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Sample records for address flammable gas

  1. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  2. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  3. Flammable gas program topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  4. Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study 52827

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, George

    2016-03-17

    This course, Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study (COURSE 52827), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with commonly used, compressed flammable gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only.

  6. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  7. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  8. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  9. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  10. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  11. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  12. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  13. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  14. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks.

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  18. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    SciTech Connect

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  19. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  20. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE... color on the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be green....

  1. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  2. Flammable gas data evaluation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.D.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Numerous safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate, retain, and periodically release flammable gases. This report documents some of the activities of the Flammable Gas Project Data Evaluation Task conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal year 1996. Described in this report are: (1) the results of examining the in-tank temperature measurements for insights into gas release behavior; (2) the preliminary results of examining the tank waste level measurements for insights into gas release behavior; and (3) an explanation for the observed hysteresis in the level/pressure measurements, a phenomenon observed earlier this year when high-frequency tank waste level measurements came on-line.

  3. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  4. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  5. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  6. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  7. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  8. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  9. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  10. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  11. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  12. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  13. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  14. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  15. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  19. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  20. Strategy for resolution of the flammable gas safety issue

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-05-23

    This document provides a strategy for resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. It defines the key elements required for the following: Closing the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ); Providing the administrative basis for resolving the safety issue; Defining the data needed to support these activities; and Providing the technical and administrative path for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  1. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON... background color on the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be green. The letters in both words must be at...

  2. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.022 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background...

  3. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.047 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background...

  4. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    PubMed

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  5. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  6. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  7. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flammable gas detection system that has sampling points in: (1) Each cargo pump room; (2) Each cargo compressor room; (3) Each motor room for cargo handling machinery; (4) Each cargo control station that is...

  8. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  9. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  13. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  14. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  15. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  16. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  17. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  18. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  19. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  20. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  1. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-09-28

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures.

  2. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  3. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented.

  4. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154.1350 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  5. Progress toward mitigation of flammable gas Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Hanson, C.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-01-01

    The mixing pump installed in Hanford Site tank 241-SY-101 has been shown to be effective in releasing flammable gases in a controlled manner. This controlled release of gas prevents the accumulation and episodic release above flammable limits. More work needs to be done to optimize the pumping operation, and to evaluate the long-term effects of mixing so as to assure that no undesirable changes have occurred to the waste. Other alternative mitigation concepts are still being evaluated as a backup to mixing.

  6. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-09-08

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  7. Evaluation of 241 AN tank farm flammable gas behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105 are Flammable Gas Watch List tanks. Characteristics exhibited by these tanks (i.e., surface level drops, pressure increases, and temperature profiles) are similar to those exhibited by tank 241-SY-101, which is also a Watch List tank. Although the characteristics exhibited by tank 241-SY-101 are also present in tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105, they are exhibited to a lesser degree in the AN Tank Farm tanks. The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks have only small surface level drops, and the pressure changes that occur are not sufficient to release an amount of gas that would cause the dome space to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) for hydrogen. Therefore, additional restrictions are probably unnecessary for working within the 241 AN Tank Farm, either within the dome space of the tanks or in the waste.

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  12. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  13. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  14. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  15. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  16. An Improved Analytical Approach to Determine the Explosive Effects of Flammable Gas-Air Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2005-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex includes many sites and laboratories that store quantities of low-level, solid nuclear waste in drums and other types of shipping containers. The drums may be stored for long periods of time prior to being transported and final dispositioning. Based on the radioactivity (e.g., Pu{sup 239} equivalent), chemical nature (e.g. volatile organic compounds) and other characteristics of the stored waste, flammable gases may evolve. Documented safety analyses (DSAs) for storage of these drums must address storage and safety management issues to protect workers, the general public, and the environment. This paper discusses an improved analytical method for determining the explosion effects flammable gas-air mixtures as well as the subsequent accident phenomenology.

  17. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  18. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  19. Flammability tests on D0 Run II muon PDT Gas and P-10 Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Herman F. Haggerty; James L. Priest and Tom Marshall

    2001-07-12

    The authors have done a series of measurements with mixtures of Argon, CF4 and CH4 to demonstrate that the mixture chosen for RunII (84% Argon, 8% CH4, 8% CF4) is not flammable. The tests were conducted in the Meson Detector Building in a test cell similar in construction to a cell of a Muon PDT. In order to establish the viability of the test set-up, they first repeated the demonstration that P-10 gas (90% Argon, 10% CH4) is in fact flammable, contrary to the classification by the US DOT. US DOT regulation 173.115 defines flammable gas as: (1) is ignitable (at 14.7 psi) when in a mixture of 13% or less with air; or (2) has a flammability range (at 14.7 psi) with air of at least 12% regardless of the lower explosive limit (LEL). P-10 has a LEL of about 40% and a flammability range of about 10%, so P-10 is not flammable according to the US DOT definition. The point here is that the DOT classifications are to serve the DOT's function to ensure transportation safety, and are not necessarily appropriate for other situations. The first configuration of their test cell, however, apparently failed to ignite P-10. With the guidance of Bill Nuttall of CERN, they modified their test cell to make it more like the standard flammability testing setups, with a large viewing window and a spark gap in the middle of the cell. In this second configuration P-10 was easily and reliably ignitable. After becoming more familiar with the visible indicators of combustion of P-10 (water vapor cloud formation, pressure changes and gas venting) they retested with the initial configuration, and found that the mixture actually had been burning, and that they had just missed all the indications. The data from CERN showed that P-10 burns rather slowly, with about a one second rise time for the pressure to reach the maximum of four atmospheres overpressure. In the tests they saw no signs of any flame, but only a water vapor cloud. Some preliminary tests with the same cell using Argon-Ethane and

  20. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a reference document describing the current knowledge of flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases. The report incorporates these analyses into two models for calculating headspace flammability, one based on instantaneous equilibrium between dissolved gases and the headspace and one incorporating limited release rates based on mass-transfer considerations. Finally, it demonstrates the use of both models to estimate headspace flammable gas concentrations and minimum ventilation rates required to maintain concentrations below 25% of the LFL.

  1. Summary of information on flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Brager, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles and summarizes available, relevant information pertaining to Hanford Site waste tanks designated as Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) tanks. There are four primary objectives of this document. First, it provides summary data, including surface level readings, chemical composition, and temperature readings for each FGWL tank. This document also is intended to be used as a source of information on FGWL tanks references. More than 400 documents were used to compile the information presented in this report, and the Endnotes at the conclusion of each section; Section 5.0, {open_quotes}References;{close_quotes} and Section 6.0, {open_quotes}Sources of Information{close_quotes} are all included to direct the reader to further, more detailed sources of information that pertain to specific FGWL tanks or information. The third objective of this document is to present the specific fill history of each FGWL double-shell tank (DST), including data obtained from detailed Evaporator 242-A documents. Finally, this document includes an assessment of the total organic carbon (TOC) content of each DST.

  2. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  3. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  4. Evaluation of high-level nuclear waste tanks having a potential flammable gas hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Barton, W.B.; Hill, R.C.; et al, Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy declared an unreviewed safety question as a result of the behavior of tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gases that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-101 and the other tanks associated with a potential flammable gas hazard. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release and covers the results of direct sampling of the tanks to determine the gas composition and the amount of stored gas.

  5. Summary of flammable gas hazard and potential consequences in tank waste remediation system facility at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides a summary of the flammable gas program since 1992. It provides the best understanding of generation, retention, release of flammable gases. It gives a composition for each of the flammable gas tanks, calculates postulated concentrations in the event of a release, calculates the pressure obtained during a burn, and provides radiological and toxicological consequences. Controls from the analysis are found in WHC-SD-WM-SAR-067.

  6. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1996-05-02

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  7. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases.

  8. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  9. Data and Observations of Single Shell Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the available data, observations, and analyses performed relating to flammable gas generation, retention, and release in the nineteen single-shell nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (Public Law 101-510 1990). The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of their fill history, chemistry, and waste physical properties and configuration. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and their data are summarized. The gas generation rates, retained gas volumes, and the spontaneous and induced gas release history of each tank are discussed. Saltwell pumping activities are also summarized, and the effects of pumping on gas generation, retention, and release are described.

  10. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY).

  11. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  12. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  13. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  14. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995).

  15. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  16. Flammable Gas Refined Safety Analysis Tool Software Verification and Validation Report for Resolve Version 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document all software verification and validation activities, results, and findings related to the development of Resolve Version 2.5 for the analysis of flammable gas accidents in Hanford Site waste tanks.

  17. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  18. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-04-17

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

  19. Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-09-27

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  20. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-09-18

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  1. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  2. Methodology for Predicting Flammable Gas Mixtures in Double Contained Receiver Tanks [SEC 1 THRU SEC 3

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-01-31

    This methodology document provides an estimate of the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) from the simultaneous saltwell pumping of one or more single-shell tanks (SSTs). This document expands Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) and removes some of the conservatism from it, especially in vapor phase ammonia predictions. The methodologies of Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) are essentially identical for predicting flammable gas mixtures in DCRTs from saltwell pumping for low DCRT ventilation rates, 1e, < 1 cfm. The hydrogen generation model has also been updated in the methodology of this document.

  3. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  4. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  5. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  6. Resolve! Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    LAVENDER, J.C.

    2000-10-17

    RESOLVE! Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations.

  7. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.

  8. An approximate reasoning-based method for screening high-level-waste tanks for flammable gas

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at the Hanford site have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop and improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. Approximate-reasoning models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. In a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening, the effort to implement such a model was found to be acceptable, and computational requirements were found to be reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.

  9. Operability test report for core sample truck {number_sign}1 flammable gas modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-09-15

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.

  10. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  11. Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W. E.

    2013-02-13

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  12. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic constituents in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on those tanks that have been assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY, obtained during the window E core sampling, have been analyzed for organic constituents. Four of the samples were from the upper region, or convective layer, of the tank and two were from the lower, nonconvective layer. The samples were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitroso-iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA), and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). The chelator of highest concentration was EDTA in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography (LC) was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids (LMWA) including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids. Oxalate constituted approximately 40% of the TOC in the nonconvective layer samples. Oxalate was found to be approximately 3 to 4 times higher in concentration in the nonconvective layer than in the convective layer. During FY 1993, LC methods for analyzing LWMA, and two chelators N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and EDTA, were transferred to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and the 222-S laboratory.

  13. Independent design review report for truck {number_sign}1 modifications for flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.W.

    1997-05-09

    The East and West Tank Farm Standing Order 97-01 requires that the PMST be modified to include purging of the enclosed space underneath the shielded receiver weather cover per National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. The Standing Order also requires that the PMST be modified by replacing the existing electrical remote latch (RLU) unit with a mechanical remote latch unit. As the mechanical remote latch unit was exactly like the RLU installed on the Rotary Mode Core Sampler Trucks (RMCST) and the design for the RMCST went through formal design review, replacing the RLU was done utilizing informal design verification and was completed per work package ES-97-0028. As the weather cover purge was similar to the design for the RMCSTS, this design was reviewed using the independent review method with multiple independent reviewers. A function design criteria (WHC-SD-WM-FDC-048, Functional Design Criteria for Core Sampling in Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks) provided the criteria for the modifications. The review consisted of distributing the design review package to the reviewers and collecting and dispositioning the RCR comments. The review package included the ECNs for review, the Design Compliance Matrix, copies of all drawings affected, and copies of outstanding ECNs against these drawings. A final meeting was held to ensure that all reviewers were aware of the changes to ECNs from incorporation of RCR comments.

  14. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  15. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  17. Flammability limits of lithium-ion battery thermal runaway vent gas in air and the inerting effects of halon 1301

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Matthew Eugene

    Lithium-ion (rechargeable) and lithium-metal (non-rechargeable) battery cells put aircraft at risk of igniting and fueling fires. Lithium batteries can be packed in bulk and shipped in the cargo holds of freighter aircraft; currently lithium batteries are banned from bulk shipment on passenger aircraft [1]. The federally regulated Class C cargo compartment extinguishing system's utilization of a 5 %vol Halon 1301 knockdown concentration and a sustained 3 %vol Halon 1301 may not be sufficient at inerting lithium-ion battery vent gas and air mixtures [2]. At 5 %vol Halon 1301 the flammability limits of lithium-ion premixed battery vent gas (Li-Ion pBVG) in air range from 13.80 %vol to 26.07 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Testing suggests that 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 is required to render all ratios of the Li-Ion pBVG in air inert. The lower flammability limit (LFL) and upper flammability limit (UFL) of hydrogen and air mixtures are 4.95 %vol and 76.52 %vol hydrogen, respectively. With the addition of 10 %vol and 20 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 9.02 %vol and 11.55 %vol hydrogen, respectively, and the UFL is 45.70 %vol and 28.39 %vol hydrogen, respectively. The minimum inerting concentration (MIC) of Halon 1301 in hydrogen and air mixtures is 26.72 %vol Halon 1301 at 16.2 %vol hydrogen. The LFL and UFL of Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures are 7.88 %vol and 37.14 %vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively. With the addition of 5 %vol, 7 %vol, and 8 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 13.80 %vol, 16.15 %vol, and 17.62 % vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively, and the UFL is 26.07 %vol, 23.31 %vol, and 21.84 %vol Li- Ion pBVG, respectively. The MIC of Halon 1301 in Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures is 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 at 19.52 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Le Chatelier's mixing rule has been shown to be an effective measure for estimating the flammability limits of Li-Ion pBVGes. The LFL has a 1.79 % difference while the UFL has a 4.53 % difference. The state of charge (SOC) affects the flammability limits in an apparent parabolic

  18. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor`s controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first.

  19. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  20. THE FLAMMABILITY ANALYSIS AND TIME TO REACH LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT CALCULATIONS ON THE WASTE EVAPORATION AT 242-A EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-31

    This document describes the analysis of the waste evaporation process on the flammability behavior. The evaluation calculates the gas generation rate, time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), and minimum ventilation rates for the 242-A Evaporator facility during the normal evaporation process and when vacuum is lost. This analysis performs flammability calculations on the waste currently within all 28 double-shell tanks (DST) under various evaporation process conditions to provide a wide spectrum of possible flammable gas behavior. The results of this analysis are used to support flammable gas control decisions and support and upgrade to Documented Safety Analysis for the 242-A Evaporator.

  1. Elimination of Flammable Gas Effects in Cerium Oxide Semiconductor-Type Resistive Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Low Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck; Miki, Yusuke; Hirose, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the catalytic layer in zirconium-doped cerium oxide, Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 (CeZr10) resistive oxygen sensors for reducing the effects of flammable gases, namely hydrogen and carbon monoxide. When the concentration of flammable gases is comparable to that of oxygen, the resistance of CeZr10 is affected by the presence of these gases. We have developed layered thick films, which consist of an oxygen sensor layer (CeZr10), an insulation layer (Al2O3), and a catalytic layer consisting of CeZr10 with 3 wt% added platinum, which was prepared via the screen printing method. The Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer was found to prevent the detrimental effects of the flammable gases on the resistance of the sensor layer. This effect is due to the catalytic layer promoting the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide through the consumption of ambient O2 and/or the lattice oxygen atoms of the Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer. PMID:25905705

  2. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  3. Flammability: A Review and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. Bruce; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With its founding in 1975, Committee G-4 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) embarked on the process of defining the flammability of metallic materials in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In this process, they are joined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Compressed Gas Association (CGA). Although none of these organizations has explicitly defined flammability, the following definitions and statements provide a composite understanding of the concept: 1. "This Standard Guide (ASTM G94-92) is concerned primarily with the properties of a material associated with its relative susceptibility to ignition and propagation of combustion." 2. "A material is considered flammable at the maximum use pressure if at least one sample burns more than 6 in. (15.2 cm). At least, five samples must be tested." NASA 3. "Flammable: Capable, when ignited of maintaining combustion under the specified environmental conditions." NFPA 53. 4. "Combustion: A complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the evolution of heat, and usually, the emission of light." NFPA 53. and 5. "A safe oxygen-piping transmission or distribution system is one that is designed and installed in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations for the service conditions and locations involved and further meets the special requirements for oxygen services." CGA-G4 Flammability thus equates, after ignition, to propagation of combustion, synonymous with steady state burning, under specified environmental conditions. Properties for which quantitative values are given in ASTM G94-92 and which are used to describe metals flammability consistent with the concept of steady state burning are either system independent properties, such as, enthalpies of reaction, burn ratios, flame temperatures, thermal conductivity, and heat release; or system dependent properties, such as, oxygen

  4. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  5. Is Your Furniture Flammable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Eva

    1982-01-01

    A flammability standard for upholstered furniture is intended to prevent furniture from becoming a major contributing factor to a fire or from generating toxic fumes. Advice is offered on how to set a flammability standard and how to apply it. (Author/MLF)

  6. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  7. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  8. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  9. Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

    1981-02-10

    Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

  10. Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

  11. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  12. Control of Materials Flammability Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on selecting, using, and configuring spacecraft materials in such a way as to minimize the ability of fire to spread onboard a spacecraft. The presentation gives an overview of the flammability requirements of NASA-STD-6001, listing specific tests and evaluation criteria it requires. The presentation then gives flammability reduction methods for specific spacecraft items and materials.

  13. 46 CFR 153.515 - Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.515 Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes... inerting system that meets the requirements in § 153.500 applying to the inert gas system of a...

  14. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  15. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  16. Addressing Factors that Control Near-Surface Gas Hydrate Stability with Time-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, L.; Wilson, R. M.; Chanton, J.; Riedel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Gas hydrates are sensitive to pressure and temperature changes, based on their thermodynamic properties. In nature, this translates to changes in sealevel and/or ocean water temperature fluctuations. When hydrates outcrop the seafloor, however, they could also be sensitive to physical disturbances, such as earthquakes, and microbial processes (such as sulfate reduction and/or methane oxidation), both of which could lead to their dissolution. To address these factors controlling hydrate stability, we will present in situ methane, sulfate, and chloride concentrations over time, in pore-waters of shallow sediments near gas hydrates in seep systems. Datasets presented will include one 4-month time series from the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi Canyon 118, and two 9-month records from offshore Vancouver Island, Barkley Canyon and Bubbly Gulch at Bullseye Vent. We will address the following questions: Does regional scale oceanography affect methane flux from the hydrate-containing sediments, are microbial processes playing a role in hydrate stability, and what are in situ hydrate dissolution rates? We will also discuss challenges faced with collecting such data, and ways to move forward. We will show that in some systems, methane is nearly saturated within a few cm of the overlying water, thus stabilizing the hydrate. Yet in other systems, methane is undersaturated with respect to methane hydrate which suggests hydrates will dissolve. We will also present laboratory rates of hydrate dissolution to compare to those gained from the field.

  17. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  18. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  19. Self-Flammability of Gases Generated by Hanford Tank Waste and the Potential of Nitrogen Inerting to Eliminate Flammability Safety Concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2015-10-12

    Through radiolytic and thermolytic reactions, Hanford tank wastes generate and retain a variety of gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, methane (and other hydrocarbons), ammonia, and nitrogen. This gas generation can be expected to continue during processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The generation rates in the WTP will change from those for the in-situ tank waste because of different process temperatures, different dose rates produced by in-process changes in the proportions of solid and liquid, and dilution of the waste liquid. The flammability of the generated gas that is continuously released, and of any retained gas that might be released into a vessel headspace in quantity due to a spontaneous release, depends on the concentrations not only of the fuel gases—primarily hydrogen (H2), methane, other hydrocarbons, and ammonia—but of the oxidizer nitrous oxide (N2O). As a result of high concentrations of N2O, some gas mixtures are “self-flammable” (i.e., ignition can occur when no air is present because N2O provides the only oxidizer needed). Self-flammability could potentially reduce the effectiveness of using a nitrogen (N2) purge in the headspace as a flammability control, if its effects are not accounted for. A given amount of inertant gas (N2) can accommodate only a certain amount of a generated self-flammable gas before the mixture with inertant gas becomes flammable.

  20. Antimisting kerosene atomization and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Petersen, R. A.; Toaz, R. D.; Jakub, A.; Sarohia, V.

    1982-01-01

    Various parameters found to affect the flammability of antimisting kerosene (Jet A + polymer additive) are investigated. Digital image processing was integrated into a technique for measurement of fuel spray characteristics. This technique was developed to avoid many of the error sources inherent to other spray assessment techniques and was applied to the study of engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel. Aircraft accident fuel spill and ignition dynamics were modeled in a steady state simulator allowing flammability to be measured as a function of airspeed, fuel flow rate, fuel jet Reynolds number and polymer concentration. The digital imaging technique was employed to measure spray characteristics in this simulation and these results were related to flammability test results. Scaling relationships were investigated through correlation of experimental results with characteristic dimensions spanning more than two orders of magnitude.

  1. Nitrogen dilution effect on the flammability limits for hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chan-Cheng; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Liaw, Horng-Jang; Chen, Hui-Chu

    2009-07-30

    Theoretical models to predict the upper/lower flammability limits of hydrocarbons diluted with inert nitrogen gas are proposed in this study. It is found that there are linear relations between the reciprocal of the upper/lower flammability limits and the reciprocal of the molar fraction of hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon/inert nitrogen mixture. Such linearity is examined by experimental data reported in the literature, which include the cases of methane, propane, ethylene and propylene. The R-squared values (R(2)) of the regression lines of the cases explored are all greater than 0.989 for upper flammability limit (UFL). The theoretical slope of the predictive line for lower flammability limit (LFL) is found to be very close to zero for all explored cases; and this result successfully explains the experimental fact that adding inert nitrogen to a flammable material has very limited effect on LFL. Because limit oxygen concentration (LOC) could be taken as the intersectional point of the UFL curve and LFL curve, a LOC-based method is proposed to predict the slope of the UFL curve when experimental data of UFL are not available. This LOC-based method predicts the UFL with average error ranging from 2.17% to 5.84% and maximum error ranging from 8.58% to 12.18% for the cases explored. The predictive models for inert gas of nitrogen are also extended to the case of inert gas other than nitrogen. Through the extended models, it was found that the inert ability of an inert gas depends on its mean molar heat capacity at the adiabatic flame temperature. Theoretical calculation shows that the inert abilities of carbon dioxide, steam, nitrogen and helium are in the following order: carbon dioxide>steam>nitrogen>helium; and this sequence conforms to the existing experimental data reported in the literature.

  2. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  3. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability test. 1611.4 Section 1611.4... FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials. The... protect the igniter flame and specimen from air currents during tests, yet contain a suitable door...

  4. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744 PMID:24583270

  5. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  6. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  8. Flammability as an ecological and evolutionary driver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schwilk, Dylan W.

    2017-01-01

    We live on a flammable planet yet there is little consensus on the origin and evolution of flammability in our flora.We argue that part of the problem lies in the concept of flammability, which should not be viewed as a single quantitative trait or metric. Rather, we propose that flammability has three major dimensions that are not necessarily correlated: ignitability, heat release and fire spread rate. These major axes of variation are controlled by different plant traits and have differing ecological impacts during fire.At the individual plant scale, these traits define three flammability strategies observed in fire-prone ecosystems: the non-flammable, the fast-flammable and the hot-flammable strategy (with low ignitability, high flame spread rate and high heat release, respectively). These strategies increase the survival or reproduction under recurrent fires, and thus, plants in fire-prone ecosystems benefit from acquiring one of them; they represent different (alternative) ways to live under recurrent fires.Synthesis. This novel framework based on different flammability strategies helps us to understand variability in flammability across scales, and provides a basis for further research.

  9. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  10. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  11. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  12. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  14. Antimisting fuel breakup and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Fleeter, R.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    The breakup behavior and flammability of antimisting turbine fuels subjected to aerodynamic shear are investigated. Fuels tested were Jet A containing 0.3% FM-9 polymer at various levels of degradation ranging from virgin AMK to neat Jet A. The misting behavior of the fuels was quantified by droplet size distribution measurements. A technique based on high resolution laser photography and digital image processing of photographic records for rapid determination of droplet size distribution was developed. The flammability of flowing droplet-air mixtures was quantified by direct measurements of temperature rise in a flame established in the wake of a continuous ignition source. The temperature rise measurements were correlated with droplet size measurements. The flame anchoring phenomenon associated with the breakup of a liquid fuel in the wake of bluff body was shown to be important in the context of a survivable crash scenario. A pass/fail criterion for flammability testing of antimisting fuels, based on this flame-anchoring phenomenon, was proposed. The role of various ignition sources and their intensity in ignition and post-ignition behavior of antimisting fuels was also investigated.

  15. EPA Takes First Steps to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to find under the Clean Air Act that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial aircraft contribute to the pollution that causes climate change endangering the health and welfare

  16. EPA Takes First Steps to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (06/10/15 -ATLANTA) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to find under the Clean Air Act that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial aircraft contribute to the pollution that causes climate change endangering the hea

  17. Off-site ignition probability of flammable gases.

    PubMed

    Rew, P J; Spencer, H; Daycock, J

    2000-01-07

    A key step in the assessment of risk for installations where flammable liquids or gases are stored is the estimation of ignition probability. A review of current modelling and data confirmed that ignition probability values used in risk analyses tend to be based on extrapolation of limited incident data or, in many cases, on the judgement of those conducting the safety assessment. Existing models tend to assume that ignition probability is a function of release rate (or flammable gas cloud size) alone and they do not consider location, density or type of ignition source. An alternative mathematical framework for calculating ignition probability is outlined in which the approach used is to model the distribution of likely ignition sources and to calculate ignition probability by considering whether the flammable gas cloud will reach these sources. Data are collated on the properties of ignition sources within three generic land-use types: industrial, urban and rural. These data are then incorporated into a working model for ignition probability in a form capable of being implemented within risk analysis models. The sensitivity of the model results to assumptions made in deriving the ignition source properties is discussed and the model is compared with other available ignition probability methods.

  18. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  19. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  20. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  1. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.152 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice. (E) (F) Special engineering... the tanks are designed to contain flammable iquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F. (ii.... (D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.152 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice. (E) (F) Special engineering... the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F. (ii.... (D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at...

  7. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.; Crawford, F.R.

    1994-12-01

    Because of concerns for the effect that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids currently in use as refrigerants have on the environment, the refrigeration industry is considering the use of natural refrigerants, many of which are potentially flammable. In some cases, these flammable fluids may result in the least environmental damage when considering ozone depletion, global warming, efficiency, and photochemical reactivity. Many potentially flammable fluids have been proven to be effective when used either by themselves or as a part of a binary or ternary mixture. However, despite favorable initial test results, these fluids may not be acceptable to the general public if questions of safety cannot be adequately addressed. Significant research is being conducted to investigate the flammability of these materials. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the impact and variability of eleven different parameters which may affect flammability and/or combustibility of refrigerants and refrigerant blends, as a function of composition and test conditions, and to develop a better understanding of methods and conditions to measure the flammability of refrigerants. The refrigerants used in this study are being considered as new refrigerants and reviewed published data on these materials is scarce. The data contained herein should not be considered complete and should be used only to make relative comparisons of the impacts of the test parameters, not to represent the flammability characteristics of the materials. This report documents Task 3 of the test program. During Task 1, technical literature was thoroughly reviewed and a database of available documents was constructed. During Task 2, the test plan for this task was written. The goals of Task 3 are to investigate the flammability characteristics of selected blends of refrigerants R32, R134a, and R125 using an existing explosion sphere and a newly-constructed ASTM E681 apparatus.

  8. Selected Parametric Effects on Materials Flammability Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Juarez, Alfredo; Peyton, Gary J.; Harper, Susana A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1 is currently used to evaluate the flammability of materials intended for use in habitable environments of U.S. spacecraft. The method is a pass/fail upward flame propagation test conducted in the worst case configuration, which is defined as a combination of a material s thickness, test pressure, oxygen concentration, and temperature that make the material most flammable. Although simple parametric effects may be intuitive (such as increasing oxygen concentrations resulting in increased flammability), combinations of multi-parameter effects could be more complex. In addition, there are a variety of material configurations used in spacecraft. Such configurations could include, for example, exposed free edges where fire propagation may be different when compared to configurations commonly employed in standard testing. Studies involving combined oxygen concentration, pressure, and temperature on flammability limits have been conducted and are summarized in this paper. Additional effects on flammability limits of a material s thickness, mode of ignition, burn-length criteria, and exposed edges are presented. The information obtained will allow proper selection of ground flammability test conditions, support further studies comparing flammability in 1-g with microgravity and reduced gravity environments, and contribute to persuasive scientific cases for rigorous space system fire risk assessments.

  9. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  19. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity fire behaviour remains poorly understood and a significant risk for spaceflight An experiment is under development that will provide the first real opportunity to examine this issue focussing on two objectives: a) Flame Spread. b) Material Flammability. This experiment has been shown to be feasible on both ESA's ATV and Orbital Science's Cygnus vehicles with the Cygnus as the current base-line carrier. An international topical team has been formed to develop concepts for that experiment and support its implementation: a) Pressure Rise prediction. b) Sample Material Selection. This experiment would be a landmark for spacecraft fire safety with the data and subsequent analysis providing much needed verification of spacecraft fire safety protocols for the crews of future exploration vehicles and habitats.

  20. Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kimberley J; Ripley, Brad S; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Belcher, Claire M; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Thomas, Gavin H; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this variation, remains unknown.By burning leaves and plant parts, we experimentally determined how five plant traits (biomass quantity, biomass density, biomass moisture content, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion) combined to determine the three components of flammability (ignitability, sustainability and combustibility) at the leaf and plant scales in 25 grass species of fire-prone South African grasslands at a time of peak fire occurrence. The influence of evolutionary history on flammability was assessed based on a phylogeny built here for the study species.Grass species differed significantly in all components of flammability. Accounting for evolutionary history helped to explain patterns in leaf-scale combustibility and sustainability. The five measured plant traits predicted components of flammability, particularly leaf ignitability and plant combustibility in which 70% and 58% of variation, respectively, could be explained by a combination of the traits. Total above-ground biomass was a key driver of combustibility and sustainability with high biomass species burning more intensely and for longer, and producing the highest predicted fire spread rates. Moisture content was the main influence on ignitability, where species with higher moisture contents took longer to ignite and once alight burnt at a slower rate. Biomass density, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion

  1. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use, the following precautions shall be taken: (1) Smoking... atmospheres, or approved as permissible by the Mine Safety and Health Administration or the U.S. Coast...

  2. Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use, the following precautions shall be taken: (1) Smoking... sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing. (6) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall...

  4. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in... least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between any tank or reservoir and a firewall...

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities.

  6. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  7. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David

    2010-01-01

    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  8. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  9. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  10. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  11. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  14. Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

  15. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  16. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  17. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  18. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  19. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  20. 49 CFR 176.142 - Hazardous materials of extreme flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials of extreme flammability. 176... of extreme flammability. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, certain hazardous materials of extreme flammability may not be transported in a vessel carrying Class 1 (explosive)...

  1. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  2. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  3. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  4. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  5. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  6. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  7. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  8. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  9. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  10. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  11. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  12. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  13. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  14. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  15. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  16. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  17. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  18. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  19. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  20. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  3. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  4. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  6. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary...

  7. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  15. Effect of vessel size and shape on experimental flammability limits of gases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akifumi; Urano, Youkichi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Kondo, Shigeo

    2003-12-12

    The flammability limits of methane and propane have been measured using cylindrical vessels of various sizes and one spherical vessel. An ac discharge ignition method has been employed. For a cylindrical vessel of small diameter with a large height, the flammability limits are primarily determined by the quenching effect of the wall. For cylindrical vessels of smaller heights, the experimental flammability limits are affected by hot gas accumulation at the vessel ceiling, unburned gas heating, self heating of the incipient flame by the reflection both from walls and ceiling, and the quenching effect of the walls. If the vessel size is large enough so that all these effects become negligible, the experimental values of flammability limits may approach to the values that would be obtained in free space. In order to approach this condition for a cylindrical vessel, it is desirable to use a container at least 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. For comparison purpose, the measurement has also been done using ASHRAE type 12l spherical flask.

  16. Evaluation of flammability for cable-like polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikado, Tuneo; Akita, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A new test method is developed for the flammability of insulated electric cables as well as polymers formed in the cables. The rate of downward flame spread along the polymer surface is measured by a technique in which the flame is stopped at a particular position by winding up the cable at the same speed as the flame spreading rate, with external preheating by an electric furnace having oxidative gas flow. The polymer burns continuously without change of flame condition and the rate is obtained from the winding speed of the cable. A flame spread equation relates the flame spreading rate (V) of the cable-like polymer to O concentration (Yo) and the atmosphere, the preheating temperature, and the pyrolysis temperature for polymer burning. Plotting log V vs. log Yo for experimental results allows evaluation of the flammability of polymers, with discrimination between the effects of O concentration, heating temperature, and specimen shape. Results with various types of PVC electrical cable indicated the validity of the method. Application of the method to the cables in groups showed a flame retardation behavior different from the case of a single cable, in a atmosphere of high O concentration.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1185 Flammable fluids... equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone. (b) Each fuel...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a... equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone. (b) Each fuel tank... clear airspace between each tank or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated...

  3. The Effect of the Presence of Ozone on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of Hydrogen in Vessels Containing Savannah River Site High Level Waste - 12387

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  9. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  10. Flammabilities Of Graphite-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes tests and comparisons of flammabilities, thermal properties, and selected mechanical properties of composite materials made of epoxy and other matrices reinforced by graphite fibers. Composites also compared with baseline epoxy/fiberglass composite. Considers such properties as limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, products of thermal degradation, total heat release, heat-release rate, loss of mass, spread of flames, resistance to ignition, and thermal stability.

  11. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  12. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  13. Estimation of Flammability Limits of Selected Fluorocarbons with F(sub 2) and CIF(sub3)

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-09-01

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F(sub 2) and CIF(sub 3). Replacement of CFC-114 with non-ozone-depleting substitutes such as c-C(sub 4)F(sub 8) and C(sub 4)F(sub 10) is planned. Consequently, in the future, these too must be considered potential ''fuels'' in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should ignite? Experimental data on these systems are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a literature search for relevant data was conducted, and mathematical models were developed to serve as tools for predicting potential detonation pressures and estimating (based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems) the composition limits of flammability for these systems. The models described and documented in this report are enhanced versions of similar models developed in 1992.

  14. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  15. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  16. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  1. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-03-28

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  6. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31... of Conduct § 423.31 Fires and flammable material. (a) You must not leave a fire unattended, and it... designed for that purpose. (e) You must comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local fire...

  7. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  8. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  14. Measurement and numerical analysis of flammability limits of halogenated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2004-06-18

    Flammability limits measurement was made for a number of halogenated compounds by the ASHRAE method. Most of compounds measured are the ones for which discrepancy was noted between the literature values and predicted values of flammability limits. As a result, it has been found that most of the newly obtained values of flammability limits are not in accordance with the literature values. Numerical analysis was carried out for a set of flammability limits data including the newly obtained ones using a modified analytical method based on F-number scheme. In this method, fitting procedure was done directly to flammability limits themselves instead of fitting to F-number. After the fitting process, the average relative deviation between the observed and calculated values is 9.3% for the lower limits and 14.6% for the upper limits.

  15. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  16. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. <5 years (immature), 5-20 and >21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the resulting CO2-eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N2O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO2-eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  18. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  19. One-pot, bioinspired coatings to reduce the flammability of flexible polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rick; Li, Yu-Chin; Gervasio, Michelle; Luu, Jason; Kim, Yeon Seok

    2015-03-25

    In this manuscript, natural materials were combined into a single "pot" to produce flexible, highly fire resistant, and bioinspired coatings on flexible polyurethane foam (PUF). In one step, PUF was coated with a fire protective layer constructed of a polysaccharide binder (starch or agar), a boron fire retardant (boric acid or derivative), and a dirt char former (montmorillonite clay). Nearly all coatings produced a 63% reduction in a critical flammability value, the peak heat release rate (PHRR). One formulation produced a 75% reduction in PHRR. This technology was validated in full-scale furniture fire tests, where a 75% reduction in PHRR was measured. At these PHRR values, this technology could reduce the fire threat of furniture from significant fire damage in and beyond the room of fire origin to being contained to the burning furniture. This flammability reduction was caused by three mechanisms-the gas-phase and condensed-phase processes of the boron fire retardant and the condensed-phase process of the clay. We describe the one-pot coating process and the impact of the coating composition on flammability.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  1. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  2. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  3. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  4. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  6. Spacecraft and Navy Materials Flammability: Review of Some Concepts and Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    The agenda covered by this viewgraph presentation includes: 1) Concepts of Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Spacecraft materials flammability test methods; 3) Evaluation of flight hardware flammability; 4) Review of flammability data in conditions of interest to the Navy; 5) Overview of some flammability test methods recommended for the Navy.

  7. Flammability measurements of difluoromethane in air at 100 C

    SciTech Connect

    Grosshandler, W.L.; Donnelly, M.K.; Womeldorf, C.

    1999-07-01

    Difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or R-32) is a candidate to replace currently used ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Because CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is flammable, it is necessary to assess the hazard posed by a leak in a refrigeration machine. The currently accepted method for determining flammability, ASTM E 681, has difficulty discerning the flammability boundary for weak fuels such as CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}. This paper describes an alternative approach to identify the limits of flammability, using a twin, premixed counter-flow flame. By using the extinction of an already established flame, the point dividing flammable from non-flammable becomes unambiguous. The limiting extinction mixture changes with stretch rate, so it is convenient to report the flammability limit as the value extrapolated to a zero stretch condition. In the burner, contoured nozzles with outlet diameters of 12 mm are aligned counter to each other and spaced 12 mm apart. The lean flammability limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} in dry air at room temperature was previously reported by the authors to be a mole fraction of 0.14, using the twin counter-flow flame method. In the current study, relative humidity was not found to affect the lean limit. Increasing the temperature of the premixed fuel and air to 100 C is shown to extend the flammability limit in the lean direction to 0.13. The rich limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} found using the counter-flow method is around 0.27. The uncertainties of the measurements are presented and the results compared to data in the literature.

  8. Pressure Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the highest pressure in oxygen where materials used in the planned NASA Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM) would not propagate a flame if an ignition source was present. The test methodology used was similar to that previously used to determine the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which self-extinguishment occurs under constant total pressure conditions. An upward limiting pressure index (ULPI) was determined, where approximately 50 percent of the materials self-extinguish in a given environment. Following this, the maximum total pressure (MTP) was identified; where all samples tested (at least five) self-extinguished following the NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1 burn length criteria. The results obtained on seven materials indicate that the non-metallic materials become flammable in oxygen between 0.4 and 0.9 psia.

  9. Upward Flammability Testing: A Probabilistic Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel E.; Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin R.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of NASA-STD-6001 Test 1 data suggests burn length outcome for a given environment has a large statistical variation from run to run. Large data sets show that burn length data form cumulative probability distribution curves, which describe a material's characteristic to burn in a specific environment, suggesting that the current practice of testing three samples at specific conditions is inadequate. Sufficient testing can establish material characteristics probability curves to provide the probability that a material will sustain a burn length of at least 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) or will sustain burning until all material is consumed. A simple pasdfail criterion may not be possible or practical. Future application of flammability data for some material classes may require the engineer to assess risk based on the probability of an occurrence and the probable outcome with different materials as characterized with cumulative burn length distributions for specific use conditions.

  10. DOE/DOE Tight Oil Flammability & Transportation Spill Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes crude oils, their phase behavior, the SPR vapor pressure program, and presents data comparisons from various analytical techniques. The overall objective is to describe physical properties of crude oil relevant to flammability and transport safety

  11. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  12. Pressure Flammability Thresholds in Oxygen of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Harper, Susana; Beeson, Harold; Ruff, Gary; Pedley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The experimental approach consisted of concentrating the testing in the flammability transition zone following the Bruceton Up-and-Down Method. For attribute data, the method has been shown to be very repeatable and most efficient. Other methods for characterization of critical levels (Karberand Probit) were also considered. The data yielded the upward limiting pressure index (ULPI), the pressure level where approx.50% of materials self-extinguish in a given environment.Parametric flammability thresholds other than oxygen concentration can be determined with the methodology proposed for evaluating the MOC when extinguishment occurs. In this case, a pressure threshold in 99.8% oxygen was determined with the methodology and found to be 0.4 to 0.9 psia for typical spacecraft materials. Correlation of flammability thresholds obtained with chemical, hot wire, and other ignition sources will be conducted to provide recommendations for using alternate ignition sources to evaluate flammability of aerospace materials.

  13. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  14. Flammability limits of isobutane and its mixtures with various gases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Sekiya, Akira

    2007-09-30

    Flammability limits of isobutane and five kinds of binary mixtures of isobutane were measured by the ASHRAE method. Propane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, chloroform, and HFC-125 (1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane) were used as the counter part gases in the mixtures. The observed data were analyzed using the equations based on Le Chatelier's formula. The flammability limits of mixtures with propane were well explained by the original Le Chatelier's formula. The flammability limits of mixtures with nitrogen and the ones with carbon dioxide were adequately analyzed by the extended Le Chatelier's formula. It was found that the extended Le Chatelier's formula is also applicable to the flammability limits of mixtures with chloroform and HFC-125.

  15. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  16. Effect of a zero g environment on flammability limits as determined using a standard flammability tube apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.

  17. Gas Release During Saltwell Pumping: Interpretation of Operational Data

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Huckaby; L.M. Peurrung; P.A. Gauglitz

    1999-09-16

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive waste that is a complex mix of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid into the surrounding soil, while 82 are considered sound (Hanlon 1999). To minimize the amount of material that potentially could leak into the surrounding soil, all of the SSTs are scheduled to have drainable liquid removed and to be designated as interim stabilized. Of the SSTs, 119 have been declared stabilized, and only 30 require further processing (Hanlon 1999). Many of the tanks have been declared stabilized administratively, with only 45 tanks having had drainable liquid removed. The pending consent decree between the Washington State Department of Ecology and the Office of River Protection. (U.S. District Court Eastern District of Washington, 1999) sets a milestone to complete interim stabilization by September 2004. While process equipment exists for removing drainable liquid, and its operation is well known from previous pumping campaigns, a number of safety issues associated with the release and potential ignition of flammable gases within the tanks needs to be addressed. The safety concerns associated with flammable gases stem from the observation that some of the waste in the SSTs generates and retains hazardous quantities of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Of the 30 SSTs remaining to be declared interim stabilized, 29 need to have drainable liquid removed by saltwell pumping (waste in tank 241-C-106 will be removed by sluicing), and 16 of these are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) (Hopkins 1995; Hanlon 1999). Most of these tanks are in Facility Group 2 (Noorani 1997); that is, it is believed that tank operations may induce the release of significant quantities of flammable gas, but gas release does not occur spontaneously. In particular, saltwell pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause

  18. 77 FR 62224 - Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... controls as well as sound engineering practice. Further, the Board noted that a number of other installed... that could cause the tank headspace to exceed the LFL if rapidly released. The Board urges...

  19. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  20. Flammable gas tank exhauster interlock (FGTEI) computer software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.O., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    Modicon Compact Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The device configuration integrates the isolation and current- carrying capacities of mechanical relays with the logic and programming sophistication of the PLC. This revised document provides descriptions of components and tasks involved in the PLC system for controlling and monitoring the FGTEI. All control functions required by the PLC, and how they are implemented, are described in detail.

  1. Flammable gas tank exhauster interlock (LFGTEI) computer software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.O.; Irvitt, R.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-21

    Modicon Compact Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The device configuration integrates the isolation and current- carrying capacities of mechanical relays with the logic and programming sophistication of the PLC. This revised document provides descriptions of components and tasks involved in the PLC system for controlling and monitoring the FGTEI. All control functions required by the PLC, and how they are implemented, are described in detail.

  2. Flammable gas tank exhauster interlock (FGTEI) computer software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.0.

    1996-09-10

    Modicon Compact Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The device configuration integrates the isolation and current-carrying capacities of mechanical relays with the logic and programming sophistication of the PLC. This document provides descriptions of components and tasks involved in the PLC system for controlling and monitoring the FGTEI. All control functions required by the PLC, and how they are implemented, are described in detail.

  3. Experimental Verification of Material Flammability in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Balashov, Y. V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Melikhov, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The flammability in microgravity of three US-furnished materials, Delrin, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and high-density polyethylene, was determined using a Russian-developed combustion tunnel on Mir. Four 4.5-mm-diameter cylindrical samples of each plastic were ignited under concurrent airflow (in the direction of flame spread) with velocities from no flow to 8.5 cm/s. The test results identify a limiting air-flow velocity V(sub lim) for each material, below which combustion ceases. Nominal values are V(sub lim) < 0.3 cm/s for Delrin, 0.5 cm/s for PMMA, and 0.3 to 0.5 cm/s for polyethylene. These values are lower than those obtained in prior ground testing. Nevertheless, they demonstrate that flow shutoff is effective for extinguishment in the microgravity environment of spacecraft. Microgravity test results also show that the plastic materials maintain a stable melt ball within the spreading flame zone. In general, as the concurrent flow velocity V decreases, the flame-spread rate V(sub F) decreases, from an average (for all three materials) of V(sub F)= 0.5-0.75 mm/s at V = 8.5 cm/s to V(sub F)= 0.05-0.01 mm/s at V = 0.3-0.5 cm/s. Also, as V decreases, the flames become less visible but expand, increasing the probability of igniting an adjacent surface.

  4. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  5. On the temperature dependence of flammability limits of gases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2011-03-15

    Flammability limits of several combustible gases were measured at temperatures from 5 to 100 °C in a 12-l spherical flask basically following ASHRAE method. The measurements were done for methane, propane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, dimethyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. As the temperature rises, the lower flammability limits are gradually shifted down and the upper limits are shifted up. Both the limits shift almost linearly to temperature within the range examined. The linear temperature dependence of the lower flammability limits is explained well using a limiting flame temperature concept at the lower concentration limit (LFL)--'White's rule'. The geometric mean of the flammability limits has been found to be relatively constant for many compounds over the temperature range studied (5-100 °C). Based on this fact, the temperature dependence of the upper flammability limit (UFL) can be predicted reasonably using the temperature coefficient calculated for the LFL. However, some compounds such as ethylene and dimethyl ether, in particular, have a more complex temperature dependence.

  6. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  7. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  8. Some electrostatic considerations in the transportation of flammable liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.H.; Atharton, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The transportation of flammable liquids in bulk quantities is a common operation in the chemical industry. Therefore a rather comprehensive set of regulations, standards, and recommended practices exists which govern how these operations should be performed in strict accordance with the directions given, occurrence of inadvertent ignitions have been rare, if nonexistent. On the other hand, there have been occasions when seemingly slight and innocuous deviations from the guidelines have been incorporated into an operation, resulting in catastrophic incidents. This paper discusses some of the guidelines concerning electrostatic ignitions of flammable liquids and illustrates specific case histories where such deviations have led to accidents. Two marine incidents, one rail car incident, and two tank truck incidents are presented in detail to amplify why strict adherence to the regulations, standards and recommended practices is vital in operations where flammable liquids are transported. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  11. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  12. Development of flammable liquid storage wooden cabinets for chemical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Staggs, K.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.; Doughty, S.M.; Barr, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A fire hardened wooden cabinet was developed for the storage of flammable liquids for LLNL Bldg. 151 nuclear chemistry laboratories. The new cabinet requirements were to fit into existing cabinet spaces, match existing cabinets in appearance, and meet the National Fire Protection Association Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. A standard test apparatus was developed to produce the required fire exposure necessary to evaluate existing cabinets and new designs. The final design was a cabinet insert that could be prefabricated and installed into the appropriate storage area of the existing cabinets.

  13. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable solids and oxidizing materials used as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100...

  15. 77 FR 48505 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs AGENCY... flammability standards for carpets and rugs. No comments were received in response to that notice. Therefore... surface flammability of carpets and rugs and small carpets and rugs. These firms have elected to issue...

  16. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  17. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  18. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  19. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  20. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  1. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  2. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  3. ISO 14624 Series - Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials Flammability Assessment of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the flammability of spacecraft materials is shown. The topics include: 1) Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Materials Flammability Test; 3) Impetus for enhanced materials flammability characterization; 4) Exploration Atmosphere Working Group Recommendations; 5) Approach; and 6) Status of implementation

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610—Sketch...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  9. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  10. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  11. Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  12. Keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, D.

    1997-12-31

    March 10th is an anniversary date for Dick Cheney. Eight years ago today President Bush asked him to be his Secretary of Defense. He was his second choice. John Tower was his first. On March 17, 1989, Cheney was confirmed and sworn into the office of Secretary of Defense. He quickly began closing down his office on Capital Hill and he reported to work on March 18. Much changed for him that day, but not everything. He still had constituents. But instead of the residents of Wyoming, he represented the entire Armed forces of the United States of America. For this convention, he was asked to discuss the worldwide reserves and associated development risks, the risks and rewards in the US industry and 21st Century vision for energy within the US. He discusses the Halliburton view on the natural gas energy future, the US role, implications for a new business model, and political risk.

  13. Estimation of the lower flammability limit of organic compounds as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J R; Rowley, R L; Wilding, W V

    2011-02-15

    A new method of estimating the lower flammability limit (LFL) of general organic compounds is presented. The LFL is predicted at 298 K for gases and the lower temperature limit for solids and liquids from structural contributions and the ideal gas heat of formation of the fuel. The average absolute deviation from more than 500 experimental data points is 10.7%. In a previous study, the widely used modified Burgess-Wheeler law was shown to underestimate the effect of temperature on the lower flammability limit when determined in a large-diameter vessel. An improved version of the modified Burgess-Wheeler law is presented that represents the temperature dependence of LFL data determined in large-diameter vessels more accurately. When the LFL is estimated at increased temperatures using a combination of this model and the proposed structural-contribution method, an average absolute deviation of 3.3% is returned when compared with 65 data points for 17 organic compounds determined in an ASHRAE-style apparatus.

  14. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor detection system must be operational for 30 seconds prior to engine startup and continue sensing the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  15. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  16. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  17. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  18. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  19. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Threshold Tests for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James H.

    2007-01-01

    CEV atmosphere will likely change because craft will be used as LEO spacecraft, lunar spacecraft, orbital spacecraft. Possible O2 % increase and overall pressure decrease pressure vessel certs on spacecraft. Want 34% minimum threshold. Higher, better when atmosphere changes. WSTF suggests testing all materials/components to find flammability threshold, pressure and atmosphere.

  20. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31 Section 423.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PUBLIC CONDUCT ON BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FACILITIES, LANDS, AND WATERBODIES...

  1. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fires and flammable material. 423.31 Section 423.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... smoking materials, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, matches, or other burning material. (c) You...

  2. Wire insulation degradation and flammability in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This view-graph presentation covers the following topics: an introduction to spacecraft fire safety, concerns in fire prevention in low gravity, shuttle wire insulation flammability experiment, drop tower risk-based fire safety experiment, and experimental results, conclusions, and proposed studies.

  3. The Safety of Small Containers for Flammable Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights aspects of safety that are unfamiliar to most laypersons and to many chemists as well. Presents findings that may lend themselves to presentation in chemistry classes. Details flammability tests, vapor space hazards, and the special case of gasoline containers. Provides experimental data relating vent area and internal pressure. (CW)

  4. Flammability and Thermophysical Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    montmorillonite organoclays, POSS®, carbon nanofibers to develop a flame resistant material Thermophysical and flammability properties of these...elastomer manufactured by Dow Chemical. Its typical applications include seals, gaskets, belting, and others. Montmorillonite Nanoclays – Cloisite...30B is a surface treated montmorillonite [Tallow bishydroxyethyl methyl, T(EOH)2M] manufactured by Southern Clay Products Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs

  5. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vapor detection system must be operational for 30 seconds prior to engine startup and continue sensing the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  6. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  8. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  9. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  10. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  11. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  12. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  13. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  14. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  15. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  20. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  1. A flammability study of thin plastic film materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center presently conducts flammability tests on thin plastic film materials by using a small needle rake method. Flammability data from twenty-two thin plastic film materials were obtained and cross-checked by using three different testing methods: (1) the presently used small needle rake; (2) the newly developed large needle rake; and (3) the previously used frame. In order to better discern the melting-burning phenomenon of thin plastic film material, five additional specific experiments were performed. These experiments determined the following: (1) the heat sink effect of each testing method; (2) the effect of the burn angle on the burn length or melting/shrinkage length; (3) the temperature profile above the ignition source; (4) the melting point and the fire point of each material; and (5) the melting/burning profile of each material via infrared (IR) imaging. The results of these experimentations are presented.

  2. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  3. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  4. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system. PMID:25601873

  5. Flammability Limits of Gases Under Low Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this combustion science investigation is to determine the effect of zero, fractional, and super gravity on the flammability limits of a premixed methane air flame in a standard 51 mm diameter flammability tube and to determine, if possible, the fluid flow associated with flame passage under zero-g conditions and the density (and hence, temperature) profiles associated with the flame under conditions of incipient extinction. This is accomplished by constructing an appropriate apparatus for placement in NASA's Lewis Research Center Lear Jet facility and flying the prescribed g-trajectories while the experiment is being performed. Data is recorded photographically using the visible light of the flame. The data acquired is: (1) the shape and propagation velocity of the flame under various g-conditions for methane compositions that are inside the flammable limits, and (2) the effect of gravity on the limits. Real time accelerometer readings for the three orthogonal directions are displayed in full view of the cameras and the framing rate of the cameras is used to measure velocities.

  6. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32} normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH).

  7. Oxygen Partial Pressure and Oxygen Concentration Flammability: Can They Be Correlated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana A.; Juarez, Alfredo; Perez, Horacio, III; Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA possesses a large quantity of flammability data performed in ISS airlock (30% Oxygen 526mmHg) and ISS cabin (24.1% Oxygen 760 mmHg) conditions. As new programs develop, other oxygen and pressure conditions emerge. In an effort to apply existing data, the question arises: Do equivalent oxygen partial pressures perform similarly with respect to flammability? This paper evaluates how material flammability performance is impacted from both the Maximum Oxygen Concentration (MOC) and Maximum Total Pressures (MTP) perspectives. From these studies, oxygen partial pressures can be compared for both the MOC and MTP methods to determine the role of partial pressure in material flammability. This evaluation also assesses the influence of other variables on flammability performance. The findings presented in this paper suggest flammability is more dependent on oxygen concentration than equivalent partial pressure.

  8. Ammonia Results Review for Retained Gas Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2000-09-20

    This report was prepared as part of a task supporting the deployment of the retained gas sampler (RGS) system in Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks. The emphasis of this report is on presenting supplemental information about the ammonia measurements resulting from retained gas sampling of Tanks 241-AW-101, A-101, AN-105, AN-104, AN-103, U-103, S-106, BY-101, BY-109, SX-106, AX-101, S-102, S-111, U-109, and SY-101. This information provides a better understanding of the accuracy of past RGS ammonia measurements, which will assist in determining flammable and toxicological hazards.

  9. Flammability Testing of Fabrics Treated with Oil-Based Shear Thickening Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    thickening fluid (STF) are evaluated under flammability testing. The tested fabrics include a woven cotton-nylon blend, a woven Kevlar textile, and a...hybrid ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) – Kevlar felt. The oil-based STF is a colloid of silica nanoparticles in a paraffin oil. Test...enhanced flammability resistance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS shear thickening fluid, Kevlar , flammability 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  10. 46 CFR 147A.41 - Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A... equipment, including sprinklers and fire pumps, is in operating condition; and (3) Before and...

  11. Bark flammability as a fire-response trait for subalpine trees

    PubMed Central

    Frejaville, Thibaut; Curt, Thomas; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between the flammability properties of a given plant and its chances of survival after a fire still remain unknown. We hypothesize that the bark flammability of a tree reduces the potential for tree survival following surface fires, and that if tree resistance to fire is provided by a thick insulating bark, the latter must be few flammable. We test, on subalpine tree species, the relationship between the flammability of bark and its insulating ability, identifies the biological traits that determine bark flammability, and assesses their relative susceptibility to surface fires from their bark properties. The experimental set of burning properties was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis to assess the bark flammability. Bark insulating ability was expressed by the critical time to cambium kill computed from bark thickness. Log-linear regressions indicated that bark flammability varies with the bark thickness and the density of wood under bark and that the most flammable barks have poor insulating ability. Susceptibility to surface fires increases from gymnosperm to angiosperm subalpine trees. The co-dominant subalpine species Larix decidua (Mill.) and Pinus cembra (L.) exhibit large differences in both flammability and insulating ability of the bark that should partly explain their contrasted responses to fires in the past. PMID:24324473

  12. Dynamics of Crust Dissolution and Gas Release in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    SD Rassat; CW Stewart; BE Wells; WL Kuhn; ZI Antoniak; JM Cuta; KP Recknagle; G Terrones; VV Viswanathan; JH Sukamto; DP Mendoza

    2000-01-26

    Due primarily to an increase in floating crust layer thickness, the waste level in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has grown appreciably, and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a potential hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from the nonconnective layer at the bottom of the tank, SY-101 will be diluted to dissolve a large fraction of the solids that allow the waste to retain gas. In this work we develop understanding of the state of the tank waste and some of its physical properties, investigate how added water will be distributed in the tank and affect the waste, and use the information to evaluate mechanisms and rates of waste solids dissolution and gas release. This work was completed to address these questions and in support of planning and development of controls for the SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project. Particular emphasis is given to dissolution of and gas release from the crust, although the effects of back-dilution on all waste layers are addressed. The magnitude and rates of plausible gas release scenarios are investigated, and it is demonstrated that none of the identified mechanisms of continuous (dissolution-driven) or sudden gas release, even with conservative assumptions, lead to domespace hydrogen concentrations exceeding the lower flammability limit. This report documents the results of studies performed in 1999 to address the issues of the dynamics, of crust dissolution and gas release in SY-101. It contains a brief introduction to the issues at hand; a summary of our knowledge of the SY-101 crust and other waste properties, including gas fractions, strength and volubility; a description of the buoyancy and dissolution models that are applied to predict the crust response to waste transfers and back dilution; and a discussion of the effectiveness of mixing for water added below the crust and the limited potential for significant stratification

  13. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. ); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. ); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. ); Ashby, E.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  14. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Palladium(II)‐Catalysed Aminocarbonylation of Terminal Alkynes for the Synthesis of 2‐Ynamides: Addressing the Challenges of Solvents and Gas Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, N. Louise; Brown, Clare L.; Irwin, Andrew A.; Cao, Qun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract 2‐Ynamides can be synthesised through PdII catalysed oxidative carbonylation, utilising low catalyst loadings. A variety of alkynes and amines can be used to afford 2‐ynamides in high yields, whilst overcoming the drawbacks associated with previous oxidative methods, which rely on dangerous solvents and gas mixtures. The use of [NBu4]I allows the utilisation of the industrially recommended solvent ethyl acetate. O2 can be used as the terminal oxidant, and the catalyst can operate under safer conditions with low O2 concentrations. PMID:27906507

  16. Palladium(II)-Catalysed Aminocarbonylation of Terminal Alkynes for the Synthesis of 2-Ynamides: Addressing the Challenges of Solvents and Gas Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N Louise; Brown, Clare L; Irwin, Andrew A; Cao, Qun; Muldoon, Mark J

    2017-02-22

    2-Ynamides can be synthesised through Pd(II) catalysed oxidative carbonylation, utilising low catalyst loadings. A variety of alkynes and amines can be used to afford 2-ynamides in high yields, whilst overcoming the drawbacks associated with previous oxidative methods, which rely on dangerous solvents and gas mixtures. The use of [NBu4 ]I allows the utilisation of the industrially recommended solvent ethyl acetate. O2 can be used as the terminal oxidant, and the catalyst can operate under safer conditions with low O2 concentrations.

  17. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  18. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  19. Safe Handling and Use of Flammable and Combustible Materials. Module SH-30. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safe handling and use of flammable and combustible materials is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module introduces the student to the hazards of flammable and combustible materials and the measures necessary to control those hazards. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page…

  20. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100 feet of any person's work...

  1. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes to type certificates affecting fuel..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.35 Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability....

  2. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  3. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  4. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  5. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  6. 49 CFR 173.150 - Exceptions for Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquids). 173.150 Section 173.150 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids). (a) General. Exceptions for hazardous materials shipments... flammable liquids (Class 3) and combustible liquids are excepted from labeling requirements, unless...

  7. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  8. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M.; Mendoza, D.P.

    1996-09-01

    Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.

  9. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, task 2 - test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    Regulations on alternative refrigerants and concerns for the environment are forcing the refrigeration industry to consider the use of potentially flammable fluids to replace CFC fluids currently in use. The objectives of this program are to establish the conditions under which refrigerants and refrigerant blends exhibit flammability and to develop appropriate methods to measure flammability.

  10. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

  11. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, William K; Elvira, Alba; van Kempen, Lute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aptroot, André; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-04-01

    Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We hypothesized that differences in litter flammability among gymnosperms are determined by litter particle size effects on litterbed packing. We performed a mesocosm fire experiment comparing 39 phylogenetically wide-ranging gymnosperms, followed by litter size and shape manipulations on two chemically contrasting species, to isolate the underlying mechanism. The first-order control on litter flammability was, indeed, litter particle size in both experiments. Most gymnosperms were highly flammable, but a prominent exception was the non-Pinus Pinaceae, in which small leaves abscised singly produced dense, non-flammable litterbeds. There are two important implications: first, ecosystems dominated by gymnosperms that drop small leaves separately will develop dense litter layers, which will be less prone to and inhibit the spread of surface litter fire. Second, some of the needle-leaved species previously considered to be flammable in single-leaf experiments were among the least flammable in litter fuel beds, highlighting the role of the litter traits of species in affecting surface fire regimes.

  12. Thermophysical and flammability characterization of phosphorylated epoxy adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Giants, T. W.; Bilow, N.; Hsu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the thermophysical and flammability properties of a phosphorylated epoxy adhesive, which has potential applications in aircraft interior panels, are described. The adhesive consists of stoichiometric ratios of bis(3-glycidyloxphenyl)methylphosphine oxide and bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide containing approximately 7.5% phosphorus. Preliminary data are presented from adhesive bonding studies conducted utilizing this adhesive with polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) film and phenolic-glass laminates. Limiting oxygen index and smoke density data are presented and compared with those of the tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline epoxy resin-adhesive system currently used in aircraft interiors. Initial results indicate that the phosphorylated epoxy compound has excellent adhesive properties when used with PVF film and that desirable fire-resistant properties are maintained.

  13. Rheological characterization of polyolefin composites with reduced flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habrova, Veronika; Kalendova, Alena; Paravanova, Gordana

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the low-flammability halogen-free polyolefin composites were characterized with three rheological methods. In the extrusion process of the studied materials the end-products with a dissimilar surface quality were produced. Therefore, the diverse melt flow behaviours evaluated with common rheological techniques were also expected. Nevertheless, the conventional rotational and capillary rheometries were not able to describe the differences between investigated flame retarded composites in optimal way. Thus, the non-conventional rheological die Shark skin, originally designed to detect flow instabilities, was tested as a third possibility in order to better understand rheology of the filled polymer melts. It was found that the Shark skin technique is able to characterize the studied two kind flame retardants composites and can also be helpful to qualify the production bathes with identical additives/polymer formulation.

  14. Flammability and Photo-Stability of Selected Polymer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Jeelin

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to the improvement of the flammability of epoxy resins, bisphenol-A polycarbonate poly(butylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6 by introducing halogens and loop functionality into the flame retardants is described. The phthalides (the loop functionality containing molecules) include 3,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)-phthalide, 3,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)phthalide, and phenolphthalein. The phthalide containing epoxy resins are synthesized and characterized in comparison with the bisphenol-A epoxy resins in terms of flammability in the copolymer systems. The resins include diglycidyl ethers of phenolphthalein, bisphenol-A. tetrabromobisphenol-A, and tetraoromophenolphthalein. The vaporization of the phthalide additive in the polymers is observed in Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The flame retardancy is primarily due to the presence of halogens. In the poly(butylene terephthalate) system, the cleavage of the C(sub aromatic) -B bond of the flame retardant additive enhances the crosslinking react ions between the aromatic rings resulting in an increase of char formation. In the epoxy resin systems, loop functionality contributes to char formation to a larger extent. The interaction between the epoxy resin and poly-(butylene terephthalate) follows the mechanism of insertion of the oxirane ring into the ester bond. This mechanism is studied by FT-IR. The investigation of the thermal properties of the char-forming phenol-formaldehyde resins is conducted to provide information for the systematic design of high temperature flame-resistant phenolics. NMR and FT-IR are used to characterize the oligomeric resins and the cured resins. The curing agents used in the study include formaldehyde, s-trioxane and terephthaloyl chloride. The brominated phenolic resins are found to have higher oxygen indices with lower char yields.

  15. Evaluation of Less-Flammable Insulation Fluids and Fire-Prevention Guidance for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Akira; Sugawa, Osami

    This paper concerns the definition and evaluation of less-flammable of insulation fluids for transformers. In particular it focuses on the ISO5660 cone calorimeter method, which is widely used as an evaluation method for the less-flammable of solids, and proposes that such method is also valid for quantitative evaluation of the less-flammable of insulating fluids. Quantifying the combustion characteristics of insulation fluids and analyzing the causes of fires can be said to be the first step toward implementing appropriate safety measures that will render electric utility equipment more fire retardant or fireproof in the future.

  16. Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2/CO: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    I, SMC-TR-93-19 AD-A2 4 896AEROSPACE REPORT NOAD-A264 896 TR-92(2534)- ° Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2/CO: A Literature Review ...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Semrmly Ctassltjcation) Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2 /CO: A Literature Review 12...The literature related to the flammability and explosion limits of H2/O2 H2/0 2 /diluent. CO/O 2 . CO/H,/O 2 , and CO/H2/air mixtures is reviewed

  17. The possibility of a reversal of material flammability ranking from normal gravity to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'Ien, James S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the discussion is to show, by a theoretical model, that one of the material flammability indices, the flammability limit, can be reversed in proper circumstances. A stagnation-point diffusion flame adjacent to a spherical solid-fuel surface is considered. It is shown that a reversal of the limiting oxygen indices from normal gravity and microgravity is possible. Although the example is based on a particular theoretical model with a particular flame configuration and specifically for an oxygen limit, the flammability-limit reversal phenomenon is believed to be more general.

  18. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1345 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas detection. 154.1345 Section 154.1345 Shipping COAST... § 154.1345 Gas detection. (a) Each vessel carrying a cargo that is designated with an “I” or “I and T” in Table 4 must have: (1) A fixed flammable gas detection system that meets § 154.1350; and (2)...

  20. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-09-29

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and {open_quotes}bound{close_quotes} gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete.

  1. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytkov, Ivan V.; Zabelin, Maksim V.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  2. A Method for Assessing Material Flammability for Micro-Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhaus, T.; Olenick, S. M.; Sifuentes, A.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    On a spacecraft, one of the greatest fears during a mission is the outbreak of a fire. Since spacecraft are enclosed spaces and depend highly on technical electronics, a small fire could cause a large amount of damage. NASA uses upward flame spread as a "worst case scenario" evaluation for materials and the Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates Test to assess the damage potential of a fire. Details of these tests and the protocols followed are provided by the "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion" document. As pointed by Ohlemiller and Villa, the upward flame spread test does not address the effect of external radiation on ignition and spread. External radiation, as that coming from an overheated electrical component, is a plausible fire scenario in a space facility and could result in a reversal of the flammability rankings derived from the upward flame spread test. The "Upward Flame Propagation Test" has been the subject of strong criticism in the last few years. In many cases, theoretical exercises and experimental results have demonstrated the possibility of a reversal in the material flammability rankings from normal to micro-gravity. Furthermore, the need to incorporate information on the effects of external radiation and opposed flame spread when ranking materials based on their potential to burn in micro-gravity has been emphasized. Experiments conducted in a 2.2 second drop tower with an ethane burner in an air cross flow have emphasized that burning at the trailing edge is deterred in micro-gravity due to the decreased oxygen transport. For very low air flow velocities (U<0.005 m/s) the flame envelopes the burner and a slight increase in velocity results in extinction of the trailing edge (U>0.01 m/s). Only for U>0.l m/s extinction is observed at the leading edge (blow-off). Three dimensional numerical calculations performed for thin cellulose centrally

  3. Flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility with aerospace fluids of wire insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Johnson, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center requested NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility to conduct flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility tests with aerospace fluids of several wire insulations.

  4. A highly safe battery with a non-flammable triethyl-phosphate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Utsugi, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Applied in a battery with a silicon-oxide (SiO) anode, a non-flammable triethyl-phosphate (TEP)-based electrolyte with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) improved the safety and energy density of the battery. This TEP:FEC-based battery demonstrated almost the same performance, namely, capacity retention of 78% after 250 cycles, as that of a flammable electrolyte such as an ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyle carbonate (DEC)-mixed electrolyte (79%). Moreover, this non-flammable electrolyte significantly enhanced the safety of the battery. This improved performance and safety is attributed to the disappearance of the exothermic peak around 120-160 °C derived from the reaction between the electrolyte and charged anode. Accordingly, this non-flammable (TEP)-based electrolyte can enhance the safety of lithium-ion batteries.

  5. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be ventilated with a sufficient volume of air to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors. (b) In addition, the buildings or rooms shall be— (1) Constructed to meet a fire resistance rating of...

  6. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials Considered for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susan A.; Beeson, Harold; Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

  7. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  8. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  9. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  10. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  11. Characterization of flammability properties of some thermoplastic and thermoset resins. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated included polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated included epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  12. Calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling of fuel mixture lower flammability limits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuman; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-02-15

    Heat loss can affect experimental flammability limits, and it becomes indispensable to quantify flammability limits when apparatus quenching effect becomes significant. In this research, the lower flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures are predicted using calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling, which is based on the principle of energy conservation. Specifically, the hydrocarbon mixture lower flammability limit is quantitatively correlated to its final flame temperature at non-adiabatic conditions. The modeling predictions are compared with experimental observations to verify the validity of CFT modeling, and the minor deviations between them indicated that CFT modeling can represent experimental measurements very well. Moreover, the CFT modeling results and Le Chatelier's Law predictions are also compared, and the agreement between them indicates that CFT modeling provides a theoretical justification for the Le Chatelier's Law.

  13. Possible use of non-flammable phosphonate ethers as pure electrolyte solvent for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J. K.; Ai, X. P.; Cao, Y. L.; Yang, H. X.

    Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) was selected and tested as a non-flammable solvent for primary and secondary lithium batteries, because of its non-flammability, good solvency of lithium salts and appropriate liquidus properties. Experimental results demonstrated that DMMP can solvate considerable amount of commonly used lithium salts to form non-flammable and Li +-conducting electrolyte, which has very wide electrochemical window (>5 V vs. Li) and excellent electrochemical compatibility with metallic lithium anode and oxide cathodes. Primary Li-MnO 2 cells using DMMP-based electrolyte showed almost the same discharge performances as those using organic carbonate electrolytes, and also, Li-LiMn 2O 4 cells using DMMP electrolyte exhibited greatly improved cycleability and dischargeability, suggesting a feasible application of this new electrolyte for constructing high performance and non-flammable lithium batteries.

  14. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  20. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  1. Microgravity Flammability of PMMA Rods in Concurrent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity experiments burning cast PMMA cylindrical rods in axial flow have been conducted aboard the International Space Station in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility using the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) flow duct, as part of the BASS-II experiment. Twenty-four concurrent-flow tests were performed, focusing on finding flammability limits as a function of oxygen and flow speed. The oxygen was varied by using gaseous nitrogen to vitiate the working volume of the MSG. The speed of the flow parallel to the rod was varied using a fan at the entrance to the duct. Both blowoff and quenching limits were obtained at several oxygen concentrations. Each experiment ignited the rod at the initially hemispherical stagnation tip of the rod, and allowed the flame to develop and heat the rod at a sufficient flow to sustain burning. For blowoff limit tests, the astronaut quickly turned up the flow to obtain extinction. Complementary 5.18-second Zero Gravity Facility drop tests were conducted to compare blowoff limits in short and long duration microgravity. For quenching tests, the flow was incrementally turned down and the flame allowed to stabilize at the new flow condition for at least the solid-phase response time before changing it again. Quenching was observed when the flow became sufficiently weak that the flame could no longer provide adequate heat flux to compensate for the heat losses (conduction into the rod and radiation). A surface energy balance is presented that shows the surface radiative loss exceeds the conductive loss into the rod near the limit. The flammability boundary is shown to represent a critical Damkohler number, expressed in terms of the reaction rate divided by the stretch rate. For the blowoff branch, the boundary exhibits a linear dependence on oxygen concentration and stretch rate, indicating that the temperature at blowoff must be fairly constant. For the quenching branch, the dominance of the exponential nature of

  2. Explosion characteristics of flammable organic vapors in nitrous oxide atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Takigawa, Tomihisa; Matsuoka, Yusaku; Ohtani, Hideo

    2010-11-15

    Despite unexpected explosion accidents caused by nitrous oxide have occurred, few systematic studies have been reported on explosion characteristics of flammable gases in nitrous oxide atmosphere compared to those in air or oxygen. The objective of this paper is to characterize explosion properties of mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with nitrous oxide and nitrogen using three parameters: explosion limit, peak explosion pressure, and time to the peak explosion pressure. Then, similar mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with oxygen and nitrogen were prepared to compare their explosion characteristics with the mixtures containing nitrous oxide. The explosion experiments were performed in a cylindrical vessel at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The measurements showed that explosion ranges of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were narrow compared to those of the mixtures containing oxygen. On the other hand, the maximum explosion pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were higher than those of the mixtures containing oxygen. Moreover, our experiments revealed that these mixtures differed in equivalence ratios at which the maximum explosion pressures were observed: the pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were observed at stoichiometry; in contrast, those of the mixtures containing oxygen were found at fuel-rich area. Chemical equilibrium calculations confirmed these behaviors.

  3. The USML-1 wire insulation flammability glovebox experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Flame spreading tests have been conducted using thin fuels in microgravity where buoyant convection is suppressed. In spacecraft experiments flames were ignited in quiescent atmospheres with an elevated oxygen content, demonstrating that diffusional mechanisms can be sufficient alone to sustain flame spreading. In ground-based facilities (i.e. drop towers and parabolic aircraft) low-speed convection sustains flames at much lower concentrations of atmospheric oxygen than in quiescent microgravity. Ground-based experiments are limited to very thin fuels (e.g., tissue paper); practical fuels, which are thicker, require more test time than is available. The Glovebox Facility provided for the USML 1 mission provided an opportunity to obtain flame spreading data for thicker fuel Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility. This experiment explored the heating, ignition and burning of 0.65 mm thick polyethylene wire insulation in low-speed flows in a reduced gravity environment. Four tests were conducted, two each in concurrent flow (WIF A and C) and opposed flow (WIF B and D), providing the first demonstration of flame spreading in controlled forced convection conducted in space.

  4. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  5. A New Screening Method for Methane in Soil Gas Using Existing Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane in soil gas may have undesirable consequences. The soil gas may be able to form a flammable mixture with air and present an explosion hazard. Aerobic biodegradation of the methane in soil gas may consume oxygen that would otherwise be available for biodegradation of gasol...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  11. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  12. Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials - Method to Determine the Flammability Thresholds of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety emphasizes fire prevention, which is achieved primarily through the use of fire-resistant materials. Materials selection for spacecraft is based on conventional flammability acceptance tests, along with prescribed quantity limitations and configuration control for items that are non-pass or questionable. ISO 14624-1 and -2 are the major methods used to evaluate flammability of polymeric materials intended for use in the habitable environments of spacecraft. The methods are upward flame-propagation tests initiated in static environments and using a well-defined igniter flame at the bottom of the sample. The tests are conducted in the most severe flaming combustion environment expected in the spacecraft. The pass/fail test logic of ISO 14624-1 and -2 does not allow a quantitative comparison with reduced gravity or microgravity test results; therefore their use is limited, and possibilities for in-depth theoretical analyses and realistic estimates of spacecraft fire extinguishment requirements are practically eliminated. To better understand the applicability of laboratory test data to actual spacecraft environments, a modified ISO 14624 protocol has been proposed that, as an alternative to qualifying materials as pass/fail in the worst-expected environments, measures the actual upward flammability limit for the material. A working group established by NASA to provide recommendations for exploration spacecraft internal atmospheres realized the importance of correlating laboratory data with real-life environments and recommended NASA to develop a flammability threshold test method. The working group indicated that for the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extravehicular landers and habitats

  13. Species mixture effects on flammability across plant phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size and the special role for non-Pinus Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Cornwell, William K; van Pomeren, Marinda; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-11-01

    Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability. We conducted controlled laboratory burns for 34 phylogenetically wide-ranging species and 34 random two-species mixtures from them. Generally, phylogenetic distance did not predict species mixture effects on flammability. Across the plant phylogeny, most species were flammable except those in the non-Pinus Pinaceae, which shed small needles producing dense, poorly ventilated litterbeds above the packing threshold and therefore nonflammable. Consistently, either positive or negative dominance effects on flammability of certain flammable or those non-flammable species were found in mixtures involving the non-Pinus Pinaceae. We demonstrate litter particle size is key to explaining species nonadditivity in fuelbed flammability. The potential of certain species to influence fire disproportionately to their abundance might increase the positive feedback effects of plant flammability on community flammability state if flammable species are favored by fire.

  14. Fire safety in space - beyond flammability testing of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Niehaus, Justin; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Legros, Guillaume; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; T`ien, James S.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2015-04-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.

  15. Wire Insulation Flammability Experiment: USML-1 One Year Post Mission Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility on the USML-1 mission. This experiment explored various aspects of electrically induced fire scenarios in a reduced gravity environment. Under quiescent microgravity conditions, heat and mass transfer are dominated by diffusive and radiative transport; while in normal-gravity buoyancy induced convection often dominates. Of considerable scientific and practical interest is the intermediate situation of combustion occurring in the presence of imposed gas flows, with lower characteristic velocities than those induced by buoyancy in noma1 gravity. Two distinct cases naturally arise: flow direction opposed to, or concurrent with, the flame spread direction. Two tests of each kind were conducted in the WIF experiment, providing the first controlled demonstration of flame spreading in forced convection ever conducted in space. Four test modules were flown. The wire insulation, 1.5 mm in diameter, was polyethylene, extruded onto nichrome wire. Temperatures of the wh3 cores and insulation heated in quiescent and flowing environments were measured. Video and still-camera images of the samples, burning in air flowing at approximately 10 cm/sec, were recorded to obtain flame characteristics including spread rate, structure and temperature. Flame spread rates in concurrent flow were approximately twice those in opposed flow. In concurrent and opposed flow regimes, the spreading flames stabilized around a bead of molten insulation material, within which bubble nucleation was observed. An ignition attempt without flow mated a quiescent cloud of vaporized fuel which ignited dramatically yet failed to sustain normal flame spread. Finally, all tests produced substantial soot agglomerates, particularly the concurrent flow tests; and the collected soot has a morphology very distinct from soot formed in normal gravity flames. Several unexpected and unique microgravity

  16. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation Tests on Material from Tanks 241-U-103, 241-AW-101, 241-S-106, and 241-S-102: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Bryan, S.A.

    1999-06-17

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic flammable gas generation in actual Hanford single-shell tank wastes. The work described was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support DE&S Hanford (DESH) and Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies performed by Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company). This report describes the results of laboratory tests of gas generation from actual convective layer wastes from Tank 241-U-103 under thermal and radiolytic conditions. Accurate measurements of gas generation rates from highly radioactive tank wastes are needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the tanks. The gas generation capacity of the waste in Tank 241-U-103 is a high priority for the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for accumulating gases above the flammability limit (Johnson et al, 1997). The objective of this work was to establish the composition of gaseous degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The gas generation tests on Tank 241-U-103 samples focused first on the effect of temperature on the composition and rate of gas generation Generation rates of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and hydrogen increased with temperature, and the composition of the product gas mixture varied with temperature.

  17. A preliminary study on the thermal conductivity and flammability of WPC based on some tropical woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, L. H. L.; Chua, P. H.; Lee, E. E. N.

    Selected local woods and their wood-polymer combinations or composites (WPC) were tested for their thermal conductivity and their fire resistance. WPC were prepared by polymerizing monomers " in situ" in oven dried woods by gamma radiation. The monomers included acrylonitrile (AN), 60% styrene-40% acrylonitrile (STAN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 95% methyl methacrylate —5% dioxane (MD), and vinylidene chloride (VDC). A reduction in thermal conductivity was exhibited by all the composites prepared. W-PAN showed the greatest reduction in thermal conductivity and W-PSTAN in general showed the least. An explanation is suggested for this behaviour. The polymers PMMA and PMD were found to enhance flammability of the woods while PVDC, PAN, and PSTAN imparted fire resistance to the woods. Of the six local woods studied, Ramin-and-Keruing-polymer composites showed the highest flammable tendencies obtained. The correlation of thermal conductivity to flammability is discussed.

  18. Experimental exploration of discrepancies in F-number correlation of flammability limits.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2003-06-27

    Flammability limits measurement has been made by ASHRAE method for some 20 kinds of combustible gases and vapors. These compounds have been selected mainly because the literature values of flammability limits are not consistent with the F-number calculated ones [J. Hazard. Mater. A 82 (2001) 113]. As a result, it has been found that the newly obtained values of flammable range are classified into three groups. For the first group of compounds, the present values agree well to the literature values. For the second group, the present values do not agree to the literature values but agree with the calculated ones. For the third group ones, the present values neither agree to the literature values nor to the calculated ones. There are 4, 13, and 6 compounds in the respective groups.

  19. Experimental study of lean flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures in tubes of different diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Y.L.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2010-04-15

    Lean limit flames in methane/hydrogen/air mixtures propagating in tubes of internal diameters (ID) of 6.0, 8.9, 12.3, 18.4, 25.2, 35.0, and 50.2 mm have been experimentally studied. The flames propagated upward from the open bottom end of the tube to the closed upper end. The content of hydrogen in the fuel gas has been varied in the range 0-40 mol%. Lean flammability limits have been determined; flame shapes recorded and the visible speed of flame propagation measured. Most of the observed limit flames in tubes with diameters in the range of 8.9-18.4 mm had enclosed shape, and could be characterized as distorted or spherical flame balls. The tendency was observed for mixtures with higher hydrogen content to form smaller size, more uniform flame balls in a wider range of tube diameters. At hydrogen content of 20% or more in the fuel gas, limit flames in largest diameters (35.0 mm and 50.2 mm ID) tubes had small, compared to the tube diameter, size and were ''lens''-shaped. ''Regular'' open-front lean limit flames were observed only for the smallest diameters (6.0 mm and 8.9 mm) and largest diameters (35.0 and 50.2 mm ID), and only for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures, except for 6 mm ID tube in which all limit flames had open front. In all experiments, except for the lean limit flames in methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures in the 8.9 mm ID tube, and all limit flames in 6.0 mm ID tube, visible flame speeds very weakly depended on the hydrogen content in the fuel gas and were close to- or below the theoretical estimate of the speed of a rising hot bubble. This observation suggests that the buoyancy is the major factor which determines the visible flame speed for studied limit flames, except that last mentioned. A decrease of the lean flammability limit value with decreasing the tube diameter was observed for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures for tubes having internal diameters in the range

  20. Processing and Characterization of Flame Retardant Cotton Blend Nonwovens for Soft Furnishings to Meet Federal Flammability Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective July 1, 2007, it is mandatory that all mattress sets meet the federal flammability standard CFR 1633. It is necessary to impart flame resistance that would provide at least 30 minutes for occupants to escape fire. Changes in the flammability laws are expected on soft furnishings of sleep ...

  1. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of approval... Flammability of Clothing Textiles (16 CFR Part 1610) and the Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl...

  2. An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

  3. Will elevated CO2 alter fuel characteristics and flammability of eucalypt woodlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Luke; Resco, Victor; Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross; Sawyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings, potentially resulting in increased woody plant abundance i.e. woody thickening. Changes to vegetation structure via woody thickening, as well as changes to vegetation properties (e.g. leaf characteristics and moisture content), may have important implications for ecosystem flammability and fire regimes. Understanding how elevated CO2 alters flammability and fire regimes will have implications for ecosystem dynamics, particularly carbon sequestration and emissions. We present data from Free Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) and whole tree growth chamber (WTC) experiments to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on fuel properties and flammability of eucalypt woodlands. Experiments involved ambient (˜400 ppm) and elevated CO2treatments, with elevated treatments being +150 ppm and +240 ppm at EucFACE and the WTCs respectively. We examined the response of vegetation parameters known to influence ecosystem flammability, namely (i) understorey vegetation characteristics (ii) understorey fuel moisture and (iii) leaf flammability. Understorey growth experiments at EucFACE using seedlings of two common woody species (Hakea sericia, Eucalyptus tereticornis) indicate that elevated CO2 did not influence stem and leaf biomass, height or crown dimensions of seedlings after 12 months exposure to experimental treatments. Temporal changes to understorey live fuel moisture were assessed at EucFACE over an 18 month period using time lapse cameras. Understorey vegetation greenness was measured daily from digital photos using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC), an index that is highly correlated with live fuel moisture (R2 = 0.90). GCC and rates of greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2, though they were highly responsive to soil moisture availability and temperature. This suggests that there is limited potential for elevated CO2 to alter

  4. Lean flammability limit as a fundamental refrigerant property. Phase 1, Interim technical report, 1 October 1994--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Womeldorf, C.; King, M.; Grosshandler, W.

    1995-03-31

    Due to the ozone-depleting effects of commonly used chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, safe environmentally-friendly replacements must be found. HFC-32 (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}) and other hydrochlorofluorocarbons are potential candidates; however, in contrast with the CFCs, many of these compounds are flammable. Testing the flammability limits of these hydrochlorofluorocarbons using traditional ASTM E-681 methods has produced a range of limits depending upon the vessel and ignition source used. This project demonstrates the feasibility of defining a fundamental flammability limit of HFC-32, that occurs at the limit of a zero strain rate and is independent of ignition source. Using a counterflow twin-flame burner to define extinction points for different strain rates, an extrapolation to zero strain rate is performed. Using this technique, preliminary results on the lean flammability limit of HFC-32 and the critical flammability ratio of HFC-125 (C{sub 2}HF{sub 5}) in ETC-32 are reported.

  5. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zheng

    2010-12-15

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  6. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Explosion protection for vehicles intended for the transport of flammable gases and liquids--an investigation into technical and operational basics.

    PubMed

    Förster, Hans; Günther, Werner

    2009-05-30

    In Europe, the transport of flammable gases and liquids in tanks has been impacted by new developments: for example, the introduction of the vapour-balancing technique on a broad scale and the steady increase in the application of electronic components with their own power sources; furthermore, new regulatory policies like the ATEX Directives are being enforced in the European Union. With this background in mind, the present investigation aims to provide a basis for future developments of the relevant explosion protection regulations in the safety codes for the transport of dangerous goods (RID/ADR). Specifically, the concentration of gas in the air was measured under various practical conditions while tank vehicles were being loaded with flammable gases or liquids. These spot-test data were supplemented by systematic investigations at a road tanker placed in our test field. With respect to non-electrical ignition sources, a closer investigation of the effect of hot surfaces was carried out. With regard to improving the current regulations, the results of our investigation show that it would be reasonable to implement a stronger differentiation of the characteristics of the dangerous goods (gaseous/liquid, flashpoint) on the one hand and of the techniques applied (loading with and without vapour-balancing system) on the other hand. Conclusions for the further development of the current international regulations are proposed.

  9. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  10. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  11. 46 CFR 132.390 - Added requirements for carriage of flammable or combustible cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Added requirements for carriage of flammable or combustible cargo. 132.390 Section 132.390 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.390 Added requirements for...

  12. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposed end shall describe an arc with a radius of 4 inches ±1/8 inch. The cycling device shall be... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  13. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS Test Requirements § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation...

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55 Section 58.01-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M Appendix M to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to...

  16. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... solids and oxidizing materials used as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  2. Flammability, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures. Interim NASA Technical Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This Interim Standard establishes requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials that are intended for use in space vehicles, associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE), and facilities used during assembly, test, and flight operations. Included are requirements, criteria, and test methods for evaluating the flammability, offgassing, and compatibility of materials.

  3. Fire in Your Life: A Catalog of Flammable Products & Ignition Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    To reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused by fires, this catalog (which is part of the Hap and Hazard Series) gives information about typical accident patterns and about the safest way to purchase, use, store, maintain, and dispose of flammable products. As a reference source, it is intended for use in formal teaching situations as well…

  4. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  5. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  6. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  7. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  8. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  9. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  10. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to Part... paragraph may be shown using only those flights for which the airplane is dispatched with the flammability... FRM meets the requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix with any airplane or...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to Part... paragraph may be shown using only those flights for which the airplane is dispatched with the flammability... FRM meets the requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix with any airplane or...

  13. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  14. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  15. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  16. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  17. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) gas generation from N-Fuel in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    During the conversion from wet pool storage for spent nuclear fuel at Hanford, gases will be generated from both radiolysis and chemical reactions. The gas generation phenomenon needs to be understood as it applies to safety and design issues,specifically over pressurization of sealed storage containers,and detonation/deflagration of flammable gases. This study provides an initial basis to predict the implications of gas generation on the proposed functional processes for spent nuclear fuel conversion from wet to dry storage. These projections are based upon examination of the history of fuel manufacture at Hanford, irradiation in the reactors, corrosion during wet pool storage, available fuel characterization data and available information from literature. Gas generation via radiolysis and metal corrosion are addressed. The study examines gas generation, the boundary conditions for low medium and high levels of sludge in SNF storage/processing containers. The functional areas examined include: flooded and drained Multi-Canister Overpacks, cold vacuum drying, shipping and staging and long term storage.

  19. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 2: Rotary-mode sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Poston, D.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Witwer, K.S.

    1997-08-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds. The waste can produce undesired violent exothermic reactions when heated locally during the rotary-mode sampling. Experiments are performed varying the downward force at a maximum rotational speed of 55 rpm and minimum nitrogen purge flow of 30 scfm. The rotary drill bit teeth-face temperatures are measured. The waste is simulated with a low thermal conductivity hard material, pumice blocks. A torque meter is used to determine the energy provided to the drill string. The exhaust air-chip temperature as well as drill string and drill bit temperatures and other key operating parameters were recorded. A two-dimensional thermal model is developed. The safe operating conditions were determined for normal operating conditions. A downward force of 750 at 55 rpm and 30 scfm nitrogen purge flow was found to yield acceptable substrate temperatures. The model predicted experimental results reasonably well. Therefore, it could be used to simulate abnormal conditions to develop procedures for safe operations.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... combination of those which result in longer predicted downwind dispersion distances than other weather conditions at the site at least 90 percent of the time, based on figures maintained by National Weather Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an alternative where the model used gives...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combination of those which result in longer predicted downwind dispersion distances than other weather conditions at the site at least 90 percent of the time, based on figures maintained by National Weather Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an alternative where the model used gives...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combination of those which result in longer predicted downwind dispersion distances than other weather conditions at the site at least 90 percent of the time, based on figures maintained by National Weather Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an alternative where the model used gives...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... combination of those which result in longer predicted downwind dispersion distances than other weather conditions at the site at least 90 percent of the time, based on figures maintained by National Weather Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an alternative where the model used gives...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combination of those which result in longer predicted downwind dispersion distances than other weather conditions at the site at least 90 percent of the time, based on figures maintained by National Weather Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an alternative where the model used gives...

  5. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  6. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  7. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  10. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  11. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  12. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  13. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  14. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  15. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  16. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-04-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required.

  17. Lean flammability limit as a fundamental refrigerant property: Phase 2. Interim technical report, 1 April 1995--30 March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Womeldorf, C.; Grosshandler, W.

    1996-04-30

    The flammability of alternative, non-ozone depleting refrigerants is an issue of growing importance to the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry. Test methods developed decades ago are being stretched to their limits when measuring the combustion behavior of weakly flammable refrigerants. This work is Phase 2 of a three part project to determine the feasibility, accuracy, and applicability of a premixed opposed-flow burner as an alternative means of measuring lean flammability limits. In this work, the Phase 2 burner demonstrates the precision available to the opposed-flow technique for evaluating the lean flammability limit of weak fuels. Using opposed, converging nozzles, two jets support a premixed twin flame at different global strain rates and permit evaluation of the corresponding fuel concentration at the extinction point. Comparisons with published data support that the LFL{sub 0}, a lean flammability limit value defined by the extrapolation of the extinction conditions to zero global strain, yields a consistent value. Using a computer simulation to analyze the uncertainty, the lean flammability limit of refrigerants in dry air is found. Concurrent computational modeling of the combustion of refrigerants in air, individually and in mixtures has been performed with the chemical kinetics code CHEMKIN. Estimates of the impact of the initial conditions (equivalence ratio, fuel composition, temperature, and relative humidity) on the magnitude of the laminar flame speed of a zero strain flame are made.

  18. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  19. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  20. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis. [Advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M. )

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.