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Sample records for address existing gaps

  1. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  2. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  3. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

  4. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  5. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  6. Does a global DNA barcoding gap exist in Annelida?

    PubMed

    Kvist, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification of unknown specimens by means of DNA barcoding is contingent on the presence of a DNA barcoding gap, among other factors, as its absence may result in dubious specimen identifications - false negatives or positives. Whereas the utility of DNA barcoding would be greatly reduced in the absence of a distinct and sufficiently sized barcoding gap, the limits of intraspecific and interspecific distances are seldom thoroughly inspected across comprehensive sampling. The present study aims to illuminate this aspect of barcoding in a comprehensive manner for the animal phylum Annelida. All cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences (cox1 gene; the chosen region for zoological DNA barcoding) present in GenBank for Annelida, as well as for "Polychaeta", "Oligochaeta", and Hirudinea separately, were downloaded and curated for length, coverage and potential contaminations. The final datasets consisted of 9782 (Annelida), 5545 ("Polychaeta"), 3639 ("Oligochaeta"), and 598 (Hirudinea) cox1 sequences and these were either (i) used as is in an automated global barcoding gap detection analysis or (ii) further analyzed for genetic distances, separated into bins containing intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and plotted in a graph to visualize any potential global barcoding gap. Over 70 million pairwise genetic comparisons were made and results suggest that although there is a tendency towards separation, no distinct or sufficiently sized global barcoding gap exists in either of the datasets rendering future barcoding efforts at risk of erroneous specimen identifications (but local barcoding gaps may still exist allowing for the identification of specimens at lower taxonomic ranks). This seems to be especially true for earthworm taxa, which account for fully 35% of the total number of interspecific comparisons that show 0% divergence.

  7. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  8. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  9. Addressing Excellence Gaps in K-12 Education. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Gifted Children, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, a major objective of federal and state education policy has been to narrow K-12 achievement gaps. This position statement notes that the available data suggest that the singular focus on the most struggling learners has resulted in meaningful progress in closing minimum-competency…

  10. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth

    2014-07-15

    A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, which serve as important sources of an array of vitamins and minerals. With time, deficiencies in one or more micronutrients may lead to serious health issues. A common reason people take multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements is to maintain or improve health, but research examining the effectiveness of MVMs in the prevention of certain chronic conditions is ongoing. In addition to the utility of MVMs for filling in relatively small but critical nutritional gaps, which may help prevent conditions such as anemia, neural tube defects, and osteoporosis, some evidence supports possible benefits of MVM supplementation with regard to cancer prevention (particularly in men) and prevention or delay of cataract, as well as some aspects of cognitive performance. Unlike some single-vitamin supplements, MVM supplements are generally well tolerated and do not appear to increase the risk of mortality, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The potential benefits of MVM supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people.

  11. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, which serve as important sources of an array of vitamins and minerals. With time, deficiencies in one or more micronutrients may lead to serious health issues. A common reason people take multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements is to maintain or improve health, but research examining the effectiveness of MVMs in the prevention of certain chronic conditions is ongoing. In addition to the utility of MVMs for filling in relatively small but critical nutritional gaps, which may help prevent conditions such as anemia, neural tube defects, and osteoporosis, some evidence supports possible benefits of MVM supplementation with regard to cancer prevention (particularly in men) and prevention or delay of cataract, as well as some aspects of cognitive performance. Unlike some single-vitamin supplements, MVM supplements are generally well tolerated and do not appear to increase the risk of mortality, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The potential benefits of MVM supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people. PMID:25027766

  12. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  13. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  14. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  15. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  16. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  17. Community-based participatory research: understanding a promising approach to addressing knowledge gaps in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Riffin, Catherine; Kenien, Cara; Ghesquiere, Angela; Dorime, Ashley; Villanueva, Carolina; Gardner, Daniel; Callahan, Jean; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Reid, M Carrington

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the need for effective and accessible healthcare for individuals with advanced chronic illness has drawn attention to the significant gaps in our knowledge of palliative medicine. To advance our understanding of this field, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is proposed as a tool for future research initiatives. This paper offers a rationale for how CBPR may be employed to address specific gaps in palliative care research. Several examples where this approach has been used previously are described, and potential obstacles to implementing this research method are delineated. Despite challenges to incorporating CBPR to palliative care research, this approach holds substantial potential to advance our current understanding of the field and promote sensitivity for future programs, practices and policies. PMID:27481321

  18. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.

  19. Usefulness of a KT Event to Address Practice and Policy Gaps Related to Integrated Care.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Boakye, Omenaa; Wallace, Nicole

    2016-02-01

    There are limited evaluations of the impact of knowledge translation (KT) activities aimed at addressing practice and policy gaps. We report on the impact of an interactive, end-of-grant KT event. Although action items were developed and key stakeholder support attained, minimal follow-through had occurred three months after the KT event. Several organizational obstacles to transitioning knowledge into action were identified: leadership, program policies, infrastructure, changing priorities, workload and physician engagement. Key messages include: (1) ensure ongoing and facilitated networking opportunities, (2) invest in building implementation capacity, (3) target multi-level implementation activities and (4) focus further research on KT evaluation.

  20. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  1. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  2. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  3. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  4. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  5. Does a Barcoding Gap Exist in Prokaryotes? Evidences from Species Delimitation in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Ester M.; Fontaneto, Diego; Coci, Manuela; Callieri, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    The amount of information that is available on 16S rRNA sequences for prokaryotes thanks to high-throughput sequencing could allow a better understanding of diversity. Nevertheless, the application of predetermined threshold in genetic distances to identify units of diversity (Operative Taxonomic Units, OTUs) may provide biased results. Here we tests for the existence of a barcoding gap in several groups of Cyanobacteria, defining units of diversity according to clear differences between within-species and among-species genetic distances in 16S rRNA. The application of a tool developed for animal DNA taxonomy, the Automatic Barcode Gap Detector (ABGD), revealed that a barcoding gap could actually be found in almost half of the datasets that we tested. The identification of units of diversity through this method provided results that were not compatible with those obtained with the identification of OTUs with threshold of similarity in genetic distances of 97% or 99%. The main message of our results is a call for caution in the estimate of diversity from 16S sequences only, given that different subjective choices in the method to delimit units could provide different results. PMID:25561355

  6. Addressing Achievement Gaps: School Finance and the Achievement Gap--Funding Programs That Work. Policy Notes. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In education reform, money matters, but so does spending it wisely--on programs designed to meet the ambitious goal of helping low-income and minority children achieve at the same levels as their more affluent peers. The latest in the Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) series of symposia on Addressing Achievement Gaps brought researchers,…

  7. Filling gaps in a large reserve network to address freshwater conservation needs.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Segurado, Pedro; Beja, Pedro

    2015-09-15

    Freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity are among the most threatened at global scale, but efforts for their conservation have been mostly peripheral to terrestrial conservation. For example, Natura 2000, the world's largest network of protected areas, fails to cover adequately the distribution of rare and endangered aquatic species, and lacks of appropriate spatial design to make conservation for freshwater biodiversity effective. Here, we develop a framework to identify a complementary set of priority areas and enhance the conservation opportunities of Natura 2000 for freshwater biodiversity, using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study. We use a systematic planning approach to identify a minimum set of additional areas that would help i) adequately represent all freshwater fish, amphibians and aquatic reptiles at three different target levels, ii) account for key ecological processes derived from riverscape connectivity, and iii) minimize the impact of threats, both within protected areas and propagated from upstream unprotected areas. Addressing all these goals would need an increase in area between 7 and 46%, depending on the conservation target used and strength of connectivity required. These new priority areas correspond to subcatchments inhabited by endangered and range restricted species, as well as additional subcatchments required to improve connectivity among existing protected areas and to increase protection against upstream threats. Our study should help guide future revisions of the design of Natura 2000, while providing a framework to address deficiencies in reserve networks for adequately protecting freshwater biodiversity elsewhere. PMID:26203875

  8. A Framework for Addressing Implementation Gap in Global Drowning Prevention Interventions: Experiences from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman, Aminur; Arifeen, Shams El

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning—global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging—coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing—focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating—rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders

  9. Integrating Data Analysis (IDA): Working with Sociology Departments to Address the Quantitative Literacy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howery, Carla B.; Rodriguez, Havidan

    2006-01-01

    The NSF-funded Integrating Data Analysis (IDA) Project undertaken by the American Sociological Association (ASA) and the Social Science Data Analysis Network sought to close the quantitative literacy gap for sociology majors. Working with twelve departments, the project built on lessons learned from ASA's Minority Opportunities through School…

  10. Forum on Addressing Performance Gaps of Low-Performing Students: Implications for Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, S.; Christensen, L.; Shyyan, V.; Thurlow, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-two individuals representing sixteen states, three school districts, eleven testing and testing-related companies, and eleven other organizations participated in a forum on June 19, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland, to discuss the performance gaps of low-performing students and their implications for assessment and instruction. The forum…

  11. Implementation of Biomarker-Driven Cancer Therapy: Existing Tools and Remaining Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ann M.; Mao, Yong; Zeng, Jia; Holla, Vijaykumar; Johnson, Amber; Brusco, Lauren; Chen, Ken; Mendelsohn, John; Routbort, Mark J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in biomarker-driven personalized cancer therapy, also known as precision medicine. Recently, dozens of molecular tests, including next generation sequencing, have been developed to detect biomarkers that have the potential to predict response of cancers to particular targeted therapies. However, detection of cancer-related biomarkers is only the first step in the battle. Deciding what therapy options to pursue can also be daunting, especially when tumors harbor more than one potentially actionable aberration. Further, different mutations/variants in a single gene may have different functional consequences, and response to targeted agents may be context dependent. However, early clinical trials with new molecular entities are increasingly conducted in a biomarker-selected fashion, and even when trials are not biomarker-selected, much effort is placed on enrolling patients onto clinical trials where they have the highest probability of response. We review available molecular tests and therapy discerning tools, including tools available for assessing functional consequences of molecular alterations and tools for finding applicable clinical trials, which exist to help bridge the gap between detection of cancer-related biomarker to the initiation of biomarker-matched targeted therapies. PMID:24534473

  12. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health. PMID:20377862

  13. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  14. Caffeine-containing energy drinks: beginning to address the gaps in what we know.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Coates, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks are relatively new to the United States but are the fastest growing segment of the beverage market. Humans have a long history of consuming caffeine in traditional beverages, such as cocoa, coffee, tea, and yerba maté, but 2 workshops held at the Institute of Medicine (http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/PotentialHazardsCaffeineSupplements/2013-AUG-05.aspx) and the NIH (http://ods.od.nih.gov/News/EnergyDrinksWorkshop2013.aspx) in 2013 highlighted many critical gaps in understanding the biologic and behavioral effects of the mixtures of caffeine, vitamins, herbs, sugar or other sweeteners, and other ingredients that typify caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs). For example, different surveys over the same 2010–2012 timeframe report discrepant prevalence of CCED use by teenagers, ranging from 10.3% in 13–17 y olds to >30% of those in grades 10 and 12. Understanding of functional interactions between CCED ingredients, drivers of use, and biologic and behavioral effects is limited. The 4 speakers in the Experimental Biology 2014 symposium titled “Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Research Gaps” described recent progress by their groups in extending our understanding of prevalence of CCED use, sources of caffeine in the United States, drivers of CCED use, and behavioral correlations and effects of CCEDs, including effects on attractiveness of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

  15. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training. PMID:22361800

  16. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training.

  17. Excellence Gaps: What They Are, Why They Are Bad, and How Smart Contexts Can Address Them … or Make Them Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jacob; McWilliams, Jenna; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Every country--and even every community--has populations of students who severely underperform relative to other groups and to their own potential. These performance differences are generally called achievement gaps, and they tend to focus on gaps at basic levels of academic proficiency. But such gaps also exist among the highest levels of…

  18. Addressing the implementation gap in global road safety: exploring features of an effective response and introducing a 10-country program.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-06-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Addressing the Implementation Gap in Global Road Safety: Exploring Features of an Effective Response and Introducing a 10-Country Program

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katharine A.; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A.; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-01-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22515864

  20. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment.

  1. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. PMID:21624662

  2. Priorities and realities: addressing the rich-poor gaps in health status and service access in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor. PMID:22067727

  3. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Missourian) boundary in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Heckel, P.H.; DiMichele, W.A.; Blake, B.M.; Easterday, C.R.; Eble, C.F.; Elrick, S.; Gastaldo, R.A.; Greb, S.F.; Martino, R.L.; John, Nelson W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Phillips, T.L.; Rosscoe, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem groupings in the Midcontinent are recognizable in the Illinois Basin. In the Appalachian Basin, however, the grouping at the base of the Missourian is represented only by paleosols and localized coal. The immediately preceding grouping was removed very locally by paleovalley incision, as is evident at the 7-11 Mine, Columbiana County, Ohio, from which the original megafloral data were derived. At the few localities where incised paleodrainage exists, there may be a gap of ???1000 kyr, but a gap of no more than ???600 kyr occurs elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin at that level and its magnitude progressively decreases westward into the Illinois (???300 kyr) and Midcontinent (<200 kyr) Basins. Thus, while a gap is present near the Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in North America, it is typically more than an order of magnitude smaller than that originally proposed and is similar to the gaps inferred at sequence boundaries between cyclothems at many horizons in the Pennsylvanian of North America. Copyright ?? 2011, SEPM.

  4. Does the DNA barcoding gap exist? – a case study in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Martin; Fiedler, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding, i.e. the use of a 648 bp section of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I, has recently been promoted as useful for the rapid identification and discovery of species. Its success is dependent either on the strength of the claim that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation by one order of magnitude, thus establishing a "barcoding gap", or on the reciprocal monophyly of species. Results We present an analysis of intra- and interspecific variation in the butterfly family Lycaenidae which includes a well-sampled clade (genus Agrodiaetus) with a peculiar characteristic: most of its members are karyologically differentiated from each other which facilitates the recognition of species as reproductively isolated units even in allopatric populations. The analysis shows that there is an 18% overlap in the range of intra- and interspecific COI sequence divergence due to low interspecific divergence between many closely related species. In a Neighbour-Joining tree profile approach which does not depend on a barcoding gap, but on comprehensive sampling of taxa and the reciprocal monophyly of species, at least 16% of specimens with conspecific sequences in the profile were misidentified. This is due to paraphyly or polyphyly of conspecific DNA sequences probably caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Conclusion Our results indicate that the "barcoding gap" is an artifact of insufficient sampling across taxa. Although DNA barcodes can help to identify and distinguish species, we advocate using them in combination with other data, since otherwise there would be a high probability that sequences are misidentified. Although high differences in DNA sequences can help to identify cryptic species, a high percentage of well-differentiated species has similar or even identical COI sequences and would be overlooked in an isolated DNA barcoding approach. PMID:17343734

  5. Search for the Possible Existence of the Haldane Gap in S = 2 Materials.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B.; Dodson, B.; Talham, D. R.; Chaparala, M.; Granroth, G. E.; Meisel, M. W.

    1996-03-01

    We have attempted to identify S = 2 linear chain Heisenberg antiferromagnetic materials as candidate systems for possessing a Haldane gap. In particular, we have been searching for systems that do not possess three dimensional long-range ordering. To date, our attention has focused on Mn^3+ materials. We have extended the earlier magnetic measurements of [MnCl_3(bipy)], which was studied down to 118 K.(H.A. Goodwin and R.N. Sylva, Aust. J. Chem. \\underline20) (1967) 629. Presently our magnetization work, performed down to 2 K, shows no evidence for long-range order, and provides an estimate of J (the nearest neighbor exchange energy) to be approximately 15 K. Our attempts to perform M vs. B measurements at lower temperatures will be discussed. In addition, our efforts on other S = 2 candidates will be summarized. *Work supported, in part, by NSF grants to an individual investigator (MWM, DMR-9200671) and to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL).

  6. Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Family--America's Smallest School. Policy Notes. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    When parents are married and employed, when they turn off the television and monitor homework, their children are more likely to succeed in school. Today, however, many families are struggling, and their struggles contribute to the stubborn achievement gap separating low-income and minority students from their more affluent White and Asian peers.…

  7. Addressing the STEM Gender Gap by Designing and Implementing an Educational Outreach Chemistry Camp for Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mindy; Serio, Nicole; Radaram, Bhasker; Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Talbert, William

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be a persistent, widespread gender gap in multiple STEM disciplines at all educational and professional levels: from the self-reported interest of preschool aged students in scientific exploration to the percentages of tenured faculty in these disciplines, more men than women express an interest in science, a confidence in their…

  8. Understanding and Addressing the California Latino Achievement Gap in Early Elementary School. Working Paper 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Anguiano, Brenda Arellano

    2004-01-01

    One of the most pressing problems in California is improving student academic performance, especially the state's burgeoning Latino student population. This study examined the extent of the achievement gap between Latino and White students over the first two years of elementary school and the characteristics of students and schools that contribute…

  9. Factors responsible for the stability and the existence of a clean energy gap of a silicon nanocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, Shi-Yu

    2001-10-01

    We present a critical theoretical study of electronic properties of silicon nanoclusters, in particular the roles played by symmetry, relaxation, and hydrogen passivation on the stability, the gap states and the energy gap of the system using the order N [O(N)] nonorthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics and the local analysis of electronic structure. We find that for an unrelaxed cluster with its atoms occupying the regular tetrahedral network, the presence of undistorted local bonding configuration is sufficient for the appearance of a small clean energy gap. However, the energy gap of the unrelaxed cluster does not start at the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). In fact, between the HOMO and the lower edge of the energy gap, localized dangling bond states are found. With hydrogen passivation, the localized dangling bond states are eliminated, resulting in a wider and clean energy gap. Relaxation of these hydrogen passivated clusters does not alter either the structure or the energy gap appreciably. However, if the silicon clusters are allowed to relax first, the majority of the dangling bonds are eliminated but additional defect states due to bond distortion appear, making the energy gap dirty. Hydrogen passivation of these relaxed clusters will further eliminate most of the remnant dangling bonds but no appreciable effect on the defect states associated with bond distortions will take place, thus still resulting in a dirty gap. For the hydrogen-passivated SiN nanoclusters with no bond distortion and no overall symmetry, we have studied the variation of the energy gap as a function of size of the cluster for N in the range of 80gap on the size shows similar behavior to that for silicon nanoclusters with no bond distortion but possessing overall symmetry.

  10. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  11. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725

  12. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M. A.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C. J.; Song, S.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  13. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  14. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  15. Using Existing Coastal Models To Address Ocean Acidification Modeling Needs: An Inside Look at Several East and Gulf Coast Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem forecast models have been in development for many US coastal regions for decades in an effort to understand how certain drivers, such as nutrients, freshwater and sediments, affect coastal water quality. These models have been used to inform coastal management interventions such as imposition of total maximum daily load allowances for nutrients or sediments to control hypoxia, harmful algal blooms and/or water clarity. Given the overlap of coastal acidification with hypoxia, it seems plausible that the geochemical models built to explain hypoxia and/or HABs might also be used, with additional terms, to understand how atmospheric CO2 is interacting with local biogeochemical processes to affect coastal waters. Examples of existing biogeochemical models from Galveston, the northern Gulf of Mexico, Tampa Bay, West Florida Shelf, Pamlico Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Narragansett Bay will be presented and explored for suitability for ocean acidification modeling purposes.

  16. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Advancing Success for Black Men in College. Policy Notes. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 22, No. 1) provides highlights from a recent symposium sponsored by ETS and the Children Defense Fund (CDF), "Advancing Success for Black Men in College," held on June 23, 2014, in Washington, DC. The symposium is part of a two-conference series: It was the 18th of ETS's "Addressing Achievement…

  17. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance. PMID:21423684

  18. Addressing the common pathway underlying hypertension and diabetes in people who are obese by maximizing health: the ultimate knowledge translation gap.

    PubMed

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-03-06

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  19. Unknown exposures: gaps in basic characterization addressed with person-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Roe, Marc T A; Sadowski, Charles; Lee, Edgar D

    2011-03-01

    A newly developed person-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system was used to analyze several solvent standards, contact cement, paint thinner, and polychlorinated biphenyl samples. Passive solid phase microextraction sampling and fast chromatography with a resistively heated low thermal mass GC column were used. Results (combined sampling and analysis) were obtained in <2 min for solvent, contact cement, and paint thinner samples, and in <13 min for the polychlorinated biphenyl sample. Mass spectra produced by the small toroidal ion trap detector used were similar to those produced with heavily used transmission quadrupole mass spectrometers for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, simple alkanes, and cycloalknes, while mass spectra for benzene and the ketone compounds analyzed showed evidence for ion/molecule reactions in the ion trap. For one of the contact cement samples analyzed, no evidence was found to indicate the presence of n-hexane, although the relevant material safety data sheet listed this ingredient. Specific chemical constituents corresponding to a potentially wide range of petroleum distillate compounds were identifiable from GC-MS analyses. The possibility for an improved basic characterization step in the exposure assessment process exists with the availability of fast, person-portable GC-MS, although work is needed to further refine this tool and understand the best ways it may be used. PMID:21318921

  20. Does audit improve diabetes care in a primary care setting? A management tool to address health system gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pruthu, T. K.; Majella, Marie Gilbert; Nair, Divya; Ramaswamy, Gomathi; Palanivel, C.; Subitha, L.; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the emerging epidemics. Regular clinical and biochemical monitoring of patients, adherence to treatment and counseling are cornerstones for prevention of complications. Clinical audits as a process of improving quality of patient care and outcomes by reviewing care against specific criteria and then reviewing the change can help in optimizing care. Objective: We aimed to audit the process of diabetes care using patient records and also to assess the effect of audit on process of care indicators among patients availing diabetes care from a rural health and training center in Puducherry, South India. Materials and Methods: A record based study was conducted to audit diabetes care among patients attending noncommunicable disease clinic in a rural health center of South India. Monitoring of blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, lipid profile and renal function test were considered for auditing in accordance with standard guidelines. Clinical audit cycle (CAC), a simple management tool was applied and re-audit was done after 1-year. Results: We reviewed 156 and 180 patients records during year-1 and year-2, respectively. In the audit year-1, out of 156 patients, 78 (50%), 70 (44.9%), 49 (31.4%) and 19 (12.2%) had got their BP, blood glucose, lipid profile and renal function tests done. Monitoring of blood glucose, BP, lipid profile and renal function improved significantly by 35%, 20.7%, 36.4% and 56.1% over 1-year. Conclusion: CAC improves process of diabetes care in a primary care setting with existing resources. PMID:26604621

  1. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  2. Effects of workplace, family and cultural influences on low back pain: what opportunities exist to address social factors in general consultations?

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach.

  3. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  4. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  5. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  6. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  7. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  8. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Heather; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric; Chao, Moses V

    2016-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain. PMID:27127458

  9. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Heather; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric; Chao, Moses V.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain. PMID:27127458

  10. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  11. Bridging a possible gap of GRACE observations in the Arctic Ocean using existing GRACE data and in situ bottom pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta Ferriz, C.; Morison, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2003, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system has provided the means of investigating month-to-month to inter-annual variability of, among many other things, Arctic Ocean circulation over the entire Arctic Basin. Such a comprehensive picture could not have been achieved with the limited in situ pressure observations available. Results from the first 10 years of ocean bottom pressure measurements from GRACE in the Arctic Ocean reveal distinct patterns of ocean variability that are strongly associated with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation (Peralta-Ferriz et al., 2014): the leading mode of variability being a wintertime basin-coherent mass change driven by winds in the Nordic Seas; the second mode of variability corresponding to a mass signal coherent along the Siberian shelves, and driven by the Arctic Oscillation; and the third mode being a see-saw between western and eastern Arctic shelves, also driven by the large-scale wind patterns. In order to understand Arctic Ocean changes, it is fundamental to continue to track ocean bottom pressure. Our concern is what to do if the present GRACE system, which is already well beyond its design lifetime, should fail before its follow-on is launched, currently estimated to be in 2017. In this work, we regress time series of pressure from the existing and potential Arctic Ocean bottom pressure recorder locations against the fundamental modes of bottom pressure variation. Our aim is to determine the optimum combination of in situ measurements to represent the broader scale variability now observed by GRACE. With this understanding, we can be better prepared to use in situ observations to at least partially cover a possible gap in GRACE coverage. Reference:Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia, James H. Morison, John M. Wallace, Jennifer A. Bonin, Jinlun Zhang, 2014: Arctic Ocean Circulation Patterns Revealed by GRACE. J. Climate, 27, 1445-1468. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00013.1

  12. Mapping the existing body of health policy implementation research in lower income settings: what is covered and what are the gaps?

    PubMed

    Erasmus, E; Orgill, M; Schneider, H; Gilson, L

    2014-12-01

    This article uses 85 peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2009 to characterize and synthesize aspects of the health policy analysis literature focusing on policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It seeks to contribute, first, to strengthening the field of LMIC health policy analysis by highlighting gaps in the literature and generating ideas for a future research agenda and, second, to thinking about the value and applicability of qualitative synthesis approaches to the health policy analysis field. Overall, the article considers the disciplinary perspectives from which LMIC health policy implementation is studied and the extent to which the focus is on systems or programme issues. It then works with the more specific themes of the key thrusts of the reviewed articles, the implementation outcomes studied, implementation improvement recommendations made and the theories used in the reviewed articles. With respect to these more specific themes, the article includes explorations of patterns within the themes themselves, the contributions of specific disciplinary perspectives and differences between systems and programme articles. It concludes, among other things, that the literature remains small, fragmented, of limited depth and quite diverse, reflecting a wide spectrum of health system dimensions studied and many different suggestions for improving policy implementation. However, a range of issues beyond traditional 'hardware' health system concerns, such as funding and organizational structure, are understood to influence policy implementation, including many 'software' issues such as the understandings of policy actors and the need for better communication and actor relationships. Looking to the future, there is a need, given the fragmentation in the literature, to consolidate the existing body of work where possible and, given the often broad nature of the work and its limited depth, to draw more explicitly on theoretical

  13. The effects of post-exposure smallpox vaccination on clinical disease presentation: addressing the data gaps between historical epidemiology and modern surrogate model data.

    PubMed

    Keckler, M Shannon; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-10-25

    Decades after public health interventions - including pre- and post-exposure vaccination - were used to eradicate smallpox, zoonotic orthopoxvirus outbreaks and the potential threat of a release of variola virus remain public health concerns. Routine prophylactic smallpox vaccination of the public ceased worldwide in 1980, and the adverse event rate associated with the currently licensed live vaccinia virus vaccine makes reinstatement of policies recommending routine pre-exposure vaccination unlikely in the absence of an orthopoxvirus outbreak. Consequently, licensing of safer vaccines and therapeutics that can be used post-orthopoxvirus exposure is necessary to protect the global population from these threats. Variola virus is a solely human pathogen that does not naturally infect any other known animal species. Therefore, the use of surrogate viruses in animal models of orthopoxvirus infection is important for the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Major complications involved with the use of surrogate models include both the absence of a model that accurately mimics all aspects of human smallpox disease and a lack of reproducibility across model species. These complications limit our ability to model post-exposure vaccination with newer vaccines for application to human orthopoxvirus outbreaks. This review seeks to (1) summarize conclusions about the efficacy of post-exposure smallpox vaccination from historic epidemiological reports and modern animal studies; (2) identify data gaps in these studies; and (3) summarize the clinical features of orthopoxvirus-associated infections in various animal models to identify those models that are most useful for post-exposure vaccination studies. The ultimate purpose of this review is to provide observations and comments regarding available model systems and data gaps for use in improving post-exposure medical countermeasures against orthopoxviruses.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2015-12-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing modalities, characterizing community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) and facility approaches by population reached, HIV positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing and counselling had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive people at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65-67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19-62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63-88%), indicating service gaps. Community testing with facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87-98%) and antiretroviral initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68-82%). Expanding home and mobile testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention, and decrease HIV burden. PMID:26633769

  15. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda — Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions

    PubMed Central

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2 years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided. PMID:25936276

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based approaches to address gaps in HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2016-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing and counselling modalities, characterizing facility and community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) approaches by population reached, HIV-positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive individuals at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% CI = 47–54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65–67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing and counselling for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19–62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63–88%), indicating service gaps. Facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87–98%) and ART initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68–82%). Expanding mobile HIV testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:26633769

  17. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda--Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions.

    PubMed

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-05-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Ying, Roger; Tarr, Gillian; Barnabas, Ruanne

    2015-12-01

    HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside of health facilities) has the potential to reduce coverage gaps, but the relative impact of different modalities is not well assessed. We conducted a systematic review of HIV testing modalities, characterizing community (home, mobile, index, key populations, campaign, workplace and self-testing) and facility approaches by population reached, HIV positivity, CD4 count at diagnosis and linkage. Of 2,520 abstracts screened, 126 met eligibility criteria. Community HIV testing and counselling had high coverage and uptake and identified HIV-positive people at higher CD4 counts than facility testing. Mobile HIV testing reached the highest proportion of men of all modalities examined (50%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-54%) and home with self-testing reached the highest proportion of young adults (66%, 95% CI = 65-67%). Few studies evaluated HIV testing for key populations (commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men), but these interventions yielded high HIV positivity (38%, 95% CI = 19-62%) combined with the highest proportion of first-time testers (78%, 95% CI = 63-88%), indicating service gaps. Community testing with facilitated linkage (for example, counsellor follow-up to support linkage) achieved high linkage to care (95%, 95% CI = 87-98%) and antiretroviral initiation (75%, 95% CI = 68-82%). Expanding home and mobile testing, self-testing and outreach to key populations with facilitated linkage can increase the proportion of men, young adults and high-risk individuals linked to HIV treatment and prevention, and decrease HIV burden.

  19. Description of landscape features, summary of existing hydrologic data, and identification of data gaps for the Osage Nation, northeastern Oklahoma, 1890-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The Osage Nation of northeastern Oklahoma, conterminous with Osage County, is characterized by gently rolling uplands and incised stream valleys that have downcut into underlying sedimentary rock units of Pennsylvanian through Permian age. Cattle ranching and petroleum and natural-gas extraction are the principal land uses in this rural area. Freshwater resources in the Osage Nation include water flowing in the Arkansas River and several smaller streams, water stored in several lakes, and groundwater contained in unconsolidated alluvial aquifers and bedrock aquifers. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater in this area. Fresh groundwater is underlain by saline groundwater in aquifers underlying the Osage Nation. Because of the potential for future population increases, demands for water from neighboring areas such as the Tulsa metropolitan area, and expansion of petroleum and natural-gas extraction on water resources of this area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, summarized existing hydrologic data and identified data gaps to provide information for planning of future development of water resources in the Osage Nation. Streamflows in the Osage Nation are substantially affected by precipitation. During the relatively wet periods from the 1970s to 2000, the annual streamflows in the Osage Nation increased by as much as a factor of 2 relative to preceding decades, with subsequent decreases in streamflow of as much as 50 percent being recorded during intermittent drier years of the early 2000s. This report summarizes hydrologic data from 3 surface-water sites and 91 wells distributed across the Osage Nation. Data collected at those sites indicate that surface water in the Osage Nation generally has sufficient dissolved oxygen for survival of both coldwater and warmwater aquatic biota. Total dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in up to

  20. Closing the gap in a regional health service in NSW: a multi-strategic approach to addressing individual and institutional racism.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Building a culturally safe and respectful organisation that genuinely addresses individual and institutional racism is a substantial and complex undertaking. Achieving this outcome requires sustained commitment and a comprehensive strategy, including the active involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders. This paper describes the journey of a large regional health organisation in NSW. A multi-strategic approach is broadly described, with three strategies explored in depth. These are: staff education and training; leadership; and consultation, negotiation and partnerships. Challenges are discussed in the context of promising progress and an ongoing commitment to this important organisational goal.

  1. Closing the Achievement Gap in Mathematics for Elementary School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Elizabeth K.

    2013-01-01

    An achievement gap exists in mathematics between elementary school students with and without disabilities. Guided by the conceptual framework of constructivism, this project study addressed issues related to this achievement gap in the area of mathematics, specifically assessing the cause of this gap from the teachers' perspective. The…

  2. Use Existing Laws to Address Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Mark; Cote, Felicia; Allmendinger, James

    2016-01-01

    The focus on using the courts to abolish tenure is a distraction from the important work of improving teacher quality. Unfortunately, the recent decision of Vergara v. California has only perpetuated the mistaken notion that only after tenure is abolished can underperforming teachers be removed. But the authors contend that administrators,…

  3. Description of landscape features, summary of existing hydrologic data, and identification of data gaps for the Osage Nation, northeastern Oklahoma, 1890-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The Osage Nation of northeastern Oklahoma, conterminous with Osage County, is characterized by gently rolling uplands and incised stream valleys that have downcut into underlying sedimentary rock units of Pennsylvanian through Permian age. Cattle ranching and petroleum and natural-gas extraction are the principal land uses in this rural area. Freshwater resources in the Osage Nation include water flowing in the Arkansas River and several smaller streams, water stored in several lakes, and groundwater contained in unconsolidated alluvial aquifers and bedrock aquifers. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater in this area. Fresh groundwater is underlain by saline groundwater in aquifers underlying the Osage Nation. Because of the potential for future population increases, demands for water from neighboring areas such as the Tulsa metropolitan area, and expansion of petroleum and natural-gas extraction on water resources of this area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, summarized existing hydrologic data and identified data gaps to provide information for planning of future development of water resources in the Osage Nation. Streamflows in the Osage Nation are substantially affected by precipitation. During the relatively wet periods from the 1970s to 2000, the annual streamflows in the Osage Nation increased by as much as a factor of 2 relative to preceding decades, with subsequent decreases in streamflow of as much as 50 percent being recorded during intermittent drier years of the early 2000s. This report summarizes hydrologic data from 3 surface-water sites and 91 wells distributed across the Osage Nation. Data collected at those sites indicate that surface water in the Osage Nation generally has sufficient dissolved oxygen for survival of both coldwater and warmwater aquatic biota. Total dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in up to

  4. Gap Resolution

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  5. GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

  6. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in older adults: existing knowledge gaps and areas for innovation: a summary of an American Federation for Aging research seminar.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Steven A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Benjamin, Emelia J; Besdine, Richard W; Forman, Daniel E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Reddy, Vivek Y; Singer, Daniel E

    2013-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and morbid cardiac arrhythmia that increases in prevalence with advancing age. The risk of ischemic stroke, a primary and disabling hazard of AF, also increases with advancing age. The aging of the population is anticipated to contribute to a rising burden of AF-related morbidity and economic costs, given the close association between the arrhythmia and aging. Recent biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic developments raise hope that AF-related stroke can be largely prevented, yet despite advances in stroke prevention for individuals with AF, numerous scientific and clinical knowledge gaps remain, particularly as these developments are applied to older adults. Given the public health importance of AF-related stroke in elderly adults, a group of clinician-investigators convened on April 5, 2012, to identify promising areas for investigation that may ultimately reduce stroke-related morbidity. This article summarizes the meeting discussion and emphasizes innovative topic areas that may ultimately facilitate the application of novel preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic insights into the management of older adults with AF. The opinions of those that participated in the meeting limit this report, which may not represent all of the questions that other experts in this field might raise.

  7. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  8. The Achievement Gap, Revisited: An Empirical Assessment of What We Can Learn from East Asian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czehut, Katherine Jessica Drake

    2012-01-01

    International mathematics assessments have established students in East Asia as among the best in the world and their U.S. counterparts as mediocre. What is not clear is why this "achievement gap" exists. The last major study to address this question, Stevenson and Stigler's (1992) "The Learning Gap," was published prior…

  9. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  10. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  11. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  12. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  13. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  14. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  15. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  16. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  18. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  19. Undecidability of the spectral gap.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Toby S; Perez-Garcia, David; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-12-10

    The spectral gap--the energy difference between the ground state and first excited state of a system--is central to quantum many-body physics. Many challenging open problems, such as the Haldane conjecture, the question of the existence of gapped topological spin liquid phases, and the Yang-Mills gap conjecture, concern spectral gaps. These and other problems are particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: given the Hamiltonian of a quantum many-body system, is it gapped or gapless? Here we prove that this is an undecidable problem. Specifically, we construct families of quantum spin systems on a two-dimensional lattice with translationally invariant, nearest-neighbour interactions, for which the spectral gap problem is undecidable. This result extends to undecidability of other low-energy properties, such as the existence of algebraically decaying ground-state correlations. The proof combines Hamiltonian complexity techniques with aperiodic tilings, to construct a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the evolution of a quantum phase-estimation algorithm followed by a universal Turing machine. The spectral gap depends on the outcome of the corresponding 'halting problem'. Our result implies that there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary model is gapped or gapless, and that there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics.

  20. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  1. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  2. Undecidability of the spectral gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubitt, Toby S.; Perez-Garcia, David; Wolf, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral gap—the energy difference between the ground state and first excited state of a system—is central to quantum many-body physics. Many challenging open problems, such as the Haldane conjecture, the question of the existence of gapped topological spin liquid phases, and the Yang-Mills gap conjecture, concern spectral gaps. These and other problems are particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: given the Hamiltonian of a quantum many-body system, is it gapped or gapless? Here we prove that this is an undecidable problem. Specifically, we construct families of quantum spin systems on a two-dimensional lattice with translationally invariant, nearest-neighbour interactions, for which the spectral gap problem is undecidable. This result extends to undecidability of other low-energy properties, such as the existence of algebraically decaying ground-state correlations. The proof combines Hamiltonian complexity techniques with aperiodic tilings, to construct a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the evolution of a quantum phase-estimation algorithm followed by a universal Turing machine. The spectral gap depends on the outcome of the corresponding ‘halting problem’. Our result implies that there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary model is gapped or gapless, and that there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics.

  3. Adverse Drug Event Ontology: Gap Analysis for Clinical Surveillance Application.

    PubMed

    Adam, Terrence J; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug event identification and management are an important patient safety problem given the potential for event prevention. Previous efforts to provide structured data methods for population level identification of adverse drug events have been established, but important gaps in coverage remain. ADE identification gaps contribute to suboptimal and inefficient event identification. To address the ADE identification problem, a gap assessment was completed with the creation of a proposed comprehensive ontology using a Minimal Clinical Data Set framework incorporating existing identification approaches, clinical literature and a large set of inpatient clinical data. The new ontology was developed and tested using the National Inpatient Sample database with the validation results demonstrating expanded ADE identification capacity. In addition, the newly proposed ontology elements are noted to have significant inpatient mortality, above median inpatient costs and a longer length of stay when compared to existing ADE ontology elements and patients without ADE exposure.

  4. Adverse Drug Event Ontology: Gap Analysis for Clinical Surveillance Application

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Terrence J.; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug event identification and management are an important patient safety problem given the potential for event prevention. Previous efforts to provide structured data methods for population level identification of adverse drug events have been established, but important gaps in coverage remain. ADE identification gaps contribute to suboptimal and inefficient event identification. To address the ADE identification problem, a gap assessment was completed with the creation of a proposed comprehensive ontology using a Minimal Clinical Data Set framework incorporating existing identification approaches, clinical literature and a large set of inpatient clinical data. The new ontology was developed and tested using the National Inpatient Sample database with the validation results demonstrating expanded ADE identification capacity. In addition, the newly proposed ontology elements are noted to have significant inpatient mortality, above median inpatient costs and a longer length of stay when compared to existing ADE ontology elements and patients without ADE exposure. PMID:26306223

  5. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  6. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  7. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  8. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  9. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  10. Not Enough Science or Not Enough Learning? Exploring the Gaps between Leadership Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationships between leadership theory, practice and development, drawing on both the higher education and wider leadership literature. It explores why challenges and problems exist within the contested field of leadership theory and why gaps remain between theory and practice after more than a century of research--and…

  11. Gapped domain walls, gapped boundaries, and topological degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Juven C; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-02-20

    Gapped domain walls, as topological line defects between (2+1)D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which (2+1)D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely, which (1+1)D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix W, whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions W(ia), to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries.

  12. Bridging NCL research gaps.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Frank; van der Putten, Herman

    2015-10-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively called NCLs, are rare and fatal lysosomal storage diseases that mainly affect children. Due to the fact that NCLs are both rare and heterogeneous (mutations in thirteen different genes) significant gaps exist in both preclinical and clinical research. Altogether, these gaps are major hurdles to bring therapies to patients while the need for new therapies is urgent to help them and their families. To define gaps and discuss solutions, a round table discussion involving teams and different stake holders took place during the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease) in Cordóba, Argentina. Topics covered by the teams and their leaders (in parentheses) included basic and translational research gaps with regard to large animal models (I. Tammen, D.N. Palmer), human NCL pathology and access to human tissue (J.D. Cooper, H.H. Goebel), rare NCLs (S. Hofman, I. Noher), links of NCLs to other diseases (F.M. Platt), gaps between clinic and clinical trials (H. Adams, A. Schulz), international collaborative efforts working towards a cure (S.E. Mole, H. Band) perspectives on palliative care from patient organizations (M. Frazier, A. West), and issues NCL researchers face when progressing to independent career in academia (M. Bond). Thoughts presented by the team leaders include previously unpublished opinions and information on the lack of understanding of disease pathomechanisms, gene function, assays for drug discovery and target validation, natural history of disease, and biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and treatment effects. This article is not intended to review the NCL literature. It includes personal opinions of the authors and it provides the reader with a summary of gaps discussed and solutions proposed by the teams. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease). PMID:26056946

  13. Bilingual Cognitive Development: Addressing Three Gaps in Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Results question the validity of Cummins's threshold hypothesis and suggest that degree of bilingualism is related to variability in cognitive measures only before a certain threshold of proficiency in the second language is attained. A cause-effect model in which degree of bilingualism appears as the causal factor affecting children's cognitive…

  14. Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

  15. Multifrequency gap solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2003-11-21

    We predict the existence of multifrequency gap solitons (MFGSs) in both one- and two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals. A MFGS is a single intrinsic mode possessing multiple frequencies inside the gap. Its existence is a result of synergic nonlinear coupling among solitons or soliton trains at different frequencies. Its formation can either lower the threshold fields of the respective frequency components or stabilize their excitations. These MFGSs form a new class of stable gap solitons.

  16. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  17. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, Maureen; Gruidl, Jeremiah; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  18. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  19. The Gender Gap in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Antoine, Wladina

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies that address the gender gap in primary and secondary science classrooms concerning interest in the subject as well as academic performance. Suggests strategies to encourage female participation in science. (KHR)

  20. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  1. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  2. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-10-30

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

  3. Minority Gaps Smaller in Some Pentagon Schools. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This third in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist explains how U.S. Department of Defense schools for children of military families offer lessons on how to raise academic achievement among minority students. Minority students in these schools do better than their counterparts almost anywhere in the United States on…

  4. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  5. Verb gapping: an action-gap compatibility study.

    PubMed

    Claus, Berry

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses the processing of verb-gapping sentences, e.g., John closes a juice bottle and Jim [ ] a lemonade bottle. The goal was to explore if there would be an interaction between language comprehension and motor action not only for overt action verbs but also for gapped verbs. Participants read gapping sentences that either described clockwise or counter-clockwise manual rotations (e.g., closes vs. opens a juice bottle). Adopting a paradigm developed by Zwaan and Taylor (2006), sentence presentation was frame-by-frame. Participants proceeded from frame to frame by turning a knob either clockwise or counter clockwise. Analyses of the frame reading-times yielded a significant effect of compatibility between the linguistically conveyed action and the knob turning for the overt-verb (e.g., closes/opens a juice bottle) as well as for the gapped-verb frame (e.g., a lemonade bottle) - with longer reading times in the match condition than in the mismatch condition - but not for any of the other frames (e.g., and Jim). The results are promising in providing novel evidence for the real-time reactivation of gapped verbs and in suggesting that action simulation is not bound to the processing of overt verbs. PMID:25103783

  6. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  7. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstine, L.G.; Smith, S.E.; Brandt, L.A.; Allen, C.R.; Kitchens, W.M.; Stenberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Gap (FI-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of FI-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys, Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range, Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project.

    PubMed

    Pearlstine, L G; Smith, S E; Brandt, L A; Allen, C R; Kitchens, W M; Stenberg, J

    2002-10-01

    The Florida Gap (Fl-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of Fl-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys. Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range. Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection. PMID:12418159

  9. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project.

    PubMed

    Pearlstine, L G; Smith, S E; Brandt, L A; Allen, C R; Kitchens, W M; Stenberg, J

    2002-10-01

    The Florida Gap (Fl-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of Fl-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys. Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range. Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection.

  10. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  11. Gap analysis: synergies and opportunities for effective nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Davis-Ajami, Mary Lynn; Costa, Linda; Kulik, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Gap analysis encompasses a comprehensive process to identify, understand, address, and bridge gaps in service delivery and nursing practice. onducting gap analysis provides structure to information gathering and the process of finding sustainable solutions to important deficiencies. Nursing leaders need to recognize, measure, monitor, and execute on feasible actionable solutions to help organizations make adjustments to address gaps between what is desired and the actual real-world conditions contributing to the quality chasm in health care. Gap analysis represents a functional and comprehensive tool to address organizational deficiencies. Using gap analysis proactively helps organizations map out and sustain corrective efforts to close the quality chasm. Gaining facility in gap analysis should help the nursing profession's contribution to narrowing the quality chasm.

  12. Photonic band gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  13. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  14. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  15. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  16. Practice Gaps in Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    There are several practice gaps in the evaluation and management of itch. These gaps include a dearth of objective measures of itch, infrequent use of validated patient-reported outcomes for itch, non-evidence-based treatment, and lack of consensus about the ideal workup for generalized itch. The present article reviews these gaps and presents potential solutions. PMID:27363881

  17. Launch COLA Gap Analysis for Protection of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, Alan B.; McVey, John P.; Peterson, Glenn E.; Sorge, Marlon E.

    2013-08-01

    For launch missions in general, a collision avoidance (COLA) gap exists between the end of the time interval covered by standard launch COLA screening and the time that other spacecraft can clear a collision with the newly launched objects. To address this issue for the International Space Station (ISS), a COLA gap analysis process has been developed. The first part of the process, nodal separation analysis, identifies launch dates and launch window opportunities when the orbit traces of a launched object and the ISS could cross during the COLA gap. The second and newest part of the analysis process, Monte Carlo conjunction probability analysis, is performed closer to the launch dates of concern to reopen some of the launch window opportunities that would be closed by nodal separation analysis alone. Both parts of the process are described and demonstrated on sample missions.

  18. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  19. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Perspectives and Strategies for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B., Ed.; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This timely and thoughtful book provides multiple perspectives on closing achievement gaps. Closing persistent gaps in educational outcomes between different groups of students has been a central goal of educational policy for the past forty years. The commitment to close existing achievement gaps poses an unprecedented challenge to policy makers,…

  20. Rho/RacGAPs

    PubMed Central

    Csépányi-Kömi, Roland; Lévay, Magdolna; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) determine the activity of small GTPases. In the Rho/Rac family, the number of GEFs and GAPs largely exceeds the number of small GTPases, raising the question of specific or overlapping functions. In our recent study we investigated the first time ARHGAP25 at the protein level, determined its activity as RacGAP and showed its involvement in phagocytosis. With the discovery of ARHGAP25, the number of RacGAPs described in phagocytes is increased to six. We provide data that indicate the specific functions of selected Rho/RacGAPs and we show an example of differential regulation of a Rho/Rac family GAP by different kinases. We propose that the abundance of Rho/Rac family GAPs is an important element of the fine spatiotemporal regulation of diverse cellular functions. PMID:22751505

  1. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  2. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Managing Uncertainty in Water Infrastructure Design Using Info-gap Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irias, X.; Cicala, D.

    2013-12-01

    Info-gap theory, a tool for managing deep uncertainty, can be of tremendous value for design of water systems in areas of high seismic risk. Maintaining reliable water service in those areas is subject to significant uncertainties including uncertainty of seismic loading, unknown seismic performance of infrastructure, uncertain costs of innovative seismic-resistant construction, unknown costs to repair seismic damage, unknown societal impacts from downtime, and more. Practically every major earthquake that strikes a population center reveals additional knowledge gaps. In situations of such deep uncertainty, info-gap can offer advantages over traditional approaches, whether deterministic approaches that use empirical safety factors to address the uncertainties involved, or probabilistic methods that attempt to characterize various stochastic properties and target a compromise between cost and reliability. The reason is that in situations of deep uncertainty, it may not be clear what safety factor would be reasonable, or even if any safety factor is sufficient to address the uncertainties, and we may lack data to characterize the situation probabilistically. Info-gap is a tool that recognizes up front that our best projection of the future may be wrong. Thus, rather than seeking a solution that is optimal for that projection, info-gap seeks a solution that works reasonably well for all plausible conditions. In other words, info-gap seeks solutions that are robust in the face of uncertainty. Info-gap has been used successfully across a wide range of disciplines including climate change science, project management, and structural design. EBMUD is currently using info-gap to help it gain insight into possible solutions for providing reliable water service to an island community within its service area. The island, containing about 75,000 customers, is particularly vulnerable to water supply disruption from earthquakes, since it has negligible water storage and is

  5. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved. PMID:20615242

  8. Gap-minimal systems of notations and the constructible hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucian, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    If a constructibly countable ordinal alpha is a gap ordinal, then the order type of the set of index ordinals smaller than alpha is exactly alpha. The gap ordinals are the only points of discontinuity of a certain ordinal-valued function. The notion of gap minimality for well ordered systems of notations is defined, and the existence of gap-minimal systems of notations of arbitrarily large constructibly countable length is established.

  9. Examining Different School Structures' Effect on Reducing the Achievement Gap Between African-American and White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reini, Eric William

    2004-01-01

    The fact that an achievement gap between White and African-American students exists is undisputed. The reasons for this gap are many and complex. Evidence does exist, though, that this gap can be narrowed and potentially eliminated. Evidence also exists that demonstrates that when the gap in academic achievement becomes equal African-Americans are…

  10. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  13. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  14. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  15. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  16. Mind the gap: upgrading genomes with Pacific Biosciences RS long-read sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    English, Adam C; Richards, Stephen; Han, Yi; Wang, Min; Vee, Vanesa; Qu, Jiaxin; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M; Reid, Jeffrey G; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Many genomes have been sequenced to high-quality draft status using Sanger capillary electrophoresis and/or newer short-read sequence data and whole genome assembly techniques. However, even the best draft genomes contain gaps and other imperfections due to limitations in the input data and the techniques used to build draft assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. Traditionally, draft genomes were upgraded to "phase 3 finished" status using time-consuming and expensive Sanger-based manual finishing processes. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, we present here an automated approach to finishing using long-reads from the Pacific Biosciences RS (PacBio) platform. Our algorithm and associated software tool, PBJelly, (publicly available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/pb-jelly/) automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. PBJelly also provides "lift-over" co-ordinate tables to easily port existing annotations to the upgraded assembly. Using PBJelly and long PacBio reads, we upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version 2 draft Drosophila pseudoobscura, an assembly of the Assemblathon 2.0 budgerigar dataset, and a preliminary assembly of the Sooty mangabey. With 24× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads, we addressed 99% of gaps and were able to close 69% and improve 12% of all gaps in D. pseudoobscura. With 4× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads we saw reads address 63% of gaps in our budgerigar assembly, of which 32% were closed and 63% improved. With 6.8× mapped coverage of mangabey PacBio long-reads we addressed 97% of gaps and closed 66% of addressed gaps and improved 19%. The accuracy of gap closure was validated by comparison to Sanger sequencing on gaps from the original D

  17. Looking for the GAP effect in manual responses and the role of contextual influences in reaction time experiments.

    PubMed

    Faria, A J P; Machado-Pinheiro, W

    2004-08-01

    When the offset of a visual stimulus (GAP condition) precedes the onset of a target, saccadic reaction times are reduced in relation to the condition with no offset (overlap condition) - the GAP effect. However, the existence of the GAP effect for manual responses is still controversial. In two experiments using both simple (Experiment 1, N = 18) and choice key-press procedures (Experiment 2, N = 12), we looked for the GAP effect in manual responses and investigated possible contextual influences on it. Participants were asked to respond to the imperative stimulus that would occur under different experimental contexts, created by varying the array of warning-stimulus intervals (0, 300 and 1000 ms) and conditions (GAP and overlap): i) intervals and conditions were randomized throughout the experiment; ii) conditions were run in different blocks and intervals were randomized; iii) intervals were run in different blocks and conditions were randomized. Our data showed that no GAP effect was obtained for any manipulation. The predictability of stimulus occurrence produced the strongest influence on response latencies. In Experiment 1, simple manual responses were shorter when the intervals were blocked (247 ms, P < 0.001) in relation to the other two contexts (274 and 279 ms). Despite the use of choice key-press procedures, Experiment 2 produced a similar pattern of results. A discussion addressing the critical conditions to obtain the GAP effect for distinct motor responses is presented. In short, our data stress the relevance of the temporal allocation of attention for behavioral performance.

  18. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps.

  19. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps. PMID:26168242

  20. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  1. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  2. Bridging the Gap: Multiple Players, Multiple Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Madeleine F.

    2000-01-01

    After reviewing suggestions offered in the other papers in this volume for addressing the research/practice gap in higher education, this final paper discusses how national organizations and professional associations can serve as change agents in building bridges between researchers and practitioners. (DB)

  3. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  4. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  5. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  6. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  7. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  8. California: Emigrant Gap

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Emigrant Gap Fire, California     View Larger ... The most prominent plume arises from the Emigrant Gap Fire, located about 40 kilometers west of Lake Tahoe. The animated panorama ... left is Mount Shasta. As of August 30, 2001, the US Forest Service reported the total year-to-date area burned in Northern ...

  9. Knowledge Gaps, Social Locators, and Media Schemata: Gaps, Reverse Gaps, and Gaps of Disaffection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredin, Eric S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies a public school controversy and finds a knowledge gap--a gap of disaffection. Finds that, among women only, higher education leads to greater knowledge but does so partly through reduced trust of government and lower perceived fairness of the news media. Shows similar findings with other less powerful groups. (SR)

  10. The Parenting Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Richard V.; Howard, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The parenting gap is a big factor in the opportunity gap. The chances of upward social mobility are lower for children with parents struggling to do a good job--in terms of creating a supportive and stimulating home environment. Children lucky enough to have strong parents are more likely to succeed at all the critical life stages, which means…

  11. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  12. Anion gap acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Szerlip, H M

    1998-01-01

    Although an anion gap at less than 20 mEq/L rarely has a defined etiology, significant elevations in the anion gap almost always signify presence of an acidosis that can be easily identified. Anion gap acidoses can be divided into those caused by lactate accumulation, ketoacid production, toxin/drugs, and uremia. Lactic acidoses caused by decreased oxygen delivery or defective oxygen utilization are associated with high mortality. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial. The use of bicarbonate to increase pH is rarely successful and, by generating PCO2, may worsen outcome. Ketoacidosis is usually secondary to diabetes or alcohol. Treatment is aimed at turning off ketogenesis and repairing fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and salicylates are responsible for the majority of toxin-induced anion gap acidoses. Both methanol and ethylene glycol are associated with severe acidoses and elevated osmolar gaps. Treatment of both is alcohol infusion to decrease formation of toxic metabolites and dialyses to remove toxins. Salicylate toxicity usually is associated with a mild metabolic acidosis and a respiratory alkalosis. Uremia is associated with a mild acidosis secondary to decreased ammonia secretion and an anion gap caused by the retention of unmeasured anions. A decrease in anion gap is caused by numerous mechanisms and thus has little clinical utility.

  13. Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.

  14. Customizing Laboratory Information Systems: Closing the Functionality Gap.

    PubMed

    Gershkovich, Peter; Sinard, John H

    2015-09-01

    Highly customizable laboratory information systems help to address great variations in laboratory workflows, typical in Pathology. Often, however, built-in customization tools are not sufficient to add all of the desired functionality and improve systems interoperability. Emerging technologies and advances in medicine often create a void in functionality that we call a functionality gap. These gaps have distinct characteristics—a persuasive need to change the way a pathology group operates, the general availability of technology to address the missing functionality, the absence of this technology from your laboratory information system, and inability of built-in customization tools to address it. We emphasize the pervasive nature of these gaps, the role of pathology informatics in closing them, and suggest methods on how to achieve that. We found that a large number of the papers in the Journal of Pathology Informatics are concerned with these functionality gaps, and an even larger proportion of electronic posters and abstracts presented at the Pathology Informatics Summit conference each year deal directly with these unmet needs in pathology practice. A rapid, continuous, and sustainable approach to closing these gaps is critical for Pathology to provide the highest quality of care, adopt new technologies, and meet regulatory and financial challenges. The key element of successfully addressing functionality gaps is gap ownership—the ability to control the entire pathology information infrastructure with access to complementary systems and components. In addition, software developers with detailed domain expertise, equipped with right tools and methodology can effectively address these needs as they emerge.

  15. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  16. A gap analysis and comprehensive conservation strategy for riverine ecosystems of Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowa, Scott P.; Annis, Gust; Morey, Michael E.; Diamond, David D.

    2007-01-01

    North America harbors an astounding proportion of the world's freshwater species, but it is facing a freshwater biodiversity crisis. A first step to slowing the loss of biodiversity involves identifying gaps in existing efforts to conserve biodiversity and prioritizing opportunities to fill these gaps. In this monograph we detail two separate, but complementary, conservation planning efforts - a Gap Analysis (GAP) and a State Wildlife Action Plan (WAP) - for Missouri that address this first step. The goal of the Missouri Aquatic GAP Project was to identify riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species not adequately represented (i.e., gaps) within existing conservation lands. The goal of the freshwater component of the Missouri Wildlife Action Plan was to identify and map a set of conservation-opportunity areas (COAs) that holistically represent all riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species in Missouri. Since conservation planning is a geographical exercise, both efforts utilized geographic information systems (GIS). Four principal GIS data sets were used in each planning effort: (1) a hierarchical riverine ecosystem classification, (2) predicted species distributions, (3) public ownership/stewardship, and (4) a human-threat index. Results of the gap analyses are not encouraging. Forty five, mostly rare, threatened, or endangered, species are not represented in lands set aside for conserving biodiversity. Results also illustrate the fragmented nature of conservation lands, which are mainly situated in the uplands and fail to provide connectivity among riverine habitats. Furthermore, many conservation lands are severely threatened by an array of human disturbances. In contrast, results of the WAP provide hope that relatively intact riverine ecosystems still exist. A total of 158 COAs, representing ∼6% of the total kilometers of stream in Missouri, were selected for the WAP. This illustrates that a wide spectrum of biodiversity can be represented within a small

  17. Confined PBX 9501 gap reinitiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, Terry R; Hill, Larry G; Lam, Kin

    2009-01-01

    For explosive systems that exhibit gaps or cracks between their internal components (either by design or mechanical failure), measurable time delays exist for detonation waves crossing them. Reinitiation across such gaps is dependent on the type of explosive, gap width, gap morphology, confinement, and temperature effects. To examine this reinitiation effect, a series of tests has been conducted to measure the time delay across a prescribed gap within an 'infinitely' confined PBX 9501 system. Detonation breakout along the explosive surface is measured with a streak camera, and flow features are examined during reinitiation near the gap. Such tests allow for quantitative determination of the time delay corresponding to the time of initiation across a given gap oriented normal to the direction of the detonation wave. Measured time delays can be compared with numerical calculations, making it possible to validate initiation models as well as estimate detonation run-up distances. Understanding this reinitiation behavior is beneficial for the design and evaluation of explosive systems that require precision timing and performance.

  18. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this research…

  19. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  20. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  1. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  2. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  3. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  4. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  5. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  6. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  7. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Markus; Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue or red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

  8. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wahle, Markus Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried

    2015-11-16

    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue or red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

  9. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  10. The Human Dimension of Closing the Training Gap for Fifth-Generation Fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoke, Jaclyn; Postnikov, Alex; Schnell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Based on a review of the recent technical literature there is little question that a serious training gap exists for fifth-generation fighters, primarily arising from the need to provide their own red-air. There are several methods for reducing this gap, including injecting virtual and constructive threats into the live cockpit. This live-virtual-constructive (LVC) training approach provides a cost effective means for addressing training needs but faces several challenges. Technical challenges include data links and information assurance. A more serious challenge may be the human factors dimension of representing virtual and constructive entities in the cockpit while ensuring safety-of-flight. This also needs to happen without increasing pilot workload. This paper discusses the methods Rockwell Collins and the University of Iowa's Operator Performance Lab use to assess pilot workload and training fidelity measures in an LVC training environment and the research we are conducting in safety-of-flight requirements of integrated LVC symbology.

  11. Gap Cycling for SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Curtis A.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Snyder, Carl J.; Garwood, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) is a non-Cartesian MRI method with unique features and capabilities. In SWIFT, radiofrequency (RF) excitation and reception are performed nearly simultaneously, by rapidly switching between transmit and receive during a frequency-swept RF pulse. Because both the transmitted pulse and data acquisition are simultaneously amplitude-modulated in SWIFT (in contrast to continuous RF excitation and uninterrupted data acquisition in more familiar MRI sequences), crosstalk between different frequency bands occurs in the data. This crosstalk leads to a “bulls-eye” artifact in SWIFT images. We present a method to cancel this inter-band crosstalk by cycling the pulse and receive gap positions relative to the un-gapped pulse shape. We call this strategy “gap cycling.” Methods We carry out theoretical analysis, simulation and experiments to characterize the signal chain, resulting artifacts, and their elimination for SWIFT. Results Theoretical analysis reveals the mechanism for gap-cycling’s effectiveness in canceling inter-band crosstalk in the received data. We show phantom and in-vivo results demonstrating bulls-eye artifact free images. Conclusion Gap cycling is an effective method to remove bulls-eye artifact resulting from inter-band crosstalk in SWIFT data. PMID:24604286

  12. Research gaps in psoriasis: opportunities for future studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caitriona; Korman, Neil J; Gelfand, Joel M; Lim, Henry W; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gottlieb, Alice B; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Leonardi, Craig L; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made to further elucidate the complex pathogenesis of psoriasis, facilitating the development of a new armamentarium of more effective, targeted therapies. Despite these important advances, substantial deficits remain in our understanding of psoriasis and its treatment, necessitating further research in many areas. In the sixth section of the American Academy of Dermatology Psoriasis Guidelines of Care, gaps in research and care were identified. We discuss the most important gaps in research that currently exist and make suggestions for studies that should be performed to address these deficits. These encompass both basic science and clinical research studies, including large, prospective epidemiologic studies to determine the true prevalence and natural history of psoriasis; further molecular studies in patients with psoriatic and psoriatic arthritis to understand the function of psoriasis susceptibility genes and to identify novel therapeutic targets; studies to examine the role of environmental factors in the development of psoriasis; further investigation of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease; studies that examine the role of adjunctive therapies such as psychological interventions in appropriate patient groups; and finally, studies to identify biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response to optimize patient therapy. PMID:24126079

  13. Research gaps in psoriasis: opportunities for future studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caitriona; Korman, Neil J; Gelfand, Joel M; Lim, Henry W; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gottlieb, Alice B; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Leonardi, Craig L; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made to further elucidate the complex pathogenesis of psoriasis, facilitating the development of a new armamentarium of more effective, targeted therapies. Despite these important advances, substantial deficits remain in our understanding of psoriasis and its treatment, necessitating further research in many areas. In the sixth section of the American Academy of Dermatology Psoriasis Guidelines of Care, gaps in research and care were identified. We discuss the most important gaps in research that currently exist and make suggestions for studies that should be performed to address these deficits. These encompass both basic science and clinical research studies, including large, prospective epidemiologic studies to determine the true prevalence and natural history of psoriasis; further molecular studies in patients with psoriatic and psoriatic arthritis to understand the function of psoriasis susceptibility genes and to identify novel therapeutic targets; studies to examine the role of environmental factors in the development of psoriasis; further investigation of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease; studies that examine the role of adjunctive therapies such as psychological interventions in appropriate patient groups; and finally, studies to identify biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response to optimize patient therapy.

  14. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  15. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  16. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litim, Daniel F.

    We discuss an optimisation criterion for the exact renormalisation group based on the inverse effective propagator, which displays a gap. We show that a simple extremisation of the gap stabilises the flow, leading to better convergence of approximate solutions towards the physical theory. This improves the reliability of truncations, most relevant for any high precision computation. These ideas are closely linked to the removal of a spurious scheme dependence and a minimum sensitivity condition. The issue of predictive power and a link to the Polchinski RG are discussed as well. We illustrate our findings by computing critical exponents for the Ising universality class.

  17. Spark gap electrode erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krompholz, H.; Kristiansen, M.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a one-year contract on electrode erosion phenomena are summarized. The arc voltage drop in a spark gap was measured for various electrode, gas, and pressure combinations. A previously developed model of self breakdown voltage distribution was extended. A jet model for electrode erosion was proposed and an experimental arrangement for testing the model was constructed. The effects of inhomogeneities and impurities in the electrodes were investigated. Some of the work described here is scheduled for completion in 1985 under a current grant (AFOSR 84-0032). The areas of investigation described here include: (1) Self breakdown voltage distributions; (2) Electrode erosion; (3) Spark gap voltage recovery.

  18. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  19. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  20. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  1. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    PubMed Central

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  2. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  3. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  4. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  5. Graphene: Mind the gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    2007-10-01

    Research now shows that interaction with silicon carbide substrate leads to the opening of a semiconductor gap in epitaxial graphene. This is an important first step towards bandgap engineering in this two-dimensional crystal, and its incorporation in electronic devices.

  6. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  7. Crossing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In a nation where education is funded largely by local property taxes, schools in wealthy communities have plenty of funds to spend on programs that get their kids ready for college. Schools in poor communities scrimp and save to get the job done--or hope that funding from the state will help fill in the gap. This article describes how students…

  8. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  9. Gaining on the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    About three-quarters of the 2009 graduates of the highly diverse Arlington, Virginia, Public Schools completed one or more Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses during their high school careers. That figure serves as one indicator of a decade-long initiative to eliminate achievement gaps while raising achievement for all…

  10. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  11. The Generation Gap: Attitudes of Students and of Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1972-01-01

    Students and their parents completed a questionnaire dealing with attitudes toward five topics: student unrest, drugs, marriage, work, and sexual behavior. A gap does exist in three of the areas: student unrest, drugs, and sexual behavior. (Author)

  12. Existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we prove the existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with smooth periodic potential and small external homogeneous electric field. Such a result extends the existence result previously obtained in the case of periodic potentials with a finite number of open gaps.

  13. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage Vrf=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density ne0 is depressed below the density nesh at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at Vrf=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  14. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  15. Practice and Educational Gaps in Dermatology: Disorders of the Hair.

    PubMed

    Colavincenzo, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    Clinical practice gaps exist in the care of hair patients. Attitude gaps include a relative lack of dermatologists interested in caring for patients with hair complaints, a potential underestimation of the effect of hair disorders on the quality of patients' lives, and potential failure to recognize the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder among patients with hair complaints. Knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence and presentation of hair loss disorders may lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of hair patients. Skill gaps in physical examination, particularly with dermoscopy of the scalp and hair, may affect the care of hair patients. PMID:27363884

  16. Gap and out-gap solitons in modulated systems of finite length: exact solutions in the slowly varying envelope limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Kirr, K.; Kovalev, A. S.; Kroon, L.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss nonlinear excitations in finite-size one-dimensional modulated systems. Considering a binary modulated discrete nonlinear Schrödinger chain of large but finite length with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain exact elliptic-function solutions corresponding to stationary excitations in the slowly varying envelope limit. From these solutions, we analyze how the transformation between (localized) gap and (delocalized) out-gap solitons manifests itself in a system of finite length. The analogue of a localized gap soliton appears through a bifurcation at a critical point, so that gap soliton analogues exist only for chains longer than a critical value, which scales inversely proportional to the modulation depth. The total norm of these gap-out-gap states is found to be a monotonic function of the frequency, always inside a 'nonlinear gap' with edges defined by the main nonlinear modes which approach the linear spectrum gap boundaries in the small-amplitude limit. The transformation from a gap to an out-gap state is associated with a particular frequency, close to the lower boundary of the linear gap; at this point the elliptic functions become trigonometric, corresponding to a finite-size analogue of an algebraic soliton. We compare the scenario with earlier results obtained numerically for purely discrete chains with few degrees of freedom.

  17. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations. PMID:27547084

  18. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling.

    PubMed

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  19. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  20. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2007-03-01

    A new finding gets scientists one step closer to understanding what causes the gap in the Van Allen radiation belts. The discovery could help better predict fluxes of energetic particles that have the potential for damaging spacecraft and satellites and harming astronauts. An improved understanding could also give space physicists better insight into the radiation belts of other planets, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, all of which have strong magnetic fields.

  1. Air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Schmidt, M.; Schwaiger, S.; Stemmann, A.; Mendach, S.; Hansen, W.

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate the fabrication of thin GaAs layers which quasi hover above the underlying GaAs substrate. The hovering layers have a perfect epitaxial relationship to the substrate crystal lattice and are connected to the substrate surface only by lattice matched nanopillars of low density. These air-gap heterostructures are created by combining in situ molecular beam epitaxy compatible self-assembled droplet-etching and ex situ selective wet-chemical etching.

  2. Minding the Gap

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Millicent Anne

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  3. Gender gaps within management.

    PubMed

    Ronk, L L

    1993-05-01

    Traditional roles need not become self-fulfilling prophecies if managers can bridge the gender gap. Feminine, as well as masculine, characteristics can be incorporated into managerial styles to enhance effective leadership. Autonomy, decision-making and assertiveness are as important as nurturing and caring. What are little girls made of? Little girls are made of sugar and spice and everything nice. What are little boys made of? Little boys are made of rats and snails and puppy dog tails.

  4. The Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Bill; Appleton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Addresses the misconception that the ecosystems involving plants and animals in our national parks are thoroughly monitored. Discusses research and other programs designed to inventory species throughout the national parks' and to inform the national parks concerning its ecosystems. (MDH)

  5. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  6. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  7. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  8. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer. PMID:27171416

  9. Bridging the gap between building science and design studios

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-02-06

    Design studios and building science courses have been conducted independent of each other, mainly due to a lack of tools that allow quick and easy consideration of building science criteria, such as comfort and energy requirements, during the design process. Existing tools are not user-friendly and their use requires significant effort in gaining familiarity with the input requirements, understanding the modeling assumptions and interpreting the output. This paper is about the Building Design Advisor (BDA), an evolving computer-based tool intended to bridge the gap between design studios and building science considerations by addressing the above-mentioned limitations of existing tools. BDA allows automatic preparation of input files to multiple simulation tools while the user is working in a CAD environment. BDA automatically activates the relevant simulation tools when the user selects performance parameters to be computed and provides the results in a graphical form, allowing comparison of multiple design options with respect to multiple performance criteria. The paper includes considerations for the use of the BDA in the design studio and ends with a description of the current development efforts and future plans.

  10. 43 CFR 429.32 - How will Reclamation address currently authorized existing private exclusive recreational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreational or residential uses with public needs or project purposes through a public process involving one or more public meetings. Examples of such public processes include resource management plan... process that needs to be followed. (e) Reclamation must be notified in advance by certified mail,...

  11. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  12. Autophagic cell death exists

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Peter G.H.; Puyal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The term autophagic cell death (ACD) initially referred to cell death with greatly enhanced autophagy, but is increasingly used to imply a death-mediating role of autophagy, as shown by a protective effect of autophagy inhibition. In addition, many authors require that autophagic cell death must not involve apoptosis or necrosis. Adopting these new and restrictive criteria, and emphasizing their own failure to protect human osteosarcoma cells by autophagy inhibition, the authors of a recent Editor’s Corner article in this journal argued for the extreme rarity or nonexistence of autophagic cell death. We here maintain that, even with the more stringent recent criteria, autophagic cell death exists in several situations, some of which were ignored by the Editor’s Corner authors. We reject their additional criterion that the autophagy in ACD must be the agent of ultimate cell dismantlement. And we argue that rapidly dividing mammalian cells such as cancer cells are not the most likely situation for finding pure ACD. PMID:22652592

  13. North-South S and T gap

    SciTech Connect

    Moghadam, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to demonstrate the existence of the science and technology (S and T) gap between developed countries (DCs) or the north, and less developed countries (LDCs) or the south; (2) to test the hypothesis that there exists a critical mass with respect to population, gross domestic product (GDP), per capita income, and literacy rate below which S and T development is insignificant; and (3) to recommend possible remedial actions for reducing this gap. The research comprises a thorough review of the existing literature, and an extensive analysis of 1976-78 and 1980-82 statistics for 66 countries, presenting a global picture of the S and T gap in the free world. A comprehensive account was given of the S and T status for Britain, Germany, United States, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Egypt, and Nigeria. A plot of S and T indicators versus independent variables for the 66 counties clearly indicated the existence of the North-South S and T gap. The test of the critical hypothesis, using t distribution, revealed that population size does not have a significant impact on the development or deployment of S and T. This test with respect to GDP indicated that greater GDPs would facilitate the progress of S and T. The results for per capita income were similar. Adequate infrastructure had the greatest impact on absorption, deployment, and maintenance of S and T for development. It was also indicated that with literacy rates below 40% no significant S and T activity can be expected.

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  15. Bridging Gaps Between Refractory Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, J. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Excessively large gaps between tiles on Space Shuttle eliminated without time-consuming and costly procedure of removing and replacing tiles. Ceramic tile silver is bonded in gap. Bonded silver prevents airframe under gap from getting too hot during reentry and presents aerodynamically smooth exterior surface.

  16. Workshop on Bridging Satellite Climate Data Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Cooksey, Catherine; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Detecting the small signals of climate change for the most essential climate variables requires that satellite sensors make highly accurate and consistent measurements. Data gaps in the time series (such as gaps resulting from launch delay or failure) and inconsistencies in radiometric scales between satellites undermine the credibility of fundamental climate data records, and can lead to erroneous analysis in climate change detection. To address these issues, leading experts in Earth observations from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and academia assembled at the National Institute of Standards and Technology on December 10, 2009 for a workshop to prioritize strategies for bridging and mitigating data gaps in the climate record. This paper summarizes the priorities for ensuring data continuity of variables relevant to climate change in the areas of atmosphere, land, and ocean measurements and the recommendations made at the workshop for overcoming planned and unplanned gaps in the climate record. PMID:26989581

  17. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  18. Mind the gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, M. S.; Krassnigg, A.; Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.

    2007-03-01

    In this summary of the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons, some deductions following from a nonperturbative, symmetry-preserving truncation are highlighted, notable amongst which are results for pseudoscalar mesons. We also describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence of a chiral expansion, applications to heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons, and quantitative estimates of the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum in pseudoscalar mesons; and recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

  19. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  20. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  2. Plumes Do Not Exist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.; Anderson, D. L.; Foulger, G. R.; Winterer, E. L.

    conjectures are made ever more complex and implausible to encompass contrary data, and have no predictive value. The inescapable conclusion is that deep-mantle thermal plumes not only are unneces- sary but that they do not exist.

  3. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  4. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  5. Eliminating the Achievement Gap: A White Paper on How Charter Schools Can Help District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; Hernandez, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A staggering achievement gap exists between minority and white students in America. The gap is unjust, and it is constraining the country economically, socially, and politically. Intense political pressures, labor contracts, and other forces prevent urban superintendents from closing those gaps. However, partnerships with high-performing charter…

  6. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  7. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  8. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  9. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  10. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  11. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  12. Energy gap of novel edge-defected graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Weiqing; Wen, Zhongquan; Li, Min; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang; Ruan, Desheng; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Herein, the effects of width and boundary defects on the energy gap of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been explored and theoretically investigated by means of semi-empirical atomic basis Extended Hückel method. Due to the existence of boundary defects, the energy gap of GNRs is mainly determined by the width of graphene nanoribbons for armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) or zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). Interestingly, the energy gap of AGNRs with a 120° V-type defect displays the monotone decreasing tendency when the width reaches to 2 nm, while the energy gap of intrinsic AGNRs is oscillatory. At the same time, the energy gap of U-type defected ZGNRs is opened, which differs from the zero energy gap characteristics of the intrinsic zigzag graphene. Furthermore, the size of energy gap of the defected AGNRs and ZGNRs with the same width is proved to be very close. Calculation results demonstrate that the energy gap of GNRs is just inversely proportional to the width and has little to do with the crystallographic direction. All the findings above provide a basis for energy gap engineering with different edge defects in GNRs and signify promising prospects in graphene-based semiconductor electronic devices.

  13. Closing the Achievement Gap: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, R. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disparities exist between the performance of minority and nonminority students on high-stakes standardized tests. Similar disparities exist on college admission. The College Board's Equity 2000 Project, implemented in 1990, gathered information on closing the gaps. Seven lessons learned from Equity 2000 emphasize the importance of such…

  14. Current Status and Future Plans for the General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, Lorenzo; Koglin, Johnathon D; Craig, Teresa M; Mori, Ken-Ichi; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    We discuss current progress and future plans for the general antiparticle spectrometer experiment (GAPS). GAPS detects antideuterons through the X-rays and pions emitted during the deexcitation of exotic atoms formed when the antideuterons are slowed down and stopped in targets. GAPS provides an exceptionally sensitive means to detect cosmic-ray antideuterons. Cosmic-ray antideuterons can provide indirect evidence for the existence of dark matter in such form as neutralinos or Kaluza-Klein particles. We describe results of accelerator testing of GAPS prototypes, tentative design concepts for a flight GAPS detector, and near-term plans for flying a GAPS prototype on a balloon.

  15. The Gap-Tpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  16. Gap Assessment (FY 13 Update)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Getman, Dan

    2013-09-30

    To help guide its future data collection efforts, The DOE GTO funded a data gap analysis in FY2012 to identify high potential hydrothermal areas where critical data are needed. This analysis was updated in FY2013 and the resulting datasets are represented by this metadata. The original process was published in FY 2012 and is available here: https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/GeoConf/papers/SGW/2013/Esposito.pdf Though there are many types of data that can be used for hydrothermal exploration, five types of exploration data were targeted for this analysis. These data types were selected for their regional reconnaissance potential, and include many of the primary exploration techniques currently used by the geothermal industry. The data types include: 1. well data 2. geologic maps 3. fault maps 4. geochemistry data 5. geophysical data To determine data coverage, metadata for exploration data (including data type, data status, and coverage information) were collected and catalogued from nodes on the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). It is the intention of this analysis that the data be updated from this source in a semi-automated fashion as new datasets are added to the NGDS nodes. In addition to this upload, an online tool was developed to allow all geothermal data providers to access this assessment and to directly add metadata themselves and view the results of the analysis via maps of data coverage in Geothermal Prospector (http://maps.nrel.gov/gt_prospector). A grid of the contiguous U.S. was created with 88,000 10-km by 10-km grid cells, and each cell was populated with the status of data availability corresponding to the five data types. Using these five data coverage maps and the USGS Resource Potential Map, sites were identified for future data collection efforts. These sites signify both that the USGS has indicated high favorability of occurrence of geothermal resources and that data gaps exist. The uploaded data are contained in two data files for

  17. Making an APPropriate Care Program for Indigenous Cardiac Disease: Customization of an Existing Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.

    PubMed

    Bradford, DanaKai; Hansen, David; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem for all Australians and is the leading cause of death in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. In 2010, more then 50% of all heart attack deaths were due to repeated events. Cardiac rehabilitation programs have been proven to be effective in preventing the recurrence of cardiac events and readmission to hospitals. There are however, many barriers to the use of these programs. To address these barriers, CSIRO developed an IT enabled cardiac rehabilitation program delivered by mobile phone through a smartphone app and succesfully trialed it in an urban general population. If these results can be replicated in Indigenous populations, the program has the potential to significantly improve life expectancy and help close the gap in health outcomes. The challenge described in this paper is customizing the existing cardiac health program to make it culturally relevant and suitable for Indigenous Australians living in urban and remote communities. PMID:26262068

  18. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  19. Addressing violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  20. Addressing Information Gaps: Disparities in Financial Awareness and Preparedness on the Road to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Jackson, Casey; Gast, Melanie Jones

    2014-01-01

    The rising cost of higher education and questions of affordability are concerns for many families in the United States, but particularly for those from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. The knowledge of, information about, and perceptions related to how to pay for college can impact preparatory actions taken by families to prepare to pay…

  1. Finding and Addressing the Gaps: Two Evaluations of Archival Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battley, Belinda; Wright, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Regular evaluation of archival reference services is essential to ensure that users have appropriate access to the information they need. Archives New Zealand has been measuring customer satisfaction for many years using self-completion questionnaires but recently trialed two new methods of evaluation, using external research companies. One…

  2. Addressing the Gap between Case Law and Professional Practice: A Response to Zirkel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors Carl Smith, Antonis Katsiyannis, and Joseph Ryan respond to Zirkel's most recent article, "The Law in the Special Education Literature: A Brief Legal Critique," published in this issue of "Behavioral Disorders." Smith, Katsiyannis, and Ryan begin their response by saying that "The Law in the…

  3. Elementary School Teachers' Experiences in a Professional Learning Community Addressing the Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Glenda F.

    2011-01-01

    International research and academic performance measures indicate that boys are scoring lower on standardized tests than girls in reading and writing. At the time of this study, boys had lower standardized test scores than girls in an elementary school in a southeastern state in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to…

  4. Broadband Access and Implications for Efforts to Address Equity Gaps in Postsecondary Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisneros, Lauren; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    This education trends report focuses on two related but distinct challenges confronting state policy leaders and students as they seek to leverage online distance education to meet personal and statewide education goals: (1) access to the infrastructure necessary to provide industry-standard broadband speeds and (2) ensuring availability of the…

  5. Developing Deep Understanding and Literacy while Addressing a Gender-Based Literacy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Scardamalia, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Online discourse from a class of 22 students (11 boys and 11 girls) was analysed to assess advances in conceptual understanding and literacy. The students worked over a two-year period (Grades 3-4), during which they contributed notes to an online Knowledge Building environment--Knowledge Forum[R]. Contributions revealed that both boys and girls…

  6. Using evidence-based practice to address gaps in nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tagney, Jenny; Haines, Caroline

    Implementing evidence based-practice and research findings into nursing care has been identified as a challenge to nursing staff. This article identifies key barriers to the use of research in the international literature, however, there are limited suggestions as to how to improve this in the clinical arena. This article aims to identify how nurses could optimize the implementation of evidence and research into their clinical care and reviews barriers to implementing and undertaking nursing research, suggesting a framework for improvement. It considers the widely varied levels of knowledge of research and equally varied critical appraisal skills present both at a pre and post-registration nursing level. The authors discuss an innovative, collaborative approach that considers the role of the nurse consultant, clinical academic and research facilitator posts. To ensure quality evidence-based practice is implemented into clinical nursing care a realistic and practical structure must be applied. With the appropriate framework, clinical structure and organizational support, promotion of evidence-based practice and research for patient benefit can be optimized. The implications for practice are also discussed. The implementation of a realistic research framework into clinical nursing practice has the potential to influence and develop a more active nursing research culture and promote evidence-based care within the workplace.

  7. Commentary: Addressing the Gap Between Science and Practice in Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.

    2003-01-01

    The article by Fantuzzo, McWayne, and Bulotsky (2003), presenting their conceptualization of a paradigm for conducting applied research in children's mental health, is an intriguing fusion of key principles and recommendations. Their model comes close to meeting the profile of a new research paradigm in children's mental health. The author…

  8. Addressing the College Attainment Gap for Working Adults with Prior College Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia; Erisman, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    One in six American adults--approximately 30-35 million individuals--were at one time enrolled in college but did not complete a degree or certificate. Higher education in the 21st century faces a series of changes with respect to college completion that require a shift in institutional culture and processes. Many colleges are responding to this…

  9. Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

    2007-01-01

    Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

  10. Using Simulation to Address Hierarchy-Related Errors in Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aaron William; Boone, Megan C; Porter, Melissa B; Miller, Karen H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hierarchy, the unavoidable authority gradients that exist within and between clinical disciplines, can lead to significant patient harm in high-risk situations if not mitigated. High-fidelity simulation is a powerful means of addressing this issue in a reproducible manner, but participant psychological safety must be assured. Our institution experienced a hierarchy-related medication error that we subsequently addressed using simulation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation and outcome of these simulations. Methods: Script and simulation flowcharts were developed to replicate the case. Each session included the use of faculty misdirection to precipitate the error. Care was taken to assure psychological safety via carefully conducted briefing and debriefing periods. Case outcomes were assessed using the validated Team Performance During Simulated Crises Instrument. Gap analysis was used to quantify team self-insight. Session content was analyzed via video review. Results: Five sessions were conducted (3 in the pediatric intensive care unit and 2 in the Pediatric Emergency Department). The team was unsuccessful at addressing the error in 4 (80%) of 5 cases. Trends toward lower communication scores (3.4/5 vs 2.3/5), as well as poor team self-assessment of communicative ability, were noted in unsuccessful sessions. Learners had a positive impression of the case. Conclusions: Simulation is a useful means to replicate hierarchy error in an educational environment. This methodology was viewed positively by learner teams, suggesting that psychological safety was maintained. Teams that did not address the error successfully may have impaired self-assessment ability in the communication skill domain. PMID:24867545

  11. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1986-08-19

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility is disclosed. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length. 4 figs.

  12. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  13. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1984-02-16

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  14. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan

    1986-01-01

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device (10) for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions (11a, 11b) with an axial gap (12) therebetween. An outer pipe (14) cooperates with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips (23a-d) cooperate with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  15. Topological nature of in-gap bound states in disordered large-gap monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fanyao; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Diniz, G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a physical model based on disordered (a hole punched inside a material) monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) to demonstrate a large-gap quantum valley Hall insulator. We find an emergence of bound states lying inside the bulk gap of the TMDs. They are strongly affected by spin-valley coupling, rest- and kinetic- mass terms and the hole size. In addition, in the whole range of the hole size, at least two in-gap bound states with opposite angular momentum, circulating around the edge of the hole, exist. Their topological insulator (TI) feature is analyzed by the Chern number, characterized by spacial distribution of their probabilities and confirmed by energy dispersion curves (Energy vs. angular momentum). It not only sheds light on overcoming low-temperature operating limitation of existing narrow-gap TIs, but also opens an opportunity to realize valley- and spin- qubits.

  16. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  17. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  18. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. A Particle Simulation for the Pulsar Magnetosphere: Relationship of Polar Cap, Slot Gap, and Outer Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuki, Shinya; Shibata, Shinpei

    2012-06-01

    To explain the pulsed emission of the rotation powered pulsars from radio to gamma-ray, polar cap models, slot gap models, and outer gap models are proposed. Recent observations suggest that these models are likely to co-exist in the same magnetosphere. If so, their mutual relation is known to be troublesome (Harding 2009), due to the boundary conditions and the direction of the current, which are properly assumed in each acceleration model. We performed a particle simulation for the global magnetospheric structure. Based on this simulation, we present a new picture of the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere. It is found that a new dead zone is formed along the current neutral line that separates the oppositely directed current. We shall call this the current-neutral zone. We suggest that the polar cap accelerators and the slot gaps locate above the current-neutral zone, and the outer gap exist between the current neutral zone and the traditional dead zone. We also give an estimate of the super-rotation region.

  2. Bridging the Gap between Ethics and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamric, Ann B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes attitude sets characterized as ethics as intuition, ethics as foreign language, and ethics as irrelevant to practice among nurses and physicians and the consequences they engender. Addresses strategies to bridge the gap between ethics knowledge and clinical practice, including interdisciplinary ethics education. (JOW)

  3. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  4. Minding the Achievement Gap One Classroom at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Jane E.; Ford, Sharon; Black, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Do teachers have the power to close achievement gaps? Here's a book that boldly claims they do and lays out a blueprint for how to do something now to help students who are falling short of standards. Regardless of the student population you need to address--English language learners, special education, or just the unmotivated and hard to…

  5. A District Wellness Policy: The Gap between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the gap between a federally-mandated wellness policy and its practice in U.S. schools. To address the problem of childhood obesity, the United States government requires school districts to develop a District Wellness Policy (DWP) that promotes a healthy school environment, healthy food choices, nutrition education, and…

  6. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  7. Library outreach: addressing Utah's "Digital Divide".

    PubMed

    McCloskey, K M

    2000-10-01

    A "Digital Divide" in information and technological literacy exists in Utah between small hospitals and clinics in rural areas and the larger health care institutions in the major urban area of the state. The goals of the outreach program of the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah address solutions to this disparity in partnership with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-- Midcontinental Region, the Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Area Health Education Centers. In a circuit-rider approach, an outreach librarian offers classes and demonstrations throughout the state that teach information-access skills to health professionals. Provision of traditional library services to unaffiliated health professionals is integrated into the library's daily workload as a component of the outreach program. The paper describes the history, methodology, administration, funding, impact, and results of the program.

  8. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  9. Measuring the Gap

    PubMed Central

    She, Xinshu; Zhao, Deqing; Scholnick, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P < .01) and after using the toilet (OR = 5.41, P < .01). They are more likely to feel sick or to get into trouble after drinking (OR = 7.28, P < .01). They are more likely to have used drugs (OR = 8.54, P < .01) and to have no close friends (OR = 8.23, P < .01). An alarming percentage of rural (8.22%) and urban (14.22%) children have had suicidal ideation in the past year (OR = 0.68, P > .05). Rural parents are more likely to not know their children’s whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05). Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01) and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01). In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration. PMID:27335999

  10. Paramagnetically induced gapful topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Akito; Yanase, Youichi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a generic scenario for realizing gapful topological superconductors (TSCs) from gapless spin-singlet superconductors (SCs). Noncentrosymmetric nodal SCs in two dimensions are shown to be gapful under a Zeeman field, as a result of the cooperation of inversion-symmetry breaking and time-reversal-symmetry breaking. In particular, non-s -wave SCs acquire a large excitation gap. Such paramagnetically induced gapful SCs may be classified into TSCs in the symmetry class D specified by the Chern number. We show nontrivial Chern numbers over a wide parameter range for spin-singlet SCs. A variety of the paramagnetically induced gapful TSCs are demonstrated, including D +p -wave TSC, extended S +p -wave TSC, p +D +f -wave TSC, and s +P -wave TSC. Natural extension toward three-dimensional Weyl SCs is also discussed.

  11. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  12. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  13. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  15. Addressing Extremes within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.

    2008-12-01

    For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "Extremes Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to extremes and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of extreme research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "Extremes Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of extremes exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the Extremes Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of extremes, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.

  16. Remote maintenance for fusion: Requirements vs technology gap

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.C.; Kuban, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Today's remote handling technology was developed in response to the remote maintenance (RM) requirements of the fission community's nuclear fuel recycle process. The needs of the fusion community present new challenges to the remote handling experts of the world. New difficulties are superimposed on the difficulties experienced in maintaining fission processes. Today's technology must be enhanced to respond to the RM needs of these future huge investments. This paper first discusses the current RM needs for fusion based on existing facilities and designs of future machines. It then exposes the gap between these requirements and existing RM technology and recommends ways to extend the state of the art to close this gap.

  17. A Gap in TW Hydrae's Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Located a mere 176 light-years away, TW Hydrae is an 8-million-year-old star surrounded by a nearly face-on disk of gas and dust. Recent observations have confirmed the existence of a gap within that disk a particularly intriguing find, since gaps can sometimes signal the presence of a planet.Gaps and PlanetsNumerical simulations have shown that newly-formed planets orbiting within dusty disks can clear the gas and dust out of their paths. This process results in pressure gradients that can be seen in the density structure of the disk, in the form of visible gaps, rings, or spirals.For this reason, finding a gap in a protoplanetary disk can be an exciting discovery. Previous observations of the disk around TW Hydrae had indicated that there might be a gap present, but they were limited in their resolution; despite TW Hydraes relative nearness, attempting to observe the dim light scattered off dust particles in a disk surrounding a distant, bright star is difficult!But a team led by Valerie Rapson (Rochester Institute of Technology, Dudley Observatory) recently set out to follow up on this discovery using a powerful tool: the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI).New ObservationsComparison of the actual image of TW Hydraes disk from GPI (right) to a simulated scattered-light image from a model of a ~0.2 Jupiter-mass planet orbiting in the disk at ~21 AU (left) in two different bands (top: J, bottom: K1).[Adapted from Rapson et al. 2015]GPI is an instrument on the Gemini South Telescope in Chile. Its near-infrared imagers, equipped with extreme adaptive optics, allowed it to probe the disk from ~80 AU all the way in to ~10 AU from the central star, with an unprecedented resolution of ~1.5 AU.These observations from GPI allowed Rapson and collaborators to unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in TW Hydraes disk. The gap lies at a distance of ~23 AU from the central star (roughly the same distance as Uranus to the Sun), and its ~5 AU wide.Modeled PossibilitiesThere are a

  18. Identifying the procedural gap and improved methods for maintaining accuracy during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gross, Allan; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is a ubiquitous condition, affecting 26 million Americans each year, with up to 17% of adults over age 75 suffering from one variation of arthritis. The hip is one of the most commonly affected joints and while there are conservative options for treatment, as symptoms progress, many patients eventually turn to surgery to manage their pain and dysfunction. Early surgical options such as osteotomy or arthroscopy are reserved for younger, more active patients with less severe disease and symptoms. Total hip arthroplasty offers a viable solution for patients with severe degenerative changes; however, post-surgical discrepancies in leg length, offset and component malposition are common and cause significant complications. Such discrepancies are associated with consequences such as low back pain, neurological deficits, instability and overall patient dissatisfaction. Current methods for managing leg length and offset during hip arthroplasty are either inaccurate and susceptible to error or are cumbersome, expensive and lengthen surgical time. There is currently no viable option that provides accurate, real-time data to surgeons regarding leg length, offset and cup position in a cost-effective manner. As such, we hypothesize that a procedural gap exists in hip arthroplasty, a gap into which fall a large majority of arthroplasty patients who are at increased risk of complications following surgery. These complications and associated treatments place significant stress on the healthcare system. The costs associated with addressing leg length and offset discrepancies can be minor, requiring only heel lifts and short-term rehabilitation, but can also be substantial, with revision hip arthroplasty costs of up to $54,000 per procedure. The need for a cost-effective, simple to use and unobtrusive technology to address this procedural gap in hip arthroplasty and improve patient outcomes is of increasing importance. Given the aging of the population, the projected

  19. Latino Scoreboard on Texas Higher Education: "Just Who's 'Closing the Gaps'?" JSRI Research Report No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Arturo; Martinez, Ruben O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of the "Closing the Gaps Higher Education Plan" approved and implemented by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board in 2000 to improve the quality of higher education and address educational gaps prevalent among the state's diverse populations. The plan targets the four areas for improvement: (1) student…

  20. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  1. Student Interns' Socially Constructed Work Realities: Narrowing the Work Expectation-Reality Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    New employees, including college students, often experience expectation-reality gaps about work, making the assimilation process more difficult for all. This qualitative study explores the role of the internship in narrowing the work expectation-reality gap. This article addresses two research questions: (a) What do students learn about work…

  2. The Gender Gap in Student Engagement: The Role of Teachers' Autonomy Support, Structure, and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietaert, Sofie; Roorda, Debora; Laevers, Ferre; Verschueren, Karine; De Fraine, Bieke

    2015-01-01

    Background: The gender gap in education in favour of girls is a widely known phenomenon. Boys generally have higher dropout rates, obtain lower grades, and show lower engagement. Insight into factors related to these academic outcomes could help to address the gender gap. Aims: This study investigated, for Dutch language classes, (1) how boys and…

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  4. Bridging the Gap: Technology Trends and Use of Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping; Zhao, Yong; Tondeur, Jo; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Considerable investment has been made to bring technology to schools and these investments have indeed resulted in many "success stories." However there are two significant gaps in educational uses of technology that must be addressed. The first is a usage gap. Compared to how and how much today's students use technology outside…

  5. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  6. College Major Choice and the Gender Gap. Staff Report No. 364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Basit

    2009-01-01

    Males and females are markedly different in their choice of college major. Two main reasons have been suggested for the gender gap: differences in innate abilities and differences in preferences. This paper addresses the question of how college majors are chosen, focusing on the underlying gender gap. Since observed choices may be consistent with…

  7. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

  8. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, Karl T.; King, Edward L.; Follstaedt, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

  9. Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

  10. The mechanics of endothelial gap formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattoraj, Joyjit; Del Gado, Emanuela; Hardin, C. Corey; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    The vascular endothelium is a layer of specialized cells, referred to as endothelial cells (EC) that line the internal surfaces of blood vessels and are largely responsible for regulating the transit of fluids, solutes and immune system cells from the circulation, across the vessel wall, and into the tissues. We investigate the physics of the mechanical events that may proceed and eventually lead to dramatic increase of its permeability, leading to serious illness. In combination with experiments measuring local stresses and gap formation in EC in different conditions, we devise a minimal model based on an amorphous assembly of adhesive particles, subjected to an imposed tension. Numerical simulations of the model show that, as a function of the rate at which the tension is imposed, the system goes from an elastic regime in which small gaps increase in number to a ``plastic'' one, where pre-existing gaps increase in size, and internal stresses display large hetereogeneities and long range correlations. This second regime bears intriguing similarities with the experimental finding in EC monolayers.

  11. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  12. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  13. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  14. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  15. Surgical treatment for epilepsy: the potential gap between evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Jetté, Nathalie; Sander, Josemir W; Keezer, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use. Some suggest that this stagnation is due to a decreasing pool of eligible surgical candidates, whereas others emphasise the numerous barriers to epilepsy surgery. Strategies exist to increase access to surgery and to improve communication about the effectiveness of this potentially life-changing procedure. Further investigation into the nature and causes of the presumed underuse of epilepsy surgery and the elaboration of strategies to address this treatment gap are necessary and pressing. PMID:27478955

  16. Surgical treatment for epilepsy: the potential gap between evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Jetté, Nathalie; Sander, Josemir W; Keezer, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use. Some suggest that this stagnation is due to a decreasing pool of eligible surgical candidates, whereas others emphasise the numerous barriers to epilepsy surgery. Strategies exist to increase access to surgery and to improve communication about the effectiveness of this potentially life-changing procedure. Further investigation into the nature and causes of the presumed underuse of epilepsy surgery and the elaboration of strategies to address this treatment gap are necessary and pressing.

  17. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  18. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  19. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  20. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  1. Local Structural Alignment of RNA with Affine Gap Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas K. F.; Cheung, Brenda W. Y.; Lam, T. W.; Yiu, S. M.

    Predicting new non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of a family can be done by aligning the potential candidate with a member of the family with known sequence and secondary structure. Existing tools either only consider the sequence similarity or cannot handle local alignment with gaps. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the optimal local structural alignment between a query RNA sequence (with known secondary structure) and a target sequence (with unknown secondary structure) with the affine gap penalty model. We provide the algorithm to solve the problem. Based on a preliminary experiment, we show that there are ncRNA families in which considering local structural alignment with gap penalty model can identify real hits more effectively than using global alignment or local alignment without gap penalty model.

  2. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  3. On Discrimination in Chinese and English Indirect Addressings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lianbing

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental usages of language is to address each other. As a socialized product, language is bound to transfer its users' intention, the examination of which will have to be based on the absence of either the addressor or the addressee, or even the both. In the process of social development, there exists discrimination between…

  4. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  5. Eight electrode optical readout gap

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.; Crain, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    A protective device for a plurality of electrical circuits includes a pluity of isolated electrodes forming a gap with a common electrode. An output signal, electrically isolated from the circuits being monitored, is obtained by a photosensor viewing the discharge gap through an optical window. Radioactive stabilization of discharge characteristics is provided for slowly changing voltages and carbon tipped dynamic starters provide desirable discharge characteristics for rapidly varying voltages. A hydrogen permeation barrier is provided on external surfaces of the device.

  6. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  7. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  9. Gaps, conflicts, and arguments between adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict appears to be similar across different immigrant generations and cultural groups in frequency and implications for adjustment. However, the same level of argumentation may mask hidden conflictual feelings that are not expressed. Why an acculturation gap leads to such conflictual feelings in some adolescents and not others is still not well understood. Addressing this and other important issues of parent-adolescent difference by clearly separating acculturation gaps, conflictual feelings, and actual arguments would go a long way toward helping us to understand the role of family relationships in the adaptation and adjustment of adolescents from Asian and Latin American backgrounds.

  10. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  11. Bridging the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Clements, K.; Garrie, R.L.; Houser, S.H.; Berner, E.S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Health Information Management (HIM) and Health Informatics (HI) were very separate professions when they were first formed. However, with the increasing adoption of electronic health records, the interests of the two fields have become more aligned. Objectives To describe the evolution of a joint master’s program in health informatics(HI) and health information management (HIM) Methods After analyzing workforce needs, and reviewing both CAHIIM accreditation requirements and existing curricular offerings in separate programs in HIM and HI, a joint program was developed. Results An HI master’s program with a core curriculum for all students and tracks in Data Analytics, User Experience and Advanced Practice HIM was developed. A model for a comprehensive examination, based on the CAHIIM competencies, to be administered prior to and after the core curriculum was also developed. Conclusions A core and track curriculum that incorporates HIM education as part of the Master of Science of Health Informatics provides a feasible roadmap for the future as HIM and HI become more closely aligned. PMID:26171071

  12. The gender gap.

    PubMed

    1992-12-11

    Throughout history, boys and men have engaged in dangerous sports and survival-related activities to a greater extent than women. Evolution, therefore, favored genes of women who bore comparatively more sons. 105 males per 100 females is average at birth, with excess mortality among males continuing until the numbers of men and women virtually equilibrate by age 20. Cultural traditions and China's 1-child policy have, however, increased the demand for sons, and have exaggerated the demographic imbalance between the sexes. 107-109 12-year-old boys exist for every 100 girls. Among 3-year-old children, there are 111 boys per 100 girls. As these cohorts mature, many young men may find themselves involuntary bachelors. This shortage of wives will have major consequences on the way of life in China, ultimately rewriting much of which is presently cultural taboo. Marriage age and the ability to remarry may change. Male homosexuality will also become more tolerated. While present-day taboos may be reversed, market forces will also respond to the shortage of young females. As young males begin to search in vain for female companions, parents will place premiums on female offspring, dowries will lower, and bride prices will rise. One might also expect national-level financial rewards for bearing females.

  13. DISK-SATELLITE INTERACTION IN DISKS WITH DENSITY GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovich, Cristobal; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2012-10-10

    Gravitational coupling between a gaseous disk and an orbiting perturber leads to angular momentum exchange between them that can result in gap opening by planets in protoplanetary disks and clearing of gas by binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in accretion disks. Understanding the co-evolution of the disk and the orbit of the perturber in these circumstances requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of the torque exerted by the latter on a highly non-uniform disk. Here we explore disk-satellite interaction in disks with gaps in linear approximation both in Fourier and in physical space, explicitly incorporating the disk non-uniformity in the fluid equations. Density gradients strongly displace the positions of Lindblad resonances in the disk (which often occur at multiple locations), and the waveforms of modes excited close to the gap edge get modified compared to the uniform disk case. The spatial distribution of the excitation torque density is found to be quite different from the existing prescriptions: most of the torque is exerted in a rather narrow region near the gap edge where Lindblad resonances accumulate, followed by an exponential falloff with the distance from the perturber. Despite these differences, for a given gap profile, the full integrated torque exerted on the disk agrees with the conventional uniform disk theory prediction at the level of {approx}10%. The nonlinearity of the density wave excited by the perturber is shown to decrease as the wave travels out of the gap, slowing down its nonlinear evolution and damping. Our results suggest that gap opening in protoplanetary disks and gas clearing around SMBH binaries can be more efficient than the existing theories predict. They pave the way for self-consistent calculations of the gap structure and the orbital evolution of the perturber using accurate prescription for the torque density behavior.

  14. Evaluating local indirect addressing in SIMD proc essors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Tomboulian, Sherryl

    1989-01-01

    In the design of parallel computers, there exists a tradeoff between the number and power of individual processors. The single instruction stream, multiple data stream (SIMD) model of parallel computers lies at one extreme of the resulting spectrum. The available hardware resources are devoted to creating the largest possible number of processors, and consequently each individual processor must use the fewest possible resources. Disagreement exists as to whether SIMD processors should be able to generate addresses individually into their local data memory, or all processors should access the same address. The tradeoff is examined between the increased capability and the reduced number of processors that occurs in this single instruction stream, multiple, locally addressed, data (SIMLAD) model. Factors are assembled that affect this design choice, and the SIMLAD model is compared with the bare SIMD and the MIMD models.

  15. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes in a casting system which including an apparatus for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate during casting of molten material, wherein the molten material is provided through a channel of the casting nozzle for casting onto the casting surface of the substrate for solidification. It comprises: a pneumatic gap mounted at least partially within a cavity in the casting nozzle adjacent the channel and having a sensor face located within the gap between the nozzle and the casting surface of the substrate, means for supply gas under predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice; and means for measuring the pressure of the gas within the sensor chamber during casting procedures, whereby relative changes in the gap can be determined by corresponding changes in the measured pressure. This patent also describes a method for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate for continuous casting of molten material. It comprises: providing a casting nozzle with a channel for directing the flow of molten material, locating the nozzle and the casting surface is proximity with one another and having a predetermined gap there-between, and dressing the sensor face to correspond in conformation to the casting surface and to adjust the predetermined distance as desired; providing a molten material to the nozzle for casting onto and casting surface; supplying gas at a predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice of the sensor during casting procedures.

  16. Maternal activation of gap genes in the hover fly Episyrphus.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Steffen; Busch, Stephanie E; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Meyer, Folker; Domanus, Marc H; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The metameric organization of the insect body plan is initiated with the activation of gap genes, a set of transcription-factor-encoding genes that are zygotically expressed in broad and partially overlapping domains along the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the early embryo. The spatial pattern of gap gene expression domains along the AP axis is generally conserved, but the maternal genes that regulate their expression are not. Building on the comprehensive knowledge of maternal gap gene activation in Drosophila, we used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in the hover fly Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) to address the question of how the maternal regulation of gap genes evolved. We find that, in Episyrphus, a highly diverged bicoid ortholog is solely responsible for the AP polarity of the embryo. Episyrphus bicoid represses anterior zygotic expression of caudal and activates the anterior and central gap genes orthodenticle, hunchback and Krüppel. In bicoid-deficient Episyrphus embryos, nanos is insufficient to generate morphological asymmetry along the AP axis. Furthermore, we find that torso transiently regulates anterior repression of caudal and is required for the activation of orthodenticle, whereas all posterior gap gene domains of knirps, giant, hunchback, tailless and huckebein depend on caudal. We conclude that all maternal coordinate genes have altered their specific functions during the radiation of higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

  17. The Importance of Technology Usage in the Classroom, Does Gender Gaps Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims-Word, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, access to technology was limited and wiring schools was one of the nation's highest education priorities (NCREL, 2005). Ten years of substantial investments have vastly improved this picture. According to the Secretary's Fourth Annual Report on Teacher Quality, virtually every school with access to computers has Internet access…

  18. The Hidden Crisis in Mental Health and Education: The Gap between Student Needs and Existing Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Noam, Gil G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors provide a selected review of mental health and educational concerns evident in U.S. middle schools and describes promising and important strategies to ameliorate the high rates of students with mental health and academic difficulties. Despite some promising and important strategies, service systems are fragmented, and comprehensive…

  19. The theory-practice gap in cognitive behavioral therapy: reflections and a modest proposal to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Keith; Beshai, Shadi

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the issues related to the gap between theory and practice in the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The article begins with a review of the evidence for such a gap, and having demonstrated that the gap exists, provides a discussion of some of the factors that are likely important in its genesis and maintenance. The article then focuses on potential strategies to reduce the theory-practice gap that go beyond the common recommendation for both efficacy and effectiveness research. In particular, we provide recommendations for protocol planning and design, training and competency maintenance, dissemination research, and implementation and policy change. We conclude with the proposition that theory and research should not only inform practice, but that practice should have a reciprocal benefit on theory and research.

  20. Proof that chronic lyme disease exists.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The evidence continues to mount that Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD) exists and must be addressed by the medical community if solutions are to be found. Four National Institutes of Health (NIH) trials validated the existence and severity of CLD. Despite the evidence, there are physicians who continue to deny the existence and severity of CLD, which can hinder efforts to find a solution. Recognizing CLD could facilitate efforts to avoid diagnostic delays of two years and durations of illness of 4.7 to 9 years described in the NIH trials. The risk to society of emerging antibiotic-resistant organisms should be weighed against the societal risks associated with failing to treat an emerging population saddled with CLD. The mixed long-term outcome in children could also be examined. Once we accept the evidence that CLD exists, the medical community should be able to find solutions. Medical professionals should be encouraged to examine whether: (1) innovative treatments for early LD might prevent CLD, (2) early diagnosis of CLD might result in better treatment outcomes, and (3) more effective treatment regimens can be developed for CLD patients who have had prolonged illness and an associated poor quality of life.

  1. "Mind the Gap": Building Bridges between Adolescent Readers and Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lois T.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that many times, English language art teachers fail to "mind the gaps" that exist between students' interest, reading abilities, levels of life experience, and the worlds of the texts they are asked to read as part of the curriculum. Suggests that each piece of difficult text needs a specific bridge tailored to its particular difficulties…

  2. Interoperability Gap Challenges for Learning Object Repositories & Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    An interoperability gap exists between Learning Management Systems (LMSs) and Learning Object Repositories (LORs). Learning Objects (LOs) and the associated Learning Object Metadata (LOM) that is stored within LORs adhere to a variety of LOM standards. A common LOM standard found in LORs is the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)…

  3. Self-Determination across the Life Span: Issues and Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Schindler, Abigail; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Parent, Wendy; Jenson, Ronda; Abery, Brian H.; Geringer, Wendy; Bacon, Ansley; O'Hara, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on self-determination across the lifespan with a focus on identifying gaps that exist between theory, research, and evidence-based practices. Using a life-stages approach, it first examines issues across life phases, and then examines cross-cutting topics (employment, abuse and neglect, and health) that are…

  4. Women and the Leadership Paradigm: Bridging the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growe, Roslin; Montgomery, Paula

    The under-representation of qualified women in leadership positions has created a gender gap that exists not only in education but in many areas of the workplace. Society has determined that only males make good leaders; therefore it continues to deny easy access for women seeking leadership roles because they do not fit the norm. Women who seek…

  5. The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt-Zeher, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Education is thought to be the pathway to success for disadvantaged groups. Given that young women now match or surpass men's educational achievements on many measures, how do they fare in terms of equal earnings? Would further educational changes matter for closing any existing gap? Analyzing data from the National Educational Longitudinal…

  6. Supercomputing and Scientific Workflows Gaps and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Chin, George

    2011-09-08

    Over the past decade, workflows have been successfully applied to a number of scientific domains with great success. Workflow engines are now commonly used across scientific disciplines to automate mundane tasks, collect provenance, and orchestrate complex processes. However, workflows have not yet made significant strides managing fine-grain, concurrent tasks directly on supercomputing platforms. As scientific computing becomes an increasingly important discovery method and high performance computing environments become more complex, addressing this gap becomes critical. Using a simple use case as motivation, this paper describes the current barriers to using workflow engines in a supercomputing environment and outlines the new capabilities that must be provided if workflows are to be successfully applied in this context.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Burchell, Timothy D; Corwin, William R; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Forsberg, Charles W.; Morris, Robert Noel; Moses, David Lewis

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  8. Duplicate Address Detection Table in IPv6 Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisherov, Farkhod; Kim, Taihoon

    In IP networks, each computer or communication equipment needs an IP address. To supply enough IP addresses, the new Internet protocol IPv6 is used in next generatoion mobile communication. Although IPv6 improves the existing IPv4 Internet protocol, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism may consume resources and suffer from long delay. DAD is used to ensure whether the IP address is unique or not. When a mobile node performs an inter-domain handoff, it will first generate a new IP and perform a DAD procedure. The DAD procedure not only wastes time but also increases the signaling load on Internet. In this paper, the author proposes a new DAD mechanism to speed up the DAD procedure. A DAD table is created in access or mobility routers in IP networks and record all IP addresses of the area. When a new IP address needs to perform DAD, it can just search in the DAD table to confirm the uniqueness of the address.

  9. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  10. Explaining the gender wealth gap.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M

    2013-08-01

    To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and between never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find that a gender wealth gap remains between married men and women that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects.

  11. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  12. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  13. THE CLINICAL TRANSLATION GAP IN CHILD HEALTH EXERCISE RESEARCH: A CALL FOR DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health. PMID:25109386

  14. The clinical translation gap in child health exercise research: a call for disruptive innovation.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy

    2015-02-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health.

  15. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  16. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  17. Direct band gap silicon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Sun, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; Fan, Changzeng; He, Julong

    2014-07-16

    Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in solar cell industry. The great demand of society for new clean energy and the shortcomings of the current silicon solar cells are calling for new materials that can make full use of the solar power. In this paper, six metastable allotropes of silicon with direct or quasidirect band gaps of 0.39-1.25 eV are predicted by ab initio calculations at ambient pressure. Five of them possess band gaps within the optimal range for high converting efficiency from solar energy to electric power and also have better optical properties than the Si-I phase. These Si structures with different band gaps could be applied to multiple p-n junction photovoltaic modules.

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  19. Enlargement of the apical gap after laser root resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Guilherme P. S.; Paradella, Thais C.; Munin, Egberto; Mello, Jose B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2000-11-01

    An apical filling material should establish, as perfect as possible, the hermetic sealing of an apical cavity. However, a gap is formed between the filling material (gutta-percha) and the root canal wall. The egress of irritants into the root canal system to the periapical tissues is considered the principal cause of fails in apicoectomy and retro-filling, being assumed that irritants penetrate mainly through the gap located between the gutta-percha and the dentin. In this paper, we report the observation of an enlargement of the apical gap, after laser apicoectomy, comparing to conventional apicoectomy. The samples were divided into groups, and the conventional apicoectomy group, together with the Er:YAG laser group (400 mJ/10 Hz) produced both similar results, being the gap unaltered. On the other hand, the samples that were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1.5 W/10 Hz) presented a larger gap, conclusions that were drawn from Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis. The enlargement of the gap was due to the fusion of the dentin on the border, close to the gutta-percha. This pronounced behavior might have been caused by the surface discontinuity, imposing a non-homogeneous condition, in relation to heat propagation, existing many clinical applications of these observations.

  20. Hydrogeologic Model for the Gable Gap Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Bruce A.; Last, George V.; Thomas, Gregory S.; Thompson, Michael D.; Ludwig, Jami L.; Lanigan, David C.

    2010-09-30

    Gable Gap is a structural and topographic depression between Gable Mountain and Gable Butte within the central Hanford Site. It has a long and complex geologic history, which includes tectonic uplift synchronous with erosional downcutting associated with the ancestral Columbia River during both Ringold and Cold Creek periods, and by the later Ice Age (mostly glacial Lake Missoula) floods. The gap was subsequently buried and partially backfilled by mostly coarse-grained, Ice Age flood deposits (Hanford formation). Erosional remnants of both the Ringold Formation and Cold Creek unit locally underlie the high-energy flood deposits. A large window exists in the gap where confined basalt aquifers are in contact with the unconfined suprabasalt aquifer. Several paleochannels, of both Hanford and Ringold Formation age, were eroded into the basalt bedrock across Gable Gap. Groundwater from the Central Plateau presently moves through Gable Gap via one or more of these shallow paleochannels. As groundwater levels continue to decline in the region, groundwater flow may eventually be cut off through Gable Gap.

  1. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  2. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  3. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  4. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  5. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  6. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  7. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  8. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  15. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  16. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources support all of our social and economic activities, as well as our biological existence. Humans have little control over most of the physical, biological, and sociological conditions dictating the status and capacity of natural resources in any particular area. However, the most rapid and threatening influences on natural resources typically are anthropogenic overuse and degradation. In addition, living natural resources (i.e., organisms) do not respect political boundaries, but are aware of their optimal habitat and environmental conditions. Most organisms have wider spatial ranges than the jurisdictional boundaries of environmental agencies that deal with them; even within those jurisdictions, information is patchy and disconnected. Planning and projecting effects of ecological management are difficult, because many organisms, habitat conditions, and interactions are involved. Conservation and responsible resource use involves wise management and manipulation of the aspects of the environment and biological communities that can be effectively changed. Tools and data sets that provide new insights and analysis capabilities can enhance the ability of resource managers to make wise decisions and plan effective, long-term management strategies. Aquatic gap analysis has been developed to provide those benefits. Gap analysis is more than just the assessment of the match or mis-match (i.e., gaps) between habitats of ecological value and areas with an appropriate level of environmental protection (e.g., refuges, parks, preserves), as the name suggests. Rather, a Gap Analysis project is a process which leads to an organized database of georeferenced information and previously available tools to examine conservation and other ecological issues; it provides a geographic analysis platform that serves as a foundation for aquatic ecological studies. This analytical tool box allows one to conduct assessments of all habitat elements within an area of interest

  17. HABITAT DISTRIBUTION MODELS FOR 37 VERTEBRATE SPECIES ADDRESSED BY THE MULTI-SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN OF CLARK COUNTY, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-seven species identified in the Clark County Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan were

    previously modeled through the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Existing SWReGAP habitat

    models and modeling databases were used to facilitate the revision of mo...

  18. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  19. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  20. Gender Gaps and Gendered Action in a First-Year Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Stang, Jared B.; Holmes, N. G.; Kumar, Dhaneesh; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data…

  1. Collective Voluntarism and Public Affairs Knowledge: A Typology for Knowledge Gap Theory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Emanuel; Gaziano, Cecilie

    A "collective voluntarism" framework can be used to achieve greater analytical precision and improve theoretical development of the landmark "knowledge gap hypothesis" which has stimulated considerable research and debate about the nature and existence of socially structured public affairs knowledge. The original knowledge gap hypothesis locates…

  2. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  3. Attacking the African American-White Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Millett, Catherine M.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    The African American-white achievement gap exists even among the youngest children; African American students arrive at kindergarten considerably behind their white peers in measurable cognitive skills. Although the gap has narrowed somewhat over the past several decades, the average African American still scores below 75 percent of white students…

  4. Explaining the Class Gap in Training: The Role of Employment Relations and Job Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Steffen; Weiss, Felix; Hubert, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies consistently find a gap in further education between high- and low-skilled workers, implying a gap in formal training between high- and low-skilled classes. In this paper, we hypothesize that the most important reasons for differences between social classes in further education participation are grounded in job characteristics…

  5. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  6. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors’ clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants’ ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. Discussion To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. Summary This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that

  7. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  8. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  9. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  10. Closing the Teacher Quality Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati; Crawford, Candace

    2008-01-01

    Schools and districts rarely have a fair distribution of teacher talent. Poor children and black children are less likely to be taught by the strongest teachers and more likely to be taught by the weakest. Several districts have implemented programs to reduce the teacher quality gap. Hamilton County, Tennessee, launched an initiative that included…

  11. Large gap magnetic suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Eyssa, Y. M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a large gap magnetic suspension system is discussed. Some of the topics covered include: the system configuration, permanent magnet material, levitation magnet system, superconducting magnets, resistive magnets, superconducting levitation coils, resistive levitation coils, levitation magnet system, and the nitrogen cooled magnet system.

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. Multiple input electrode gap controller

    DOEpatents

    Hysinger, C.L.; Beaman, J.J.; Melgaard, D.K.; Williamson, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows. 17 figs.

  14. Multiple input electrode gap controller

    DOEpatents

    Hysinger, Christopher L.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Melgaard, David K.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows.

  15. Coulomb gap at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvestani, Masoud; Schreiber, Michael; Vojta, Thomas

    1995-08-01

    The Coulomb glass, a model of interacting localized electrons in a random potential, exhibits a soft gap, the Coulomb gap, in the single-particle density of states (DOS) g(ɛ,T) close to the chemical potential μ. In this paper we investigate the Coulomb gap at finite temperatures T by means of a Monte Carlo method. We find that the Coulomb gap fills with increasing temperature. In contrast to previous results the temperature dependence is, however, much stronger than g(μ,T)~TD-1 as predicted analytically. It can be described by power laws with the exponents 1.75+/-0.1 for the two-dimensional model and 2.7+/-0.1 for the three-dimensional model. Nevertheless, the relation g(μ,T)~g(ɛ,T=0) with ||ɛ-μ||=kBT seems to be valid, since energy dependence of the DOS at low temperatures has also been found to follow power laws with these exponents.

  16. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  17. Brain Responses to Filled Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine…

  18. Vacuum Fluctuations, Cosmogenesis and Prime Number Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2002-10-01

    Starting from E.Tryon (1973), idea of cosmogenesis through quantum tunnelling "from nothing" became popular. Both complimentary streams of it, inflationary models (Guth, Linde) and quantum parallelism (Everett, Deutsch), require some starting point as, e.g., concretisation of Leibnitz Principle (Omnibus ex nihil decendis sufficit unum). This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers and Cantor "alephs" becomes an engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: inexhaustibility of Number Theory (NT) drives cosmogenesis. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse) can be (arbitrary) different from ours, NT is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Energy-time uncertainty principle (UP) allows indefinite lifetime provided we start from total zero energy. Analogue of UP in NT is theorem by H.Maier (1981) stating the existence of arbitrary long trails of isolated primes such that each next gap is arbitrary greater than average gap (logN). On physical level these arbitrary large deviations from Prime Number Theorem translate into permissiveness of (arbitrary) large quantum fluctuations.

  19. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  20. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population.

  1. Information gap analysis of flood model uncertainties and regional frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, Daniel; Hall, Jim W.

    2010-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is subject to often severe uncertainties, which can potentially undermine flood management decisions. This paper explores the use of information gap theory to analyze the sensitivity of flood management decisions to uncertainties in flood inundation models and flood frequency analysis. Information gap is a quantified nonprobabilistic theory of robustness. To analyze uncertainties in flood modeling, an energy-bounded information gap model is established and applied first to a simplified uniform channel and then to a more realistic 2-D flood model. Information gap theory is then applied to the estimation of flood discharges using regional frequency analysis. The use of an information gap model is motivated by the notion that hydrologically similar sites are clustered in the space of their L moments. The information gap model is constructed around a parametric statistical flood frequency analysis, resulting in a hybrid model of uncertainty in which natural variability is handled statistically while epistemic uncertainties are represented in the information gap model. The analysis is demonstrated for sites in the Trent catchment, United Kingdom. The analysis is extended to address ungauged catchments, which, because of the attendant uncertainties in flood frequency analysis, are particularly appropriate for information gap analysis. Finally, the information gap model of flood frequency is combined with the treatment of hydraulic model uncertainties in an example of how both sources of uncertainty can be accounted for using information gap theory in a flood risk management decision.

  2. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Khandare, Shobha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3–4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need–supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower. PMID:25598615

  3. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and multi-site collaborations from scratch—reinventing the wheel. Our team developed a compendium of resources to address inefficiencies and researchers’ unmet needs and compiled them in a research toolkit website (www.ResearchToolkit.org). Through our work, we identified philosophical and operational issues related to disseminating the toolkit to the research community. We explore these issues here, with implications for the nation’s investment in biomedical research. PMID:21884513

  4. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  5. Gaps"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of daily quizzes on the performance of college students. Students in an introductory psychology course used their own wireless-enabled devices to take short Internet-based quizzes at the beginning of every class. The quiz items were drawn approximately equally from material covered in the readings and the…

  6. Obesity Educational Interventions in U.S. Medical Schools: A Systematic Review and Identified Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, Davis; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This review examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Data Sources Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsychInfo, Cochrane and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. Review Methods We included all studies that incorporated processor outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for US medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations and results. Results These five studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role playing and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias towards overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Conclusions Despite the commonly cited “obesity epidemic,” there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained. PMID:22775792

  7. SeaWiFS-2: an ocean color data continuity mission to address climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, M. Gregory; Puschell, Jeffery J.

    2009-08-01

    Existing ocean color sensors are near or beyond the end of their mission lives and there will likely be a gap in climate quality Environmental Data Records (EDRs) until planned missions are launched. GeoEye's OrbView2 satellite with the SeaWiFS sensor has provided a 11+ year climatology of global chlorophyll a and other EDRs important for climate change and global warming studies. Upcoming sensors will not provide sufficient accuracy to provide continuity for the EDR time series and global monitoring. A 'stop-gap' mission is required, and we propose using the existing spare SeaWiFS sensor and a dedicated mission.

  8. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  9. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  10. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  11. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  12. NGNP Project Regulatory Gap Analysis for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project Regulatory Gap Analysis (RGA) for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) was conducted to evaluate existing regulatory requirements and guidance against the design characteristics specific to a generic modular HTGR. This final report presents results and identifies regulatory gaps concerning current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements that apply to the modular HTGR design concept. This report contains appendices that highlight important HTGR licensing issues that were found during the RGA study. The information contained in this report will be used to further efforts in reconciling HTGR-related gaps in the NRC licensing structure, which has to date largely focused on light water reactor technology.

  13. Gap solitons under competing local and nonlocal nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Kuan-Hsien; Lin Yuanyao; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-05-15

    We analyze the existence, bifurcations, and shape transformations of one-dimensional gap solitons (GSs) in the first finite band gap induced by a periodic potential built into materials with local self-focusing and nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearities. Originally stable on-site GS modes become unstable near the upper edge of the band gap with the introduction of the nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearity with a small nonlocality radius. Unstable off-site GSs bifurcate into a new branch featuring single-humped, double-humped, and flat-top modes due to the competition between local and nonlocal nonlinearities. The mechanism underlying the complex bifurcation pattern and cutoff effects (termination of some bifurcation branches) is illustrated in terms of the shape transformation under the action of the varying degree of the nonlocality. The results of this work suggest a possibility of optical-signal processing by means of the competing nonlocal and local nonlinearities.

  14. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  15. Emplacement Gantry Gap Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Thornley

    2005-05-27

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on the identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512], Table A-11). Further, SSCs credited with performing safety functions are classified as ITS. In turn, assurance that these SSCs will perform as required is sought through the use of consensus codes and standards. This gap analysis is based on the design completed for license application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed throughout this study. This gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard identified within the ''Emplacement Gantry ITS Standards Identification Study'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173586]) to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied, a gap is highlighted. This study will identify requirements to supplement or augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, this gap analysis will identify nonstandard areas of the design that will be subject to a design development plan. Nonstandard components and nonstandard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, assurance that an SSC will perform as required may not be readily sought though the use of consensus standards. This

  16. Air Gap Effects in LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Ault, S; Avara, R; Bahl, K L; Boat, R; Cunningham, B; Gidding, D; Janzen, J; Kuklo, D; Lee, R; Lauderbach, L; Weingart, W C; Wu, B; Winer, K

    2005-09-26

    Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front moving transverse to the gap, time delays were seen. The delays roughly increase with gap width, going from 0-70 ns at 'zero gap' to around 300 ns at 0.5-1 mm gap. Larger gaps of up to 6 mm width almost certainly stopped the detonation, but this was not proved. Real-time resolution of the parallel jets and determination of the actual re-detonation or failure in the transverse case needs to be done in future experiments.

  17. Gap Test Calibrations and Their Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Harold

    2011-06-01

    Common tests for measuring the threshold for shock initiation are the NOL large scale gap test (LSGT) with a 50.8-mm diameter donor/gap and the expanded large scale gap test (ELSGT) with a 95.3-mm diameter donor/gap. Despite the same specifications for the explosive donor and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) gap in both tests, calibration of shock pressure in the gap versus distance from the donor scales by a factor of 1.75, not the 1.875 difference in their sizes. Recently reported model calculations suggest that the scaling discrepancy results from the viscoelastic properties of PMMA in combination with different methods for obtaining shock pressure. This is supported by the consistent scaling of these donors when calibrated in water-filled aquariums. Calibrations with water gaps will be provided and compared with PMMA gaps. Scaling for other donor systems will also be provided. Shock initiation data with water gaps will be reviewed.

  18. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  19. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  20. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  1. p190RhoGAP has cellular RacGAP activity regulated by a polybasic region.

    PubMed

    Lévay, Magdolna; Bartos, Balázs; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2013-06-01

    p190RhoGAP is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) known to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics by decreasing RhoGTP levels through activation of the intrinsic GTPase activity of Rho. Although the GAP domain of p190RhoGAP stimulates the intrinsic' GTPase activity of several Rho family members (Rho, Rac, Cdc42) under in vitro conditions, p190RhoGAP is generally regarded as a GAP for RhoA in the cell. The cellular RacGAP activity of the protein has not been proven directly. We have previously shown that the in vitro RacGAP and RhoGAP activity of p190RhoGAP was inversely regulated through a polybasic region of the protein. Here we provide evidence that p190RhoGAP shows remarkable GAP activity toward Rac also in the cell. The cellular RacGAP activity of p190RhoGAP requires an intact polybasic region adjacent to the GAP domain whereas the RhoGAP activity is inhibited by the same domain. Our data indicate that through its alternating RacGAP and RhoGAP activity, p190RhoGAP plays a more complex role in the Rac-Rho antagonism than it was realized earlier.

  2. Electronic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; King, Edward L.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel in which the gap between the casting nozzle and the casting wheel is monitored by means of at least one sensing element protruding from the face of the casting nozzle. The sensing element is preferably connected to a voltage source and the casting wheel grounded. When the sensing element contacts the casting wheel, an electric circuit is completed. The completion of the circuit can be registered by an indicator, and the presence or absence of a completed circuit indicates the relative position of the casting nozzle to the casting wheel. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces.

  3. Electronic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; King, E.L.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-08-06

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for regulating the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel in which the gap between the casting nozzle and the casting wheel is monitored by means of at least one sensing element protruding from the face of the casting nozzle. The sensing element is preferably connected to a voltage source and the casting wheel grounded. When the sensing element contacts the casting wheel, an electric circuit is completed. The completion of the circuit can be registered by an indicator, and the presence or absence of a completed circuit indicates the relative position of the casting nozzle to the casting wheel. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. 5 figures.

  4. Why firewalls need not exist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Salzetta, Nico

    2016-10-01

    The firewall paradox for black holes is often viewed as indicating a conflict between unitarity and the equivalence principle. We elucidate how the paradox manifests as a limitation of semiclassical theory, rather than presents a conflict between fundamental principles. Two principal features of the fundamental and semiclassical theories address two versions of the paradox: the entanglement and typicality arguments. First, the physical Hilbert space describing excitations on a fixed black hole background in the semiclassical theory is exponentially smaller than the number of physical states in the fundamental theory of quantum gravity. Second, in addition to the Hilbert space for physical excitations, the semiclassical theory possesses an unphysically large Fock space built by creation and annihilation operators on the fixed black hole background. Understanding these features not only eliminates the necessity of firewalls but also leads to a new picture of Hawking emission contrasting pair creation at the horizon.

  5. Two dimensional gap solitons in self-defocusing media with PT-symmetric superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongcheng; Christodoulides, D. N.

    2016-09-01

    A theory is presented to study the existence and stability properties of fundamental solitons, multi-peaked gap solitons and vortex solitons in self-defocusing media with PT-symmetric superlattice. In the first gap of the superlattice potential, fundamental, dipole, and in-phase quadruple solitons can exist stably within a wide parameter region, while in-phase two-peaked solitons, out-of-phase quadruple solitons and vortex solitons are always unstable. Compared with simple-lattice solitons in similar potentials, the gap solitons in superlattice have a wider stable range than those in simple-lattice.

  6. Homolumo gap and matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Andric, I.; Jonke, L.; Jurman, D.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2008-06-15

    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  7. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  8. Prometheus and the Keeler gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2014-11-01

    Linblad resonances with Saturn’s satellites are located at many radii in the rings. While some cause density or bending waves, others hold gap edges from spreading, like the 2:1 resonance with Mimas located at the B-ring edge, the 7:6 resonance with Janus at the A-ring edge, and the 32:31 resonance with Prometheus at the inner edge of the Keeler gap. The latter is the case of study here.Theoretically, the inner edge of the Keeler gap should have 32 regular sinusoidal lobes, where either the maximum or the minimum radius is expected to be aligned with Prometheus and rotating with its mean motion. We show that such is not the case. Fit of occultation data shows the presence of the 32:31 resonance, however, the fit residuals is as high as the amplitude of the resonance amplitude (about 2 km). Analysis of the ISS data, shows irregularities overlapping the lobes (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), that follow Keplerian motion. These irregularities may be due to clumps of particles with different eccentricities than the rest of the edge particles. This phenomenon may be caused by the resonance, as it has not been observed at other circular edges were no resonance is present at their location. The ISS data also shows that the lobe’s minimum/maximum is not perfectly aligned with the longitude of Prometheus, which may be due to libration about the centre of the resonance.

  9. The Fundamental Gap of Simplices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiqin; Rowlett, Julie

    2013-04-01

    The gap function of a domain {Ω subset {R}^n} is ξ(Ω) := d^2 (λ_2 - λ_1) , where d is the diameter of Ω, and λ1 and λ2 are the first two positive Dirichlet eigenvalues of the Euclidean Laplacian on Ω. It was recently shown by Andrews and Clutterbuck (J Amer Math Soc 24:899-916, 2011) that for any convex {Ω subset {R}^n}, ξ(Ω) ≥ 3 π^2 , where the infimum occurs for n = 1. On the other hand, the gap function on the moduli space of n-simplices behaves differently. Our first theorem is a compactness result for the gap function on the moduli space of n-simplices. Next, specializing to n = 2, our second main result proves the recent conjecture of Antunes-Freitas (J Phys A: Math Theor 41(5):055201, 2008) for any triangle {T subset {R}^2}, ξ(T) ≥ 64 π^2/9 , with equality if and only if T is equilateral.

  10. Multi-flexural band gaps in an Euler-Bernoulli beam with lateral local resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Sheng, Mei-Ping; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Flexural vibration suppression in an Euler-Bernoulli beam with attached lateral local resonators (LLR) is studied theoretically and numerically. Hamilton's principle and Bloch's theorem are employed to derive the dispersion relation which reveals that two band gaps are generated. Within both band gaps, the flexural waves are partially transformed into longitudinal waves through a four-link-mechanism and totally blocked. The band gaps can be flexibly tuned by changing the geometry parameter of the four-link-mechanism and the spring constants of the resonators. Frequency response function (FRF) from finite element analysis via commercial software of ANSYS shows large flexural wave attenuation within the band gaps and the effect of damping from the LLR substructures which helps smooth and lower the response peaks at the sacrifice of the band gap effect. The existence of the multi-flexural band gaps can be exploited for the design of flexural vibration control of beams.

  11. Arcjet Tests of Different Gap-Filler Options for the Orion PICA Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skokova, Kristina; Ellerby, Donald; Blosser, Max; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Bouslog, Stan; Reuther, James

    2009-01-01

    PICA (Phenolic Infiltrated Carbon Ablator) is one of the candidate thermal protection materials for the Orion vehicle. Because PICA is fabricated in blocks, gaps exist between the blocks, similar to the individual ceramic tiles of the Shuttle thermal protection system. The results of this work focus on arcjet test results of different gap-filler options for PICA, performed as part of the Orion TPS Advanced Development Project. The arcjet tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center on stagnation models 4 inches in diameter at conditions representative of Orion flight conditions for both Lunar and Low Earth Orbit return. Performance of gap-filler options was evaluated based on the extent of backface temperature change, as compared to PICA without gaps, and on the extent of flow penetration into the gap, evident from the gap opening and widening.

  12. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms. PMID:24535392

  13. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms.

  14. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Cada, G. F.; Petrich, C. H.; Sale, M. J.; Shaakir-Ali, J. A.; Watts, J. A.; Webb, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  15. Network Implementation Trade-Offs in Existing Homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing demand for networking of high-bandwidth services in existing homes has resulted in several options for implementing an in-home network. Among the options are power-line communication techniques, twisted-pair copper wires, wireless links, and plastic or glass optical fibers. Whereas it is easy to install high-bandwidth optical fibers during the construction of new living units, retrofitting of existing homes with networking capabilities requires some technology innovations. This article addresses some trade-offs that need to be made on what transmission media can be retrofitted most effectively in existing homes.

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. Addressing Standards and Assessments on the IEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Esler, Amy; Whetstone, Patti J.

    2001-01-01

    A study that examined state Individualized Education Program (IEP) forms found that out of the 41 with IEP forms, only 5 specifically addressed educational standards on their forms. Thirty-one states addressed the general curriculum on their IEP forms and 30 states listed three or more options for assessment participation. (Contains nine…

  18. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  19. 16 CFR 1000.4 - Commission address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission address. 1000.4 Section 1000.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.4 Commission address. The principal Offices of the Commission are at 4330 East West...

  20. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  1. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  2. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All correspondence, petitions, and any information required by this part shall be submitted to: Administrator, Economic Regulatory Administration, Department...

  3. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  5. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  6. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... institutional offices; (2) Reviews of telephone directories or inquiries of information operators in the...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  14. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... through the U.S. Postal Service, use the following address: Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, P.O....

  15. Perspectives on sensor based containment and surveillance technologies : gaps and trends.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeneman, Barry Dale

    2010-06-01

    To maintain effective containment surveillance (CS) system capabilities, the requirements for such systems must continue to evolve outpacing diversion capabilities, reduce costs, and meet the needs of the looming nuclear renaissance. What are the future sensor-based capabilities that must be available to support growing CS requirements and what are the technologies needed to provide the underlying capabilities? This presentation is intended to discuss the present gaps in sensor-based containment and surveillance relevant technologies, and future development trends which may address these gaps. Consumer driven technology development will represent a component rich source of technologies and devices that can find application in containment and surveillance tools helping to minimize the technology gaps. Recognizing and utilizing these sources is paramount to cost effective solutions. Where these gaps cannot be addressed by consumer based development, custom, CS specific approaches are the only solution.

  16. The number and size of subhalo-induced gaps in stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Denis; Belokurov, Vasily; Bovy, Jo; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-11-01

    Ample observational capabilities exist today to detect the small density perturbations that low-mass dark matter subhaloes impart on stellar streams from disrupting Galactic satellites. In anticipation of these observations, we investigate the expected number and size of gaps by combining an analytic prescription for gap evolution on circular orbits with the flux of subhaloes near the stream. We explore the distribution of gap sizes and depths for a typical cold stream around the Milky Way and find that for a given stream age and gap depth, each subhalo mass produces a characteristic gap size. For a stream with an age of a few Gyr, orbiting at a distance of 10-20 kpc from the Galactic centre, even modest subhaloes with a mass of 106-107 M⊙ produce gaps with sizes that are of the order of several degrees. We consider the number and distribution of gap sizes created by subhaloes with masses 105-109 M⊙, accounting for the expected depletion of subhaloes by the Milky Way disc, and present predictions for six cold streams around the Milky Way. For Pal 5, we forecast 0.7 gaps with a density depletion of at least 25 per cent and a typical gap size of 8°. Thus, there appears to be no tension between the recent non-detection of density depletions in the Pal 5 tidal tails and ΛCDM expectations. These predictions can be used to guide the scale of future gap searches.

  17. The number and size of subhalo-induced gaps in stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Denis; Belokurov, Vasily; Bovy, Jo; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-08-01

    Ample observational capabilities exist today to detect the small density perturbations that low-mass dark matter subhaloes impart on stellar streams from disrupting Galactic satellites. In anticipation of these observations, we investigate the expected number and size of gaps by combining an analytic prescription for gap evolution on circular orbits with the flux of subhaloes near the stream. We explore the distribution of gap sizes and depths for a typical cold stream around the Milky Way and find that for a given stream age and gap depth, each subhalo mass produces a characteristic gap size. For a stream with an age of a few Gyr, orbiting at a distance of 10-20 kpc from the Galactic center, even modest subhaloes with a mass of 106 - 107M⊙ produce gaps with sizes that are on the order of several degrees. We consider the number and distribution of gap sizes created by subhaloes with masses 105 - 109M⊙, accounting for the expected depletion of subhaloes by the Milky Way disk, and present predictions for six cold streams around the Milky Way. For Pal 5, we forecast 0.7 gaps with a density depletion of at least 25% and a typical gap size of 8°. Thus, there appears to be no tension between the recent non-detection of density depletions in the Pal 5 tidal tails and ΛCDM expectations. These predictions can be used to guide the scale of future gap searches.

  18. Another mass gap in the BTZ geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotyn, Sean; Mann, Robert B.

    2012-09-01

    We attempt the construction of perturbative rotating hairy black holes and boson stars, invariant under a single helical Killing field, in (2 + 1) dimensions to complete the perturbative analysis in arbitrary odd dimension recently put forth in Stotyn et al (2012 Phys. Rev. D 85 044036). Unlike the higher dimensional cases, we find evidence for the non-existence of hairy black holes in (2 + 1) dimensions in the perturbative regime, which is interpreted as another mass gap, within which the black holes cannot have hair. The boson star solutions face a similar impediment in the background of a conical singularity with a sufficiently high angular deficit, most notably in the zero-mass BTZ background where boson stars cannot exist at all. We construct such boson stars in the AdS3 background as well as in the background of conical singularities of periodicities \\pi ,\\frac{2\\pi }{3},\\frac{\\pi }{2}. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  19. Direct band gap wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Assali, S; Zardo, I; Plissard, S; Kriegner, D; Verheijen, M A; Bauer, G; Meijerink, A; Belabbes, A; Bechstedt, F; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M

    2013-04-10

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555-690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality.

  20. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  1. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  2. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, Gerald J.; Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  3. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  4. Streamlining workflow using existing technology.

    PubMed

    Corkery, Terry S

    2007-01-01

    Processing rehabilitation admissions and case management records in a three-person office in a major academic medical center had become cumbersome and redundant due to multiple information management approaches and requirements from various sources. Simple questionnaires and brief, casual meetings with pertinent personnel defined what was working well and what was problematic and helped establish a foundation for change management. Analysis of the existing paper system revealed more than 300 data items used more than once throughout the departmental processes. A simple timing trial, based on selected segments of a workflow diagram, revealed the potential to save 3 to 3(1/2) hours per case by revising a departmental database, decreasing work redundancy, and creating an electronic case file. Because the work environment utilized Microsoft Office and Access databases, a plan was developed to utilize these resources to streamline the workflow and eliminate duplication of effort in the admission/case management documentation processes.

  5. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  6. ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Harrison, Donald K.

    1984-01-01

    The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  8. 30 CFR 56.6603 - Air gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air gap. 56.6603 Section 56.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap shall be provided between the blasting circuit and...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6603 - Air gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air gap. 56.6603 Section 56.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap shall be provided between the blasting circuit and...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6603 - Air gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air gap. 57.6603 Section 57.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND...-Surface and Underground § 57.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap shall be provided between...

  11. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  12. Gapping in Farsi: A Crosslinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farudi, Annahita

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores a longstanding challenge in work on gapping through the empirical lens of gapping in Farsi (the Tehrani variant of Modern Persian). While gapping has much in common with more uncontroversial elliptical constructions such as VPE and sluicing, it also differs from ellipsis in ways that accounts combining TP or CP…

  13. Reducing the treatment gap for mental disorders: a WPA survey

    PubMed Central

    PATEL, VIKRAM; MAJ, MARIO; FLISHER, ALAN J.; DE SILVA, MARY J.; KOSCHORKE, MIRJA; PRINCE, MARTIN; Tempier, Raymond; Riba, Michelle; Sanchez, Mauricio; Delgado Campodonico, Fabrizio; Risco, Luis; Gask, Linda; Wahlberg, Henrik; Roca, Miquel; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Soghoyan, Armen; Moussaoui, Driss; Baddoura, Charles; Adeyemi, Joseph; Rataemane, Solomon; Jalili, S. Ahmed; Mohandas, E; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Freidin, Julian; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Puig, Ines Josefina; Kirkby, Kenneth; Musalek, Michael; Ismayilov, Nadir; Harvey, Sharon; Sabbe, Bernard; Noya-Tapia, Nils; Burgic-Radmanovic, Marija; Hetem, Luiz Alberto; Vasconcellos, Fatima; Maass, Juan; Miranda, Carlos; Papaneophytou, Neophytos; Raboch, Jiri; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Okasha, Ahmed; Korkeila, Jyrki; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Schneider, Frank; Ohene, Sammy; Christodoulou, George; Soldatos, Constantin R.; See King, Emilio Quinto Barrera; Mendoza, Mario; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Gudarzi, Shahrokh S.; Lafta, Mohammed R.; Bassi, Mariano; Clerici, Massimo; Gibson, Roger; Kojima, Takuya; Nurmagambetova, Saltanat; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kadyrova, Tamilla; Mikati, Nabil; Bajraktarov, Sojan; Hoe Yen, Teck; Ayushjav, Bayanhuu; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Sequeira Molina, José Santiago; Gureje, Oye; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Al-Ashhab, Bassam; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Prelipceanu, Dan; Krasnov, Valery; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Jasovic-Gasic, Miroslava; Vavrusova, Livia; Pregelj, Peter; Liria, Alberto Fernandez; Abdelrahman, Abdallah; Udomratn, Pichet; Ulas, Halis; Gokalp, Peykan; Kigozi, Fred N.; Richardson, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The treatment gap for people with mental disorders exceeds 50% in all countries of the world, approaching astonishingly high rates of 90% in the least resourced countries. We report the findings of the first systematic survey of leaders of psychiatry in nearly 60 countries on the strategies for reducing the treatment gap. We sought to elicit the views of these representatives on the roles of different human resources and health care settings in delivering care and on the importance of a range of strategies to increase the coverage of evidence-based treatments for priority mental disorders for each demographic stage (childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age). Our findings clearly indicate three strategies for reducing the treatment gap: increasing the numbers of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals; increasing the involvement of a range of appropriately trained non-specialist providers; and the active involvement of people affected by mental disorders. This is true for both high income and low/middle income countries, though relatively of more importance in the latter. We view this survey as a critically important first step in ascertaining the position of psychiatrists, one of the most influential stakeholder communities in global mental health, in addressing the global challenge of scaling up mental health services to reduce the treatment gap. PMID:20975864

  14. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2014-03-01

    The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

  15. Recovery Supports for Young People: What Do Existing Supports Reveal about the Recovery Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to address how our understanding of the recovery process and resulting supports can be made more comprehensive: How can links from treatment to home to school to communities be made so that there are fewer and fewer recovery gaps for adolescents? Using the ecology of recovery model developed by White (2009) as the impetus for…

  16. Profound metabolic acidosis from pyroglutamic acidemia: an underappreciated cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Green, Thomas J; Bijlsma, Jan Jaap; Sweet, David D

    2010-09-01

    The workup of the emergency patient with a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis includes assessment of the components of “MUDPILES” (methanol; uremia; diabetic ketoacidosis; paraldehyde; isoniazid, iron or inborn errors of metabolism; lactic acid; ethylene glycol; salicylates). This approach is usually sufficient for the majority of cases in the emergency department; however, there are many other etiologies not addressed in this mnemonic. Organic acids including 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) are rare but important causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis. We present the case of a patient with profound metabolic acidosis with raised anion gap, due to pyroglutamic acid in the setting of malnutrition and chronic ingestion of acetaminophen.

  17. Gap-Acoustic Solitons: Slowing and Stopping of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasgal, Richard S.; Shnaiderman, Roman; Band, Yehuda B.

    Solitons are paradigm localized states in physics. We consider here gapacoustic solitons (GASs), which are stable pulses that exist in Bragg waveguides, and which offer promising new avenues for slowing light. A Bragg grating can be produced by doping the waveguide with ions, and imprinting a periodic variation in the index of refraction with ultraviolet light. The Bragg grating in an optical waveguide reflects rightward-moving light to the left, and vice versa, and creates a gap in the allowed frequency spectrum of light. Nonlinearities, though, add complications to this simple picture. While low intensity light cannot propagate at frequencies inside the band gap, more intense fields can exist where low-intensity fields cannot. An optical gap soliton is an intense optical pulse which can exist in a Bragg waveguide because the intensity and nonlinearity let it dig a hole for itself inside the band gap, in which it can then reside. Far from the center of the pulse, the intensity is weak, and drops off exponentially with distance from the center. The optical gap soliton structure can be stable, and can have velocities from zero (i.e., stopped light) up to the group-velocity of light in the medium. When one also considers the system's electrostrictive effects, i.e., the dependence of the index of refraction on the density of the material, which is a universal light-sound interaction in condensed matter, one obtains GASs. These solitons share many of the properties of standard gap solitons, but they show many fascinating new characteristics. GASs have especially interesting dynamics when their velocities are close to the speed of sound, in which range they interact strongly with the acoustic field. GASs which are moving at supersonic velocities may experience instabilities which leave the GAS whole, but bring the velocity abruptly to almost zero. Furthermore, GASs may be made to change velocity by collision with acoustic pulses. Moving GASs may be retarded by the

  18. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  19. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  20. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  1. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  5. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  6. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  10. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  11. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  12. The morally uncomfortable global drug gap.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, J C

    2007-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals are one of the cornerstones of human development as their rational consumption can reduce morbidity and mortality rates and enhance the quality of life. Pharmaceuticals have curative and therapeutic qualities, so they cannot be considered as ordinary products. In line with this, ensuring public policy fosters access to medicines demands thoughtful and careful consideration, as it is often about whether a patient lives or dies. Despite the flow of international aid for pharmaceuticals, particularly used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, there is a morally concerning drug gap globally; the World Health Organization (WHO) notes that one-third of the global population lacks regular access to essential medicines and that in some parts of Asia and Africa these figures are even more severe.(1) But what is troubling is that, despite the knowledge that we live in a world with inequitable access to medicines, we have not examined how we need to put in place policies that not only support drug access but also do not undermine it, which will be addressed later. What is promising, is that slowly, a paradigm shift is taking place. Access to essential medicines is increasingly viewed as a fundamental human right, with international human rights laws placing attendant obligations on states to ensure access.(2, 3) But governments also have to ensure that the policy environment is supportive of access to medicines. And this includes making sure that social policy is not undercut by economic interests.

  13. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  14. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  15. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  16. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  17. Towards a Sociolinguistically Responsive Pedagogy: Teaching Second-Person Address Forms in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sociolinguistically responsive model of pedagogy situated within existing sociocultural and communicative approaches to language learning and teaching. The specific focus of the discussion is on the French pronouns of address, "tu" and "vous". The article reviews previous research on second-person address in educational and…

  18. Lowering of intralevel capacitance using air gap structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.; Farino, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    Interconnect delays, arising in part from intralevel capacitance, are one of the limiting factors in the performance of advanced integrated circuits. In addition, the problem of filling the spaces between neighboring metal lines with an insulator is becoming increasingly severe as aspect ratios increase. We address these problems by intentionally creating a air gap between closely spaced metal lines. The ends of the air gap and reentrant features are then sealed using a spin on dielectric. The entire structure is then capped with silicon dioxide and planarized . Simple modeling of mechanical test structures on silicon predicts an equivalent dielectric constant of 1.9 on features similar to those expected for 0.25 micron technologies. Metal to metal test structures fabricated in a 0.5 micron CMOS technology show that the process can be readily integrated with chemical mechanical polishing and current standard CMOS processes.

  19. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

  20. Quantification of gap junction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ek-Vitorín, Jose F; Burt, Janis M

    2005-12-01

    Gap junctions, which are essential for functional coordination and homeostasis within tissues, permit the direct intercellular exchange of small molecules. The abundance and diversity of this exchange depends on the number and selectivity of the comprising channels and on the transjunctional gradient for and chemical character of the permeant molecules. Limited knowledge of functionally significant permeants and poor detectability of those few that are known have made it difficult to define channel selectivity. Presented herein is a multifaceted approach to the quantification of gap junction selectivity that includes determination of the rate constant for intercellular diffusion of a fluorescent probe (k2-DYE) and junctional conductance (gj) for each junction studied, such that the selective permeability (k2-DYE/gj) for dyes with differing chemical characteristics or junctions with differing connexin (Cx) compositions (or treatment conditions) can be compared. In addition, selective permeability can be correlated using single-channel conductance when this parameter is also measured. Our measurement strategy is capable of detecting 1) rate constants and selective permeabilities that differ across three orders of magnitude and 2) acute changes in that rate constant. Using this strategy, we have shown that 1) the selective permeability of Cx43 junctions to a small cationic dye varied across two orders of magnitude, consistent with the hypothesis that the various channel configurations adopted by Cx43 display different selective permeabilities; and 2) the selective permeability of Cx37 vs. Cx43 junctions was consistently and significantly lower. PMID:16093281