential ethical issues that arise in each of those domains. We suggest that interventions that target the physical environment/access (making it easier for people to engage in healthy behaviors), that target the entire population (rather than just individuals with obesity), and that focus on health behaviors (rather than on weight) have the least potential for ethical concerns.

  1. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  2. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    PubMed

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  3. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    PubMed

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups.

  4. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  5. Ethical issues of obesity surgery--a health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Saarni, Samuli I; Anttila, Heidi; Saarni, Suoma E; Mustajoki, Pertti; Koivukangas, Vesa; Ikonen, Tuija S; Malmivaara, Antti

    2011-09-01

    New surgical technologies may challenge societal values, and their adoption may lead to ethical challenges. Despite proven cost-effectiveness, obesity (bariatric) surgery and its public funding have been questioned on ethical arguments relating to, for example, the self-inflicted or non-disease nature of obesity. Our aim was to analyze the ethical issues relevant to bariatric surgery. A comprehensive health technology assessment was conducted on bariatric surgery for morbid obesity using the EUnetHTA method, including a fully integrated ethical analysis. The ethical arguments suggesting that obesity should not be surgically treated because it is self-inflicted were rejected. Medicalization of obesity may have both positive and negative effects that impact the various stakeholders differently, thus being difficult to balance. Informing bariatric surgery patients and actively supporting their autonomy is exceptionally important, as the benefits and harms of both obesity and bariatric surgery are complex, and the outcome depends on how well the patient understands and adheres to the life-long changes in eating habits required. Justice considerations are important in organizing surgical treatment of obesity, as the obese are discriminated against in many ways and obesity is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who might have problems of access to treatments. Obesity should be treated like other diseases in health care, and obesity surgery rationed like other cost-effective treatments. Positive actions to ensure patient autonomy and just access to surgical treatments may be warranted.

  6. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4(th) International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  7. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

  8. Informed consent in experimentation involving mentally impaired persons: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The problem of experimentation involving subjects whose mental condition prevents them from understanding information and providing proper informed consent has been addressed in various codes, declarations, conventions, treaties and regulations adopted by national, international and supranational institutions and authorities. This article summarizes the basic ethical criteria these documents provide and stresses the historical development from the nearly total exclusion of incapacitated subjects, established in the mid-twentieth century, to their contemporary inclusion in clinical trials on certain ethical conditions. The problem of proxy consent by legal representatives for participation in clinical trials is addressed particularly in reference to current Italian regulations. Exceptions to human experimentation requirements in emergency situations are also briefly discussed.

  9. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  10. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozair, Fouzia F.; Jamshed, Nayer; Sharma, Amit; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions. PMID:25878950

  11. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 21: genetic screening of gamete donors: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W; De Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P; Diedrich, K; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U; Tüttelmann, F; Provoost, V

    2014-07-01

    This Task Force document explores the ethical issues involved in the debate about the scope of genetic screening of gamete donors. Calls for expanded donor screening arise against the background of both occasional findings of serious but rare genetic conditions in donors or donor offspring that were not detected through present screening procedures and the advent of new genomic technologies promising affordable testing of donors for a wide range of conditions. Ethical principles require that all stakeholders' interests are taken into account, including those of candidate donors. The message of the profession should be that avoiding all risks is impossible and that testing should remain proportional.

  12. Rationing of resources: ethical issues in disasters and epidemic situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Janet Y; Anderson-Shaw, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In an epidemic situation or large-scale disaster, medical and human resources may be stretched to the point of exhaustion. Appropriate planning must incorporate plans of action that minimize public health morbidity and mortality while maximizing the appropriate use of medical and human healthcare resources. While the current novel H1N1 influenza has spread throughout the world, the severity of this strain of influenza appears to be relatively less virulent and lethal compared to the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, the presence of this new influenza strain has reignited interest in pandemic planning. Amongst other necessary resources needed to combat pandemic influenza, a major medical resource concern is the limited number of mechanical ventilators that would be available to be used to treat ill patients. Recent reported cases of avian influenza suggest that mechanical ventilation will be required for the successful recovery of many individuals ill with this strain of virus. However, should the need for ventilators exceed the number of available machines, how will care providers make the difficult ethical decisions as to who should be placed or who should remain on these machines as more influenza patients arrive in need of care? This paper presents a decision-making model for clinicians that is based upon the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice. The model begins with the basic assumptions of triage and progresses into a useful algorithm based upon utilitarian principles. The model is intended to be used as a guide for clinicians in making decisions about the allocation of scarce resources in a just manner and to serve as an impetus for institutions to create or adapt plans to address resource allocation issues should the need arise.

  13. [Ethical issues in health care of gender violence].

    PubMed

    Bugarín-González, R; Bugarín-Diz, C

    2014-01-01

    Gender violence is a health problem that occasionally gives rise to ethical dilemmas for the family doctor. One of the most important conflict is probably when a patient admits to being abused by her partner, but appeals to keep the information confidential, and refuses to present an injury report. There also other problematic situations. This essay attempts to reflect on these issues and help professionals in making decisions.

  14. [Beyond the criticism addressed to research ethics committees: a choice of governance].

    PubMed

    Legault, Georges A; Patenaude, Johane

    2007-12-01

    In 1998 in Canada and Quebec, two policies regarding research ethics transformed the evaluation approach of clinical research following the Code of Nuremberg and subsequent Declarations of the World Medical Association. Even after almost ten years of implementation, these policies still arouse debate in the research milieu. If for many, these debates essentially reflect the inherent difficulties in any implementation process, in which resistance to change and the modification of policies and action plans, we believe that there is a more fundamental stake, rarely mentioned or debated, that of the choice of governance. In this article we start by proposing a classification of the different modes of governance: professional deontology, and ethical and administrative rights. Secondly, we show how the debates and criticisms addressed to the Research Ethics Committee of Quebec and Canada attains their full meaning in light of this basic stake: the divergence of the mode of governance to favour ethics in research.

  15. Reflecting on ethical and legal issues in wildlife disease.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Hamish; Hocking, Barbara Ann

    2005-08-01

    Disease in wildlife raises a number of issues that have not been widely considered in the bioethical literature. However, wildlife disease has major implications for human welfare. The majority of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic: this is, they occur in humans by cross-species transmissions from animal hosts. Managing these diseases often involves balancing concerns with human health against animal welfare and conservation concerns. Many infectious diseases of domestic animals are shared with wild animals, although it is often unclear whether the infection spills over from wild animals to domestic animals or vice versa. Culling is the standard means of managing such diseases, bringing economic considerations, animal welfare and conservation into conflict. Infectious diseases are also major threatening processes in conservation biology and their appropriate management by culling, vaccination or treatment raises substantial animal ethics issues. One particular issue of great significance in Australia is an ongoing research program to develop genetically modified pathogens to control vertebrate pests including rabbits, foxes and house mice. Release of any self-replicating GMO vertebrate pathogen gives rise to a whole series of ethical questions. We briefly review current Australian legal responses to these problems. Finally, we present two unresolved problems of general importance that are exemplified by wildlife disease. First, to what extent can or should 'bioethics' be broadened beyond direct concerns with human welfare to animal welfare and environmental welfare? Second, how should the irreducible uncertainty of ecological systems be accounted for in ethical decision making?

  16. Ethical Issues Raised by Private Practice Physiotherapy Are More Diverse than First Meets the Eye: Recommendations from a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. Method: After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. Results: A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. Conclusions: The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported—through education, research, and good governance—in providing the best possible care for their patients. PMID:25931663

  17. This "Ethical Trap" Is for Roboticists, Not Robots: On the Issue of Artificial Agent Ethical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith W; Wolf, Marty J; Grodzinsky, Frances

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we address the question of when a researcher is justified in describing his or her artificial agent as demonstrating ethical decision-making. The paper is motivated by the amount of research being done that attempts to imbue artificial agents with expertise in ethical decision-making. It seems clear that computing systems make decisions, in that they make choices between different options; and there is scholarship in philosophy that addresses the distinction between ethical decision-making and general decision-making. Essentially, the qualitative difference between ethical decisions and general decisions is that ethical decisions must be part of the process of developing ethical expertise within an agent. We use this distinction in examining publicity surrounding a particular experiment in which a simulated robot attempted to safeguard simulated humans from falling into a hole. We conclude that any suggestions that this simulated robot was making ethical decisions were misleading.

  18. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  19. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  20. Ethical Issues of Social Media Usage in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P.; Bond, C.; Gabarron, E.; Househ, M.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Mayer, M. A.; Merolli, M.; Hansen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Social media, web and mobile technologies are increasingly used in healthcare and directly support patient-centered care. Patients benefit from disease self-management tools, contact to others, and closer monitoring. Researchers study drug efficiency, or recruit patients for clinical studies via these technologies. However, low communication barriers in social-media, limited privacy and security issues lead to problems from an ethical perspective. This paper summarizes the ethical issues to be considered when social media is exploited in healthcare contexts. Methods Starting from our experiences in social-media research, we collected ethical issues for selected social-media use cases in the context of patient-centered care. Results were enriched by collecting and analyzing relevant literature and were discussed and interpreted by members of the IMIA Social Media Working Group. Results Most relevant issues in social-media applications are confidence and privacy that need to be carefully preserved. The patient-physician relationship can suffer from the new information gain on both sides since private information of both healthcare provider and consumer may be accessible through the Internet. Physicians need to ensure they keep the borders between private and professional intact. Beyond, preserving patient anonymity when citing Internet content is crucial for research studies. Conclusion Exploiting medical social-media in healthcare applications requires a careful reflection of roles and responsibilities. Availability of data and information can be useful in many settings, but the abuse of data needs to be prevented. Preserving privacy and confidentiality of online users is a main issue, as well as providing means for patients or Internet users to express concerns on data usage. PMID:26293861

  1. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  2. Ethical issues in managed care: a Catholic Christian perspective.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    1997-03-01

    A Christian analysis of the moral conflicts that exist among physicians and health care institutions requires a detailed treatment of the ethical issues in managed care. To be viable, managed care, as with any system of health care, must be economically sound and morally defensible. While managed care is per se a morally neutral concept, as it is currently practiced in the United States, it is morally dubious at best, and in many instances is antithetical to a Catholic Christian ethics of health care. The moral status of any system of managed care ought to be judged with respect to its congruence with Gospel teachings about the care of the sick, Papal Encyclicals, and the documents of the Second Vatican Council. In this essay, I look at the important conceptual or definitional issues of managed care, assess these concerns over against the source and content of a Catholic ethic of health care, and outline the necessary moral requirements of any licit system of health care.

  3. Wanted-nurses. Ethical issues and the nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Erlen, Judith A

    2004-01-01

    The persistent nursing shortage is challenging the values and beliefs of the nursing profession and causing nurses to ask how they can fulfill their ethical responsibilities to patients when there are an insufficient number and a maldistribution of nurses. Nurses are expressing job dissatisfaction, experiencing moral distress, and wondering about their inability to provide quality patient care. In this article, the author addresses the commitment to care for patients and the ethical dilemma with which nurses are grappling: caring for self versus caring for others. Recommendations for possible action include reenvisioning the profession of nursing, empowering nurses, providing support, and restructuring the work environment. Taken together, these actions have the potential to reduce the moral distress that nurses are experiencing and to enable them to honor their commitment to patient care.

  4. Antisocial personality disorder: diagnostic, ethical and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, L

    1999-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice.

  5. Reflections on Ways Forward for Addressing Ethical Concerns in Mobile Learning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on a decade of discussions about the range of ethical issues arising in mobile learning research. Research into the educational potential of mobile, handheld technologies to enhance teaching and learning has been regularly frustrated by lecturers' and teachers' concerns about how their students might use such devices. At other…

  6. Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

    2007-01-01

    Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

  7. Ethical issues in public health surveillance: drawing inspiration from ethical frameworks.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2015-01-01

    The issues raised by public health surveillance are typical of those involved in public health ethics. Surveillance calls, in particular, for the balancing of individual rights and collective interests, which are often in conflict. One of the issues most closely linked with public health surveillance is the collection and use of personal data for purposes of public concern. Numerous frameworks (proposed by institutions, working groups or single individuals) are available for use in assessing the ethical correctness of public health interventions in general or, more specifically, of public health surveillance. While heterogeneous in nature, these frameworks are nonetheless built on a foundation of common values that are similar to those typically encountered in a clinical setting and to which bioethics has traditionally devoted considerable attention. However, it is necessary to apply these values to the specific context of public health, where the focus is more on the interests of the public at large than on those of the individual.

  8. Simple Gifts: Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Person-Based Composition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul V.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues involved with person-based research. Discusses the ethical discourse embodied in the "Nuremberg Code," federal regulations, and the "Belmont Report." Discusses several specific issues in research ethics to illustrate how this discourse provides new ways of thinking about what must be done to treat…

  9. Ethical issues in funding orphan drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Gericke, C A; Riesberg, A; Busse, R

    2005-03-01

    This essay outlines the moral dilemma of funding orphan drug research and development. To date, ethical aspects of priority setting for research funding have not been an issue of discussion in the bioethics debate. Conflicting moral obligations of beneficence and distributive justice appear to demand very different levels of funding for orphan drug research. The two types of orphan disease, rare diseases and tropical diseases, however, present very different ethical challenges to questions about allocation of research funds. The dilemma is analysed considering utilitarian and rights based theories of justice and moral obligations of non-abandonment and a professional obligation to advance medical science. The limitations of standard economic evaluation tools and other priority setting tools used to inform health policy decision makers on research funding decisions are outlined.

  10. Ethical issues in conducting research with deaf populations.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Thew, Denise

    2013-12-01

    Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users represent a small population at risk for marginalization from research and surveillance activities resulting from cultural, language, and ethical challenges. The Deaf community's view of deafness as a cultural identity, rather than a disability, contradicts the medical community's perception of deafness as a disease or deficiency in need of correction or elimination. These differences continue to have significant cultural and social implications within the Deaf community, resulting in mistrust of research opportunities. Two particularly contentious ethical topics for the Deaf community are the absence of community representation in genetic research and the lack of accessible informed consents and research materials. This article outlines a series of innovative strategies and solutions to these issues, including the importance of community representation and collaboration with researchers studying deaf populations.

  11. Ethical issues in health care institutions. Lesson 2: Ethical considerations in group decision making and groupthink.

    PubMed

    Alie, R E

    1991-01-01

    In this second lesson of a five-part WMU/AHRA magazine course on ethics, Dr. Alie tackles an interesting concept--group-think. According to the author, this tendency occurs when cohesive groups lose their ability to critically evaluate alternatives in problem solving. Since groups such as committees or task forces frequently resolve issues and make policy in health care organizations, warning signs of this phenomenon are detailed as well as suggestions to help avoid the problem.

  12. Ethical issues in astrobiology: a Christian perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, R. O.

    2009-12-01

    With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that

  13. Ethical issues surrounding the transplantation of human fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Hurd, R E

    1992-12-01

    Organ transplants have been one of the greatest advances in medicine. However, organs from living relatives or cadavers are in short supply, and many people die awaiting a donor organ. Increasing the donor pool by using organs from aborted fetuses has been proposed to increase the supply. In addition, there are benefits of using fetal tissue including its particular usefulness in children, the fact that it is not readily rejected, and its potential for growth. Guidelines for fetal research were issued in 1975, but a research moratorium was imposed in 1988 to allow study of ethical and legal issues. While the federal government delays in lifting the ban, several states have written laws governing experimentation with fetuses. Ethical arguments against using fetal tissue for organ transplant include a concern that this would create a branch of biomedicine which depends on the continuation of induced abortions. This could lead to neglect of research for other therapies. The timing and type of abortion should continue to benefit the mother, rather than the organ recipient. Ethicists debate whether or not use of aborted tissue implies complicity in the abortion process beyond that which exists for all members of a society which permits abortion. They also wonder whether knowing that some good could come of an abortion would influence a woman's decision to have one. Proposals to keep the use of fetal tissue ethical include banning the commercial use of sale of tissues, forbidding designation of the tissue recipient (to prevent harvesting fetal tissue for a relative), separating abortion counseling and management from harvesting of the tissue, and obtaining informed consent (perhaps from a proxy surrogate rather than from the mother) for the use of fetal tissue. When the medical and ethical communities have reached some consensus on these issues, crafted safeguards, and precluded conflicts of interest, then restrictions on government funding should be lifted. Whereas it

  14. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

  15. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  16. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  17. Key ethical issues encountered in healthcare organizations: the perceptions of staff nurses and nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert W; Frank, Garry L; Hansen, Mary Mincer; Gouty, Carol Ann

    2004-03-01

    The authors compare the results of a May 2002 ethics issues survey of staff nurses who are members of the American Nurses Association (ANA) with those of a February 2000 survey of American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) nurse leaders. The findings reveal a common set of key ethical issues that result from the ineffective management of the conflict between clinical ethics and organizational ethics. Implications for healthcare professionals and the organizations that employ them are discussed.

  18. Ethics and Neuropsychiatric Genetics: A Review of Major Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, Steven K.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means that more patients will seek genetic information, and physicians must manage the process of informed consent to allow meaningful decisions. Patients should be helped to understand the often-limited predictive power of current knowledge, potential psychological impact, risks of stigma and discrimination, and possible implications for family members. Decisions for predictive testing of children raise additional concerns, including distortions of family dynamics and negative effects on children’s self-image; testing is best deferred until adulthood unless preventive interventions exist. Pharmacogenomic testing, part of personalized medicine, may bring collateral susceptibility information for which patients should be prepared. The implications of genetic findings for families raise the question of whether physicians have duties to inform family members of implications for their health. Finally, participation in research in neuropsychiatric genetics evokes a broad range of ethical concerns, including the contentious issue of the extent to which results should be returned to individual subjects. As genetic science becomes more widely applied, the public will become more sophisticated and will be likely to demand a greater role in determining social policy on these issues. PMID:22272758

  19. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  20. [Ethical and social issues associated with genomic medicine].

    PubMed

    Barazzetti, Gaia; Kaufmann, Alain; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2014-05-07

    Genomic medicine is often presented as a new paradigm for personalized healthcare. Encompassing both a translational approach in research and a vision of future medical practice, genomic medicine may have important impact on the way healthcare professionals diagnostics, treat and prevent diseases. We discuss some ethical and social issues raised by the prospect of genome-based medical practice, namely: changing definitions of disease and identity, assessment of clinical validity and utility of genome screening, mastery of genomic information by healthcare professionals and its communication to patients, and questions related to the costs of genomic medicine for future healthcare.

  1. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    PubMed

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the

  2. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care.

  3. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  4. Addressing palliative care clinician burnout in organizations: a workforce necessity, an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Krista L; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Christine S; Shanafelt, Tait D; Kamal, Arif H; Bull, Janet H; Tilburt, Jon C; Swetz, Keith M

    2017-02-11

    Clinician burnout reduces the capacity for providers and health systems to deliver timely, high quality, patient-centered care and increases the risk that clinicians will leave practice. This is especially problematic in hospice and palliative care: patients are often frail, elderly, vulnerable and complex; access to care is often outstripped by need; and demand for clinical experts will increase as palliative care further integrates into usual care. Efforts to mitigate and prevent burnout currently focus on individual clinicians. However, analysis of the problem of burnout should be expanded to include both individual- and systems-level factors as well as solutions; comprehensive interventions must address both. As a society, we hold organizations responsible for acting ethically, especially when it relates to deployment and protection of valuable and constrained resources. We should similarly hold organizations responsible for being ethical stewards of the resource of highly trained and talented clinicians through comprehensive programs to address burnout.

  5. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  6. Depo-Provera--ethical issues in its testing and distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M; Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extensive animal experiments and clinical trials. In assessing the risks and benefits of Depo-Provera use, epidemiological data from large-scale human use is now beginning to become more important than data from animal experiments and clinical trials. The consumer's best interest is central to any ethically responsible system of drug distribution. Systems of informed choice are needed, even in societies where illiteracy remains common and medical services are weak. In the case of a contraceptive, the risks of non-use leading to unintended pregnancy, which can result in high mortality, are relevant as well as the side-effects of the method. An attempt, therefore, is made here to categorise those issues which are universal and those which are country-specific. PMID:6231379

  7. Ethical issues in genetic counselling with special reference to haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2011-10-01

    Genetic counselling is provided in places where genetic tests are carried out. The process involves pre-test counselling as well as post-test counselling to enable the individuals to face the situation and take appropriate decisions with the right frame of mind. Major ethical principles which govern the attitudes and actions of counsellors include: respect for patient autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or taking action to help benefit others and prevent harm, both physical and mental, and justice, which requires that services be distributed fairly to those in need. Other moral issues include veracity, the duty to disclose information or to be truthful, and respect for patient confidentiality. Nondirective counselling, a hallmark of this profession, is in accordance with the principle of individual autonomy. High prevalence of haemoglobinopathies with availability of good and sensitive carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnostic techniques makes these good candidates for population screening of carriers along with genetic counselling for primary prevention of the disease. Screening of the extended family members of the affected child, high risk communities and general population screening including antenatal women are the main target groups for planning a Haemoglobinopathy control programme. A critical mass of trained genetic counsellors who have understanding of the ethical issues and its appropriate handling with the required sensitivity is needed in India.

  8. Ethics and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clever, Sarah L; Edwards, Kelly A; Feudtner, Chris; Braddock, Clarence H

    2001-01-01

    Ethics education aims to train physicians to identify and resolve ethical issues. To address ethical concerns, physicians may need to confront each other. We surveyed medical students to determine if their comfort challenging members of their ward teams about ethical issues varies by specialty and what attributes of students and their teams contributed to that comfort. Compared to other specialties, students felt significantly less comfortable challenging team members about ethical issues on surgery and obstetrics/gynecology. We suggest that ethics education must address the atmosphere on ward teams and give students skills to help them speak out despite their discomfort.

  9. Ethics and human rights issues in perioperative nurses: a subsample of Maryland nurses.

    PubMed

    Killen, A R; Fry, S T; Damrosch, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ethics and human rights issues encountered by Maryland perioperative nurses in their practice. The most frequently occurring issues, the most disturbing issues, and content for ethics education are identified. Implications for education, management, and future research are presented.

  10. Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frederic; O'Connell, Cathal D; Mladenovska, Tajanka; Dodds, Susan

    2017-02-09

    Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments. Accordingly, this article (1) considers whether there is a limit as to what should be bioprinted in medicine; (2) examines key risks of significant harm associated with testing 3D bioprinting for humans; (3) investigates the clinical trial paradigm used to test 3D bioprinting; (4) analyses ethical questions of irreversibility, loss of treatment opportunity and replicability; (5) explores the current lack of a specific framework for the regulation and testing of 3D bioprinting treatments.

  11. Ethical issues when using social media for health outside professional relationships.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values.

  12. Ethical Issues in the Mental Health Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical…

  13. Nursing informatics and nursing ethics: addressing their disconnect through an enhanced TIGER-vision.

    PubMed

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer

    2013-01-01

    All healthcare visions, including that of The TIGER (Technology-Informatics-Guiding-Educational-Reform) Initiative envisage a crucial role for nursing. However, its 7 descriptive pillars do not address the disconnect between Nursing Informatics and Nursing Ethics and their distinct communities in the clinical-disciplinary landscape. Each sees itself as providing decision support by way of information inputs and ethical insights, respectively. Both have reasons - ideological, professional, institutional - for their task construction, but this simultaneously disables each from engaging fully in the point-of-(care)-decision. Increased pressure for translating 'evidence-based' research findings into 'ethically-sound', 'value-based' and 'patient-centered' practice requires rethinking the model implicit in conventional knowledge translation and informatics practice in all disciplines, including nursing. The aim is to aid 'how nurses and other health care scientists more clearly identify clinical and other relevant data that can be captured to inform future comparative effectiveness research. 'A prescriptive, theory-based discipline of '(Nursing) Decisionics' expands the Grid for Volunteer Development of TIGER's newly launched virtual learning environment (VLE). This provides an enhanced TIGER-vision for educational reform to deliver ethically coherent, person-centered care transparently.

  14. Ethical and regulatory issues of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in contemporary health systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique L; Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Cluster randomized trials randomly assign groups of individuals to examine research questions or test interventions and measure their effects on individuals. Recent emphasis on quality improvement, comparative effectiveness, and learning health systems has prompted expanded use of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in routine health-care settings, which in turn poses practical and ethical challenges that current oversight frameworks may not adequately address. The 2012 Ottawa Statement provides a basis for considering many issues related to pragmatic cluster randomized trials but challenges remain, including some arising from the current US research and health-care regulations. In order to examine the ethical, regulatory, and practical questions facing pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings, the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, in July 2013. Attendees included experts in clinical trials, patient advocacy, research ethics, and research regulations from academia, industry, the National Institutes of Health Collaboratory, and other federal agencies. Workshop participants identified substantial barriers to implementing these types of cluster randomized trials, including issues related to research design, gatekeepers and governance in health systems, consent, institutional review boards, data monitoring, privacy, and special populations. We describe these barriers and suggest means for understanding and overcoming them to facilitate pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings.

  15. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  16. Stem cell transplantation therapy: controversy over ethical issues and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gaetano

    2004-12-01

    The possibility of regenerating tissues would provide an effective therapeutic tool for the treatment of many pathological conditions, including neurological diseases, spinal cord injuries, cardiopathies, diabetes, hematological illnesses and genetic disorders. While stem cells may have the potential of regenerating a variety of tissues, as indicated by a number of groundbreaking but preliminary reports, ethical issues and safety considerations seem to preclude the use of human embryonic stem cells in the clinical setting. Adult stem cells might circumvent the issues posed by embryonic stem cells, although the potential plasticity of adult stem cells is under scrutiny because of many conflicting and contradictory reports in the field of stem cell research. Indeed, many aspects of the biology of stem cells are still not known. In this respect, stem cell biologists have to address several pressing issues. A better understanding of stem cell biology would almost certainly allow for the establishment of efficient and reliable cell transplantation experimental programs in the clinic.

  17. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  18. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    PubMed Central

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  19. Sociopolitical, economical and ethical issues in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Elisabetsky, E

    1991-04-01

    Medicinal plant research may be pursued with several goals: the understanding of a native medical system, the elucidation of the rational basis for the medicinal use of a certain plant species, the development of low cost phytotherapeutics, the discovery of prototypic drugs, and so on. More often than not, the research project starts with the collection of indigenous medical knowledge in various parts of the world and generates a dissertation, a scientific paper or a drug. Usually, indigenous knowledge was crucial to the development of such products; nevertheless, indigenous groups tend not to benefit from the achievements of research. Ethnopharmacology involves a series of sociopolitical, economic and ethical dilemmas, at various levels. Most research projects involve more than one country (e.g., field work in a remote part of an underdeveloped country). Frequently host country scientists, visiting scientists, and informants disagree about these dilemmas. As a result, such research efforts are perceived as scientific imperialism; scientists are accused of stealing plant materials and appropriating traditional plant knowledge for financial profit and/or professional advancement. Many governments, as well as indigenous societies are increasingly reluctant to permit such research. Increasingly, funding for field work utilizing indigenous informants is coming from industry. Historically neither native populations nor host countries have shared to a significant extent the financial benefits from any drug that reaches the market. Unless these issues are amply discussed and fairy resolved, medicinal plant research runs the risk of serving ethically questionable purposes.

  20. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions.

  1. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

  2. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  3. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  4. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  5. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  6. Ethics in Classroom Assessment Practices: Issues and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.

    2007-01-01

    Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from…

  7. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  8. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  9. Ethical Issues in Providing Services in Schools to Children with Swallowing and Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Nancy P.; Owre, DeAnne W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a commentary and discussion of ethical issues in dysphagia services as related to school-based practice in speech-language pathology. Method: A review of the literature on ethical issues in the provision of speech-language pathology services to individuals with dysphagia was conducted, with particular emphasis on students…

  10. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  11. Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The Search for an Ethic; (3) Biomedical Issues including…

  12. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  13. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…

  14. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  15. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  16. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  17. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  18. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Research ethics: ethical issues of data reporting and the quest for authenticity.

    PubMed

    Marco, C A; Larkin, G L

    2000-06-01

    The search for truth and its unbiased reporting are ultimate goals of conducting scientific research. Ideally, the reporting of research data ought to be an objective task. In practice, however, it is fraught with numerous statistical and ethical pitfalls, seldom addressed in formal emergency medicine training. The lure of academic celebrity and related influences may persuade researchers to report results in ways that make data appear more interesting, or worthy of publication. Several examples of potentially misleading data reporting are illustrated, including using inappropriate statistical tests, neglecting negative results, omitting missing data points, failing to report actual numbers of eligible subjects, using inappropriate graph labels or terminology, data dredging, and others. Although potentially inaccurate or inflated methods of data reporting may not constitute overt scientific misconduct, the intentional misrepresentation of data is a form of fraud or deception. Publicly funded academic inquiry is a privilege and honor enjoyed by a trusted few. Regardless of outcome, every effort should be made to report data in the most scientifically accurate method. To this end, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Code of Conduct and American College of Emergency Physicians Code of Ethics provide important guidance toward the accurate, compassionate, competent, impartial, and honest conduct of scientific research. Accuracy and authenticity in data reporting are first and foremost a matter of individual integrity, and are crucial to the preservation of academic credibility, the protection of future patients, and the public's trust in the medical research enterprise.

  20. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Clinical genetic research 3: Genetics ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) research.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Daryl; Etchegary, Holly

    2015-01-01

    ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) is a widely used acronym in the bioethics literature that encompasses a broad range of research areas involved in examining the various impacts of science and technology on society. In Canada, GE3LS (Genetics, Ethical, Economic, Environmental, Legal, Social issues) is the term used to describe ELSI studies. It is intentionally more expansive in that GE3LS explicitly brings economic and environmental issues under its purview. ELSI/GE3LS research has become increasingly important in recent years as there has been a greater emphasis on "translational research" that moves genomics from the bench to the clinic. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a range of ELSI-related work that might be conducted as part of a large scale genetics or genomics research project, and to provide some practical insights on how a scientific research team might incorporate a strong and effective ELSI program within its broader research mandate. We begin by describing the historical context of ELSI research and the development of GE3LS research in the Canadian context. We then illustrate how some ELSI research might unfold by outlining a variety of research questions and the various methodologies that might be employed in addressing them in an area of ELSI research that is encompassed under the term "public engagement." We conclude with some practical pointers about how to build an effective ELSI/GE3LS team and focus within a broader scientific research program.

  3. Ethical issues in a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral therapy feasibility study and trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J; Meslin, Eric M; Sidle, John E

    2012-07-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them.

  4. Ethical Issues in a Stage 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Feasibility Study and Trial to Reduce Alcohol Use Among HIV-Infected Outpatients in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J.; Meslin, Eric M.; Sidle, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them. PMID:22850141

  5. [Issues of the practical value of ethics in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Liubarskiene, Zita

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the "Journal of Medical Ethics" published an article where prominent medical specialists stated that medical ethics, as a teaching and a theory, has no practical value. The article was based on the physicians' clinical experience and view that the theory of ethics has little in common with its application in daily practice and provides generalized guidelines for behavior, but is ineffective in decision-making in individual cases. At the same time, when describing conflict situations in healthcare, Lithuanian public press raises the role of ethics to the absolute and states that the lack or violation of ethics is the sole cause of all problems in healthcare, and there would be no problems if physicians behaved morally. From the viewpoint of an ethics professional, both controversial opinions deserve attention, and this paper is devoted to the analysis of these opinions. Ethical collisions and conflicts emerging in providing healthcare are not signs of the helplessness of medical ethics. Both viewpoints - the one disclaiming the role of medical ethics and the one attributing the absolute role to medical ethics - are equally erroneous. Decisions of the society and physicians are aggravated by health policy and the organization of healthcare in the country, as well as by a concrete individual's level of ethical thinking, worldview, and knowledge. Sometimes ethical collisions arise when there is a conflict among ethical principles themselves, and healthcare specialists have to decide which principle should be given priority. There are cases where setting priorities is impossible, and one has to admit that one single specialist is unable to solve the problem without his/her colleagues' assistance. Collective and collegial professionals' work helps to solve such ethical collisions.

  6. Assessing ethical and social issues of transtelephonic electrocardiography (TTEGG) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Eugenia; Miguel, Silvia; Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke; Salinas, Rodrigo A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the ethical and social issues derived from the implementation of transtelephonic electrocardiography (TTECG) in the public healthcare sector in Chile, studying patients and healthcare providers' acceptance and expectations concerning: (a) TTECG effectiveness and safety; and (b) data protection issues, such as confidentiality, privacy and security. For this purpose, we developed two psychosocial surveys; the first was addressed to patients receiving transtelephonic electrocardiogram (either in the emergency services of hospitals or in distant primary care services) and the second one aimed at healthcare providers involved in either administering and/or interpreting it. Results included: (a) major acceptability of TTECG in terms of safety and security; (b) privacy and confidentiality of the patients were considered to be well protected; and (c) the patient-doctor relationship was not affected by this device.

  7. Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Issues in Teacher Education: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Homophobic harassment and bullying are persistent issues in Canadian schools despite recent initiatives to improve school climate. Among the reasons is that educators feel reluctant or ill-prepared to address these issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine how teacher education can help make schools safer by addressing LGBTQ issues and…

  8. Errant corporations, diffuse responsibilities, and the environment: ethical issues in the Orica case study.

    PubMed

    Grace, Damian

    2009-04-01

    The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of the HCB legacy at the Orica plant at Botany. Whether explicitly or implicitly, they are concerned with questions of ethics; with the just distribution of burdens and benefits; with just processes for disposing of dangerous industrial waste; and with a just custodianship of the Botany environment. These ethical issues illustrate the difficulty of securing corporate accountability, and the elusiveness of responsibility within organisations. This paper reflects on some of the issues for ethics raised by the Orica case and their significance for corporate ethics.

  9. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways

  10. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  11. Addressing psychosocial issues in cancer survivorship: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    With a burgeoning population of cancer survivors, organizations in the USA and around the world are considering how to address the many long-term and late psychosocial effects of cancer and cancer treatment. This article reviews the changing landscape of survivorship care over the past 50 years, from the time when there were relatively few survivors to the future, when the number of cancer survivors in the USA alone is expected to reach close to 20 million. Institute of Medicine Reports, intra-organizational summits and accrediting standards that have influenced the development of survivorship care plans and programs and the roles of the Internet and smartphone applications along with oncology specialist and primary care providers are discussed.

  12. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  13. Incorporating cultural issues in education for ethical practice.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda

    2007-07-01

    The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking.

  14. Ethical Issues Surrounding Personalized Medicine: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    More than a decade ago, personalized medicine was presented in modern medicine. Personalized medicine means that the right drug should be prescribed for the right patient based on genetic data. No doubt is developing medical sciences, and its shift into personalized medicine complicates ethical challenges more than before. In this review, we categorized all probable ethical considerations of personalized medicine in research and development and service provision. Based on our review, extensive changes in healthcare system including ethical changes are needed to overcome the ethical obstacles including knowledge gap and informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and availability of healthcare services. Furthermore social benefit versus science development and individual benefit should be balanced. Therefore guidelines and regulations should be compiled to represent the ethical framework; also ethical decision making should be day-to-day and individualized.

  15. Ethical Issues in Environmental Health Research Related to Public Health Emergencies: Reflections on the GuLF STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aubrey K.; Kwok, Richard K.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Health research in the context of an environmental disaster with implications for public health raises challenging ethical issues. This article explores ethical issues that arose in the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (GuLF STUDY) and provides guidance for future research. Ethical issues encountered by GuLF STUDY investigators included a) minimizing risks and promoting benefits to participants, b) obtaining valid informed consent, c) providing financial compensation to participants, d) working with vulnerable participants, e) protecting participant confidentiality, f) addressing conflicts of interest, g) dealing with legal implications of research, and h) obtaining expeditious review from the institutional review board (IRB), community groups, and other committees. To ensure that ethical issues are handled properly, it is important for investigators to work closely with IRBs during the development and implementation of research and to consult with groups representing the community. Researchers should consider developing protocols, consent forms, survey instruments, and other documents prior to the advent of a public health emergency to allow for adequate and timely review by constituents. When an emergency arises, these materials can be quickly modified to take into account unique circumstances and implementation details. PMID:26325057

  16. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  17. Building the framework for dealing with ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Walleck, C A

    1991-05-01

    Making ethical decisions is difficult. Professional and personal values enter heavily into what one member of the health care team considers the "right" decision, and these values may interfere with the decision-making process of the team. As team members begin to realize how their ethical values affect the decision, they may be better able to resolve the conflict within the team. An understanding of each member's ethics and values also can serve to enhance decision making. Nurses are just beginning to view themselves as part of the ethical decision-making team. In order to take an ethical stance, nurses need to have a better understanding of ethical principles to use in the decision-making process. Nurse needs to develop a sound philosophical base in ethics through study and continuing education to be an active part of the health care team making ethical decisions. Nurses have an obligation to move away from the emotional response to ethical dilemmas toward using a more sound basis for these decisions.

  18. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children.

  19. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  20. Utilizing Social Media to Study Information-Seeking and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords “gene therapy” from the Q&A site “Yahoo! Answers” for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. Results The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease. PMID:23470490

  1. The World's Youngest Cadaveric Kidney Transplant: Medical, Surgical and Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Al Lawati, Nabil Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    Background We report here the first successful transplant from a preterm cadaveric donor. This was performed in November 1994. The donor, who had been born at about 33 weeks of gestation, was diagnosed as having agenesis of the corpus callosum. The transplant was carried out 10 days after the donor's birth. The recipient was a 17-month-old boy with a diagnosis of Denys-Drash syndrome (WT1 mutation). Method We describe and analyze the ethical, social, cultural, medical and surgical issues encountered and how these were addressed. The major issue of determining death in a beating heart, very young donor was dealt with in the absence of worldwide experience and guidelines. Results The transplanted recipient has lived with the grafted pair of kidneys for more then 22 years. He has led a relatively normal life. Conclusions It is possible for immature preterm deceased donor kidneys to be transplanted into a 17-month-old recipient and for the grafted kidneys to grow with the recipient and function for 22 years. There were challenges in ethically determining the death of the donor, in surgical techniques to obviate potential surgical complications, and in postoperative care of the recipient, but these were managed successfully. PMID:27990482

  2. Regulatory and ethical issues for phase I in utero gene transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2011-11-01

    Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical issues. One issue not previously addressed arises in applying U.S. research regulations to such studies. Specifically, current regulations state that research involving greater than minimal risk to the fetus and no prospect of direct benefit to the fetus or pregnant woman is not permitted. Phase I studies will involve interventions such as needle insertions through the uterus, which carry risks to the fetus including spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. It is possible that these risks will be regarded as exceeding minimal. Also, some regard the probability of therapeutic benefit in phase I studies to be so low that these studies do not satisfy the regulatory requirement that they "hold out the prospect of direct benefit" to subjects. On the basis of these considerations, investigators and institutional review boards might reasonably conclude that some phase I in utero studies are not to be permitted. This paper identifies considerations that are relevant to such judgments and explores ethically acceptable ways in which phase I studies can be designed so that they are permitted by the regulations.

  3. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  4. Ethical Issues in Providing Library Services to Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Gill; Johnson, Kay

    2007-01-01

    The authors, library practitioners from either side of the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on a dialogue about the ethical challenges encountered in providing library services to distance learners. Unable to find an existing, appropriate ethical framework for their discussion, they agreed to devise their own, informed by relevant professional codes and…

  5. Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical…

  6. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  7. [Screening induced by health services: impact and consequences. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Segura-Benedicto, Andreu

    2006-03-01

    The main aim of screening is to identify people with an increased probability to benefit from preventive interventions, generally from secondary prevention but also from primary prevention activities. The goal is to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment in order to modify positively the prognosis (the former case), or to recognize people exposed to risk factors which increase the incidence rate of disease, and then to prevent the disease (the latter case). Good intentions are not enough to achieve good results in terms of effectiveness, safety, efficiency or equity. It is necessary to have a systematic assessment of the consequences of screening, particularly on the impact on peoples health and on the health services. Due to the diversity of types of screenings that are done, it is very difficult to estimate the net impact caused by their implementation. Moreover, the changes in the health of a population depend on many factors other than health service interventions. Thus, it is very important to determine the effectiveness and safety of the screening methods that are most frequently applied. Unfortunately, assessment of the benefits and the harm potentially caused by preventive interventions has not been done often. In Spain only a few partial assessments have been published, and they focus on the activities and the processes themselves rather than the final outcomes. Given that screening activities are carried out in health care services, and that the populations screened are mostly healthy people, the ethical issues have great importance when health policies are designed and implemented. Thus, it is recommended that screenings activities be analyzed applying the ethical principles of autonomy, benefit, safety and justice. If any screening program cannot reasonably satisfy these principles then they should be removed from the list of public health activities that are financed by public resources. In the same sense, all screening procedures offered to the

  8. A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity.

  9. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  10. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed.

  11. Psychiatric Training Program Engagement with the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Educational Issue, Not Strictly an Ethical One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the educational and ethical issues involved in interactions between departments of psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry. METHODS: The author analyzes the history of attitudes toward pharmaceutical companies, various conflicting ethical principles that apply, and areas of confluence and conflict of interest between…

  12. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  13. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    PubMed

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  14. An audit of the approval letters issued by Drugs Controller General of India to Ethics Committees in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, Shruti S.; Katkar, Jahnavi V.; Maurya, Mitesh; Gogtay, Nithya Jaideep; Thatte, Urmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study is an audit of the communiqués issued by the Drugs Controller General of India [DCGI] to Ethics Committees [ECs] for content and directives after the mandatory notification of registration of Ethics Committees issued on 8th February 2013. Methods: All letters were downloaded from the website of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization [CDSCO] and evaluated for the date of issue, number of directives, domains covered by the directives [general instructions, administrative requirements and quorum requirements], median time to approval for registration and time elapsed between date of application and issue of the approval letter. Results: There were a total of 1036 EC letters listed on the website, from which 854 [82.4%] could be downloaded. A working denominator of 841 was arrived at after discarding repeat letters and those that had an incorrect address. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number of ECs registered (209/841, 24.9%) followed by Gujarat [97/841, 11.5%) and Karnataka [96/841, 11.4%]. The number of directives within each letter ranged from 8-22. The overall time to approval was 77.5 [24-919] days and the time to approval between Institutional and Independent Ethics Committees was significantly different. Conclusions: The office of the DCGI had a very wide time range for approving registration of Ethics Committees that ranged from less than a month to more than two years. The quality and nature of the directives improved with time. As the country moves towards accreditation, letters issued by the DCGI should have uniformity. The large number of ECs in a single state and lack of even a single one in several others is something that needs to be addressed by policy makers. PMID:27843791

  15. Awareness of ethical issues in medical education: an interactive teach-the-teacher course

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Özgül, Gülümser; Siebeck, Robert G.; Siebeck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We conducted an international, interdisciplinary teach-the-teacher course to sensitize physicians from different countries to ethical issues in medical education. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of this course. Method: Before and after participating in a short session on ethical issues in medical education, 97 physicians from different countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe completed a self-assessment questionnaire on their competence and interest in this field. The short session consisted of working in small groups to identify, analyze and discuss ethical dilemmas described in case vignettes adapted from published examples or written by medical students. In addition to the questionnaire, we conducted a large-group experience to explore four basic orientations of participants in ethical thinking: relativism, intentionalism, consequentialism, and absolutism. Results: We found a significant self-perceived increase in the participants’ ability to identify and describe ethical issues and students’ dilemmas, in their knowledge about these issues and teaching professionalism, and in their ability to describe both students’ perspectives and teachers’ and students’ behaviors. In addition, participants’ feeling of understanding their own culturally learned patterns of determining what is right and wrong increased after taking part in the course. The four contrasting basic ethical orientations showed no significant differences between participants regarding nationality, age, or gender. Conclusion: Ethics of education is an important issue for medical teachers. Teachers’ self-perceived competence can be increased by working on case vignettes in small groups. PMID:27275510

  16. Nursing students' experiences of ethical issues in clinical practice: A New Zealand study.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Papps, E; Marshall, B

    2016-03-01

    Nursing students experience ethical problems in clinical practice in a different way from registered nurses. In order to develop ethical reasoning and competence in nursing students, nurse educators must recognise the unique issues students face. This research described the occurrence of ethical issues in clinical practice for 373 undergraduate nursing students who responded to a national questionnaire investigating the frequency of pre-determined ethical issues and the corresponding level of distress. Over two thirds of respondents experienced breaches of a patient's right to confidentiality, privacy, dignity or respect and 87% experienced unsafe working conditions. The most distressing issues were those that compromised patient safety, including unsafe healthcare practices, working conditions and suspected abuse or neglect. Themes that emerged from an open-ended question included lack of support and supervision, bullying and end of life issues. This research found the frequency at which ethical issues are experienced was highest in year three participants. However, the overall distress levels were lower for the majority of issues for those participants in the later part of their degree. Recommendations from this research include developing ethics education around the main concerns that students face in order to enhance students' understanding, resilience and ability to respond appropriately.

  17. The Ugly Scholar: Neocolonialism and Ethical Issues in International Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, Cathy A.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that sociologists confront criticism of the nature and ends of sociological research and ethical dilemmas in the study of social problems and people. Provides suggestions for ending neocolonial attitudes among social science researchers. (CFR)

  18. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  19. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  20. Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gelinas, Luke; Pierce, Robin; Winkler, Sabune; Cohen, I Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E

    2017-03-01

    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices.

  1. Ethical issues in field trials of genetically modified disease-resistant mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  2. ETHICAL ISSUES IN FIELD TRIALS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED DISEASE-RESISTANT MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases take a tremendous toll on human populations, especially in developing nations. In the last decade, scientists have developed mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and field trials have been conducted. Some mosquitoes have been rendered infertile, some have been equipped with a vaccine they transmit to humans, and some have been designed to resist diseases. This article focuses on ethical issues raised by field trials of disease-resistant, genetically modified mosquitoes. Some of these issues include: protecting the public and the environment from harm, balancing benefits and risks, collaborating with the local community, avoiding exploitation, and safeguarding the rights and welfare of research subjects. One of the most difficult problems involves protecting the welfare of community members who will be impacted by the release of mosquitoes but who are not enrolled in the study as research subjects. To address this concern, field trials should take place only when the targeted disease is a significant public health problem in an isolated area, the benefits of the trial for the community are likely to outweigh the risks, community leaders approve of the trial, and there are measures in place to protect the welfare of un-enrolled community members, such as informing the community about the study and offering free treatment to people who contract mosquito-borne diseases. Since the justification of any field trial depends on a careful examination of the scientific and ethical issues, proposed studies should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23279283

  3. Ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Conway, Alison; Moloney-Harmon, Patricia A

    2004-06-01

    The case of Baby Y presented a difficult and complex ethical dilemma for the family and the staff involved. The issues of religious beliefs and law, up-holding these beliefs in the center of a religious community, financial concerns, and health care workers disagreeing about carrying out treatments made this case one that few will forget. When asked after Baby Y died how they felt, many members of the staff answered that it should not have gone on as long as it did and that they learned a lot from the family and the experience. Palliative care has been well associated with the adult cancer population in the form of hospice care. It is the hope that this well-integrated aspect of care crosses over to the NICU population. Many of the patients in the types of cases mentioned previously stay in the NICU for extended periods of time until a decision is made clear or the infant expires on his own time. The hustle and bustle of a busy, open, and not-so-private NICU is not the place for this to take place. The NICU should have a designated place where these infants can be cared for better in a more family-centered and staff-friendly environment. Pain management is another important aspect of palliative care. Comfort of the infant is of utmost importance, as it helps the family believe the suffering is under control. During the last few days or weeks of life, the family should have time that is peaceful and restful, and, eventually, the infant should have a pain-free death.Lastly, a part of the palliative care philosophy and approach includes providing treatments that may ap-pear to prolong the inevitable but in fact help the process along to resolution. In the case of Baby Y, surgery to repair some of the defects may have allowed her to go home with her family and spend her short life with them. This was the wish of the mother,especially, and it never happened. It may well be the"what if" she continues to ask for the rest of her life.

  4. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  5. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  6. Innovation in surgical technology and techniques: Challenges and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Geiger, James D; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2015-06-01

    The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation.

  7. On the nature, assessment, and treatment of fetal pain: neurobiological bases, pragmatic issues, and ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Giordano, James

    2007-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the issue of fetal pain and stress has attracted considerable attention and has become the focus of ongoing debate in light of advances in medical diagnostics and technology that allow invasive prenatal medical intervention(s), and an enhanced understanding of fetal neurophysiology, together with a broadened appreciation for the relationship of brain and consciousness. In this essay, we explore the issue of fetal pain based upon knowledge of both the ontogeny and function of the nervous system and the interaction of brain, mind, and pain. We posit that contemporary understanding of neurological development fortifies appreciation that pain sensation and perception occurs during (later) fetal life and that this pain warrants clinical consideration during the conduct of invasive prenatal procedures. We present differing perspectives on this issue, discuss the relative merits and difficulties of these positions, and ultimately describe the fundamental basis for a consideration of fetal pain and address this consideration with regard to pragmatic and ethical benefits, burdens, and risks. We adopt a neurocentric, yet consilient approach that entails both scientific and philosophical orientations. By attempting to reveal inherent limitations in our contemporary appreciation and approach(es) to fetal pain, we hope to illustrate the need for and posit potential venues toward resolving these limitations and dilemmas.

  8. Ethical Issues in the Field: Taken by Surprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    This paper examines some ethical problems that arose in a study of secondary curriculum, where educational criticism was used as a primary research strategy. A study on the subject of curriculum consonance was conducted in three tenth-grade history classrooms. In its original design, the study was primarily concerned with the correspondence…

  9. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

  10. Ethical Issues in Practitioner Research. Practitioner Inquiry Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeni, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the hidden risks that teacher researchers may face in action research. There are 12 papers in three parts. Part 1, "School-Based Researchers," includes: (1) "Drafting Ethical Guidelines for Teacher Research in Schools" (Marian M. Mohr); (2) "'Tuesday Night' Revisited: Learning to Survive" (Leslie Turner Minarik);…

  11. ETHICAL ISSUES, SAFETY, AND DATA INTEGRITY IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...

  12. Identification of a senior superfund official for addressing special npl site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive identifies a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at NPL (National Priorities List) sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level and identifies criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  13. Fertility reduction policies and poverty in Third World countries: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, D J

    1985-01-01

    This article begins with a discussion of the motivation for fertility reduction and related population policies. Next, it identifies the two major approaches to evaluating these policies in the population ethics literature: the individualistic approach and the international approach. Each approach is then characterized according to the kinds of policies evaluated, the ethical principles that are most prominent, and the major conclusions drawn. Major empirical gaps in the population ethics literature are identified, and pertinent social science issues concerning the effectiveness of family planning programs, the socioeconomic determinants of fertility, and the interpersonal or community determinants of fertility are discussed. Finally, these issues are linked with the United Nations World Population Plan of Action to identify ethical questions that warrant detailed scrutiny.

  14. Ethics of Inquiry: Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat, Ed.

    This collection contains seven case studies about ethical issues faced by scholars of teaching and learning, each with commentary from individuals who bring different perspectives to bear on the issues. This case-plus-commentaries format enacts a central theme of the volume, which is that there is no single right way to resolve the ethical…

  15. The Space Shuttle Disaster: Ethical Issues in Organizational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Ronald C.; Jaksa, James A.

    Arguing that the issue of organizational decision making and bureaucratic responsibility in the use of technologies with potential for creating social harm should concern everyone, this paper explores the ethical issues raised by organizational decisions concerning the launch of the space shuttle "Challenger." The paper first describes a…

  16. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  17. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  18. 49 CFR 192.933 - What actions must be taken to address integrity issues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.933 What actions must be taken to address integrity issues? (a... issues? 192.933 Section 192.933 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  19. Research involving human subjects: ethical and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Menikoff, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    A history of past abuses on research with human subjects has led to various sets of rules that are designed to insure ethical practices to protect research subjects appropriately. To understand these rules, it is important to appreciate the significant differences between being a patient, where protecting the best interests of that patient is the primary goal, and being a research subject, where that is generally not the case. In the research setting, there can be a conflict between attempting to answer the research question, and doing what is best for the subject. The rules for conducting research with human subjects attempt to manage this conflict in an ethically acceptable manner. This chapter provides an overview of those rules, including a somewhat extended discussion of the U.S. "Common Rule" as a particular example.

  20. Ethical and social issues of embryonic stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Cregan, K

    2005-02-01

    Therapeutic cloning is debated as a cure for a host of diseases in the developed world. The likely source for the materials for therapeutic cloning, human ova, would be poor women and women from the developing world. The ethics and potential social consequences inherent in this technology are fraught and encourage the com modification and abstraction of one of the fundamental conditions of human life.

  1. Ethical and Methodological Issues in Pedigree Stroke Research

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford Burke; Chen, Donna T.; Meschia, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stroke is a complex genetic disorder with a variable phenotype. Investigations of heritable factors in complex genetic disorders use pedigree and genetic techniques, which pose different ethical and methodological challenges than those routinely encountered in therapeutic research. Building consensus on acceptable research practices in this field is vital to the success of multicentered collaborations. Summary of Review We review important ethical and methodological concerns related to the collection, storage, and release of pedigree research information. The human studies aspects of pedigree research are complicated methodologically because individuals can be active or passive participants and pedigrees can be proband derived, partially validated, or fully validated. Current research ethics frameworks do not work well outside of a dyadic researcher-subject relationship. Privacy and confidentiality for family members must be considered in pedigree research. Investigators should anticipate potential conflicts of interest among family members when designing a pedigree research protocol. Conclusions We propose a “proband-initiated contact” methodology in which the proband or the proband’s designate allows identification of potential families without breaching the privacy of individuals in the family. In situations in which family history data are collected without direct contact between researchers and individuals in the proband’s family, an Institutional Review Board may waive consent by family members after appropriate review of the protocol and application of rules for granting waivers of consent. Certificates of Confidentiality should be considered. PMID:11387482

  2. Advice offered by practitioners of complementary/ alternative medicine: an important ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2009-12-01

    The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation.

  3. Enhancing Perception in Ethical Decision Making: A Method to Address Ill-Defined Training Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    The psychology of moral development. New York: Harper & Row. Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology : An introduction to new concepts in modern...Development Ethical Decision Making Qualitative Methods Applications of Gestalt Theory Decision Making Experiences Mixed-Method...Simon Center for the Professional Military Ethic at the United States Military Academy and have been presented at the Association for Psychological

  4. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC.

  5. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  6. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  7. Ethical issues in genomic research on the African continent: experiences and challenges to ethics review committees.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Michèle; de Vries, Jantina; Soodyall, Himla; Norris, Shane A; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-08-21

    This is a report on a workshop titled 'Ethics for genomic research across five African countries: Guidelines, experiences and challenges', University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 and 11 December 2012. The workshop was hosted by the Wits-INDEPTH partnership, AWI-Gen, as part of the H3Africa Consortium.

  8. Ethical Issues in Neonatal and Pediatric Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tarini, Beth; Lantos, John

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Children have been identified as uniquely vulnerable clinical research subjects since the early 1970s. In this paper we review the historical underpinnings of this designation, the current regulatory framework for pediatric and neonatal research, and common problems in pediatric research oversight. We also present three areas of pediatric and neonatal research (genomic screening, healthy children donating stem cells, and therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) that highlight contemporary challenges in pediatric research ethics, including balancing risk and benefit, informed consent and assent, and clinical equipoise. PMID:23036252

  9. Ethics and the cardiac pacemaker: more than just end-of-life issues.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina; Sparrow, Robert

    2017-04-06

    For many years, ethical debate about pacemakers has focused on whether and under what circumstances they may be turned off in end of life care. Several other important ethical issues have been neglected, perhaps because the dilemmas they pose for cardiologists are not so immediate. These include: potential conflicts of interest, particularly those arising from the role of industry employed allied professionals (IEAPs) in pacemaker care; unanticipated impacts of commercial competition and the device improvement cycle; risks associated with remotely accessible software; equity in access to healthcare; and questions about reuse of explanted pacemakers in low and middle income countries. This paper analyses these issues in order to facilitate a more comprehensive approach to ethics and the cardiac pacemaker. Cardiologists should be aware of all of these issues and contribute to ongoing discussions about how they are resolved.

  10. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  11. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Leuzy, A; Racine, E; Rosa-Neto, P

    2013-11-01

    There is great interest in the ethical issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias given the prevalence of AD and the evolving neuroscience landscape in matters of diagnoses and therapeutics. Much of the ethics discussion arises in the tension between the principle of not doing harm (principle of non-maleficence) in this vulnerable population and the development of effective treatments (principle of beneficence). Autonomy and capacity issues are also numerous, wide-ranging, and concern (1) day to day affairs such as driving safely and spending money wisely, (2) life-time events such as designating a legal representative in case of incapacity, making a will, (3) consenting to treatment and diagnostic procedures, (4) participating in research. The latter issue is particularly thorny and illustrates well the complexity of tackling concerns related to capacity. The impetus to protect AD patients has partly led to ethics regulation and policies making research on inapt patients more difficult because of stringent requirements for signed informed consent or for showing the value of the research to this specific patient population. New issues are arising that relate to earlier diagnosis using biomarkers and (possibly soon) the use of drugs that modify disease progression. We here summarize and discuss the different ethical issues associated with AD from a historical perspective, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatments issues.

  12. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

  13. Ethics teaching on 'Beginning of Life' issues in UK medical schools.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie

    2014-12-01

    Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others.

  14. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  15. Ethical Considerations in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane; Sork, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues in distance education for adults that can affect the welfare of others and suggests ethical sensitivity is needed. Ethical issues addressed include admission and retention of students; course development and presentation; program and course marketing; administrative issues; learner/instructor interaction; and evaluation. (29…

  16. Ethics, Law and Professional Issues Gallagher Ann and Hodge Sue Ethics, Law and Professional Issues 192pp £20.99 Palgrave Macmillan 9780230279940 0230279945 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    THE EDITORS provide a sound introduction to ethics, law and professional issues in health care. Scenarios before each chapter help the reader to digest and comprehend the information. My only criticism is that it is not directly relevant to nursing alone. Although there is some benefit in being aware of how other practitioners may be affected by these issues, another book aimed at nurses would be more appropriate. Later chapters about responding to unprofessional practice and promoting professional healthcare practice may be of more interest to nursing students and recently qualified healthcare professionals.

  17. An overview of ethics in maternal-child nursing.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues across the childbearing year are multiple and complex. This article addresses ethical challenges facing maternal-child nurses and identifies strategies for making ethical decisions utilizing ethical principles and frameworks. Coping strategies for dealing with moral distress, how nurses demonstrate moral courage, and the attributes of an effective ethical decision maker are described. Ethical issues related to healthcare team relationships are discussed, with implications for nurses provided.

  18. Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melvin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

  19. Sleep better than medicine? Ethical issues related to "wake enhancement".

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, A; Sandberg, A

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with new pharmacological and technological developments in the manipulation and curtailment of our sleep needs. While humans have used various methods throughout history to lengthen diurnal wakefulness, recent advances have been achieved in manipulating the architecture of the brain states involved in sleep. The progress suggests that we will gradually become able to drastically manipulate our natural sleep-wake cycle. Our goal here is to promote discussion on the desirability and acceptability of enhancing our control over biological sleep, by illustrating various potential attendant ethical problems. We draw attention to the risks involved, possible conflicts of interests underlying the development of wake enhancement, and the potential impact on accountability for fatigue related errors.

  20. [Patient autonomy and informed consent - ethical and legal issues].

    PubMed

    Wolf-Braun, Barbara; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    Informing patients about the benefits and risks of and alternatives to proposed medical or surgical procedures is crucial to the patient-physician relationship. It is a legal and ethical precondition to a patient's informed consent to a course of action. Particularly in cases of serious illness and when there are far reaching implications for a patient's lifestyle, this process entails much more than just imparting information. Indeed, it is a dialogue through which the physician empowers the patient to reach a decision which reflects the patient's life situation and system of values. This process promotes patient autonomy. Studies have shown that this approach builds trust, increases patient satisfaction with health care and results in a higher degree of professional fulfilment for the physician.

  1. Ethical guidelines for Sami research: the issue that disappeared from the Norwegian Sami Parliament's agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Stordahl, Vigdis; Tørres, Grete; Møllersen, Snefrid; Eira-Åhren, Inger-Marit

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades many indigenous communities, policy makers and researchers worldwide have criticized the academic community for not being aware of the specific challenges these communities have faced and still are facing with regard to research. One result of the decades of discourse in indigenous communities is the development in many Western countries of indigenously sensitive ethical research guidelines. In 1997 the Sami Parliament (SP) in Norway reached a unanimous decision that ethical guidelines for Sami research had to be drawn up. Such guidelines are however still to be created. Objectives The objectives of this article are to enquire into what happened to the Norwegian SP's decision of 1997 and to reflect on why the issue seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda. Finally, we consider whether research ethics is to be a subject for the research community only. Methods A review of parliamentary white papers on research and SP documents relating to research ethics. Findings The response to the SP's decision in 1997 took place in two different channels, both of them national, namely the research ethics channel and the political channel. Thus, there were actually two parallel processes taking place. In spite of nearly two decades of reports, the concept of the participation of indigenous communities in research is still not an integral part of Norwegian ethical guidelines. Conclusions The issue of indigenously sensitive research ethics seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda and the research ethics review system with regard to Sami research is with minor adjustments the same as when the SP asked for a revision. PMID:25862334

  2. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research. PMID:27677925

  3. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  4. Ethical Issues in Measuring Biomarkers in Children’s Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sly, Peter D.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Pronczuk, Jenny; Šrám, Radim; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Machin, Diego Gonzalez; Carpenter, David O.; Surdu, Simona; Meslin, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studying the impact of environmental exposures is important in children because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects on growth, development, and health. Assessing exposure in children is difficult, and measuring biomarkers is potentially useful. Research measuring biomarkers in children raises a number of ethical issues, some of which relate to children as research subjects and some of which are specific to biomarker research. Objective As an international group with experience in pediatric research, biomarkers, and the ethics of research in children, we highlight the ethical issues of undertaking biomarker research in children in these environments. Discussion Significant issues include undertaking research in vulnerable communities, especially in developing countries; managing community expectations; obtaining appropriate consent to conduct the research; the potential conflicts of obtaining permission from an ethics review board in an economically developed country to perform research in a community that may have different cultural values; returning research results to participants and communities when the researchers are uncertain of how to interpret the results; and the conflicting ethical obligations of maintaining participant confidentiality when information about harm or illegal activities mandate reporting to authorities. Conclusion None of these challenges are insurmountable and all deserve discussion. Pediatric biomarker research is necessary for advancing child health. PMID:19672395

  5. Ethical considerations for biomedical scientists and engineers: issues for the rank and file.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, K B

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering is inextricably linked with the fields of medicine and surgery. Yet, while physicians and surgeons, nurses, and other medical professionals receive instruction in ethics during their training and must abide by certain codes of ethics during their practice, those engaged in biomedical science and engineering typically receive no formal training in ethics. In fact, the little contact that many biomedical science and engineering professionals have with ethics occurs either when they participate in government-funded research or submit articles for publication in certain journals. Thus, there is a need for biomedical scientists and engineers as a group to become more aware of ethics. Moreover, recent advances in biomedical technology and the ever-increasing use of new devices virtually guarantee that biomedical science and engineering will become even more important in the future. Although they are rarely in direct contact with patients, biomedical scientists and engineers must become aware of ethics in order to be able to deal with the complex ethical issues that arise from our society's increasing reliance on biomedical technology. In this brief communication, the need for ethical awareness among workers in biomedical science and engineering is discussed in terms of certain conflicts that arise in the workaday world of the biomedical scientist in a complex, modern society. It is also recognized that inasmuch as workers in the many branches of bioengineering are not regulated like their counterparts in medicine and surgery, perhaps academic institutions and professional societies are best equipped to heighten ethical awareness among workers in this important field.

  6. Suicide: ethical and moral issues from a theological perspective.

    PubMed

    Best, E E

    1986-03-01

    A historical review of the Jewish, Christian, Islamic, Hindu and Buddist attitudes of suicide. The evolution to the contemporary Christian perspective is discussed citing contributions of Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas and Donne. Issues raised by life-extension technology are discussed.

  7. Ethical and Professional Issues in Experiential Growth Groups: Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Falco, Lia D.; Villalba, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a context for how experiential growth groups are typically used to train counselors, to preview the contributions in this issue, and to suggest future directions for researching and implementing such groups.

  8. Ethical Issues in Pedagogical Documentation: Representations of Children through Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Anne-Li

    2012-01-01

    Documentation for pedagogical purposes is an increasingly important practice in Sweden, in Europe, and in the United States. This article focuses on the ethical aspects that need to be addressed in documentation practices in preschool. The empirical material is drawn from the blogs of Swedish preschool teachers who recorded their thoughts on…

  9. Legal and Ethical Issues in the Use of Video in Education Research. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arafeh, Sousan; McLaughlin, Mary

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), through the Education Statistics Services Institute, supported the research in this report to help frame future discussions about the use of video research techniques in educational settings. This paper addresses the context of technological, legal, and ethical change facing researchers who use…

  10. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  11. Military Personnel: Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Personnel: Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics ...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues Why GAO Did This Study

  12. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  13. Implantable nano-neurotechnological devices: consideration of ethical, legal, and social issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Giordano, James; Akhouri, Rohan; McBride, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the capability and application(s) of technology in the neurosciences. The tools of neurotechnology conjoin advances made in other disciplines, including nanoscience, to offer somewhat unique properties and capabilities that affect multiple dimensions of neural systems via implantable devices that afford articulation and manipulation at the subcellular scale. However, while striving for good, it is equally important to regard potential to generate major ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that arise in, and from the study and applications of implantable nano-neurotechnologies. This paper discusses specific properties and uses of various nano-neurotechnologies, and addresses proximate and distal ELSI. We argue that the fusion of nano- and neuroscience and technologies give rise to unique risks and burdens, but posit that a frank precautionary principle might be unrealistic given the demiurge of progress. Rather, we call for a dialectical approach that balances technological incentives with responsibility for inquiry, application, and consequences, and advocate that potential ELSI must be appreciated early and throughout the research and development process.

  14. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    PubMed

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  15. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  16. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  17. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  18. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

  19. Ethical Issues in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Perceptions of Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Heffernan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Pedagogical theories and the applications of information technology for language learning have been widely researched in various dimensions. However, ethical issues, such as online privacy and security, and learners' personal data disclosure, are not receiving enough research attention. The perceptions and attitudes from those who participate in…

  20. Legal and ethical issues in the regulation and development of engineering achievements in medical technology. I.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Flannery, E J; Wade, M

    1990-01-01

    The statutory and regulatory requirements governing medical device development and approval are reviewed. Some of the procedures that the US Food and Drug Administration has implemented to loosen the strictures that impede development and approval of new medical devices are discussed. Some of the ethical issues associated with these procedures are examined.

  1. Teaching about Ethics through Socioscientific Issues in Physics and Chemistry: Teacher Candidates' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Nieswandt, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explain the origins of physics and chemistry teacher candidates' beliefs about teaching about ethics through socioscientific issues (SSI). This study utilized a series of in-depth interviews, while the participants (n = 12) were enrolled in a 9-month teacher education program at an urban…

  2. What Is New in Ethical Issues in Obstetrics?: Best Articles From the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Burda, Marianne L

    2016-01-01

    This month we focus on ethical issues in obstetrics. Dr. Burda discusses four recent publications, which are concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.

  3. An overview of surrogacy around the world: trends, questions and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Armour, Kim L

    2012-01-01

    Although the birth of a child is typically considered a very happy time for parents, surrogacy is often unchartered territory that can become very stressful for all parties involved. Part of the stress stems from the fact that different states and countries have varying laws and regulations overseeing surrogacy. This article provides insight regarding surrogacy around the world, including professional, societal and ethical issues.

  4. Responding to Messages of Adolescents on the Internet: Theoretical, Practical, and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtarkshall, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the policy and guidelines, which evolved over the last four years, for answering questions and giving counsel on an Internet site dedicated to sexuality and intimate relations of adolescents. The theoretical framework employed is that of non-directive counseling. Some ethical, legal, and practical issues are discussed. The…

  5. Excluding Ethical Issues from U.S. History Textbooks: 911 and the War on Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined nine secondary American history textbooks regarding their treatment of 9/11 and related events. The analysis centered on both the knowledge included and excluded from the discussion in each book. Particular attention was given to the moral and ethical issues relevant to 9/11. Findings show that textbooks vary in their…

  6. Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Family Therapy: A Graduate Level Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Fred P.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on the curricular components of a 16-week graduate course entitled "Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Family Therapy." To aid in replication and assessment, selected teaching strategies are also presented. Course topics include feminism and hedonism, confidentiality, paradox, malpractice, court testimony, job hunting, private…

  7. Learning Analytics in Small-Scale Teacher-Led Innovations: Ethical and Data Privacy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara

    2016-01-01

    As a further step towards maturity, the field of learning analytics (LA) is working on the definition of frameworks that structure the legal and ethical issues that scholars and practitioners must take into account when planning and applying LA solutions to their learning contexts. However, current efforts in this direction tend to be focused on…

  8. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  9. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Policies, Ethics, Standards, and Legal Issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on policies, ethics, standards, and legal issues from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong…

  10. Increasing Interest, Confidence and Understanding of Ethical Issues in Science through Case-Based Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark; Klyczek, Karen; Mogen, Kim; Johnson, Doug; Harmes, Nina

    Software designed to promote the use of open-ended investigations in science education was evaluated in a study of whether using case-based simulation enhances students' understanding of ethical issues and data interpretation in science. The software was a DNA gel electrophoresis simulation that enabled students to conduct simulated genetic tests.…

  11. Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Macer, Darryl R J

    2003-02-01

    A brief review of some of the key issues in policy relating to the ethical issues raised by medical biotechnology in developing countries is presented, using India as an example. A series of some key issues is discussed, including information obtained from interviewing Indian government policy makers. Some of the issues discussed include: Economic and social incentives to encourage biotechnology; Health policy and ethics review; Patents on drugs; Medical genetics; Relationship to traditional medical practices; Positive public attitudes to biotechnology; Limited public participation; Infrastructural hurdles; Indian progress in stem cell research; and dilemmas of expensive technologies. The results show that although the needs of developing countries are different to those of rich countries, government policy utilizing guidelines and ethics committees has evolved as mechanisms to aid ethical health care delivery in India. In all countries there may be some of these concerns that are raised here, however, the integration of traditional medicine and advanced medical technology, and access to medical services by people in need, are particularly important challenges in developing countries. Better public involvement in policy making will require education and infrastructural organization as well as mutual willingness on the part of policy makers and citizens.

  12. Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: “Translating“ the Translational

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

  13. Informed consent and ethical issues in military medical research.

    PubMed

    McManus, John; Mehta, Sumeru G; McClinton, Annette R; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Baskin, Toney W

    2005-11-01

    Informed consent in military research shares many of the same fundamental principles and regulations that govern civilian biomedical research. In fact, much of modern research ethics is grounded in events that occurred in the context of war or government-sponsored research. Despite these similarities and common origins, research in the military has additional requirements designed to preserve service members' informed consent rights. The special nature of the superior-subordinate relationship in the military necessitates careful protections to avoid perceptions of coercion or undue influence on a military subject. Additionally, current legal and regulatory requirements for advanced informed consent significantly restrict the flexibility of the military to conduct research using waiver of consent. This has implications on the ability of the nation to develop effective medical treatments for the global war on terrorism. Nevertheless, work is under way to realign defense research policy with the norms of civilian biomedical practice. Future directions include the adoption of waivers for military emergency research, and the cautious introduction of human subject studies on the battlefield. This paper discusses historical background, regulatory differences, and concerns and challenges of some of these regulatory differences for research personnel that apply to informed consent and waiver of said informed consent for emergency research conducted by the U.S. military.

  14. Combating Ethical Issues in University Admissions Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Micael S., Jr.; Soares, Caio V.; Gilbert, Juan E.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining diversity among admitted applicants is often a challenging task for most post secondary institutions. As a proposed solution to this challenge, Applications Quest (AQ) was created. AQ addresses the dilemma of how to achieve diversity while still upholding institutional academic standards and objectives while adhering to the law. A steady…

  15. Ethical Issues of Air Force Nurse Practitioners in Clinical Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    cognitive theory of moral development as set forth by Kohlberg. Crisham explained building on the works of Piaget in the early 30’s, Kohlberg (1976...late 1980s, nursing research has addressed caring as a central theme to nursing. In 1989, Jean Watson’s philosophy and theory of human caring in nursing

  16. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  17. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  18. Identification of a senior Superfund official for addressing special NPL site-related issues. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-22

    The directive describes the process for identifying a senior Superfund official responsible for reviewing and addressing specific issues at National Priorities List sites that cannot be resolved at the Regional level, and for identifying criteria for NPL site referrals to this official.

  19. 23 CFR 636.501 - What issues may be addressed in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues may be addressed in discussions? 636.501 Section 636.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  20. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  1. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  2. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  3. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  4. Informed Consent: Ethical Issues and Future Challenges in Clinical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angaran, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A look at pharmaceutical care needs in the future is the basis for discussion of the educational needs of clinical pharmacists. Issues discussed include the appropriate degree (bachelor's vs. doctoral), costs of instruction, faculty/student ratios, the pharmacy practice faculty as role models, and computer-assisted instruction. (MSE)

  5. Guilt, fear, stigma and knowledge gaps: ethical issues in public health communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit; Salmon, Charles T

    2004-11-01

    Public health communication campaigns have been credited with helping raise awareness of risk from chronic illness and new infectious diseases and with helping promote the adoption of recommended treatment regimens. Yet many aspects of public health communication interventions have escaped the scrutiny of ethical discussions. With the transference of successful commercial marketing communication tactics to the realm of public health, consideration of ethical issues becomes an essential component in the development and application of public health strategies. Ethical issues in public health communication are explored as they relate to eight topics: 'targeting' and 'tailoring' public health messages to particular population segments; obtaining the equivalence of informed consent; the use of persuasive communication tactics; messages on responsibility and culpability; messages that apply to harm reduction; and three types of unintended adverse effects associated with public health communication activities that may label and stigmatise, expand social gaps, and promote health as a value. We suggest that an ethical analysis should be applied to each phase of the public health communication process in order to identify ethical dilemmas that may appear subtle, yet reflect important concerns regarding potential effects of public health communication interventions on individuals and society as a whole.

  6. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-05-11

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  7. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  8. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  9. Ethical issues experienced by mental health nurses in the administration of antipsychotic depot and long-acting intramuscular injections: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, James Paul; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    The ethical issues experienced by mental health nurses in administering antipsychotic depot and long-acting intramuscular injections (LAI) were explored in the present study. Mental health nurses face ethically-difficult situations when administering these medications. A phenomenological research method guided by Max van Manen's human science approach describes and interprets the ethical issues involved in performing the procedure. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to select eight participants from two mental health hospitals. Semistructured interviews were carried out to collect data. A thematic analysis was conducted on the data. The four main themes that emerged from the analyses were: (i) lack of alternatives; (ii) safety; (iii) feeling uncomfortable; and (iv) difficulty maintaining the therapeutic relationship. The findings suggest that mental health nurses face ethical challenges in administering LAI. The findings raise much needed awareness of the need for mental health nurses and nurse educators to consider the ethical issues experienced while performing the procedure. There is a need for nurse education providers and organizations to provide opportunities for mental health nurses to address their 'lived experiences'. Educational courses are needed to equip mental health nurses with the technical and critical thinking skills to administer safe and effective antipsychotic depot and LAI.

  10. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  11. Perspective: a proposed medical school curriculum to help students recognize and resolve ethical issues of global health outreach work.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Medical students' interest in global health outreach work is intense and growing. Yet, medical students' global health outreach work is fraught with ethical complexity: Students must make challenging resource allocation decisions in an unfamiliar setting while providing complicated care with evolving expertise across power gradients and geographical as well as cultural boundaries. Inadequate training in the recognition and resolution of the ethical issues inherent in this work likely endangers future service work participation and undercuts the efficacy of medical students' global health outreach work. The author describes how the medical school curriculum can empower medical students to recognize and resolve ethical issues encountered in global health outreach work. To achieve this goal, he proposes a curriculum in the ethics of global health outreach to train students to understand (1) the ethical justifications for global health outreach work, (2) the drivers of global health disparities, (3) the key ethical issues raised by global health outreach, and (4) how to resolve ethical quandaries encountered during global health outreach work through collaboration. Beyond specific topical content, a medical school curriculum in the ethics of global health outreach should emphasize the importance of local collaboration and longitudinal mentorship of medical students. Medical school training in the recognition and resolution of the ethical issues attendant on global health outreach work prepares students not only for more sophisticated work in international settings but also for the ethical complexities of medical practice closer to home.

  12. Ethical issues in clinical neuroscience research: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Perry D; Herman, Linda; Jedlinski, Sheryl; Willocks, Peggy; Wittekind, Paula

    2007-07-01

    A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public confidence in medical research. Parkinson advocates' views on clinical trial participation, perceived risks and benefits, placebo controls, and sham surgery are presented. These views reflect the sense of urgency and the unique perspective that comes from living with this progressive, debilitating condition full time. A patient-centered paradigm that includes authentic voices of patients as collaborators at every stage of development will help to resolve conflicts, build trust, recruit trial participants, and accelerate new therapies. Key elements are adaptive clinical trial methods and the development of information technology for the assessment of outcomes and surveillance of safety over the life cycle of a medical product. Supported by the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, the Parkinson Pipeline Project is a grassroots group of Parkinson's patients whose goal is to represent an authentic voice for patients in the treatment development process. This group promotes education and communication between members of the Parkinson's community and active stakeholders in medical research, industry, and regulatory agencies. Its members are an example of a new breed of knowledgeable consumers, armed with first-hand access to research findings and reinforced by on-line connections to like-minded peers throughout the world.

  13. [The ethical and deontological issues of public health in Russia].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T M; Lushkina, N P

    2009-01-01

    The issues of physician-patient relationship are moving from the deontological to social area and hence need not only organizational but political actions as well related to the medical provision of population and mortality increase. The patients have to be provided with the required medical care irrespective of their economic and property status and this approach is to be guaranteed on the state level.

  14. Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement (HCE). The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot testing on smart-glasses. Based on three existing approaches in health technology assessment a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE technologies was developed. Based on a pilot test for smart-glasses, the method was amended. The method consists of six steps and a guiding list of 43 questions. A method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE was developed. The method provides the ground work for context specific ethical assessment and analysis. Widespread use, amendments, and further developments of the method are encouraged.

  15. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    PubMed

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision.

  16. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  17. Ethical issues in the reuse of qualitative data: perspectives from literature, practice, and participants.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah J; Watts, Kate M; Pearson, Jennifer; Richardson, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore ethical issues in qualitative secondary analysis through a comparison of the literature with practitioner and participant perspectives. To achieve this, we integrated critical narrative review findings with data from two discussion groups: qualitative researchers and research users/consumers. In the literature, we found that theoretical debate ran parallel to practical action rather than being integrated with it. We identified an important and novel theme of relationships that was emerging from the perspectives of researchers and users. Relationships were significant with respect to trust, sharing data, transparency and clarity, anonymity, permissions, and responsibility. We provide an example of practice development that we hope will prompt researchers to re-examine the issues in their own setting. Informing the research community of research practitioner and user perspectives on ethical issues in the reuse of qualitative data is the first step toward developing mechanisms to better integrate theoretical and empirical work.

  18. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue.

  19. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research. METHOD: PubMed electronic library was used to retrieve publications of all fields and ethical issues. JoinPoint regression analysis was used to identify the significant time trends of publications of all fields and ethical issues, as well as the proportion of publications on ethical issues to all fields over the past half century. Annual percent changes (APC) were computed with their 95% confidence intervals, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We found that publications of ethical issues increased during the period of 1965–1996 but slightly fell in recent years (from 1996 to 2013). When comparing the absolute number of ethics related articles (APEI) to all publications of all fields (APAF) on PubMed, the results showed that the proportion of APEI to APAF statistically increased during the periods of 1965–1974, 1974–1986, and 1986–1993, with APCs of 11.0, 2.1, and 8.8, respectively. However, the trend has gradually dropped since 1993 and shown a marked decrease from 2002 to 2013 with an annual percent change of –7.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific productivity in ethical issues research on over the past half century rapidly increased during the first 30-year period but has recently been in decline. Since ethics is an important aspect of scientific research, we suggest that greater attention is needed in order to emphasize the role of ethics in modern research. PMID:25324690

  20. Contemporary ethical issues in human milk-banking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miracle, Donna J; Szucs, Kinga A; Torke, Alexia M; Helft, Paul R

    2011-12-01

    Donor human milk has been used in the United States for >90 years, but recent advances in human milk science and laboratory techniques have led to increasing use of this resource. Pediatricians began using donor human milk in the 1900s in response to anecdotal observation that premature infants had better health outcomes when receiving their own mothers' milk. Since then, a formalized human milk-banking system developed in the mid-1980s and distributed >1 million ounces of pasteurized donor human milk in 2008. Despite growth in the use of pasteurized donor human milk, there is little discussion in the medical literature regarding the ethical considerations of collection and use of this resource. Key ethical considerations include issues surrounding medical decision-making and informed consent, increasing the limited supply of human milk, how ethically to allocate this scarce resource, and concerns linked to the marketing of a human milk.

  1. Ethical issues in a study of Internet use: uncertainty, responsibility, and the spirit of research relationships.

    PubMed

    Bier, Melinda C; Sherblom, Stephen A; Gallo, Michael A

    1996-01-01

    In this article we explore ethical issues arising in a study of home Internet use by low-income families. We consider questions of our responsibility as educational researchers and discuss the ethical implications of some unanticipated consequences of our study. We illustrate ways in which the principles of research ethics for use of human subjects can be ambiguous and possibly inadequate for anticipating potential harm in educational research. In this exploratory research of personal communication technologies, participants experienced changes that were personal and relational. These unanticipated changes in their way of being complicated our research relationships, testing the boundaries of our committment to the principle of trustworthiness and forcing us to reevaluate our responsibilities.

  2. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  3. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  4. The commercialization of human stem cells: ethical and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2002-01-01

    The first stage of the human embryonic stem (ES) cell research debate revolved around fundamental questions, such as whether the research should be done at all, what types of research may be done, who should do the research, and how the research should be funded. Now that some of these questions are being answered, we are beginning to see the next stage of the debate: the battle for property rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a key issue in this debate is simple and easy to understand: it costs a great deal of money to do this research, to develop new products, and to implement therapies; and private companies, researchers, and health professionals require returns on investments and reimbursements for goods and services. This paper considers arguments for and against property rights relating to ES cells defends the following points: (1) It should be legal to buy and sell ES cells and products. (2) It should be legal to patent ES cells, products, and related technologies. (3) It should not be legal to buy, sell, or patent human embryos. (4) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should not be excessively broad. (5) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should be granted only when applicants state definite, plausible uses for their inventions. (6) There should be a research exemption in ES cell patenting to allow academic scientists to conduct research in regenerative medicine. (7) It may be appropriate to take steps to prevent companies from using patents in ES cells, products, and related technologies only to block competitors. (8) As the field of regenerative medicine continues to develop, societies should revisit issues relating to property rights on a continuing basis in order to develop policies and develop regulations to maximize the social, medical, economic, and scientific benefits of ES cell research and product development.

  5. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into

  6. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: practical and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Cochat, Pierre; Groothoff, Jaap

    2013-12-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism of autosomal recessive inheritance, leading to progressive systemic oxalate storage (named 'oxalosis') with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as well as an unacceptable quality of life for most patients. The adverse outcome, however, is partly due to issues that can be overcome. First, the diagnosis of PH is often delayed due to a general lack of knowledge of the disease among physicians. This accounts specifically for patients with pyridoxine sensitive PH, a group that is paradoxically most easy to treat. Second, lack of adherence to a strict conduction of conservative treatment and optimal urological management may enhance an adverse outcome of the disease. Third, specific techniques to establish PH1 and specific therapies are currently often not available in several low-resources countries with a high prevalence of PH. The management of patients with advanced disease is extremely difficult and warrants a tailor-made approach in most cases. Comprehensive programs for education of local physicians, installation of national centers of expertise, European support of low-resources countries for the management of PH patients and intensified international collaboration on the management of current patients, as well as on conduction of clinical studies, may further improve outcome of PH.

  7. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  8. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  9. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    PubMed

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation.

  10. Seven Ethical Issues Affecting Neurosurgeons in the Context of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Dagi, T Forcht

    2017-04-01

    Ethical discussions around health care reform typically focus on problems of social justice and health care equity. This review, in contrast, focuses on ethical issues of particular importance to neurosurgeons, especially with respect to potential changes in the physician-patient relationship that may occur in the context of health care reform.The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (H.R. 3590) was not the first attempt at health care reform in the United States but it is the one currently in force. Its ambitions include universal access to health care, a focus on population health, payment reform, and cost control. Each of these aims is complicated by a number of ethical challenges, of which 7 stand out because of their potential influence on patient care: the accountability of physicians and surgeons to individual patients; the effects of financial incentives on clinical judgment; the definition and management of conflicting interests; the duty to preserve patient autonomy in the face of protocolized care; problems in information exchange and communication; issues related to electronic health records and data security; and the appropriate use of "Big Data."Systematic social and economic reforms inevitably raise ethical concerns. While the ACA may have driven these 7 to particular prominence, they are actually generic. Nevertheless, they are immediately relevant to the practice of neurosurgery and likely to reflect the realities the profession will be obliged to confront in the pursuit of more efficient and more effective health care.

  11. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    PubMed

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-06-29

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  12. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.

  13. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  14. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Kushida, Clete A.; Lewin, Daniel S.; Malow, Beth A.; Redline, Susan; Goldman, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Scientifically rigorous clinical trials are needed to test continuous positive airway pressure's (CPAP) effect on important clinical endpoints known to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, mortality, seizures, and cognitive function. In this “Special Article,” we review the regulatory and ethical issues that surround the design and conduct of CPAP trials, including selection of the appropriate control condition, exclusion criteria, and follow-up duration. Citation: Brown DL; Anderson CS; Chervin RD; Kushida CA; Lewin DS; Malow BA; Redline S; Goldman EB. Ethical issues in the conduct of clinical trials in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(1):103-108. PMID:21344041

  15. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  16. The development of computer ethics: contributions from business ethics and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Wong, K; Steinke, G

    2000-04-01

    In this essay, we demonstrate that the field of computer ethics shares many core similarities with two other areas of applied ethics. Academicians writing and teaching in the area of computer ethics, along with practitioners, must address ethical issues that are qualitatively similar in nature to those raised in medicine and business. In addition, as academic disciplines, these three fields also share some similar concerns. For example, all face the difficult challenge of maintaining a credible dialogue with diverse constituents such as academicians of various disciplines, professionals, policymakers, and the general public. Given these similarities, the fields of bioethics and business ethics can serve as useful models for the development of computer ethics.

  17. Issues and ethical problems of stem cell therapy--where is Hippocrates?

    PubMed

    Rousková, Lucie; Hruska, Ivan; Filip, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells and their therapeutic use present many questions associated with ethical problems in medicine. There is great effort on the part of physicians to help millions of patients while there are ethical problems with the use of new methods and technologies and all of these are affected by economic and political influences. How will the current generation deal with these problems? Medicine, in this begard, is experiencing a stormy evolution of human culture in the relationships between disease, patient and doctor. Philosophy approaches the same juncture of human culture, but seemingly from the other side. Both disciplines are facing a great problem: How to unite the content of current human morality and the desire for health? Both philosophers and physicians perceive this deficit in human culture as it does not provide immediately usable normatives, which the living generation of healthy and ill is waiting for. It may be said that medicine, as many times before, has reached a stage where it cannot rely only on the proved axiologic values from the past, ethical normatives or cultivated moral sense of its subjects. Medicine has no other alternative than to take an active part in resolution of interdisciplinary problems originating from philosophic-biologic or philosophic-medical inquiries of axiologic, ethical, and moral issues. Our paper indicates some ways of the search in forming ethical principles of the stem-cell therapy from the view of biologists and physicians. New ways are recommended in theoretical-methodological interdisciplinary research, especially, in theoretical and experimental biology, and theoretical and clinical medicine, as well as philosophy. In this paper important ethical problems are pointed out in order to find answers to some key problems connected with cell therapy and the use of stem cells.

  18. Research Ethics in Emerging Forms of Online Learning: Issues Arising from a Hypothetical Study on a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants' experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC--Massive Online Open…

  19. Advancing research with Alzheimer disease subjects: investigators' perceptions and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    High, D M

    1993-01-01

    Advancement of Alzheimer disease (AD) research will not only depend on increased participation of patients with AD as subjects, but researchers will likely face increasingly difficult ethical issues. Presented are the results of a survey of researchers at the 15 federally funded Alzheimer Disease Research Centers concerning the ethical issues for subjects with AD participating in research. Experiences from 99 projects are assessed. Major findings include a significant lack of uniformity on the assessment of competency of subjects to consent to research, proxy informed consent overwhelmingly provided informally by family members, no wide use of durable powers of attorney and guardians, perception by the investigators that most projects present only minimal risks to the subjects, and Institutional Review Boards not being viewed by the investigators as preventing or inhibiting the advancement of AD research. It is recommended that research is needed to develop greater clarity in assessment of capacity of subjects to provide informed consent, that ethical and legal empowerment of family members to provide proxy consent be sustained, and that the issue of risk/benefit ratios for AD participants in research be reevaluated in the light of potentially greater risks to subjects.

  20. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4)…

  1. Periodontal Research: Basics and beyond – Part II (Ethical issues, sampling, outcome measures and bias)

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Haritha

    2013-01-01

    A good research beginning refers to formulating a well-defined research question, developing a hypothesis and choosing an appropriate study design. The first part of the review series has discussed these issues in depth and this paper intends to throw light on other issues pertaining to the implementation of research. These include the various ethical norms and standards in human experimentation, the eligibility criteria for the participants, sampling methods and sample size calculation, various outcome measures that need to be defined and the biases that can be introduced in research. PMID:24174747

  2. Ethical Considerations in Designing the International Business Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, David A.

    As awareness of the need for ethical business behavior increases, businesspeople must address the issue of an ethical standard acceptable for use in international business or, in individual situations, which country's ethical standards will be respected. Ethical absolutes cannot be determined without cultural bias. Legalistic, religious, and…

  3. Ethical Reasoning and Mental Health Services with Deaf Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Ethical problems encountered by mental health practitioners working with deaf clients are often complex and involve issues not fully addressed in professional codes of ethics. A principles-based ethical reasoning process can assist in resolving many of these ethical concerns. Principles such as beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, fairness,…

  4. The Order of Things: Ethical Foundations for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Arthur D.; Holt, Lynn; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the need for community college leaders to develop a deeper understanding of ethics in preparation for addressing ethical issues that arise in the administration of their institutions. It discusses briefly the nature of ethics and the ethical theories of some modern and postmodern authors. The article is concerned…

  5. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  6. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  7. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  8. An exploratory survey on the views of European tissue engineers concerning the ethical issues of tissue engineering research.

    PubMed

    Trommelmans, Leen; Selling, Joseph; Dierickx, Kris

    2009-09-01

    We present the first exploratory survey about the views of tissue engineers on the ethical issues of tissue engineering (TE), conducted among participants of a large European TE consortium. We analyzed the topics for which ethical guidance is necessary and the preferred dissemination channels, which are relevant issues and goals of clinical trials with human tissue-engineered products, and which information is to be given to trial participants. The need for comprehensive, specific ethical guidance of TE is a first key finding of this survey. Second, it becomes clear that little clarity exists on some crucial issues in the setup and conduct of clinical trials in TE. Identifying the unique features of TE and their repercussions for the ethical conduct of TE research and therapy is necessary. Third, prospective trial participants are to be informed about a wide variety of issues before taking part in the trial.

  9. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications.

  10. Ethical issues associated with genetic counseling in the context of adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jane; Virani, Alice; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counseling is a well-established healthcare discipline that provides individuals and families with health information about disorders that have a genetic component in a supportive counseling encounter. It has recently been applied in the context of psychiatric disorders (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression and anxiety) that typically appear sometime during later childhood through to early adulthood. Psychiatric genetic counseling is emerging as an important service that fills a growing need to reframe understandings of the causes of mental health disorders. In this review, we will define psychiatric genetic counseling, and address important ethical concerns (we will particularly give attention to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) that must be considered in the context of its application in adolescent psychiatry, whilst integrating evidence regarding patient outcomes from the literature. We discuss the developing capacity and autonomy of adolescents as an essential and dynamic component of genetic counseling provision in this population and discuss how traditional viewpoints regarding beneficence and non-maleficence should be considered in the unique situation of adolescents with, or at risk for, psychiatric conditions. We argue that thoughtful and tailored counseling in this setting can be done in a manner that addresses the important health needs of this population while respecting the core principles of biomedical ethics, including the ethic of care. PMID:26937355

  11. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  12. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval.

  13. Ethical issues in nutrition support of severely disabled elderly persons: a guide for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Monod, Stéfanie; Chiolero, René; Büla, Christophe; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2011-05-01

    Providing or withholding nutrition in severely disabled elderly persons is a challenging dilemma for families, health professionals, and institutions. Despite limited evidence that nutrition support improves functional status in vulnerable older persons, especially those suffering from dementia, the issue of nutrition support in this population is strongly debated. Nutrition might be considered a basic need that not only sustains life but provides comfort as well by patients and their families. Consequently, the decision to provide or withhold nutrition support during medical care is often complex and involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This article proposes a guide for health professionals to appraise ethical issues related to nutrition support in severely disabled older persons. This guide is based on an 8-step process to identify the components of a situation, analyze conflicting values that result in the ethical dilemma, and eventually reach a consensus for the most relevant plan of care to implement in a specific clinical situation. A vignette is presented to illustrate the use of this guide when analyzing a clinical situation.

  14. Ethics for the New Political Economy: What Can it Mean to be Professionally Responsible? Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this address, the author builds the case that a new political economy of education, dominated by what Pauline Lipman calls the "neo-liberal social imaginary," is changing the moral context in which educators imagine their professional roles. The author argues that educators are placed in relation to others in rather complicated…

  15. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  16. Analysis of the ethical issues in the breastfeeding and bedsharing debate.

    PubMed

    Fetherston, Catherine M; Leach, J Shaughn

    2012-11-01

    Recommendations advising against mothers and their infants sharing a bed during sleep (bedsharing) have sparked heated debate in recent years, the effects of which are that bedsharing is now most often only considered in the polarised contexts of being either 'the norm' or 'inherently unsafe'. This has resulted in significant tensions between supporters of bedsharing and public health bodies who seek to eliminate the risks associated with SIDS. This paper considers the issues surrounding this debate by examining the evidence associated with bedsharing, SIDS and breastfeeding. This is undertaken using Baum's six-step framework for analysing potential ethical tensions in public health policy, which includes the principles of utility, evidence base and effectiveness of action, fairness, accountability, costs and burdens, and community acceptance. This framework has allowed us to examine the competing principles involved in the bedsharing and breastfeeding debate, and arrive at a position constructed using ethical considerations.

  17. Ethical issues in and beyond prospective clinical trials of human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1985-08-01

    As the potential for the first human trials of somatic cell gene therapy nears, two ethical issues are examined: problems of moral choice for members of institutional review boards who consider the first protocols, for parents, and for the clinical researchers, and the special protections that may be required for the infants and children to be involved, and ethical objections to somatic cell therapy made by those concerned about a putative inevitable progression of genetic knowledge from therapy to mass genetic engineering in human reproduction. The author's viewpoint is that a consensus exists on the required moral approach to somatic cell therapy, but that no moral approach yet exists for experiments beyond this level, especially in the germline cells of human beings.

  18. Current ethical issues in synthetic biology: where should we go from here?

    PubMed

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2011-05-01

    Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an emerging scientific field which has quickly established momentum and visibility. Although no single definition of SynBio prevails, the field broadly encompasses the application of engineering principles to biology, redesigning biological materials and using them as new substrates to create products and entities not otherwise found in nature. This article first reviews SynBio, highlighting the novel aspects of this technology. It then synthesizes ethical issues highlighted in the literature to date and makes some initial claims that research on the ethical aspects of SynBio should: avoid creating a new subtype of bioethics, concentrate on novel concepts and problems, and be situated within a context of cooperative interdisciplinary investigation.

  19. Genetic testing and its implications: human genetics researchers grapple with ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Rabino, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy.

  20. Issues of trust and ethics in computerized clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L

    2006-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems are computer technologies that model and provide support for human decision-making processes. Decision support mechanisms facilitate and enhance a clinician's ability to make decisions at the point of care. Decisions are facilitated through technology by using automated mechanisms that provide alerts or messages to clinicians about a potential patient problem. A clinician's level of trust in these technologies to support decision making is affected by how knowledge is represented in these tools, their ability to make reasonable decisions, and how they are designed. Furthermore, ethical tensions occur if these systems do not promote standards, if clinicians do not understand how to use these systems, and when professional relationships are affected. Issues of trust and ethical concerns will be examined in this article, using a research study of midwestern nursing homes that implemented a clinical decision support system.

  1. Translating personalized medicine using new genetic technologies in clinical practice: the ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Ormond, Kelly E; Cho, Mildred K

    2014-01-01

    The integration of new genetic technologies into clinical practice holds great promise for the personalization of medical care, particularly the use of large-scale DNA sequencing for genome-wide genetic testing. However, these technologies also yield unprecedented amounts of information whose clinical implications are not fully understood, and we are still developing technical standards for measuring sequence accuracy. These technical and clinical challenges raise ethical issues that are similar to but qualitatively different from those that we are accustomed to dealing with for traditional medical genetics. The sheer amount of information afforded by genome sequencing requires rethinking of how to implement core ethical principles including, but not limited to: informed consent, privacy and data ownership and sharing, technology regulation, issues of access, particularly as new technology is integrated into clinical practice, and issues of potential stigma and impact on perceptions of disability. In this article, we will review the issues of informed consent, privacy, data ownership and technology regulation as they relate to the emerging field of personalized medicine and genomics. PMID:25221608

  2. Identifying the mathematics middle year students use as they address a community issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Middle year students often do not see the mathematics in the real world whereas the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims for students to be "confident and creative users and communicators of mathematics" (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2012). Using authentic and real mathematics tasks can address this situation. This paper is an account of how, working within a Knowledge Producing Schools' framework, a group of middle year students addressed a real community issue, the problem of the lack of a teenage safe space using mathematics and technology. Data were collected for this case study via journal observations and reflections, semi-structured interviews, samples of the students' work and videos of students working. The data were analysed by identifying the mathematics the students used determining the function and location of the space and focused on problem negotiation, formulation and solving through the statistical investigation cycle. The paper will identify the mathematics and statistics these students used as they addressed a real problem in their local community.

  3. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  4. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L. ); Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  5. Addressing earthquake strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motions predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response.

  6. Which issues concerning multiple pregnancies should be addressed during psychosocial counselling?

    PubMed

    Emery, Marysa

    2007-01-01

    The global rise in multiple pregnancy rates due to assisted reproductive technology has led to the development of various strategies to diminish these rates without jeopardising pregnancy. Policies at treatment centres may include the option of fetal reduction, although each centre is subject to national laws and its own guidelines. However, personal opinions and goals may also influence practice. The development of clinical decisions, therefore, is complex and subject to change. Primary prevention is the best way to reduce multiple births. For preventative psychosocial counselling, some centres employ counsellors, but if not, this becomes the physician's task. An in-depth assessment is required to define how many embryos to transfer and what risk of multiple birth is acceptable to patients. Counselling should address the following: the relationship between pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the number of embryos transferred; benefits and risks of multiple pregnancy; and possibilities for primary and secondary prevention. Patients should voice how they feel facing these issues; which issues are worrisome; how they anticipate these possibilities; and what psychosocial support exists that could be mobilized. In summary, psychosocial counselling reinforces the partnership between couples and the assisted reproductive technology team, allowing for primary prevention and informed consent on multiple pregnancy issues.

  7. The Teaching of Socioscientific Issues in Interdisciplinarity Biology-philosophy, an Ethical Stake and Citizenship Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacem, Saida; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This research starts from a relatively optimistic thinking based on the fact that the teaching of the socioscientific issues through the practice of argued debates can contribute positively towards education in scientific citizenship. The teaching of techno-sciences raises topical questions which interfere in the classroom and at the same time…

  8. Crowdfunding FOR MEDICAL CARE: Ethical Issues in an Emerging Health Care Funding Practice.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding websites allow users to post a public appeal for funding for a range of activities, including adoption, travel, research, participation in sports, and many others. One common form of crowdfunding is for expenses related to medical care. Medical crowdfunding appeals serve as a means of addressing gaps in medical and employment insurance, both in countries without universal health insurance, like the United States, and countries with universal coverage limited to essential medical needs, like Canada. For example, as of 2012, the website Gofundme had been used to raise a total of 8.8 million dollars (U.S.) for seventy-six hundred campaigns, the majority of which were health related. This money can make an important difference in the lives of crowdfunding users, as the costs of unexpected or uninsured medical needs can be staggering. In this article, I offer an overview of the benefits of medical crowdfunding websites and the ethical concerns they raise. I argue that medical crowdfunding is a symptom and cause of, rather than a solution to, health system injustices and that policy-makers should work to address the injustices motivating the use of crowdfunding sites for essential medical services. Despite the sites' ethical problems, individual users and donors need not refrain from using them, but they bear a political responsibility to address the inequities encouraged by these sites. I conclude by suggesting some responses to these concerns and future directions for research.

  9. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  10. Ethical and regulatory issues related to pregnancy registries and their outcomes.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Meador, Kimford; Cnaan, Avital; Gilliam, Frank; Conway, Jill; Araojo, Richardae; Feibus, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Pregnancy registries should be devised so that the interests of science, society, and the individual are all considered. For example, there may be ethical issues that relate to how women are chosen to participate in the registry and how informed consent is obtained. In most cases, consent is required for both the mother and the infant. Some institutional review boards will require that consent be obtained by someone other than the woman's physician. Once data are obtained, there may be an issue as to when results should be released. Options are to release data when there is the first indication of a concerning finding, thereby potentially preventing exposure in the largest number of women, versus waiting until the finding is absolutely confirmed. In a related issue, there are questions of when and how regulatory agencies should change labeling based on findings.

  11. Ethical and legal issues in non-heart-beating organ donation.

    PubMed

    Bos, Michael A

    2005-05-15

    Procurement of kidneys and livers from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) raises ethical and legal issues that need to be considered before wider use of these donors is undertaken. Although NHBDs were used in kidney transplantation as early as the 1960s, retrieval of these organs is not universally accepted today. From a medical point of view, these organs were considered "marginal" because the majority showed delayed or impaired function early after implantation. Legal problems relate to determination of death on cardiopulmonary criteria, the issue of valid consent, and the use of preservation measures. Among ethical issues involved are observance of the dead-donor rule, decisions with respect to resuscitation and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, respect for the dying patient and the dead body, and proper guidance of the family. In The Netherlands NHB donation was pioneered by the Maastricht Centre as early as 1981. Today, all seven transplant centers procure and transplant these organs, and NHBDs have become an important source of transplantable kidneys and livers. Recent legislation in The Netherlands also supports NHB donation by allowing the use of organ-preserving measures, even in the absence of family consent. As a result, one of every three kidneys transplanted in The Netherlands in 2004 derives from a NHBD. This article explores Dutch NHBD practice, protocols, and results and compares these data internationally.

  12. Ethical issues in using social media for health and health care research.

    PubMed

    McKee, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    The dramatic growth of social media in recent years has not gone unnoticed in the health sector. Media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly being used to disseminate information among health professionals and patients but, more recently, are being seen as a source of data for surveillance and research, for example by tracking public concerns or capturing discourses taking place outside traditional media outlets. This raises ethical issues, in particular the extent to which postings are considered public or private and the right to anonymity of those posting on social media. These issues are not clear cut as social media, by their nature, blur the boundary between public and private. There is a need for further research on the beliefs and expectations of those using social media in relation to how their material might be used in research. In contrast, there are areas where the ethical issues are more clear cut, such as when individuals are active participants in research, where traditional considerations apply.

  13. Ethical issues for invasive cardiologists: Society for cardiovascular angiography and interventions.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Airlie A C; Laskey, Warren K; Sheldon, William C

    2004-02-01

    In view of the major impact of medical economic forces, rapidly changing technology, and other pressures on invasive cardiologists, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions determined that a statement of the ethical issues confronting the modern invasive cardiologist was needed. The various conflicts presented to the cardiologist in his or her roles as practicing clinician, administrator of the catheterization laboratory, educator, or clinical researcher were reviewed. In all instances, the major concern was determined to be the welfare of the patient no matter how forceful the pressures from various outside force or concerns for personal advancement might be.

  14. Scientific and Ethical Issues Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Disorders of Mood, Behavior and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S.; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Dunn, Laura B.; Gabriëls, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Haber, Suzanne N.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S.; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Vawter, Dorothy E.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A two-day consensus conference was held in order to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of mood and behavioral disorders such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to 1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of DBS for disorders of mood, behavior and thought and 2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field. PMID:19736349

  15. Ethics issues in social media-based HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chingche J; Menacho, Luis; Fisher, Celia; Young, Sean D

    2015-07-01

    Questions have been raised regarding participants' safety and comfort when participating in e-health education programs. Although researchers have begun to explore this issue in the United States, little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where Internet and social media use is rapidly growing. This article reports on a quantitative study with Peruvian men who have sex with men who had previously participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) program, a Facebook-based HIV education program. The survey assessed participants' ethics-relevant perspectives during recruitment, consent, intervention, and follow-up.

  16. The Core Values: Framing and Resolving Ethical Issues for the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    stood in terms of the struc ture of moral ity, the core val ues repre sent the core concepts air men need to frame ethical issues. A more troubling...caught lying. For these theories, in fact, the agent’s in ten­ tions would typically matter more than what the agent in fact accomplishes.10...ter traits called “ virtues ” and “vices.” Charac ter and virtue theories ask what the virtues are and how we learn and teach them. West ern philoso

  17. Medicolegal and ethical issues of cloning: do we need to think again and again?

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2004-06-01

    Research on the cloning of human cells holds the promise of medical benefits, but cloning humans is a far more complex and ethically disturbing issue. Some have argued strenuously that human cloning should be banned permanently. They have called it immoral, repugnant, and abhorrent. Most European countries have already banned it, and others are considering a proscription. While allowing fundamental research in the field to progress, we need a wide debate on human cloning. We need to think about what, if any, circumstances might warrant cloning, as well as the circumstances under which it should never be allowed.

  18. Ethical Issues to Consider in the Design of HIV Prevention Trials Involving Transgender People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Although transgender women have been included in HIV prevention pre-exposure prophylaxis studies, no pre-exposure prophylaxis study has focused exclusively on transgender persons. Drawing on the cardinal principles of ethics espoused in the Belmont Report, this work highlights, among other issues, that (1) the principle of Justice requires the HIV prevention field to focus exclusively on transgender persons, (2) the disclosure of potential study-related risks to study participants demonstrates Respect for Persons, and (3) devising risk mitigation plans, optimizing a proposed study's standard of care, and the provision of ancillary care satisfy the principle of Beneficence. PMID:27429192

  19. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.

  20. From Education to Practice: Addressing Opioid Misuse through Healthcare Provider Training: A Special Issue of SAj.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Harding, John Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging. In this issue of the Substance Abuse journal, we examine the science and evidence base of educational interventions and public initiatives addressing opioid use and addiction. These initiatives include naloxone rescue awareness and programs, community-based training initiatives, and system or public health approaches to improve student, trainee, and clinician education/training revolving around opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. We call on stakeholders to fund more research to investigate and implement the proven means to educate undergraduate students, graduate trainees, and clinicians regarding pain and addiction. We also recognize the 2016 peer reviewers of our journal who have performed meritorious, volunteer service to advance the science of addiction.

  1. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  2. Closing the gaps in knowledge, policy and action to address water issues in forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul W.

    1993-10-01

    Water issues on forest lands involve many human elements and needs that are not addressed by advanced physical and biological research and technology. Major gaps in our knowledge of important patterns of climate, soils, and terrain can be filled by relatively basic data collection and monitoring programs. Careful analysis of existing data and field experience also can reveal appropriate directions for management. A focus on problem-solving can direct research more effectively towards the resolution of key issues. Despite their impact, resource policies have widely varying scientific foundations. Policy-makers need sound processes for policy development, including timely technical input that is clear, objective, and related to socio-economic considerations. Resource polices should be consistent and include not only regulation, but also research, education, assistance, and incentives. Knowledge and sound policies still may not produce the desired on-the-ground actions, however, because of variable awareness, understanding, skill, or supervision in the field. Education and training programs are important not only for resource technicians, but also for contractors, operators, and other forest workers. Good planning, communication, and field coordination further insure that problems are avoided and new opportunities for effective actions are identified.

  3. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  4. On the scientific and ethical issues of fetal somatic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Coutelle, C; Rodeck, C

    2002-06-01

    Fetal somatic gene therapy is often seen as an ethically particularly controversial field of gene therapy. This review outlines the hypothesis and scientific background of in utero gene therapy and addresses some of the frequently raised questions and concerns in relation to this still experimental, potentially preventive gene therapy approach. We discuss here the choice of vectors, of animal models and routes of administration to the fetus. We address the relation of fetal gene therapy to abortion, to post-implantation selection and postnatal gene therapy and the concerns of inadvertent germ-line modification. Our views on the specific risks of prenatal gene therapy and on the particular prerequisites that have to be met before human application can be considered are presented.

  5. Participant protection with the use of records: ethical issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Wilhelmina A

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the ethical concerns and protections that may be required when individually identifiable data originally collected solely for clinical or administrative purposes are used in research or evaluation. It asks the following broad question with respect to the interim policy developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to protect the rights and welfare of participants in its programs: For those programs and projects not classified as research, are the protections and system for review adequate? Background information on SAMHSA's interim policy is provided, along with issues and questions related to the use of clinical and administrative records in research and evaluation. The article concludes with recommendations for modifying the existing participant protection guidelines, based on the preceding discussion of issues and questions.

  6. Legal and ethical issues in the regulation and development of engineering achievements in medical technology. II.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Flannery, E J; Wade, M

    1990-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.9, no.2, p.79-81 (1990). The ethical issues raised by the fact that patients/subjects are less protected in non-investigational-device-exemption (non-IDE) use of unapproved medical devices than in IDE use are examined. Practice, research, and nonvalidated practice, an intervention that falls into the region between pure practice and pure research, are defined and examined with respect to non-IDE use of unapproved medical devices. Two types of non-IDE use are considered: that which would be permitted under the feasibility studies mechanism, and emergency use. Ethical issues in both cases are discussed. It is concluded that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must not only expand the freedom of scientific investigators to develop new medical devices, allowing flexibility in defined non-IDE contexts that will not jeopardize the safety or welfare of patients, but also clearly and concisely define the procedures which outline this expanded freedom.

  7. [Ethical and health issues posed by the recent Ebola epidemic: What should we learn?].

    PubMed

    Pablo Beca, Juan; Salas, Sofía P

    2016-03-01

    The recent Ebola epidemic that affected several countries in Africa, with very high mortality and a pandemic threat, posed problems of justice, public health, prevention, treatment and research, each of which has relevant ethical issues. Despite severe initial difficulties, an effective international response was achieved, whose outcome has left significant teachings to be considered in order to deal with future epidemics or pandemics. In this article, the authors analyze the main problems faced during the Ebola epidemic, including the unequal distribution of health resources between countries, the need for international collaboration, the requirement for a review of the ethical standards of clinical trials in emergencies, and the necessity of an organized global system of prevention and timely response to these outbreaks. Authors conclude that at the present time health is a global issue without borders, that insufficient healthcare resources in some countries poses risks and affects all countries and that the confrontation of the threats of epidemics requires a solution based in universal solidarity. At the same time, a moral duty to investigate should be acknowledged, seeking a balance between sense of urgency, scientific rigor and involvement of local communities.

  8. Ethical Issues in Using Twitter for Public Health Surveillance and Research: Developing a Taxonomy of Ethical Concepts From the Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rise of social media and microblogging platforms in recent years, in conjunction with the development of techniques for the processing and analysis of “big data”, has provided significant opportunities for public health surveillance using user-generated content. However, relatively little attention has been focused on developing ethically appropriate approaches to working with these new data sources. Objective Based on a review of the literature, this study seeks to develop a taxonomy of public health surveillance-related ethical concepts that emerge when using Twitter data, with a view to: (1) explicitly identifying a set of potential ethical issues and concerns that may arise when researchers work with Twitter data, and (2) providing a starting point for the formation of a set of best practices for public health surveillance through the development of an empirically derived taxonomy of ethical concepts. Methods We searched Medline, Compendex, PsycINFO, and the Philosopher’s Index using a set of keywords selected to identify Twitter-related research papers that reference ethical concepts. Our initial set of queries identified 342 references across the four bibliographic databases. We screened titles and abstracts of these references using our inclusion/exclusion criteria, eliminating duplicates and unavailable papers, until 49 references remained. We then read the full text of these 49 articles and discarded 36, resulting in a final inclusion set of 13 articles. Ethical concepts were then identified in each of these 13 articles. Finally, based on a close reading of the text, a taxonomy of ethical concepts was constructed based on ethical concepts discovered in the papers. Results From these 13 articles, we iteratively generated a taxonomy of ethical concepts consisting of 10 top level categories: privacy, informed consent, ethical theory, institutional review board (IRB)/regulation, traditional research vs Twitter research, geographical

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for...and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...requesters April 2014 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities

  10. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  11. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.176 - What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What issues must the bureau and the Tribe/Consortium... Tribe/Consortium address at negotiation meetings? The negotiation meetings referred to in § 1000.175 must address at a minimum the following: (a) The specific Tribe/Consortium proposal(s) and...

  16. Ethics and Agricultural Education: Determining Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Billye

    2000-01-01

    In a three-round Delphi (n=197, 109, 75), secondary teachers (61.5% in agriculture) identified important ethical issues regarding land and water use: conversion of agricultural land for urban development, water rights control, and public land used for agriculture. Nearly all addressed ethical issues in class. (SK)

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  20. The Ethics of Instructional Technology: Issues and Coping Strategies Experienced by Professional Technologists in Design and Training Situations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20…