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Sample records for address food safety

  1. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Quality and safety aspects of food products addressing the needs of pregnant women and infants.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Heck, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a primary concern for pregnant women and infants as the immune system is weakened during pregnancy and not developed enough in infants, which makes them especially vulnerable to suffering from the negative effects of nonquality food products. However, food contaminations not only affect an individual's health but also a country's economic development, social harmony, food trade and even politics, as seen during the Chinese infant formula crisis in 2008. Thus, quality control is crucial in the production processes in order to have safe food products on the market. But quality control alone is not enough: manufacturers must embrace quality beyond classic in-process parameters and perform a final microbiological analysis at the end of the production process. This requires a clear and trustworthy approach to quality and safety and the involvement of all stakeholders from industry, government and academia over policy makers to consumers. This paper provides an introductory context for current quality management systems and gives real-life examples of challenges that manufacturers face during quality management and control throughout the production process.

  3. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer.

  4. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  5. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  6. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  7. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals, produce, and chips. When buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration ... your cart. Separate any raw meat, fish, or poultry from vegetables, fruit, and other foods you'll ...

  8. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  9. Food safety considerations for innovative nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cohn, Marjorie Nolan; Farber, Jeffrey M; Harris, Linda J; Roberts, Tanya; Salin, Victoria; Singh, Manpreet; Jaferi, Azra; Sperber, William H

    2015-07-01

    Failure to secure safe and affordable food to the growing global population leads far too often to disastrous consequences. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. It is an open question whether future food safety concerns will shift in priority given the imperatives to supply sufficient food. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition.

  10. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  11. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  12. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  13. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  14. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... many of us call "food poisoning" -- the experts call it foodborne illness. We'll look at: How Times Have Changed Why Some People Face Special Risks Recognizing Foodborne Illness Food Safety at Home A Cooking Temperature Chart Refrigerator Storage Chart Special Foods, Special Advice ...

  15. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Fires and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  16. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  17. Food Safety Education Using Music Parodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.; Fraser, Angela M.; Gleason, Jeanne B.; Hovey, Susan K.; McCurdy, Sandra M.; Snider, O. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Musical parodies of contemporary songs with their lyrics altered to address current food safety issues were incorporated into a variety of food safety educational programs and the effectiveness of the music was evaluated by semiquantitative and qualitative measures. Audiences receiving the music-enriched curricula included school foodservice…

  18. Food safety knowledge retention study.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Nyall; Shaw, Keara

    2009-02-01

    Foodborne illness in Canada is an ongoing burden for public health and the economy. Many foodborne illnesses result from improper food handling practices. If food handlers had a greater knowledge of what causes foodborne illness, perhaps these illnesses would have less of an impact on society. This study gave researchers the opportunity to examine the current food safety knowledge of food handlers by using a standardized questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed by environmental health officers to food handlers working in the food service industry during on-site inspections, and responses were used to evaluate immediate knowledge of key food safety issues. Both certified and noncertified food handlers were evaluated. Information also was collected on the number of years since food safety certification was achieved and the number of years experience noncertified food handlers had in the food service industry. Results indicated that certified food handlers had a greater knowledge of food safety information than did noncertified food handlers. The highest failure rates were observed among noncertified food handlers with more than 10 years of experience and less than 1 year of experience. The results support the need for mandatory food safety certification for workers in the food service industry and for recertification at least every 10 years. Although the study was not sufficiently rigorous to evaluate existing food safety courses, data collected provided valuable insight into what issues should be emphasized in existing food safety courses and which should be targeted by future food safety initiatives.

  19. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  20. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart.

  1. [Dioxins and food safety].

    PubMed

    Struciński, Paweł; Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Jadwiga; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Warenik-Bany, Małgorzata; Maszewski, Sebastian; Czaja, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Among numerous potential chemical food contaminants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, collectively referred as dioxins, are commonly considered as bearing substantial risk for human health due to their toxicological properties, persistency and ability to bioaccumulate in food chains. The results of epidemiological studies suggest that environmental exposure to these compounds may affect multiple physiological processes in humans, mainly by the mechanism of endocrine disruption. Adverse health effects linked to the long-term exposure to dioxins include the increase of cancer risk, reproductive and developmental impairment as well as effects on immune functions. Exposure through food (mainly of animal origin) is the major source of dioxin exposure for humans, estimated to account for about 95% of the total intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. Recent studies showed that a consistent part of the European population has an intake exceeding internationally agreed "safe" doses as the Tolerable Daily or Weekly Intake (TDI, TWI). It is worthy to note that percentage of persons with estimated dioxin intake above tolerable limits is much higher among children than in adults. Since the "Belgian dioxin crisis" that occurred in 1999, the estimation of human exposure to these compounds and related consumer risk assessment has been recognized in the European Union as one of the priority activities in the field of food safety. Among activities undertaken by the European Commission during implementation of the Community Strategy for dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls the maximum and action levels have been established with random monitoring by Member States. The legislation on the requirements for sampling and methods of analysis used in the official control laboratories has been set up as well. Member States are obliged to measure background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in defined food

  2. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  3. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU.

  4. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  5. [Nanotechnology and food safety].

    PubMed

    Baltes, Muriel H

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnology has a very broad scope with numerous opportunities. This is particularly true as far as the food sector is concerned. In addition to being used to enhance the safety and attractiveness of foodstuffs as well as their health value, nanotechnology can be imple mented to increase their shelf life and to create new flavours. The appearance of this new technology and its use raise the question of the risks involved in exposing the body to nanoparticles. In this report, the Superior Health Council discusses the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. It also looks at the evaluation of these risks as well as the recommendations that need to be made whilst awaiting in-depth studies on the subject, especially in the field of metrology.

  6. Food Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clostridium Perfringens (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Games Food Detectives: Fight Bac (Partnership for Food Safety Education) Also in Spanish Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) ...

  7. Big data in food safety; an overview.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Hans J P; Janssen, Esmée M; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Staats, Martijn

    2016-11-07

    Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects. This policy opens new opportunities for stakeholders dealing with food safety to address issues which were not possible before. Application of mobile phones as detection devices for food safety and the use of social media as early warning of food safety problems are a few examples of the new developments that are possible due to big data.

  8. Introduction to Preharvest Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Torrence, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies. Examples include Escherichia coli and cattle, Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry, and interventions and prevention and control programs. The section on "nontraditional" preharvest food safety areas brings attention to potential emerging food safety issues and to future food safety research directions. These include organic production, the FDA's Produce Rule (water and manure), genomic sequencing, antimicrobial resistance, and performance metrics. The concluding section emphasizes important themes such as strategic planning, coordination, epidemiology, and the need for understanding food safety production as a continuum. Food safety research, whether at the pre- or postharvest level, will continue to be a fascinating complex web of foodborne pathogens, risk factors, and scientific and policy interactions. Food safety priorities and research must continue to evolve with emerging global issues, emerging technologies, and methods but remain grounded in a multidisciplinary, collaborative, and systematic approach.

  9. Economic Issues on Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Felice; Di Pasquale, Jorgelina; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-18

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  10. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  11. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

  12. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  13. Food safety: revising the statute.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A

    1984-03-09

    There is increasing recognition that federal food safety laws and policies need to be revised. Congressional debate on proposed amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has generated several different perspectives on how the food safety laws should be changed. Before a consensus can be reached, scientists, regulators, the food industry, and consumers will have to review such complex and controversial issues as the level of acceptable risk, the value of risk-benefit analysis, the proper role of independent scientific review, and the reliability of quantitative risk assessment.

  14. Africa: addressing growing threats to food security.

    PubMed

    Rukuni, Mandivamba

    2002-11-01

    Africa remains the only region in the world where the number of hungry people will still be on the increase in 2020, and the number of malnourished children will have increased correspondingly. In this report I have acknowledged the general public policy trends across Africa in terms of macroeconomic policy reforms and political transitions. These welcome trends have to still produce stable nations and economies. Although economic development is the long-term solution to Africa's challenge on hunger and poverty, this will take time. And it follows therefore that African nations have to pursue policies and strategies that promote long-term growth while at the same time offering short-term safety nets for the poorest of the poor. The growth and development strategy will have at its core the need to increase significantly the levels of public-sector investment in agriculture and rural development and to give top priority to the commercialization of smallholder agriculture so as to increase productivity and competitiveness. But food security at the household level is ultimately a balance between availability and access, and in this regard governments need complementary food security policies that increase the probability of food access by the vulnerable groups.

  15. Emerging issues in improving food and physical activity environments: strategies for addressing land use, transportation, and safety in 3 California-wide initiatives.

    PubMed

    Aboelata, Manal J; Navarro, Amanda M

    2010-11-01

    Mounting research has suggested linkages between neighborhood safety, community design, and transportation patterns and eating and activity behaviors and health outcomes. On the basis of a review of evaluation findings from 3 multisite healthy eating and activity initiatives in California, we provide an overview of 3 community process strategies-engaging local advocates, linking safety to health, and collaborating with local government officials-that may be associated with the successful development and implementation of long-term community-improvement efforts and should be explored further.

  16. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  17. Food safety training for nutritionists.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. S.; Cox, L. J.; Gross, R.; Käferstein, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. PMID:10083718

  18. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... thousands of callers to the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline aren't sure about the safety of ... mayonnaise, cream sauce and lettuce. Raw meat and poultry maintain their quality longer than their cooked counterparts ...

  19. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... refrigerated. A large cut of meat or whole poultry should be divided into smaller pieces or placed ... safe for storage of any food. Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be in a sealed container ...

  20. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed.

  1. Risk control and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms of the Joint Panel on Toxic Microorganisms, US-Japan Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources (UJNR), was held March 4-9, 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. Having the theme "Risk Control and Food Safety," it was the most re...

  2. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  3. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  5. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  6. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  7. Food Safety: Is Your Kitchen Clean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jastrow, Susie; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes the safety of the U.S. food supply, discusses the causes of food-borne illness, and provides a food-safety checklist for child-care centers that covers safe food shopping, storage, preparation, serving, and clean-up. (KB)

  8. Microbial food safety - modeling and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety is a key issue for the food processing industry, and enhancing food safety is everyone’s responsibility from food producers to consumers. Financial losses to the economy due to foodborne illness are in the billions of dollars, annually. Foodborne illness can be caused by patho...

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Bonnie L; Perkin, Judy E

    2003-09-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among dietetics professionals, academics, representatives of the agriculture and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technologic innovation and applications, and supporting further research. Numerous bacterial, viral, and chemical food and water threats exist with certain populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, those in institutionalized settings, and the immune compromised being at high risk. Recent outbreaks of food and waterborne disease and threats of bioterrorism have focused attention on the safety of US food and water systems. The US government and other entities have developed programs to address challenges associated with maintaining food and water safety. Safety initiatives such as the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Point (HACCP), revisions to the Food Code, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations provide a framework to evaluate current and future challenges to the safety of food and water systems. Dietetics professionals should take a proactive role in ensuring that appropriate food and water safety practices are followed and can also assume major roles in food and water safety education and research.

  10. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  11. The Contribution of Food Safety Management Systems to the Prevention of Deliberate Food Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Madeleine

    Food Safety Management systems such as HACCP can help to prevent deliberate contamination of food. These systems are widely used already by the food industry to prevent accidental contamination. This makes them an attractive and cost effective way to address the issue of deliberate contamination.

  12. Safety Matters: How One District Addressed Safety Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Ethan; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Moore, Lucas; McClellan, Craig; Friebel, Carl

    2007-01-01

    As a result of Columbine and other events, states and districts across the United States have responded with vigor to a call for a renewed focus on school safety. This paper examined one such effort undertaken by Harrison County Public Schools, located in West Virginia. The district received federal funding for surveillance equipment used to…

  13. Ethnic-food safety concerns: an online survey of food safety professionals.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Whitney A; Kaneene, John B; DeArman, Vanessa T; Roberts, Cynthia A; Miller, Roseann; Pong, Lawrence; Dickey, Thomas E

    2006-06-01

    As ethnic foods become increasingly available in food establishments across the United States, food safety professionals are increasingly required to evaluate the safety of foods unfamiliar to them. The purpose of the study reported here was to conduct an online survey of food safety professionals that would 1) identify the types of ethnic foods with which food safety professionals were unfamiliar and for which they lacked adequate food safety information, 2) describe ethnic-food safety concerns related to food establishments, and 3) describe the ethnic-food resources currently used by food safety professionals. The study found that food safety professionals throughout the United States encountered a variety of ethnic-food establishments and ethnic foods for which they lacked ethnic-food safety resources, especially at the local level. Therefore, it will be important to identify unsafe food-handling practices in ethnic-food establishments, develop science-based guidelines for ethnic-food safety inspections, and distribute culturally appropriate educational materials for ethnic-food safety inspections.

  14. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    PubMed

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods-a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  15. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  16. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  17. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  18. Study Finds Consumer Food Safety Knowledge Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Sandria; Coppings, Richard; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Pearson, Lou

    2005-01-01

    Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…

  19. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  20. A Dividend in Food Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When NASA faced the problem of how and what to feed an astronaut in a sealed capsule under weightless conditions while planning for manned space mission, they enlisted the aid of The Pillsbury Company. There were two principal concerns: barring crumbs of food that might contaminate the spacecraft's atmosphere or float their way into sensitive instruments; and assuring absolute freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria and toxins. Pillsbury quickly solved the first concern, but the other part of the problem was not as easy. They found that with using standard methods, there was no way to be assured there would not be any bacteria. It was concluded that the only way to succeed was to establish control over the entire process, the raw materials, the processing environment and the people involved. Pillsbury developed the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. The HACCP is designed to prevent food safety problems rather than to catch them after they have occurred. Three other government agencies are taking preliminary steps toward extending HACCP to meat/poultry and seafood inspection operations. Today, Pillsbury plants are still operating under HACCP.

  1. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.

  2. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  3. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-08

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain.

  4. Nanotechnology: its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Dingman, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in the food safety industry is here-and if projections are correct, it will continue to grow rapidly over the next few years. Its potential for providing safer and more nutritious foods is important; however, there are still many uncertainties about the technology and its applications. We must make sure that the technology is safe and properly regulated to ensure maximum food safety and personal health protection.

  5. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  6. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  7. Evaluation of food safety education for consumers.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L; Hillers, V; Kendall, P; Mason, A

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, nutrition educators have used a fairly global approach to teach food safety by teaching a broad range of safe food handling behaviors in the expectation that this will lead to the avoidance of foodborne illness. This approach can be confusing and lead to evaluation data that are difficult to interpret. This article suggests that food safety education and evaluation in the future be organized around five behavioral constructs: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid food from unsafe sources. These five constructs are derived from data on actual outbreaks and estimated incidences of foodborne illness. Research is needed to establish reliable and valid evaluation measures for these five behavioral constructs. Evaluation instruments can be tailored to fit specific education programs. If evaluation instruments focus on these five behavior areas, the result will be meaningful evaluation data that can be more easily summarized across food safety education programs for consumers.

  8. Proteomics in food: Quality, safety, microbes, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Piras, Cristian; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Bonizzi, Luigi; Soggiu, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Food safety and quality and their associated risks pose a major concern worldwide regarding not only the relative economical losses but also the potential danger to consumer's health. Customer's confidence in the integrity of the food supply could be hampered by inappropriate food safety measures. A lack of measures and reliable assays to evaluate and maintain a good control of food characteristics may affect the food industry economy and shatter consumer confidence. It is imperative to create and to establish fast and reliable analytical methods that allow a good and rapid analysis of food products during the whole food chain. Proteomics can represent a powerful tool to address this issue, due to its proven excellent quantitative and qualitative drawbacks in protein analysis. This review illustrates the applications of proteomics in the past few years in food science focusing on food of animal origin with some brief hints on other types. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this science as a valuable tool to assess food quality and safety. Emphasis is also posed in food processing, allergies, and possible contaminants like bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens.

  9. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  10. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  11. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the types of food drying? Why is temperature important when drying meat and poultry jerky? Why ... first? Is jerky safe when stored at room temperature? How is salt used to make food shelf ...

  12. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match ...

  13. Future challenges to microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Brul, Stanley; de Jong, Aarieke; de Jonge, Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2010-05-30

    Despite significant efforts by all parties involved, there is still a considerable burden of foodborne illness, in which micro-organisms play a prominent role. Microbes can enter the food chain at different steps, are highly versatile and can adapt to the environment allowing survival, growth and production of toxic compounds. This sets them apart from chemical agents and thus their study from food toxicology. We summarize the discussions of a conference organized by the Dutch Food and Consumer Products Safety Authority and the European Food Safety Authority. The goal of the conference was to discuss new challenges to food safety that are caused by micro-organisms as well as strategies and methodologies to counter these. Management of food safety is based on generally accepted principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points and of Good Manufacturing Practices. However, a more pro-active, science-based approach is required, starting with the ability to predict where problems might arise by applying the risk analysis framework. Developments that may influence food safety in the future occur on different scales (from global to molecular) and in different time frames (from decades to less than a minute). This necessitates development of new risk assessment approaches, taking the impact of different drivers of change into account. We provide an overview of drivers that may affect food safety and their potential impact on foodborne pathogens and human disease risks. We conclude that many drivers may result in increased food safety risks, requiring active governmental policy setting and anticipation by food industries whereas other drivers may decrease food safety risks. Monitoring of contamination in the food chain, combined with surveillance of human illness and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks and sporadic cases continue to be important sources of information. New approaches in human illness surveillance include the use of molecular markers for

  14. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you are out on the water, the direct sunlight can be an even bigger food safety ... can become dangerous after only 1 hour. In direct sunlight, temperatures can climb even higher than that. ...

  15. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  16. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices.

  17. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  18. College Students and Awareness of Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald; Forsythe, William A., III

    2007-01-01

    Microbial foodborne illnesses are a public health problem in the United States. Americans are patronizing restaurants three or more times a week and college students are frequently employed in food service; therefore, this study assessed compliance with and awareness of food safety recommendations among 460 college students. Compliance was…

  19. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  20. Pet food safety: a shared concern.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large-scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade, this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  1. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  2. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... lettuce. previous continue Preparing and Cooking Raw Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Egg Products Wash your hands with ... before preparing foods and after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, or egg products. Keep raw meats and ...

  3. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk from clones of cattle, swine (pigs), and goats, and the offspring of clones from any species ... composition of food products from cattle, swine, and goat clones, or the offspring of any animal clones, ...

  4. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a guide for retailers. Although many products bear "Sell-By" dates, product dating is not a ... law requiring that package labels of certain foods bear the names of the country or countries where ...

  5. Food Safety for Transplant Recipients

    MedlinePlus

    ... available, wrap it securely, label it to say “DANGER,” and freeze it. • The remaining food may be ... illness and in preventing others from becoming ill. DANGER 3. Save all the packaging materials, such as ...

  6. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... foodborne illnesses from bacteria such as E. coli , Salmonella , Campylobacter , and Listeria (which can cause diarrhea, fever, ... than 2 hours to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection. Thoroughly cook eggs. Never serve foods that ...

  7. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F; Abdussalam, M

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  8. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  9. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  10. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach.

  11. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  12. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product—the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers’ training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  13. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Food safety--who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2006-01-01

    Though scientists believe that issues of risk can be handled without appeal to values in general or ethics in particular, this is demonstrably false. The very notion of risk is enmeshed in a complex of social ethics. This is clearly true with regard to food safety. With this in mind, it is plausible to affirm that responsibility for food safety at a given point in the chain from producer to consumer rests with the person or entity under whose control the management of that risk most plausibly lies. This principle is illustrated with various examples and with clear cases of industry shouldering and avoiding responsibility. An additional ethical concern relevant to food safety arises from genetically modified foods. Given that the situation here is uncertain and risk unknown, it is hard to see who is responsible for managing such risks. It is arguable that this situation militates in favor of labeling, since consumers are in effect research subjects. The reasonable moral approach to risk we have outlined is jeopardized by the societal tendency towards "victimology" and abrogation of personal responsibility. In such a world, it is incumbent on industry to educate the public with regard to consumer minimization of food safety risks, the impossibility of zero-risk situations, and the economic costs to freedom of protectionism.

  15. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  16. Bioluminescence lights the way to food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-07-01

    The food industry is increasingly adopting food safety and quality management systems that are more proactive and preventive than those used in the past which have tended to rely on end product testing and visual inspection. The regulatory agencies in many countries are promoting one such management tool, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), as a way to achieve a safer food supply and as a basis for harmonization of trading standards. Verification that the process is safe must involve microbiological testing but the results need not be generated in real-time. Of all the rapid microbiological tests currently available, the only ones that come close to offering real-time results are bioluminescence-based methods. Recent developments in application of bioluminescence for food safety issues are presented in the paper. These include the use of genetically engineered microorganisms with bioluminescent and fluorescent phenotypes as a real time indicator of physiological state and survival of food-borne pathogens in food and food processing environments as well as novel bioluminescent-based methods for rapid detection of pathogens in food and environmental samples. Advantages and pitfalls of the methods are discussed.

  17. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  18. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  19. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  20. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  1. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  2. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When students pack up for college, they take along the basics-- TV, laptop, MP3 player, and cell phone. Many students will arrive at school with a microwave oven, tabletop grill, mini fridge, and toaster oven in tow. Most students, however, don't know there are food safety considerations when cooking with these appliances. The USDA Meat and…

  3. Modeling and applications in microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is a scientific and systematic approach to study and describe the recurrent events or phenomena with successful application track for decades. When models are properly developed and validated, their applications may save costs and time. For the microbial food safety concerns, ...

  4. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  5. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  6. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined.

  7. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  8. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  9. Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity?

    PubMed

    Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality.

  10. Constraints to addressing food insecurity in protracted crises

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Daniel; Russo, Luca; Alinovi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    A substantial portion of the world's people have not made adequate progress toward overcoming hunger or achieving sustainable livelihoods. The classic approach to addressing chronic food insecurity has been a strategy of agricultural development, supplemented by humanitarian assistance in the event of a shock or crisis—an approach predicated on assumptions that do not fit the context of protracted crises. This article describes protracted crises and argues that they are sufficiently different to warrant special consideration, but there are unique constraints to engagement in protracted crises. The article explores the constraints promoting sustainable livelihoods in these contexts and proposes elements of an alternative approach. It evaluates the limited evidence available about such an approach and outlines important questions for further research. PMID:21646522

  11. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor.

  12. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  13. Bacteriophages and Their Role in Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sillankorva, Sanna M.; Oliveira, Hugo; Azeredo, Joana

    2012-01-01

    The interest for natural antimicrobial compounds has increased due to alterations in consumer positions towards the use of chemical preservatives in foodstuff and food processing surfaces. Bacteriophages fit in the class of natural antimicrobial and their effectiveness in controlling bacterial pathogens in agro-food industry has led to the development of different phage products already approved by USFDA and USDA. The majority of these products are to be used in farm animals or animal products such as carcasses, meats and also in agricultural and horticultural products. Treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases and ultimately promote safe environments in animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. This is an overview of recent work carried out with phages as tools to promote food safety, starting with a general introduction describing the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and bacteriophages and a more detailed discussion on the use of phage therapy to prevent and treat experimentally induced infections of animals against the most common foodborne pathogens, the use of phages as biocontrol agents in foods, and also their use as biosanitizers of food contact surfaces. PMID:23316235

  14. Inside the black box of food safety: a qualitative study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses.

    PubMed

    Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection. Results Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers. Conclusions The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant. So what? Armed with a deeper understanding of the social context surrounding food safety practice, it is anticipated that a more balanced, collaborative mode of food safety health promotion could develop, which could add to the current model of regulation.

  15. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  16. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Systematic Approach to Food Safety Education on the Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Food safety education from farm to end user is essential in the mitigation of food safety concerns associated with fresh produce. Iowa State University developed a multi-disciplinary three-level sequential program ("Know," "Show," "Go") to provide a holistic approach to food safety education. This program provides…

  18. Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge.

  19. Quantitative microbiology: a basis for food safety.

    PubMed Central

    McMeekin, T. A.; Brown, J.; Krist, K.; Miles, D.; Neumeyer, K.; Nichols, D. S.; Olley, J.; Presser, K.; Ratkowsky, D. A.; Ross, T.; Salter, M.; Soontranon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because microorganisms are easily dispersed, display physiologic diversity, and tolerate extreme conditions, they are ubiquitous and may contaminate and grow in many food products. The behavior of microbial populations in foods (growth, survival, or death) is determined by the properties of the food (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and atmosphere). The effect of these properties can be predicted by mathematical models derived from quantitative studies on microbial populations. Temperature abuse is a major factor contributing to foodborne disease; monitoring temperature history during food processing, distribution, and storage is a simple, effective means to reduce the incidence of food poisoning. Interpretation of temperature profiles by computer programs based on predictive models allows informed decisions on the shelf life and safety of foods. In- or on-package temperature indicators require further development to accurately predict microbial behavior. We suggest a basis for a "universal" temperature indicator. This article emphasizes the need to combine kinetic and probability approaches to modeling and suggests a method to define the bacterial growth/no growth interface. Advances in controlling foodborne pathogens depend on understanding the pathogens' physiologic responses to growth constraints, including constraints conferring increased survival capacity. PMID:9366608

  20. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials – such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:25763176

  1. Safety of nanotechnology in food industries.

    PubMed

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it's farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials - such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns.

  2. Restaurant inspection frequency and food safety compliance.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie; Hart, Robert; Hall, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Although food premises are regularly inspected, little information is available on the effect of inspections on compliance records, particularly with respect to the impact of the frequency of inspection on compliance. The following presents the outcome of a study designed to assess the impact of increased inspection frequency on compliance measures in Hamilton, Ontario, in the absence of any other changes to food handler/safety programs or legislation. High-risk food inspection premises were randomly assigned three, four, or five inspections per year. Results indicate that no statistical difference existed in outcome measures based on frequency of inspection. When premises were grouped based on the average time between inspections, premises with greater time between inspections scored better compliance measures relative to premises that were inspected more frequently. The study was also unique for the level of consultation and collaboration sought from the public health inspectors (PHIs) assigned to the Food Safety Program. Their knowledge and experience with respect to the critical variables associated with compliance were a complementary component to the literature review conducted by the research team.

  3. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  4. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... shopping cart, bags, and fridge. • Do not reuse marinades used on raw foods unless you bring them ... the fridge - Under cold water - In the microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety ...

  5. Rights-based approaches to addressing food poverty and food insecurity in Ireland and UK.

    PubMed

    Dowler, Elizabeth A; O'Connor, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue needs to be located within a social justice framework. Recognising the clear interdependence between the right to food and the right to health, this paper explores how international human rights obligations could inform approaches to addressing food poverty and insecurity with specific reference to Ireland and the UK. Little attention has been paid to how countries should meet their obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to food in developed countries. The paper contributes by examining the social and policy circumstances which inhibit poor households from obtaining sufficient food to eat healthily, along with strategies and interventions from State and civil society actors in the two countries. In practice, problems and potential solutions have largely been directed towards the individual rather than at social determinants, particularly as research on environmental factors such as distance to shops has produced equivocal results. Other key structural aspects such as income sufficiency for food are broadly ignored by the State, and anti-poverty strategies are often implemented without monitoring for effects on food outcomes. Thus scant evidence exists for either Ireland or the UK meeting its rights to food obligations to date, in terms of roles and responsibilities in ensuring access to affordable, available and appropriate food for all.

  6. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.

  7. [Assuring food safety and nutritional quality].

    PubMed

    E, Alonzo; V, Pontieri; V, Cannizzaro; R, La Carrubba; P, Pisana; M, Raiti; M, Fardella

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition needs increasingly integration between Food Safety and Nutritional Prevention, duties, in Italy, since I 998 the Food Hygiene and Nutrition services (SIAN) do. Furthermore, working in Evidence Based Prevention (EBP) is necessary to improve the prevention and make it more useful to people health, so it must be used tested efficacy methods, above all in a unsuitable economic and human sources contest. In order to improve the prevention and working in EBP, SIAN have devised and achieved some Nutritional Prevention Projects, interregional, regional and local wide net-working, by using process and efficacy indicators, in some projects also user's satisfaction indicators are used. Project's results will be used to work in EBP ever more in order to improve the prevention and make it repeatable and sustainable to prevent the gradual and constant increase of chronic-degenerative diseases an consequently health costs.

  8. [Scientific policy advice on food safety provided by the Senate Commission on Food Safety].

    PubMed

    Guth, S; Habermeyer, M; Kochte-Clemens, B; Eisenbrand, G

    2010-06-01

    The Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM, Senatskommission zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Lebensmitteln) of the German Research Foundation (DFG, Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft) is a transdisciplinary expert committee, providing advice on food safety to the government, parliament, and authorities. Consultation is based on a scientific assessment with the aim to give expert advice to authorities, so that they can make appropriate decisions. The SKLM is independent in its scientific deliberations and under no directive in the selection of issues to work on. Topics considered may result from requests of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Consumer Protection (BMELV, Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz). Other issues may be raised by the SKLM, if they are regarded to be of particular importance for consumer health protection. Issues encompass the scientific assessment of safety and nutritional benefit of food ingredients and additives, of novel and functional food, as well as of novel food technologies. The SKLM identifies gaps in knowledge, research needs, and need for action.

  9. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  10. Food Safety and Quality. Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Concerned about the effectiveness of the federal food safety inspection system, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House...federal resources for inspection, and (3) agencies are effectively coordinating their food safety and quality inspection efforts.

  11. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  12. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  13. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  14. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  15. Optical sensing technologies for rapid food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concerns for food safety and foodborne illness have risen in recent years. There is a need to expand efforts to prevent and mitigate any food contamination that can potentially be harmful to human health. Researchers at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one...

  16. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  17. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  18. One Health in food safety and security education: A curricular framework.

    PubMed

    Angelos, J; Arens, A; Johnson, H; Cadriel, J; Osburn, B

    2016-02-01

    The challenges of producing and distributing the food necessary to feed an anticipated 9 billion people in developed and developing societies by 2050 without destroying Earth's finite soil and water resources present extremely complex problems that lack simple solutions. The ability of modern societies to adequately address these and other food-related problems will require an educated workforce trained not only in traditional food safety, security, and public health, but also in other areas including food production, sustainable practices, and ecosystem health. To help address the need for such an educated workforce, a curricular framework was developed to assist those tasked with designing education and training for future food systems workers. One sentence summary: A curricular framework for education and training in food safety and security was developed that incorporates One Health concepts.

  19. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  20. Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  1. Ensuring and promoting food safety during the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    PubMed

    Moy, Gerald G; Han, Fanfan; Chen, Junshi

    2010-08-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Chinese authorities undertook a range of measures to strengthen food safety along the entire food supply continuum from production to consumption to protect the large number of athletes and spectators anticipated. In addition, food safety promotion campaigns targeting Olympic visitors as well as Beijing residents were carried out. Based on an assessment of various indicators, these efforts were successful in reducing the risk of foodborne disease during the Beijing Olympics and promoting safer food for Beijing residents. The food safety experiences of the 2008 Beijing Olympics might be usefully applied to major sporting events and mass gatherings in the future.

  2. Strategies to evaluate the safety of bioengineered foods.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    A number of genetically modified (GM) crops bioengineered to express agronomic traits including herbicide resistance and insect tolerance have been commercialized. Safety studies conducted for the whole grains and food and feed fractions obtained from GM crops (i.e., bioengineered foods) bear similarities to and distinctive differences from those applied to substances intentionally added to foods (e.g., food ingredients). Similarities are apparent in common animal models, route of exposure, duration, and response variables typically assessed in toxicology studies. However, because of differences in the nutritional and physical properties of food ingredients and bioengineered foods and in the fundamental goals of the overall safety assessment strategies for these different classes of substances, there are recognizable differences in the individual components of the safety assessment process. The fundamental strategic difference is that the process for food ingredients is structured toward quantitative risk assessment whereas that for bioengineered foods is structured for the purpose of qualitative risk assessment. The strategy for safety assessment of bioengineered foods focuses on evaluating the safety of the transgenic proteins used to impart the desired trait or traits and to demonstrate compositional similarity between the grains of GM and non-GM comparator crops using analytical chemistry and, in some cases, feeding studies. Despite these differences, the similarities in the design of safety studies conducted with bioengineered foods should be recognized by toxicologists. The current paper reviews the basic principles of safety assessment for bioengineered foods and compares them with the testing strategies applied to typical food ingredients. From this comparison it can be seen that the strategies used to assess the safety of bioengineered foods are at least as robust as that used to assess the safety of typical food ingredients.

  3. Food safety: current situation, unaddressed issues and the emerging priorities.

    PubMed

    Elmi, M

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of food safety with reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The differing views of food safety and the current situation with regard to ensuring food safety are presented. Also discussed are some of the unaddressed issues and challenges related to food safety. The new conditions that have arisen in the modern world which have facilitated the emergence of pathogens are presented, such as changes in animal husbandry, changes in international trade and travel, lifestyle and consumer changes. The urgent need for action in order to reduce the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases is emphasized. The food chain starts from farm and ends at fork; controlling this complex process requires an integrated approach and a responsible authority to oversee it in order to protect and promote food safety.

  4. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... learned through equivalence determinations. In addition, there will be a separate discussion of FDA's... President's Food Safety Working Group (FSWG) has recommended that food regulators shift towards prioritizing... comparability determination? Lessons Learned Through Equivalence The Agency recognizes that...

  5. Food safety in home kitchens: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-09-02

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

  6. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  7. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits.

  8. Nanotechnology to the rescue: using nano-enabled approaches in microbiological food safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Mary; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Food safety and quality assurance is entering a new era. Interventions along the food supply chain must become more efficient in safeguarding public health and the environment and must address numerous challenges and new consumption trends. Current methods of microbial control to assure the safety of food and minimize microbial spoilage have each shown inefficiencies. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding area in the agri/feed/food sector. Nano-enabled approaches such as antimicrobial food-contact surfaces/packaging, nano-enabled sensors for rapid pathogen/contaminant detection and nano-delivered biocidal methods, currently on the market or at a developmental stage, show great potential for the food industry. Concerns on potential risks to human health and the environment posed by use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in food applications must, however, be adequately evaluated at the developmental stage to ensure consumer's acceptance.

  9. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.

  10. A Treatment Package without Escape Extinction to Address Food Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jessica; Gutierrez, Anibal

    2015-08-21

    Feeding difficulties and feeding disorders are a commonly occurring problem for young children, particularly children with developmental delays including autism. Behavior analytic interventions for the treatment of feeding difficulties oftentimes include escape extinction as a primary component of treatment. The use of escape extinction, while effective, may be problematic as it is also associated with the emergence of challenging behavior (e.g., extinction burst). Such challenging behavior may be an acceptable side effect in treatment cases where feeding problems are severe and chronic (e.g., failure to thrive). However, in more acute cases (e.g., selective eating), the negative side effect may be unwarranted and undesired. More recent research on the behavioral treatment of food selectivity has begun to evaluate treatments for feeding difficulties that do not include escape extinction (e.g., demand fading, behavioral momentum), with some success. However, research to date reveals individual differences in responsiveness to such treatments and no clear preferable treatment has emerged. This manuscript describes a multi-component treatment package that includes shaping, sequential presentation and simultaneous presentation, for the treatment of food selectivity in four young children with developmental delays. This treatment package extends the literature on the behavioral treatment for food selectivity and offers a multi-component treatment protocol that may be clinically applicable across a range of treatment scenarios and settings.

  11. Development and Implementation of a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wheatley, Virginia; Schaffner, Donald; Bruhn, Christine; Blalock, Lydia; Maurer, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledge questionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…

  12. Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne Illness Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS (PDF - 2.46MB) - En español (Spanish) (PDF - 2. ...

  13. Ch. 7: Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A safe and nutritious food supply is a vital component of food security. Food security, in a public health context, can be summarized as permanent access to a sufficient, safe, and nutritious food supply needed to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. The impacts of climate change on food produc...

  14. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  15. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  16. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  17. Consumer confidence in the safety of food and newspaper coverage of food safety issues: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; Van Trijp, Hans; Renes, Reint Jan; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The monitoring instrument assesses consumer confidence together with its determinants. Model and measurement invariance were validated rigorously before developments in consumer confidence in the safety of food and its determinants were investigated over time. The results from the longitudinal analysis show that across four waves of annual data collection (2003-2006), the framework was stable and that the relative importance of the determinants of confidence was, generally, constant over time. Some changes were observed regarding the mean ratings on the latent constructs. The second study explored how newspaper coverage of food safety related issues affects consumer confidence in the safety of food through subjective consumer recall of food safety incidents. The results show that the newspaper coverage on food safety issues is positively associated with consumer recall of food safety incidents, both in terms of intensity and recency of media coverage.

  18. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  19. Building food safety into the company culture: a look at Maple Leaf Foods.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jespersen; Huffman, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Maple Leaf Foods learned a hard lesson following its tragic 2008 Listeria outbreak that ended up taking the lives of 23 Canadians. The organization has since 2008 transformed its commitment to food safety with a strong drive and manifest in embedding sustainable food safety behaviours into the existing company culture. Its focus on combining technical risk analysis with behavioural sciences has led to the development and deployment of a food safety strategy deeply rooted in the company values and management commitment. Using five tactics described in this article the organization has been on a journey towards food safety transformation through adoption of best practices for people and systems. The approach to food safety has been one where food safety is treated as a non-competitive issue and Maple Leaf Foods have been open to sharing learning about what happened and how the organization will continue to take a leadership position in food safety to continuously raise the bar for food safety across the industry. Maple Leaf Foods has benefited tremendously by learning about best practice from numerous companies in North America and around the world. The authors believe this brief story will bring value to others as we continue to learn and improve.

  20. A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leon, Marco A; Paz, Esmeralda

    2014-08-01

    Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety.

  1. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  2. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety.

  3. Meta-analysis of food safety training on hand hygiene knowledge and attitudes among food handlers.

    PubMed

    Soon, Jan Mei; Baines, Richard; Seaman, Phillip

    2012-04-01

    Research has shown that traditional food safety training programs and strategies to promote hand hygiene increases knowledge of the subject. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of food safety training on food handlers' attitudes about good hand hygiene practices. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to assess the extent to which food safety training or intervention strategies increased knowledge of and attitudes about hand hygiene. A systematic review of food safety training articles was conducted. Additional studies were identified from abstracts from food safety conferences and food science education conferences. Search terms included combinations of "food safety," "food hygiene," "training," "education," "hand washing," "hand hygiene," "knowledge," "attitudes," "practices," "behavior," and "food handlers." Only before- and after-training approaches and cohort studies with training (intervention group) and without training (control group) in hand hygiene knowledge and including attitudes in food handlers were evaluated. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects model. Meta-analysis values for nine food safety training and intervention studies on hand hygiene knowledge among food handlers were significantly higher than those of the control (without training), with an effect size (Hedges' g) of 1.284 (95% confidence interval [CI] ∼ 0.830 to 1.738). Meta-analysis of five food safety training and intervention studies in which hand hygiene attitudes and self-reported practices were monitored produced a summary effect size of 0.683 (95% CI ∼ 0.523 to 0.843). Food safety training increased knowledge and improved attitudes about hand hygiene practices. Refresher training and long-term reinforcement of good food handling behaviors may also be beneficial for sustaining good hand washing practices.

  4. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  5. RAPID NONDESTRUCTIVE SPECTRAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ONLINE FOOD SAFETY INSPECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness presents a public health challenge in the United States. There is an urgent need for the federal government and food industries to expand efforts to prevent any food contamination that potentially could be harmful to human health. The Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of t...

  6. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    above recommendations from food authorities, business organisations and National Measurement Institutes is important; however transparent international coordination is essential. Thus our recommendations are primarily addressed to the European Commission, the Health and Food Safety Directorate, DG Santé. A global multidisciplinary consortium is required to provide a curated suite of data including genomic and proteomic data on key allergenic food sources, made publically available on line.

  8. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    PubMed

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  9. Addressing Uniqueness and Unison of Reliability and Safety for a Better Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2016-01-01

    Over time, it has been observed that Safety and Reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and, sometimes, counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address this situation to help Reliability and Safety disciplines improve their effectiveness and efficiency. The paper poses an important question to address, "Safety and Reliability - Are they unique or unisonous?" To answer the question, the paper reviewed several most commonly used analyses from each of the disciplines, namely, FMEA, reliability allocation and prediction, reliability design involvement, system safety hazard analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The paper pointed out uniqueness and unison of Safety and Reliability in their respective roles, requirements, approaches, and tools, and presented some suggestions for enhancing and improving the individual disciplines, as well as promoting the integration of the two. The paper concludes that Safety and Reliability are unique, but compensating each other in many aspects, and need to be integrated. Particularly, the individual roles of Safety and Reliability need to be differentiated, that is, Safety is to ensure and assure the product meets safety requirements, goals, or desires, and Reliability is to ensure and assure maximum achievability of intended design functions. With the integration of Safety and Reliability, personnel can be shared, tools and analyses have to be integrated, and skill sets can be possessed by the same person with the purpose of providing the best value to a product development.

  10. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  11. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  12. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  13. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  14. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    PubMed

    Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment.

  15. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  16. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  17. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  18. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  19. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  20. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  1. Engineered nanomaterials in food: implications for food safety and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Alina; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2014-05-28

    From the current state-of-the-art, it is clear that nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector aiming at providing better quality and conservation. In the meantime, a growing number of studies indicate that the exposure to certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has a potential to lead to health complications and that there is a need for further investigations in order to unravel the biological outcomes of nanofood consumption. In the current review, we summarize the existing data on the (potential) use of ENMs in the food industry, information on the toxicity profiles of the commonly applied ENMs, such as metal (oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), address the potential food safety implications and health hazards connected with the consumption of nanofood. A number of health complications connected with the human exposure to ENMs are discussed, demonstrating that there is a real basis for the arisen concern not only connected with the gut health, but also with the potency to lead to systemic toxicity. The toxicological nature of hazard, exposure levels and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food are on the earliest stage of investigation and this review also highlights the major gaps that need further research and regulation.

  2. Engineered Nanomaterials in Food: Implications for Food Safety and Consumer Health

    PubMed Central

    Martirosyan, Alina; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    From the current state-of-the-art, it is clear that nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector aiming at providing better quality and conservation. In the meantime, a growing number of studies indicate that the exposure to certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has a potential to lead to health complications and that there is a need for further investigations in order to unravel the biological outcomes of nanofood consumption. In the current review, we summarize the existing data on the (potential) use of ENMs in the food industry, information on the toxicity profiles of the commonly applied ENMs, such as metal (oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), address the potential food safety implications and health hazards connected with the consumption of nanofood. A number of health complications connected with the human exposure to ENMs are discussed, demonstrating that there is a real basis for the arisen concern not only connected with the gut health, but also with the potency to lead to systemic toxicity. The toxicological nature of hazard, exposure levels and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food are on the earliest stage of investigation and this review also highlights the major gaps that need further research and regulation. PMID:24879486

  3. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  4. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  5. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  6. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  7. Meeting the requirements of importing countries: practice and policy for on-farm approaches to food safety.

    PubMed

    Dagg, P J; Butler, R J; Murray, J G; Biddle, R R

    2006-08-01

    In light of the increasing consumer demand for safe, high-quality food and recent public health concerns about food-borne illness, governments and agricultural industries are under pressure to provide comprehensive food safety policies and programmes consistent with international best practice. Countries that export food commodities derived from livestock must meet both the requirements of the importing country and domestic standards. It is internationally accepted that end-product quality control, and similar methods aimed at ensuring food safety, cannot adequately ensure the safety of the final product. To achieve an acceptable level of food safety, governments and the agricultural industry must work collaboratively to provide quality assurance systems, based on sound risk management principles, throughout the food supply chain. Quality assurance systems on livestock farms, as in other parts of the food supply chain, should address food safety using hazard analysis critical control point principles. These systems should target areas including biosecurity, disease monitoring and reporting, feedstuff safety, the safe use of agricultural and veterinary chemicals, the control of potential food-borne pathogens and traceability. They should also be supported by accredited training programmes, which award certification on completion, and auditing programmes to ensure that both local and internationally recognised guidelines and standards continue to be met. This paper discusses the development of policies for on-farm food safety measures and their practical implementation in the context of quality assurance programmes, using the Australian beef industry as a case study.

  8. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  9. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Further Provide Food Safety Information to Consumers Mar 24, 2017 Lakes Farm Raised Catfish, Inc. Recalls ... Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling Mar 31, 2017 FSIS Notice 20-17 Raw Pork ...

  10. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

  11. The Pacific Family and Food Safety: A Food Guide into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mary Elaine; Aguon, Jane M.

    The Food Safety First Program in Guam and the Marianas, sponsored in part by the United States Department of Agriculture, assesses the food safety behavior of the local population, and uses the results to develop educational programs. The thriving of bacteria in the local climate places extra importance on educating the population on the necessity…

  12. [Safety of health foods and importance of their origin].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-06-01

    The safety guideline for voluntary inspections on the ingredients used for capsulated or pellet food, announced by the director of the department of food safety of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on February 1, 2008 states that "how to guarantee the origin" is the top priority to ensure safety. However, in the course of our continuous investigation of the origin of natural products, the ingredients of some health food products such as chondroitin sulfate, white kwao keur (Pueraria candollei var. mirifica) and black cohosh did not originate from the labeled material. The usage of the correct origin is the fist step for the quality assurance of "health food". Therefore, we believe that regulatory requirements for accurately indicating the origin of "health foods" and effective enforcement of these requirements are needed.

  13. High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

    2009-12-01

    Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

  14. Food Safety for Healthy Missouri Families: Evaluation of Program Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Marcus M.

    2002-01-01

    The food safety knowledge of 22 inner-city Missouri youth from low-income families was assessed before and after a 4-week summer program. Posttest results showed dramatic changes in beliefs. However, topics such as irradiation, eating raw cookie dough, and safety of produce in grocery stores showed little change. (SK)

  15. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  16. An Open and Scalable Learning Infrastructure for Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouselis, Nikos; Thanopoulos, Charalampos; Vignare, Karen; Geith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, a variety of approaches and tools have been developed for giving access to open educational resources (OER) related to food safety, security, and food standards, as well to various targeted audiences (e.g., farmers, agronomists). The aim of this paper is to present a technology infrastructure currently in demonstration…

  17. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  18. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  19. Management of microbial food safety in the Arab countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety remains a major economical and public health concern in the Arab countries. Over the several past years, many of these countries have attempted to revise and upgrade food quality control and surveillance programs. However, these systems vary in scope and effectiveness. This rev...

  20. Constraints to microbial food safety policy: opinions from stakeholder groups along the farm to fork continuum.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Ramsingh, B; Wilkins, A; Travis, R G; Gavrus, D; Snelgrove, J W

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study was conducted to identify constraints to microbial food safety policy in Canada and the USA from the perspective of stakeholder groups along the farm to fork continuum. Thirty-seven stakeholders participated in interviews or a focus group where semi-structured questions were used to facilitate discussion about constraints to policy development and implementation. An emergent grounded theory approach was used to determine themes and concepts that arose from the data (versus fitting the data to a hypothesis or a priori classification). Despite the plurality of stakeholders and the range of content expertise, participant perceptions emerged into five common themes, although, there were often disagreements as to the positive or negative attributes of specific concepts. The five themes included challenges related to measurement and objectives of microbial food safety policy goals, challenges arising from lack of knowledge, or problems with communication of knowledge coupled with current practices, beliefs and traditions; the complexity of the food system and the plurality of stakeholders; the economics of producing safe food and the limited resources to address the problem; and, issues related to decision-making and policy, including ownership of the problem and inappropriate inputs to the decision-making process. Responsibilities for food safety and for food policy failure were attributed to all stakeholders along the farm to fork continuum. While challenges regarding the biology of food safety were identified as constraints, a broader range of policy inputs encompassing social, economic and political considerations were also highlighted as critical to the development and implementation of effective food safety policy. Strategies to address these other inputs may require new, transdisciplinary approaches as an adjunct to the traditional science-based risk assessment model.

  1. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    PubMed

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  2. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  3. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  4. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  5. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  6. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Traditional and Alternative Community Interventions to Address Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Roncarolo, Federico; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    offer short term reprise from the effects of food insecurity, the question as to whether food banks are the most appropriate solution to food insecurity still needs to be addressed. PMID:26974826

  8. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-02-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned "Pusztai affair" and the recent "Seralini case." These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food.

  9. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  10. Food Safety for Moms-to-Be

    MedlinePlus

    ... under running water. 2. Separate Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from ready-to-eat foods. If possible, use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and another one for fresh fruits ...

  11. Food Safety for People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... water Unpasteurized (“raw”) milk Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or shellfish Symptoms and Potential Impact Fever, headache, ... and/or temperature abused foods. Meats, meat products, poultry, poultry products , and gravy Symptoms and Potential Impact ...

  12. Food Safety for People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... available, wrap it securely, label it to say “DANGER,” and freeze it. • The remaining food may be ... illness and in preventing others from becoming ill. DANGER 3. Save all the packaging materials, such as ...

  13. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  14. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  15. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Gareth . E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  16. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  17. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khairuzzaman, Md.; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md. Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. PMID:26904635

  18. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khairuzzaman, Md; Chowdhury, Fatema Moni; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes.

  19. A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: addressing unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Beus, Jeremy M; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; McCord, Mallory A

    2015-03-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(2) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-08139-001). Table 3 contained formatting errors. Minus signs used to indicate negative statistical estimates within the table were inadvertently changed to m-dashes. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to address unanswered questions regarding the associations between personality and workplace safety by (a) clarifying the magnitude and meaning of these associations with both broad and facet-level personality traits, (b) delineating how personality is associated with workplace safety, and (c) testing the relative importance of personality in comparison to perceptions of the social context of safety (i.e., safety climate) in predicting safety-related behavior. Our results revealed that whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with unsafe behaviors, extraversion and neuroticism were positively associated with them. Of these traits, agreeableness accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in safety-related behavior and openness to experience was unrelated. At the facet level, sensation seeking, altruism, anger, and impulsiveness were all meaningfully associated with safety-related behavior, though sensation seeking was the only facet that demonstrated a stronger relationship than its parent trait (i.e., extraversion). In addition, meta-analytic path modeling supported the theoretical expectation that personality's associations with accidents are mediated by safety-related behavior. Finally, although safety climate perceptions accounted for the majority of explained variance in safety-related behavior, personality traits (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism) still accounted for a unique and substantive proportion of the explained variance. Taken together, these results substantiate the value of considering personality traits as key

  20. A Study in Iowa. Teaching Food Safety in Secondary FCS Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason D.; Henroid, Daniel H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a significant issue in the United States and yet minimal research has been done on the inclusion of food safety in secondary school curricula. This study examined the feasibility of including food safety in Iowa FCS middle and secondary classes. Teachers reported food safety was important; only a few believed students were…

  1. What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety?

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charmaine; Gauci, Andrew Amato

    2005-05-01

    Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to poor food safety practices in the home. Consumer awareness studies have shown that, in general, consumers are aware of the recommended food safety precautions, yet still adopt high-risk behaviours. Three focus groups and a small case control group were formed to gather information on local consumer knowledge and attitudes towards safe food handling in the home. The responses from the three focus groups were analysed and grouped into general themes. The information obtained from these results was then used to plan a local food safety health promotion strategy. The results show that individuals who had been exposed to salmonellosis, or who had a dependant who had been exposed, had developed a higher level of food safety knowledge and awareness. Variations between knowledge and self-reported practices make it apparent that persons have to be convinced that food safety measures are effective before they take action to change their behaviour. In conclusion, consumer education strategies need to emphasise the burden of illness, making safe food handling meaningful to consumers. Continuous reinforcement of the messages may be effective in empowering the consumer to foster behaviour change.

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

  3. We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity.

  4. 76 FR 64354 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Request for...

  5. [Food safety warnings in public health].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castellanos, María S

    2004-05-01

    One of the mechanisms for food alerts management is the rapid interchange of information so that the response takes place the sooner and the impact of the risk can be diminished. The structure of information transmitted, the priority and categorization of the risk, the differentiated treatment of the information, the decision on who must be informed, the confidentiality of information transmitted, and evaluations of it, the reduction of the abuse or the use of precautionary principle are questions that can serve as guidelines for an analysis of the different systems and provide a comparison perspective that can help to improve the exchange of information on risks in the present day global market of foods. The main goal of this article is to provide a proposal for improvement in the food alerts management system in our country through an analysis and comparison of the essential elements of different systems in our context.

  6. Food safety attitudes in college students: a structural equation modeling analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter

    2013-01-30

    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  7. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  8. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  9. Microbiological food safety: a dilemma of developing societies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Hossain, Ashfaque

    2014-11-01

    Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth.

  10. Addressing Unison and Uniqueness of Reliability and Safety for Better Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, both in theory and in practice, safety and reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and sometime counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address the uniqueness and the unison of these two disciplines to help both disciplines become more effective and to promote a better integration of the two for enhancing safety and reliability in our products as an overall objective. There are two purposes of this paper. First, it will investigate the uniqueness and unison of each discipline and discuss the interrelationship between the two for awareness and clarification. Second, after clearly understanding the unique roles and interrelationship between the two in a product design and development life cycle, we offer suggestions to enhance the disciplines with distinguished and focused roles, to better integrate the two, and to improve unique sets of skills and tools of reliability and safety processes. From the uniqueness aspect, the paper identifies and discusses the respective uniqueness of reliability and safety from their roles, accountability, nature of requirements, technical scopes, detailed technical approaches, and analysis boundaries. It is misleading to equate unreliable to unsafe, since a safety hazard may or may not be related to the component, sub-system, or system functions, which are primarily what reliability addresses. Similarly, failing-to-function may or may not lead to hazard events. Examples will be given in the paper from aerospace, defense, and consumer products to illustrate the uniqueness and differences between reliability and safety. From the unison aspect, the paper discusses what the commonalities between reliability and safety are, and how these two disciplines are linked, integrated, and supplemented with each other to accomplish the customer requirements and product goals. In addition to understanding the uniqueness in

  11. Sensors for Food Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

    Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.

  12. The Good Food Junction: a Community-Based Food Store Intervention to Address Nutritional Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan; Walker, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a 2-year study to assess the early impacts of a new grocery store intervention in a former food desert. Objective The purpose of the study is to understand the early health effects of the introduction of a large-scale food and nutrition-focused community-based population health intervention, the Good Food Junction (GFJ) Cooperative Store, in a geographically bounded group of socially disadvantaged neighborhoods (the “core neighborhoods”) in a midsized Canadian city. The GFJ grocery store was tasked with improving the access of residents to healthy, affordable food. The 5 research questions are: (1) What is the awareness and perception of the GFJ store among residents of the core neighborhoods? (2) Are there differences in awareness and perception among those who do and do not shop at the GFJ? (3) Will healthy food purchasing at the GFJ by residents of the core neighborhoods change over time, and what purchases are these individuals making at this store? (4) What early impact(s) will the GFJ have on key health-related outcomes (such as household food security status, vegetable and fruit intake, key aspects of self-reported mental health, self-reported health)? and (5) Are the effects of the intervention seen for specific vulnerable population groups, such as Aboriginal people, seniors (65 years old or older) and new immigrants (settled in Saskatoon for less than 5 years)? Methods The research project examined initial impacts of the GFJ on the health of the residents in surrounding neighborhoods through a door-to-door cross-sectional survey of food access and household demographics; an examination of GFJ sales data by location of shoppers' residences; and a 1-year, 3-time-point longitudinal study of self-reported health of GFJ shoppers. Results Analyses are on-going, but preliminary results show that shoppers are using the store for its intended purpose, which is to improve access to healthy food in a former food desert. Conclusions To our

  13. "It's Like Moving the Titanic:" Community Organizing to Address Food (In)Security.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kristen E

    2016-08-02

    Health communication scholars are uniquely positioned to examine the ways in which individuals organize to address current and future exigencies related to social ills. In particular, organizations are key sites in understanding our health decisions related to food choice. From a young age, children develop habits of eating that stay with them throughout their life. More specifically, food insecurity impacts childhood nutrition. Children from low-income homes experience disproportional negative health outcomes. Appalachian Ohio is an area within the United States that experiences severe poverty. In 2013, community members in a small public school district in Appalachian Ohio formed the Appalachian Nutrition Advisory Council to address the nutritional needs of students in schools. This project stories the ways in which community members creatively organized to supplement existing structures in place designed to address school nutrition and food security.

  14. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  15. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  16. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  17. Genetic technologies. Bioengineered food--safety and labeling.

    PubMed

    Goldman, K A

    2000-10-20

    The safety and labeling of genetically engineered foods are two areas that have elicited considerable public concern and debate. This Policy Forum provides a legal analysis of these issues in the context of two bills that have been recently proposed in The U.S. Congress, the Genetically Engineered Food Safety Act and the Genetically Engineered Food Right to Know Act. Most transgenic components of foods currently on the market are plant-incorporated protectants or their inert ingredients. Therefore, they have been evaluated for safety by the Environmental Protection Agency (as well as the Food and Drug Administration), and their disclosure in labeling should not be required. If plant-incorporated protectants are considered safer than chemical pesticides, and chemical pesticides do not have to be disclosed in labels, then bioengineered foods should not be subject to stricter regulation, nor should they be required to be labeled. The two bills are inconsistent, in many respects, with well-established principles of food regulation.

  18. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  19. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives. PMID:20509876

  20. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.

  1. A portable array biosensor for food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joel P.; Ngundi, Miriam M.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2004-11-01

    An array biosensor developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples has been utilized to develop assays for toxins and pathogens in a variety of foods. The biochemical component of the multi-analyte biosensor consists of a patterned array of biological recognition elements immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide. A fluorescence assay is performed on the patterned surface, yielding an array of fluorescent spots, the locations of which are used to identify what analyte is present. Signal transduction is accomplished by means of a diode laser for fluorescence excitation, optical filters and a CCD camera for image capture. A laptop computer controls the miniaturized fluidics system and image capture. Results for four mycotoxin competition assays in buffer and food samples are presented.

  2. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  4. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

  5. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  6. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  7. Food safety epidemiology capacity in state health departments--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-12-23

    In 2002, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted its first national food safety epidemiology capacity assessment, which provided the basis for development of minimum performance standards to guide state and local foodborne disease control programs. During April 2010, CSTE sent states a follow-up, web-based questionnaire to gather information about food safety-related workforce training and education, epidemiology and laboratory capacity, and information technology (IT) to support surveillance. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which found that in 2010, states reported a need for 304 more full-time equivalent (FTE) employees working in food safety to reach full program capacity, with the greatest demand for master's degree-level epidemiologists (50% of demand). Barriers to investigating foodborne outbreaks reported most often by states included delayed notification of the outbreak (reported by 41 states), lack of a sufficient number of foodborne safety staff members (29 states), lower prioritization of investigations (27 states), lack of ability to pay overtime (20 states), and lack of adequate epidemiology expertise (12 states). Strategies should be developed to increase the number of food safety staff members and enhance their training opportunities, address gaps in IT, and improve the relationship between state and local health departments and federal agencies collaborating on responses to foodborne disease outbreaks.

  8. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  9. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?

    PubMed

    Berman, Judit; Zhu, Changfu; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Arjó, Gemma; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Banakar, Raviraj; Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Bai, Chao; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Bassié, Ludovic; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops can be used as part of a combined strategy to address food insecurity, which is defined as a lack of sustainable access to safe and nutritious food. In this article, we discuss the causes and consequences of food insecurity in the developing world, and the indirect economic impact on industrialized countries. We dissect the healthcare costs and lost productivity caused by food insecurity, and evaluate the relative merits of different intervention programs including supplementation, fortification and the deployment of GE crops with higher yields and enhanced nutritional properties. We provide clear evidence for the numerous potential benefits of GE crops, particularly for small-scale and subsistence farmers. GE crops with enhanced yields and nutritional properties constitute a vital component of any comprehensive strategy to tackle poverty, hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and thus reduce the global negative economic effects of food insecurity.

  10. Food safety objectives for Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish food sampled in cafeterias and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Doménech, E; Amorós, J A; Escriche, I

    2011-09-01

    To gain more insight into the context of food safety management by public administrations, food safety objectives must be studied. The Valencian administration quantified the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in cafeterias and restaurants in this region of Spain between 2002 and 2010. The results obtained from this survey are presented here for 2,262 samples of fish, salad, egg, cold meat, and mayonnaise dishes. Microbiological criteria defined for L. monocytogenes were used to differentiate acceptable and unacceptable samples; more than 99.9% of the samples were acceptable. These findings indicate that established food safety objectives are achievable, consumer health at the time of consumption can be safeguarded, and food safety management systems such as hazard analysis critical control point plans or good manufacturing practices implemented in food establishments are effective. Monitoring of foods and food safety is an important task that must continue to reduce the current L. monocytogenes prevalence of 0.1% in restaurant or cafeteria dishes, which could adversely affect consumer health.

  11. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-03

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  12. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  13. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People.

    PubMed

    Lund, Barbara M

    2015-08-21

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products.

  14. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia

    2015-08-27

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety.

  15. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  16. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term.

  17. Food safety and security: what were favourite topics for research in the last decade?

    PubMed Central

    Marušić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greatest impact on the research community, judged by their annual rate of citations during the last decade, were food-borne pathogens and toxins, with emerging genetic studies and new methods of visualising toxins on surfaces. Epidemiological and survey studies demonstrated that there was systematic effort to document, rapidly detect and control epidemic spread of disease and that these measures decreased the threat to food safety in developed countries, but that there is still much room for improvement. Research relevant for developing countries included the potential molecular targets to alleviate accumulation of arsenic in rice. As in other areas of research and life, human factor seems to be the most important one for the safety of food. The five keys to safer food of the WHO – keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials – are thus still very relevant for the developed as much as the developing world. PMID:23198104

  18. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  19. Food safety and epidemiology: new database of functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shaw; Zhuo, Xing Gang; Kimira, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    More than 600 functional non-nutrient food factors (FFFs) in vegetables and fruits are considered to be effective for health promotion and disease prevention. However, phytochemicals studied thus far have failed to yield predicted results in randomized intervention studies. To assess the health effects of phytochemicals, a breakthrough in epidemiological methods was necessary. We constructed a database of non-nutrient FFFs to estimate the chemical classes and total amount of FFF-intake in order to facilitate estimation and calculation for nutritional research. So far, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and sulfur compounds are included in our FFF database. We calculated the intake of various phytochemicals per capita from 79 subjects' dietary records by FFF database, and estimated that subjects ingested more than 10 micromole per day of phytochemicals such as catechin, isoflavones, isothiocyanate, ferulic acid, quercetin, cinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid. Chief component analysis yielded 12 factors (80%), of which only a few factors showed negative associations with serum cholesterol and LDL concentration. Many factors showed adverse relationships with liver function and serum triacylglycerol concentration. Weekly self-reported daily dietary records including name of dish, constituent foods and their amounts were separately collected for 6 months and analyzed in Kyoto women. Seasonal changes of phytochemical intake showed significant variation according to the seasonal consumption of fruits and vegetables. Lycopene increased in the summer due to watermelon and tomato intake in this season. Seasonal variation of FFF was quite large compared to the variation of macro- and micronutrients. Careful evaluation of the effects of FFF intake on health is necessary, especially when supplements are also consumed. The most effective combinations of FFF intake for human health could be elucidated by using our FFF-DB in conjunction with population-based cohort studies.

  20. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  1. Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Haghiri, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118

  2. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  3. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  4. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  5. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  6. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  7. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  8. Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

  9. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  10. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  11. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program regarding the... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  12. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  13. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis in meat and poultry products; (G) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C... cooperative agreements to further research programs in the agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 3318). (2) Related....C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements. (6) Related to compliance with...

  14. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  15. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... analysis in meat and poultry products; (G) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C... cooperative agreements to further research programs in the agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 3318). (2) Related....C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements. (6) Related to compliance with...

  16. An overview of food safety issues relative to animal products.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A

    1990-06-01

    Presently, strategies for discovering new factors for enhancing animal productivity allow for greater assurance of food safety. A high degree of assurance of food safety is provided by the use of natural growth factors. This is especially true when these factors are proteins which, when ingested, are digested to inactive peptides and amino acids and are, in addition, inactive in human tissues. Knowing the mechanisms of activity of such factors also allows for the assurance that known mediators of the growth factors can also be shown to be inactivated by intestinal barriers. The design of nonpeptide molecules with highly selective activity will be possible with the large amount of progress expected in understanding the structure of the active components of natural molecules and the availability of specific receptor systems. Food safety concerns may be met by the demonstration that these molecules are inactive in comparable human receptor systems. These drug discovery strategies can ensure with a high degree of confidence the development of new productivity enhancers that meet food safety requirements.

  17. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  18. Information system equality for food security--implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaun C; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Chiu, Chihwei P

    2009-01-01

    Food security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the illegal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as foodborne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present report demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with international standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade.

  19. A strategy to establish Food Safety Model Repositories.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-07-02

    Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain.

  20. Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, F

    2001-08-01

    Genetic modification involves the insertion of genes from other organisms (within or between species) into host cells to select for desirable qualities. Potential benefits of GM foods include increased nutritional value; reduced allergenicity; pest and disease-resistance; and enhanced processing value. Possible detrimental outcomes include producing foods with novel toxins, allergens or reduced nutritional value, and development of antibiotic resistance or herbicide-resistant weeds. Benefits to individuals or populations need to be weighed against adverse health and environmental risks, and may differ between developing and Westernised countries. Whether testing and monitoring should exceed requirements for conventional foods is under debate. While not necessarily scientifically justifiable, consumer concerns have resulted in Australian and New Zealand requirements to label foods containing GM-produced proteins. Dissatisfied consumer advocacy groups are calling for all foods involving GM technology to be labelled, irrelevant of whether the final product contains novel protein. Goals to improve the quantity, quality and safety of foods are laudable; however, the primary aim of the bio-food industry is financial gain. GM foods may be as safe as conventional foods but public distrust runs high. It is important that discussion is informed by science and that claims of both benefits and risks are evidence-based, to ensure that the process is driven neither by the vested interest of the bio-technical multinational companies on the one hand, nor ill-informed public fears on the other.

  1. Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Juskevich, J C; Guyer, C G

    1990-08-24

    Scientists in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after reviewing the scientific literature and evaluating studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies, have concluded that the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) in dairy cattle presents no increased health risk to consumers. Bovine GH is not biologically active in humans, and oral toxicity studies have demonstrated that rbGH is not orally active in rats, a species responsive to parenterally administered bGH. Recombinant bGH treatment produces an increase in the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in cow's milk. However, oral toxicity studies have shown that bovine IGF-I lacks oral activity in rats. Additionally, the concentration of IGF-I in milk of rbGH-treated cows is within the normal physiological range found in human breast milk, and IGF-I is denatured under conditions used to process cow's milk for infant formula. On the basis of estimates of the amount of protein absorbed intact in humans and the concentration of IGF-I in cow's milk during rbGH treatment, biologically significant levels of intact IGF-I would not be absorbed.

  2. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  3. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-12-05

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology.

  5. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

  6. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Styne, Dennis M.; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers’ market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  7. 78 FR 37228 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Western Center for Food Safety (WCFS). FDA regards the continued support of WCFS as crucial to...

  8. Paucity of nutrition and food safety 'news you can use' reveals opportunity for dietetics practitioners.

    PubMed

    Borra, S T; Earl, R; Hogan, E H

    1998-02-01

    The media is consistently ranked by the public as their primary source of nutrition and food information. To address the question of what the public is hearing about food, nutrition, and health through the news media, the International Food Information Council Foundation commissioned the Center for Media and Public Affairs to conduct a content analysis of nutrition and food safety stories. The study examined media coverage from 53 print and electronic news outlets during a 3-month period from May through July 1995. Specific criteria were applied to select the sample of food and nutrition stories (n = 979) by length of coverage during the reporting period. Coverage related to food policy or regulation, food programs, individual food companies or products, advertising or marketing, and economic adulteration or tampering were excluded from the sample. The analysis of media coverage of food and nutrition topics revealed a twofold emphasis on dietary fat over other topics. Consumption of dietary fat was mentioned in almost half of all reports, apart from discussions of body fat, weight, or obesity as a health issue. The content analysis also showed an inverse relationship between media stories of foods by food group compared with the recommended number of servings in the Food Guide Pyramid. During an era in which Americans receive their health, nutrition, and food messages from the media rather than from health professionals such as physicians and dietitians, there are multiple challenges for communicating with the public. Our media research and its findings offer approaches for dietetics practitioners to use when providing nutrition and food recommendations and education for clients and the public. These include communicating science, providing context, reinforcing basic messages and guidelines, and promoting action and behavior change to clients and consumers.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  10. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned “Pusztai affair” and the recent “Seralini case.” These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food. PMID:23444254

  11. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    PubMed

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics.

  12. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  13. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  14. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  17. Development a Comprehensive Food Safety System in Serbia- A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    RADOVIĆ, Vesela; KEKOVIĆ, Zoran; AGIĆ, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Food safety issues are not a new issue in science, but due to the dynamic changes in the modern world it is as equally important as decades ago. The aim of the study was to address the efforts in the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia, and make specific recommendations regarding the improvement of epidemiological investigation capacity as a useful tool which contributes to improving the public health by joint efforts of epidemiologists and law enforcement. Methods We used the methodology appropriate for social sciences. Results The findings show the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system and present some most important weaknesses which have to be overcome. Policy makers need timely and reliable information so that they can make informed decisions to improve the population health in an ongoing process of seeking full membership in the European Union. Conclusion Serbia has to apply significant changes in practice because the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system is not so favourable due to numerous both objective and subjective factors. Hence, the policy-makers must work on the development of epidemiological investigation capacities as a firm basis for greater efficiency and effectiveness. Epidemiologists would not stay alone in their work. Law enforcement as well as many other stakeholders should recognize their new role in the process of the development of epidemiological investigation capacity as a tool for the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia. PMID:25909057

  18. Superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads toward food safety insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    In this work, superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads (SPM-NIBs) based on conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with specific antibodies have been developed toward food safety insurance. The resultant SPM-NIBs exhibits excellent colloidal stability and reversible magnetic response. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a main foodborne pathogenes from contaminated seafood, can be separated specifically and efficiently by the resultant SPM-NIBs. The results of bacteria separation demonstrate that the SPM-NIBs have a higher specific activity and sensitivity toward V. parahaemolyticus. About 80 % of V. parahaemolyticus cells can be captured when the concentration of the broth reaches 103 CFU/mL. Thus, the SPM-NIBs can effectively enhance the efficiency for target bacteria inspections by shortening the period of culture time. This work holds the promise of development of general technique to prepare effective SPM-NIBs toward food safety inspections and other bio-related applications for target analyte separation and collection.

  19. Mathematical Modeling Tools to Study Preharvest Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lanzas, Cristina; Chen, Shi

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of the emerging field of mathematical modeling in preharvest food safety. We describe the steps involved in developing mathematical models, different types of models, and their multiple applications. The introduction to modeling is followed by several sections that introduce the most common modeling approaches used in preharvest systems. We finish the chapter by outlining potential future directions for the field.

  20. Microbiological safety of food in hospitals and other healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lund, Barbara M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-10-01

    Cases and outbreaks of foodborne infection in healthcare settings can result in serious illness, wastage of expensive medical treatments, spread of infection to other patients and staff and disruption of services. Providing nutritious meals for vulnerable people in healthcare settings involves a systematic approach to microbiological safety, as provided by hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. The types of food served in healthcare settings should be selected to minimise the risk of foodborne infection.

  1. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  2. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  3. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  4. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  5. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  6. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Food Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy...

  7. Identification of Core Competencies for an Undergraduate Food Safety Curriculum Using a Modified Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynette M.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Oliver, Haley F.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Moore, Christina M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Identification of core competencies for undergraduates in food safety is critical to assure courses and curricula are appropriate in maintaining a well-qualified food safety workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify and refine core competencies relevant to postsecondary food safety education using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-nine…

  8. Reliability of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Arnout R H; Frewer, Lynn J

    2009-10-01

    A reduced version of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale [Fischer, A. R. H., Frewer, L. J., & Nauta, M. J. (2006). Towards improving food safety in the domestic environment: a multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food handling practices. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1323-1338] was investigated to establish its reliability and robustness. A second set of survey data were collected using the reduced Rasch scale. We discuss the reliability and robustness of the original Rasch scale in terms of the second analysis. In general, the results of the reduced scale provided results that were very similar to those obtained in the original study. In both studies the goodness of fit of the different items was stable. The range of the difficulty parameters was smaller in this study than in the previous one, which may be attributed to methodological causes. The high level of similarity of the key parameters shows that the Rasch scale is reliable and robust.

  9. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R.; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California’s Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California’s Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  10. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California's Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California's Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland.

  11. Food safety in Vietnam: where we are at and what we can learn from international experiences.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Unger, Fred; Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Grace, Delia

    2017-02-16

    Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers. In turn, the shortfall in ethical behaviours around food can be attributed to a lack of incentives or motivating factors.Although food safety causes panic in the population, it is unclear how much contaminated food contributes to the burden of food-borne diseases and food poisonings in Vietnam. However, globally, the biggest health problem associated with food are infections from consuming food contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites. A major food safety challenge is the inappropriate way of communicating food risks to the public. Another key constraint is the inherent difficulty in managing food in wet markets and from smallholder production. On the other hand, local foods, and local food production and processing are an important cultural asset as well as being essential to food safety, and these aspects can be put at risk if food safety concerns motivate consumers to purchase more imported foods.In this paper, we also discuss good experiences in food safety management from other countries and draw lessons learnt for Vietnam on how to better deal with the current food safety situation.

  12. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  13. New food safety law: effectiveness on the ground.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christa A; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2015-01-01

    The demand for safety in the US food supply from production to consumption necessitates a scientific, risk-based strategy for the management of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in food. The key to successful management is an increase in systematic collaboration and communication and in enforceable procedures with all domestic and international stakeholders. The enactment of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to prevent or reduce large-scale food-borne illness outbreaks through stricter facility registration and records standards, mandatory prevention-based controls, increased facility inspections in the United States and internationally, mandatory recall authority, import controls, and increased consumer communication. The bill provisions are expected to cost $1.4 billion over the next four years. Effective implementation of the FSMA's 50 rules, reports, studies, and guidance documents in addition to an increased inspection burden requires further funding appropriations. Additional full-time inspectors and unprecedented foreign compliance is necessary for the full and effective implementation of the FSMA.

  14. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments.

    PubMed

    Wolde, Tesfaye; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm(3). The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  15. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended. PMID:27840819

  16. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juming

    2015-08-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation.

  17. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juming

    2015-01-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  18. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  19. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  20. Safety nets can help address the risks to nutrition from increasing climate variability.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Models of climate change predict increased variability of weather as well as changes in agro-ecology. The increased variability will pose special challenges for nutrition. This study reviews evidence on climate shocks and nutrition and estimates the economic consequences in terms of reduced schooling and economic productivity stemming from nutritional insults in childhood. Panel data covering up to 20 y indicate that that short-term climate shocks have long-term impacts on children that persist, often into their adult lives. Other studies document the potential for relief programs to offset these shocks providing that the programs can be implemented with flexible financing, rapid identification of those affected by the shock, and timely scale-up. The last of these presumes that programs are already in place with contingency plans drawn up. Arguably, direct food distribution, including that of ready-to-use therapeutic food, may be part of the overall strategy. Even if such programs are too expensive for sustainable widespread use in the prevention of malnutrition, scalable food distribution programs may be cost effective to address the heightened risk of malnutrition following weather-related shocks.

  1. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  5. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  6. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies research: cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  7. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... the public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information... how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket; to respond to...

  8. 78 FR 49988 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the... process, including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket;...

  9. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  10. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  11. A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Manes, Mindi R; Kuganantham, Paraswami; Jagadeesan, Murugesan; Laxmidevi, M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors' study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.

  12. [State surveillance and control of food quality and safety in USA].

    PubMed

    Berman, V A

    2003-01-01

    The article is dealt with organization of agencies of U.S. federal government responsible for control of food safety and quality. An organizational chart of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Department of Health and Human services is shown in great details. The U.S. federal legislation on food safety and quality is also described. Legal terms and definitions set by Federal Food, Drug and Safety Act for food safety and quality as well as basis requirements set in U.S.A. for food operation facilities are also discussed.

  13. Shifting responsibilities for food safety in Europe: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Halkier, Bente; Holm, Lotte

    2006-09-01

    Following the BSE crisis in 1996, the European food sector underwent profound regulatory and institutional change. The present introductory article introduces, and sketches the background to, seven studies of the institutional reactions and initiatives that were part of, or prompted by, this reorganisation. The studies analyse the way in which the division of responsibilities for food safety has changed both across the EU as a whole and, more specifically, in six European countries. Prepared as part of the comparative research project, Trust in Food, the studies attempt to go beyond traditional policy network analysis and work on regulation. They ask which constellations of societal actors and logics are important in the shifting responsibilities of public and private actors; and they treat this as an empirical question. It emerges that, at EU level, the main strategy for restoring consumer confidence in food was to enhance the institutional independence, transparency and consumer agency. In the countries covered by the remaining six studies, by contrast, institutional reactions in the food sector varied depending on the particular configurations of state, market and civil society.

  14. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  15. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes.

  16. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  17. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  18. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  19. Casting a global safety net--a framework for food safety in the age of globalization.

    PubMed

    Chyau, James

    2009-01-01

    In mid-March 2007, Ontario-based Menu Foods Inc. started recalling its "cuts and gravy" style pet food, after receiving information that pets that had eaten the product had fallen ill. Within a week, the company was inundated with complaints and expressions of concern from about 200,000 of its customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined in late March 2007 that the most likely culprit in the illness, and in some cases death of the pet animals, was contaminated wheat gluten, a vegetable protein imported from China. One of the FDA identified contaminants was an industrial chemical called melamine. Reports of widespread adulteration of animal feed with melamine in China raised concern of similar contamination in the human food supply. In response, on April 27, 2007, FDA announced the detention of all vegetable proteins imported from China, whether for animal or for human consumption. But, FDA's action came too late. On May 1, 2007, officials from FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicated that between 2.5 to 3 million people in the United States had consumed chickens that had been fed with contaminated vegetable proteins imported from China. The 2007 pet food recall incident provided an ominous early warning that, unless the international community can come up with a better food safety mechanism, more such food contamination disasters could happen in the future.

  20. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude, Self-Reported Practices, and Microbiological Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Key; Abdul Halim, Hishamuddin; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2017-01-01

    Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP) of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67) was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85) were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7%) with good attitude (51.9/60) and self-reported practices (53.2/60). It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.

  1. Enterococci as probiotics and their implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-12-02

    Enterococci belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and they are of importance in foods due to their involvement in food spoilage and fermentations, as well as their utilisation as probiotics in humans and slaughter animals. However, they are also important nosocomial pathogens that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis and other infections. Some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and possess virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, pili and haemolysin. The role of enterococci in disease has raised questions on their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. Studies on the incidence of virulence traits among enterococcal strains isolated from food showed that some can harbour virulence traits, but it is also thought that virulence is not the result of the presence of specific virulence determinants alone, but is rather a more intricate process. Specific genetic lineages of hospital-adapted strains have emerged, such as E. faecium clonal complex (CC) 17 and E. faecalis CC2, CC9, CC28 and CC40, which are high risk enterococcal clonal complexes. These are characterised by the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and/or virulence factors, often located on pathogenicity islands or plasmids. Mobile genetic elements thus are considered to play a major role in the establishment of problematic lineages. Although enterococci occur in high numbers in certain types of fermented cheeses and sausages, they are not deliberately added as starter cultures. Some E. faecium and E. faecalis strains are used as probiotics and are ingested in high numbers, generally in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. Such probiotics are administered to treat diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome, to lower cholesterol levels or to improve host immunity. In animals, enterococcal probiotics are mainly used to treat or prevent diarrhoea, for immune stimulation or to improve growth. From a food microbiological point of view, the safety of the

  2. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  3. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  4. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  5. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  6. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield.

  7. The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A I; Hathaway, S C

    2006-08-01

    Both national Veterinary Services and international standard-setting organisations have now embraced risk assessment as an essential tool for achieving their goals. Veterinarians have key roles in all aspects of the control of food-borne hazards of animal origin, but additional specialist skills are necessary for assessing, managing and communicating risk. Further, the deployment of Veterinary Services must reflect the multi-functional aspects of public and animal health activities. A generic risk management framework provides a systematic process whereby food safety standards and other measures are chosen and implemented on the basis of knowledge of risk and evaluation of other factors relevant to protecting human health and promoting non-discriminatory trade practices. In this context, a number of countries are exploring new administrative and structural arrangements for competent authorities. The traditional focus of veterinary involvement in food safety has been in meat hygiene at the level of the slaughterhouse. While this role continues, the emerging 'risk-based' approach to food control requires increased involvement in other segments of the meat food chain, as well as other areas such as production of milk and fish. This more extensive role requires a wider skill base and establishment of effective networks with a different range of stakeholders.

  8. Transgenic maize event TC1507: Global status of food, feed, and environmental safety

    PubMed Central

    Baktavachalam, Gajendra B; Delaney, Bryan; Fisher, Tracey L; Ladics, Gregory S; Layton, Raymond J; Locke, Mary EH; Schmidt, Jean; Anderson, Jennifer A; Weber, Natalie N; Herman, Rod A; Evans, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a widely cultivated cereal that has been safely consumed by humans and animals for centuries. Transgenic or genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize, are commercially grown on a broad scale. Event TC1507 (OECD unique identifier: DAS-Ø15Ø7–1) or the Herculex®# I trait, an insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize expressing Cry1F and PAT proteins, has been registered for commercial cultivation in the US since 2001. A science-based safety assessment was conducted on TC1507 prior to commercialization. The safety assessment addressed allergenicity; acute oral toxicity; subchronic toxicity; substantial equivalence with conventional comparators, as well as environmental impact. Results from biochemical, physicochemical, and in silico investigations supported the conclusion that Cry1F and PAT proteins are unlikely to be either allergenic or toxic to humans. Also, findings from toxicological and animal feeding studies supported that maize with TC1507 is as safe and nutritious as conventional maize. Maize with TC1507 is not expected to behave differently than conventional maize in terms of its potential for invasiveness, gene flow to wild and weedy relatives, or impact on non-target organisms. These safety conclusions regarding TC1507 were acknowledged by over 20 regulatory agencies including United States Environment Protection Agency (US EPA), US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) before authorizing cultivation and/or food and feed uses. A comprehensive review of the safety studies on TC1507, as well as some benefits, are presented here to serve as a reference for regulatory agencies and decision makers in other countries where authorization of TC1507 is or will be pursued. PMID:26018138

  9. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  10. Transgenic maize event TC1507: Global status of food, feed, and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Baktavachalam, Gajendra B; Delaney, Bryan; Fisher, Tracey L; Ladics, Gregory S; Layton, Raymond J; Locke, Mary Eh; Schmidt, Jean; Anderson, Jennifer A; Weber, Natalie N; Herman, Rod A; Evans, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a widely cultivated cereal that has been safely consumed by humans and animals for centuries. Transgenic or genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize, are commercially grown on a broad scale. Event TC1507 (OECD unique identifier: DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) or the Herculex®(#) I trait, an insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize expressing Cry1F and PAT proteins, has been registered for commercial cultivation in the US since 2001. A science-based safety assessment was conducted on TC1507 prior to commercialization. The safety assessment addressed allergenicity; acute oral toxicity; subchronic toxicity; substantial equivalence with conventional comparators, as well as environmental impact. Results from biochemical, physicochemical, and in silico investigations supported the conclusion that Cry1F and PAT proteins are unlikely to be either allergenic or toxic to humans. Also, findings from toxicological and animal feeding studies supported that maize with TC1507 is as safe and nutritious as conventional maize. Maize with TC1507 is not expected to behave differently than conventional maize in terms of its potential for invasiveness, gene flow to wild and weedy relatives, or impact on non-target organisms. These safety conclusions regarding TC1507 were acknowledged by over 20 regulatory agencies including United States Environment Protection Agency (US EPA), US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) before authorizing cultivation and/or food and feed uses. A comprehensive review of the safety studies on TC1507, as well as some benefits, are presented here to serve as a reference for regulatory agencies and decision makers in other countries where authorization of TC1507 is or will be pursued.

  11. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  12. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases.

  13. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted.

  14. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  15. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  16. 77 FR 28566 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign-Post-Wave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... seeking approval of a new information collection to help evaluate the impact of the Food Safety Education... Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign--Post-Wave Tracking Survey) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... tracking survey associated with the Food Safety Education Campaign. The post-wave survey is conducted...

  17. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  18. Food Safety Education for Students and Workers in School Gardens and University Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubak, John; Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The number of school gardens and university farms is increasing in the United States. Produce grown in these venues is often sampled in the classroom or incorporated into the food chain. Food safety education for students and workers is needed to ensure that produce is safe. Two 1-hr food safety curricula were developed to inform K-12 students and…

  19. Development, Dissemination, and Preimplementation Evaluation of Food Safety Educational Materials for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Adrienne E. H.; Snider, O. Sue; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2013-01-01

    With the persistence of microbiological foodborne illness and anticipated future shortage of scientists with agricultural and food science expertise in the United States, it is imperative to educate youth on microbiological food safety and enhance their awareness of opportunities to become engaged in finding solutions to food safety challenges. To…

  20. 77 FR 28602 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety Evaluation of New Non-Pesticidal Proteins Produced by New... collection provisions of FDA's procedures for early food safety evaluation of new non-pesticidal proteins... Proteins Produced by New Plant Varieties Intended for Food Use.'' DATES: Submit either electronic...

  1. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  2. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  3. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  4. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  6. Food safety in the workplace: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Ross, Peggy; Kemerer, Sharon; Taylor, Liza

    2006-12-01

    The occupational health nurse in a large manufacturing facility arrives at work early one Monday morning to find three ill employees in the clinic waiting room and a message from several plant supervisors that multiple employees have called in sick. The supervisors are concerned. The employees have reported similar symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever Furthermore, two supervisors who rarely miss work have also called in sick and other employees are complaining of stomach cramps and diarrhea. The occupational health nurse promptly begins completing a nursing assessment and health history. She discovers that all sick employees attended the company picnic, catered by the facility's food service vendor, the day before. After notifying the local public health department, the occupational health nurse begins to investigate further. The occupational health nurse visits the cafeteria to speak with the manager and inquire about the food served at the picnic. The menu included ham and cheese sandwiches with mayonnaise, hamburgers, potato salad, and cake. The beverages were milk, non-bottled water, and lemonade. All leftover food was discarded, so nothing is available for testing. The manager mentions that yesterday was particularly hot, with a high of 93 degrees F. He states the local health department conducts regular, stringent food inspections. However, he admits they have been short staffed recently and, although he tries to provide adequate training and oversee all food service operations, a few new employees worked at the company picnic. He also mentions his holding temperature logs are "not exactly up-to-date." While talking to the manager the occupational health nurse notices one of the food service employees cutting raw vegetables on a wooden cutting board just used to cut raw chicken. The cutting board was wiped with a damp, visibly soiled sponge, rather than washed, after cutting the meat. It is abundantly clear that food safety training

  7. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  8. Ecophysiology of food-borne pathogens: Essential knowledge to improve food safety.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Hill, C; Wagner, M; Dahl, A; Ross, T

    2010-05-30

    The term ecophysiology suggests that a natural connection exists between microbial ecology and microbial physiology, the former being concerned with the responses of microbial populations to environmental influences, and the latter with activities within individual cells. In this contribution we choose to integrate these as far as possible and also indicate how understanding of both is benefiting from advances in molecular biology and informatics. We consider how microbial dispersal relates to microbial survival, recovery and proliferation, including the significance of random factors (stochasticity) in continuation of bacterial lineages, observing that minor environmental changes, can greatly influence the potential for food-borne disease. Homeostasis and membrane transport are identified as potential targets to control food-borne pathogens and the role of compatible solutes in stress protection is presented. Phenotypic variation in genetically homogeneous populations is highlighted as a major component of the overall microbial survival strategy. The marked influence and potential of predictive microbiology as an aid to food safety management is discussed, as is the need for greater knowledge of the ecophysiology of microbes in the growth/no growth region. The application of fundamental scientific principles, including thermodynamics, chemistry and microbial physiology is advocated as the basis for development of theory underpinning microbial ecophysiology. Advancing microbial food safety continues to require development of rapid, quantitative methods as an early warning system and mechanism to curtail microbial food-borne disease outbreaks. However, advances made by technologists and molecular biologists must be combined with knowledge of ecophysiology: e.g. biological rates will continue to constrain resolution of the recalcitrant problem of reducing the time required for enrichment processes. The discussion presented leads to the conclusion that microbial and

  9. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-06-15

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs.

  10. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  11. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  12. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  13. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-12-24

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

  14. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15–49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community. PMID:27867449

  15. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15-49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community.

  16. Food safety education: health professionals' knowledge and assessment of WIC client needs.

    PubMed

    Scheule, Barbara

    2004-05-01

    A written questionnaire was used to assess the opportunities and challenges for food safety education in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The sample included directors and health professionals with nutrition counseling responsibilities in 79 WIC clinics in a midwestern state. Seventy-two percent of the clinics participated in the study. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi(2) analysis, and Cronbach's alpha. Seventy-two percent reported offering food safety advice to 20% or more of their clients daily. Ninety percent identified the food-safety knowledge of their WIC clients to be fair to very poor. The need for food safety handouts, targeted for WIC clients, was identified by 27% of the respondents. WIC professionals are promoting safe food handling among a high-risk population group. Expansion of current food-safety education efforts with WIC clients is encouraged with emphasis on methods to effectively overcome barriers to safe food handling.

  17. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the...

  18. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  19. DoD Veterinary Service Activity Role in DoD Food Safety.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    medical research and development; zoonotic disease prevention and control; and food safety and quality assurance. The latter mission is not all encompassing...within DoD. This paper reviews the division of responsibilities, within DoD, for food safety and quality assurance. The complexity of the division...and the problem it causes joint operations planners are explored. A proposal for integrating overall strategic responsibility for food safety and quality assurance into the DoD Veterinary Service Activity is developed.

  20. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  1. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors' influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of consumer rights protection and the level of legal protection of consumer rights on the risk spread of food safety. This model contributes to the explicit investigation of the influence relationship among supply-demand factors, the regulation behavioral choice of government, the behavioral choice of food supply chain members and food safety risk spread. And this paper provides a new viewpoint for considering food safety risk spread in the food supply chain, which has a great reference for food safety management.

  2. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  3. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  4. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  5. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Moreno Switt, Andrea I.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to detection, prevention and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. While practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

  6. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Cody, Mildred M; Stretch, Theresa

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have access to a safe food and water supply. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports science-based food and water regulations and recommendations that are applied consistently across all foods and water regulated by all agencies and incorporate traceability and recall to limit food- and waterborne outbreaks. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, are encouraged to participate in policy decisions, program development, and implementation of a food safety culture. Food safety affects all segments of the population in a global society, and, although the United States food and water system has many protections in place, food safety continues to be a public health concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in six Americans are sickened, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die annually from foodborne disease. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates for foodborne illness, it is estimated that the basic cost-of-illness averages $1,068/episode with a total annual cost of $51 billion. The food safety system is challenged by changing demographics, consumer preferences for convenience and variety, and issues of concern in the commercial food chain and in regulatory systems. The 2011-enacted Food Safety Modernization Act is an extensive expansion of federal food regulatory authority that mandates a risk-based food safety system approach and focuses on comprehensive science-based preventive measures across the total food safety system. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, have unique roles in promoting and establishing food safety cultures in foodservice settings, clinical practices, community settings, and in public venues because their training integrates food; science; and health, both preventive and therapeutic.

  7. 77 FR 26287 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, JIFSAN (U01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds...

  8. Consumer Control Points: Creating a Visual Food Safety Education Model for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Consumer education has always been a primary consideration in the prevention of food-borne illness. Using nutrition education and the new food guide as a model, this paper develops suggestions for a framework of microbiological food safety principles and a compatible visual model for communicating key concepts. Historically, visual food guides in…

  9. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  10. 76 FR 45820 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  11. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  12. Food safety. Federal inspection programs. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Concern about the safety of the US food supply has stimulated criticism of the present system for assuring safe food in American markets. This report was prepared in response to resolutions introduced at the American Medical Association House of Delegates' December 1990 Interim Meeting. The resolutions requested the AMA to study the plans and procedures needed to improve the federal inspection of meat, poultry, and shellfish. To put these issues into perspective, an overview of food safety is presented. This report is not intended, however, to be a broad review of the Food and Drug Administration's and the US Department of Agriculture's responsibilities for food safety.

  13. High-pressure thermal sterilization: food safety and food quality of baby food puree.

    PubMed

    Sevenich, Robert; Kleinstueck, Elke; Crews, Colin; Anderson, Warwick; Pye, Celine; Riddellova, Katerina; Hradecky, Jaromir; Moravcova, Eliska; Reineke, Kai; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-02-01

    The benefits that high-pressure thermal sterilization offers as an emerging technology could be used to produce a better overall food quality. Due to shorter dwell times and lower thermal load applied to the product in comparison to the thermal retorting, lower numbers and quantities of unwanted food processing contaminants (FPCs), for example, furan, acrylamide, HMF, and MCPD-esters could be formed. Two spore strains were used to test the technique; Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, over the temperature range 90 to 121 °C at 600 MPa. The treatments were carried out in baby food puree and ACES-buffer. The treatments at 90 and 105 °C showed that G. stearothermophilus is more pressure-sensitive than B. amyloliquefaciens. The formation of FPCs was monitored during the sterilization process and compared to the amounts found in retorted samples of the same food. The amounts of furan could be reduced between 81% to 96% in comparison to retorting for the tested temperature pressure combination even at sterilization conditions of F₀-value in 7 min.

  14. Understanding consumer confidence in the safety of food: its two-dimensional structure and determinants.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans; Jan Renes, Reint; Frewer, Lynn

    2007-06-01

    Understanding of the determinants of consumer confidence in the safety of food is important if effective risk management and communication are to be developed. In the research reported here, we attempt to understand the roles of consumer trust in actors in the food chain and regulators, consumer recall of food safety incidents, consumer perceptions regarding the safety of particular product groups, personality characteristics, and sociodemographics, as potential determinants of consumer confidence in the safety of food. Consumer confidence in the safety of food was conceptualized as consisting of two distinct dimensions, namely, "optimism" and "pessimism." On the basis of a representative sample of 657 Dutch consumers, structural equation modeling was applied to simultaneously estimate the effect of the determinants on both "optimism" and "pessimism." The results indicated that, to a considerable extent, both optimism and pessimism about the safety of food arise from consumer trust in regulators and actors in the food chain and the perceived safety of meat and fish rather than other product categories. In addition, support was found for the notion that optimism and pessimism are conceptually distinct, as these dimensions of confidence were partly influenced by different determinants. The results of this study imply that consumer confidence in the safety of food could be enhanced by improving both consumer trust in societal actors, and consumer safety perceptions of particular product groups.

  15. Addressing patient safety through the use of 'criteria of acceptability' for medical radiation equipment.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Debbie Bray; Holmberg, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety should be considered in the use of ionising radiation equipment in medicine. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes standards of safety and provides for the application of these standards, also in the area of medical use of radiation. Equipment acceptability, as it relates to radiation in medicine, is the need to satisfy the requirements or standards prior to the use of the device in patient imaging or treatment. Through IAEA activities in establishing and developing Safety Standards, Safety Reports and recommendations to regulatory authorities and end-users, it encourages the adoption of acceptability criteria that are relevant to the medical equipment and its use.

  16. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  17. The adaptive response of bacterial food-borne pathogens in the environment, host and food: Implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Broussolle, Véronique; Colin, Pierre; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Prieto, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Bacteria are constantly faced to stress situations in their ecological niches, the food and the host gastrointestinal tract. The capacity to detect and respond to surrounding changes is crucial for bacterial pathogens to survive or grow in changing environments. To this purpose, cells have evolved various sophisticated networks designed to protect against stressors or repair damage caused by them. Challenges can occur during production of foods when subjected to processing, and after food ingestion when confronted with host defensive barriers. Some pathogenic bacteria have shown the capacity to develop stable resistance against extreme conditions within a defined genomic context and a limited number of generations. On the other hand, bacteria can also respond to adverse conditions in a transient manner, through the so-called stress tolerance responses. Bacterial stress tolerance responses include both structural and physiological modifications in the cell and are mediated by complex genetic regulatory machinery. Major aspects in the adaptive response are the sensing mechanisms, the characterization of cell defensive systems, such as the operation of regulatory proteins (e.g. RpoS), the induction of homeostatic and repair systems, the synthesis of shock response proteins, and the modifications of cell membranes, particularly in their fatty acid composition and physical properties. This article reviews certain strategies used by food-borne bacteria to respond to particular stresses (acid, cold stress, extreme pressure) in a permanent or transient manner and discusses the implications that such adaptive responses pose for food safety.

  18. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative.

  19. Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga

    2008-12-01

    Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health.

  20. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues.

  1. Parental Views of Food-Safety Education in a Japanese Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horikawa, Haruka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined Japanese mothers' satisfaction with food-safety education in primary schools, compared the characteristics of mothers who were not satisfied, and identified topics that should be included in food-safety education, according to mothers. Design: An online survey was conducted in March 2011 in Japan. The questionnaire…

  2. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety (the petitioners) requested that...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically...

  3. Development of an Evaluation Tool for Online Food Safety Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jack A., Jr.; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Crandall, Philip G.; O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Keifer, Elizabeth; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the person in charge and food safety instructors an assessment tool to help characterize, identify strengths and weaknesses, determine the completeness of the knowledge gained by the employee, and evaluate the level of content presentation and usability of current retail food safety training platforms. An…

  4. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge of High School and Transition Teachers of Special Needs Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…

  5. Implementation and Assessment of Food Safety Educational Materials for Secondary and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Adrienne E. H.; Snider, O. Sue; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on the inadequacy of youth knowledge and practice of food safety principles. The formal high school science classroom environment presents an opportunity to stimulate interest and increase knowledge in food safety with potential benefits to students in improved science literacy, development of life skills, and…

  6. How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

  7. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  8. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  9. Spatio-temporal assessment of food safety risks in Canadian food distribution systems using GIS.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Beni, Leila; Villeneuve, Sébastien; LeBlanc, Denyse I; Côté, Kevin; Fazil, Aamir; Otten, Ainsley; McKellar, Robin; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    While the value of geographic information systems (GIS) is widely applied in public health there have been comparatively few examples of applications that extend to the assessment of risks in food distribution systems. GIS can provide decision makers with strong computing platforms for spatial data management, integration, analysis, querying and visualization. The present report addresses some spatio-analyses in a complex food distribution system and defines influence areas as travel time zones generated through road network analysis on a national scale rather than on a community scale. In addition, a dynamic risk index is defined to translate a contamination event into a public health risk as time progresses. More specifically, in this research, GIS is used to map the Canadian produce distribution system, analyze accessibility to contaminated product by consumers, and estimate the level of risk associated with a contamination event over time, as illustrated in a scenario.

  10. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  11. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  12. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and... rule entitled School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  13. Ion mobility spectrometry for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Vautz, W; Zimmermann, D; Hartmann, M; Baumbach, J I; Nolte, J; Jung, J

    2006-11-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry is known to be a fast and sensitive technique for the detection of trace substances, and it is increasingly in demand not only for protection against explosives and chemical warfare agents, but also for new applications in medical diagnosis or process control. Generally, a gas phase sample is ionized by help of ultraviolet light, ss-radiation or partial discharges. The ions move in a weak electrical field towards a detector. During their drift they collide with a drift gas flowing in the opposite direction and, therefore, are slowed down depending on their size, shape and charge. As a result, different ions reach the detector at different drift times, which are characteristic for the ions considered. The number of ions reaching the detector are a measure of the concentration of the analyte. The method enables the identification and quantification of analytes with high sensitivity (ng l(-1) range). The selectivity can even be increased - as necessary for the analyses of complex mixtures - using pre-separation techniques such as gas chromatography or multi-capillary columns. No pre-concentration of the sample is necessary. Those characteristics of the method are preserved even in air with up to a 100% relative humidity rate. The suitability of the method for application in the field of food quality and safety - including storage, process and quality control as well as the characterization of food stuffs - was investigated in recent years for a number of representative examples, which are summarized in the following, including new studies as well: (1) the detection of metabolites from bacteria for the identification and control of their growth; (2) process control in food production - beer fermentation being an example; (3) the detection of the metabolites of mould for process control during cheese production, for quality control of raw materials or for the control of storage conditions; (4) the quality control of packaging materials during

  14. [New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety].

    PubMed

    Efimochkinal, N R; Bagryantseva, E C; Dupouy, E C; Khotimchenko, S A; Permyakov, E V; Sheveleva, S A; Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin - emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures forfood safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection.

  15. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

    2010-12-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P < 0.05). The two food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05). Stages of change were significantly and positively correlated with food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P < 0.05). The most influential factor on the stage of change was a mother's instruction about food safety (P < 0.01).

  16. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater mining in India is one of the biggest water related present and future challenges of South Asia. In the agricultural sector, the negative impact from groundwater depletion is complex and affects farmers directly and indirectly in different ways according to their existing dependence on access to groundwater for irrigation. It stems from a) a reduction in buffer capacity of groundwater as a source of backup supply in critical times of drought, b) the deprivation of access to groundwater of those farmers that cannot raise the capital to continuously drill deeper so as to chase the declining groundwater table and c) the constant reduction of per pump well yield due to the declining water tables given more or less constant pumping energy supply. As a result, rural incomes have become less reliable and household as well as national level food security are increasingly compromised. It is feared that the current deterioration of the national food security situation in India might not easily be reversed due to the unsustainable nature of consumptive groundwater use over the past decades. Access to electricity and subsidized power so as to pump groundwater for irrigation have played a critical role in increasing food production thus linking the energy and agricultural sector. The current rural public finance mechanism is highly ineffective, however, and trapped in an inefficient equilibrium. The deficiencies are that low cost and low quality electricity for agriculture likely translate into wasteful groundwater as well as inefficient energy use and thus lead to resource depletion and contribute to an erosion of the rural electricity distribution system. It is estimated that the current commercial losses to the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) amount to about 23 percent of the gross fiscal deficit of the states. The original intent of the rural subsidy program is thus lost and the current system in urgent need of repair. The uncertain future development of energy

  17. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  18. InstantLabs®? Salmonella species food safety kit.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neil; Bambusch, Lauren; Le, Thu; Hayman, Melinda; Montez, Sergio J

    2014-01-01

    The InstantLabs® Salmonella Species Food Safety Kit was validated against the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) reference method* 6579:2002 for the detection of Salmonella species. The matrixes (unprocessed rolled oats, wheat flour, and oat flour) were inoculated with 1 CFU/test portion of Salmonella to generate fractional positives (5-15) in 20 inoculated samples. The inatrixes were co-inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 2-5 times the level of Salmonella to demonstrate the potential for using the same enrichment culture in the future to detect of multiple organisms. Samples were validated using 750 g test portion enriched in FASTGRO SE at 42 ± 1°C for 16-20 h. All samples were confirmed using the ISO reference method, regardless of initial screen result. The InstantLabs test method performed as well as or better than the reference method for the detection of Salmonella species in unprocessed rolled oats, wheat flour, and oat flour. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. Finally, the method was shown to be robust when variations to enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied (data not shown).

  19. Quest for social safety in imported foods in China: gatekeeper perceptions.

    PubMed

    Knight, John; Gao, Hongzhi; Garrett, Tony; Deans, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about food safety, and mistrust of food production systems within China, result in imported food products generally enjoying a higher reputation than locally produced food products. Findings from interviews of gatekeepers are discussed in relation to conspicuous consumption, social trust, and the symbolic value of foreign brands and production. The issue of social safety emerges as a dominant consideration in determining product choice. Culturally bound constructs are integrated with price-perceived value constructs in order to build a comprehensive model of social risk avoidance applicable to food channel gatekeepers in China.

  20. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law.

  1. Addressing Younger Workers’ Needs: The Promoting U through Safety and Health (PUSH) Trial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Parish, Megan; Elliot, Diane L.; Hanson, Ginger; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health). All younger workers (14–24 years old) hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years) completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p < 0.001, effect size (Cohen’s d) 0.4). However, self-reported safety and health attitudes did not improve with this one-time training. These results indicate the potential utility of online training for younger workers and underscore the limitations of a single training interaction to change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior. PMID:27517968

  2. Addressing Younger Workers' Needs: The Promoting U through Safety and Health (PUSH) Trial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohlman, Diane S; Parish, Megan; Elliot, Diane L; Hanson, Ginger; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-08-10

    Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health). All younger workers (14-24 years old) hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years) completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p < 0.001, effect size (Cohen's d) 0.4). However, self-reported safety and health attitudes did not improve with this one-time training. These results indicate the potential utility of online training for younger workers and underscore the limitations of a single training interaction to change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior.

  3. Redefining the Moral Responsibilities for Food Safety: The Case of Red Meat in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    Food safety governance is shaped by social relationships among the state, the industry, and the public in the food system in a given country. This paper examines the contestation among actors in New Zealand's red meat chain over the implementation of the Animal Product Act of 1999 (APA), which became a cornerstone in the reform of food safety…

  4. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  5. MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR RAPID-ONLINE SAFETY INSPECTION OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness presents a public health challenge in the United States. There is an urgent need for the federal government and food industries to expand efforts to prevent any food contamination that potentially could be harmful to human health. The Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of t...

  6. Regulatory forum opinion piece*: supporting the need for international harmonization of safety assessments for food flavoring substances.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoichi; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-08-01

    The advancement of technology and the growth of international commerce underscore the need for global harmonization of regulatory safety requirements and their assessment pertaining to consumer products such as drugs, medical devices, and food. This need is particularly relevant when safety requirements involve time-intensive and costly animal safety studies. Here we present the current regulatory requirements in Europe, the United States, and Japan for flavoring substances (FSs) used in foods and point out significant differences relevant to the international standardization for safety assessments that in our opinion need to be addressed and overcome. The safety assessments that are carried out for FSs in various countries are influenced by divergent definitions of FS, by the information required and available for regulatory submission, and by different regulatory procedures, including the use of decision tree approaches. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Expert Panel of the U.S. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) are making efforts to improve and harmonize the safety assessment of FSs. The application of in silico methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and read-across strategies relying on expert input are useful as a first-step screening of the assessment. Application of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach permits conclusions that are compatible with the risk assessment approaches currently used by international advisory committees. The Japanese Regulatory Authority, on the other hand, does not yet consider in silico methods but still requires in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity test data as well as repeat-dose 90-day toxicity data in at least one species, to be submitted as the first step in the safety assessment of FSs. With this article, we echo requests that have

  7. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  8. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH.

  9. Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p < .05). Significant relationships were found between marital status, education level, and kitchen safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05).

  10. Statistical analysis used in the nutritional assessment of novel food using the proof of safety.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Oberdoerfer, Regina

    2006-03-01

    The safety assessment of Novel Food, including GM biotechnology-derived crops, starts with the comparison of the Novel Food with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use. Substantial equivalence is established if no meaningful difference from the conventional counterpart was found, leading to the conclusion that the Novel Food is as safe and nutritious as its traditional counterpart. In general, the non-significance of p value is used for the proof of safety. From a statistical perspective, the problems connected with such an approach are demonstrated, namely that quite different component-specific false negative error rates result. As an alternative, the proof of safety is discussed with the inherently related definition of safety thresholds. Moreover, parametric and non-parametric confidence intervals for the difference and the ratio to control (conventional line) are described in detail. Finally, the treatment of multiple components for a global proof of safety is explained.

  11. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  12. Safe at School: Addressing the School Environment and LGBT Safety through Policy and Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, Stuart; Kuehl, Sheila James

    2010-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students face a unique set of safety concerns each day. Over 85% report being harassed because of their sexual or gender identity, and over 20% report being physically attacked. Far too often teachers and administrators do nothing in response. In part because of this, the suicide rate for LGBT…

  13. Food safety issues and information needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J

    2012-06-01

    In the study described in this article, the authors investigated the perceptions and needs of public health inspectors (PHIs) in the province of Ontario, Canada, with regard to food safety issues and information resources. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 Ontario PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. Questions pertained to their perceptions of key food safety issues and foodborne pathogens, knowledge confidence, available resources, and resource needs. All respondents rated time-temperature abuse, inadequate hand washing, and cross contamination as important food safety issues. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli O157:H7 were pathogens reported to be of concern to 95% of respondents (221/233). Most respondents indicated that they were confident in their knowledge of food safety issues and foodborne pathogens, but wanted a central, online resource for food safety information and ongoing food safety education training for PHIs. The data from the authors' study can be used in the development of information resources targeted to the needs of PHIs involved in food safety.

  14. Insights and Perspectives on Emerging Inputs to Weight of Evidence Determinations for Food Safety: Workshop Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Bialk, Heidi; Llewellyn, Craig; Kretser, Alison; Canady, Richard; Lane, Richard; Barach, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This workshop aimed to elucidate the contribution of computational and emerging in vitro methods to the weight of evidence used by risk assessors in food safety assessments. The following issues were discussed: using in silico and high-throughput screening (HTS) data to confirm the safety of approved food ingredients, applying in silico and HTS data in the process of assessing the safety of a new food ingredient, and utilizing in silico and HTS data in communicating the safety of food ingredients while enhancing the public’s trust in the food supply. Perspectives on integrating computational modeling and HTS assays as well as recommendations for optimizing predictive methods for risk assessment were also provided. Given the need to act quickly or proceed cautiously as new data emerge, this workshop also focused on effectively identifying a path forward in communicating in silico and in vitro data. PMID:24296863

  15. Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost.

  16. Review of the quality and safety of irradiated food. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This monograph will describe the food-irradiation process and summarizing its historical development as a way to prolong the shelf-life of food and prevent the spread of food-borne illness. It will also examine of the known effects of irradiation on food quality. Including a presentation of the effect of irradiation on the flavor, appearance, and smell of food. The nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods and several improvements in some foods caused by irradiation are also discussed. Finally, a discussion of the safety issues associated with the process and its products. The safety of irradiated foods is an issue of growing concern to the American public. While irradiation shows great potential for reducing foodborne illness, the formation of radiolytic products, the physical dangers of radiation, and the possibility of cancer or genetic mutation worries many people.

  17. 78 FR 69603 - Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To Issue Certifications; Extension.../Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to Issue Certifications'' that appeared in the Federal... Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to Issue Certifications'' with a...

  18. The Role of Geographical Indication in Supporting Food Safety: A not Taken for Granted Nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of geographical indication in supporting strategies of food safety. Starting from the distinction between generic and specific quality, the article analyses the main factors influencing food safety in cases of geographical indication products, by stressing the importance of traceability systems and biodiversity in securing generic and specific quality. In the second part, the paper investigates the coordination problems behind a designation of origin and conditions to foster an effective collective action, a prerequisite to grant food safety through geographical indications. PMID:27800417

  19. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  20. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  1. Bioactive nutrients - Time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety.

    PubMed

    Yates, Allison A; Erdman, John W; Shao, Andrew; Dolan, Laurie C; Griffiths, James C

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers. A key aspect of establishing dietary guidance is the assessment of safety/toxicity of these substances. Toxicologists need to be involved in both the development of the safety framework and in the evaluation of the science to establish maximum intake/upper limits.

  2. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat’s place as one of the world’s most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield. PMID:25540461

  3. Neuroauditory Toxicity of Artemisinin Combination Therapies—Have Safety Concerns Been Addressed?

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Martín, Virginia; González-Martínez, Carmen; Mackenzie, Ian; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Pace, Cheryl; Lalloo, David G.; Terlouw, Dianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are widely viewed as safe drugs with a wide therapeutic dose range, concerns about neuroauditory safety of artemisinins arose during their development. A decade ago, reviews of human data suggested a potential neuro-ototoxic effect, but the validity of these findings was questioned. With 5–10 years of programmatic use, emerging artemisinin-tolerant falciparum malaria in southeast Asia, and the first calls to consider an increased dose of artemisinins, we review neuroauditory safety data on ACTs to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fifteen studies reported a neurological or auditory assessment. The large heterogeneity of neuro-ototoxic end points and assessment methodologies and the descriptive nature of assessments hampered a formal meta-analysis and definitive conclusions, but they highlight the persistent lack of data from young children. This subgroup is potentially most vulnerable to any neuroauditory toxicity because of their development stage, increased malaria susceptibility, and repeated ACT exposure in settings lacking robust safety monitoring. PMID:24865683

  4. HealthLines: 7 Steps to Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Woman eating Strawberries Photo iStock to Keep Your Food — and Family — Safe in Every Season 1. Check ... it look and smell clean? 2. Separate Certain Foods — Put raw meat, poultry, and seafood in separate ...

  5. Minimal impact, waterless decontamination technologies for improving food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen contamination of produce, meats, poultry, shellfish, and other foods remains an ongoing concern. Chemical sanitizers are widely employed for foods and food contact surfaces. However, there is growing interest in the development of minimal impact, waterless decontamination processes that wil...

  6. Safety assessment and public concern for genetically modified food products: the European view.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Bevan E B

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment for marketing purposes of genetically modified (GM) foods in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) is based on the Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation adopted in May 1997. Before a GM food can be approved under the Regulation, it must satisfy three criteria: Gm food must be safe, it must not mislead the consumer and it must be nutritionally adequate. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published a set of guidelines describing the type of information expected from a company in support of an application for approval of a GM food or food ingredient. Despite this rigorous procedure and there being no evidence of harm resulting from the consumption of GM foods worldwide, there is essentially no market in the EU for such products at present. Possible reasons for this are discussed and the view put forward that the market for GM foods will change only when there are more clearly perceived consumer benefits.

  7. Baseline Practices for the Application of Genomic Data Supporting Regulatory Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Dominic; Pightling, Arthur; Griffiths, Emma; Van Domselaar, Gary; Evans, Peter; Berthelet, Sharon; Craig, Duncan; Chandry, P Scott; Stones, Robert; Brinkman, Fiona; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Kreysa, Joachim; Tong, Weida; Blais, Burton

    2017-01-19

    The application of new data streams generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been demonstrated for food microbiology, pathogen identification, and illness outbreak detection. The establishment of best practices for data integrity, reproducibility, and traceability will ensure reliable, auditable, and transparent processes underlying food microbiology risk management decisions. We outline general principles to guide the use of NGS data in support of microbiological food safety. Regulatory authorities across intra- and international jurisdictions can leverage this effort to promote the reliability, consistency, and transparency of processes used in the derivation of genomic information for regulatory food safety purposes, and to facilitate interactions and the transfer of information in the interest of public health.

  8. Recent Developments in Hyperspectral Imaging for Assessment of Food Quality and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael O.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging which combines imaging and spectroscopic technology is rapidly gaining ground as a non-destructive, real-time detection tool for food quality and safety assessment. Hyperspectral imaging could be used to simultaneously obtain large amounts of spatial and spectral information on the objects being studied. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent development of hyperspectral imaging applications in food and food products. The potential and future work of hyperspectral imaging for food quality and safety control is also discussed. PMID:24759119

  9. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  10. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  11. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Older Adults: Identifying Causes and Solutions for Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F

    2009-04-01

    Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education.

  12. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  13. Tools for Defusing a Major Global Food and Feed Safety Risk: Nonbiological Postharvest Procedures To Decontaminate Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds.

    PubMed

    Temba, Benigni A; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Kriticos, Darren J; Fox, Glen P; Harvey, Jagger J W; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-11-30

    Mycotoxin contamination of foods and animal feeds is a worldwide problem for human and animal health. Controlling mycotoxin contamination has drawn the attention of scientists and other food and feed stakeholders all over the world. Despite best efforts targeting field and storage preventive measures, environmental conditions can still lead to mycotoxin contamination. This raises a need for developing decontamination methods to inactivate or remove the toxins from contaminated products. At present, decontamination methods applied include an array of both biological and nonbiological methods. The targeted use of nonbiological methods spans from the latter half of last century, when ammoniation and ozonation were first used to inactivate mycotoxins in animal feeds, to the novel techniques being developed today such as photosensitization. Effectiveness and drawbacks of different nonbiological methods have been reported in the literature, and this review examines the utility of these methods in addressing food safety. Particular consideration is given to the application of such methods in the developing world, where mycotoxin contamination is a serious food safety issue in staple crops such as maize and rice.

  14. Food safety in the United States and abroad: an agriculturist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Rushing, James W

    2004-01-01

    The topic of food safety in the U.S. frequently is the lead story in the news media and continues to be an important issue for biological scientists of all disciplines. The emotional and sensational aspects of food safety often cloud the facts as reported by journalists. Because we increasingly depend on foreign countries for our food supply, and because of the commonly held belief in our society that foreign suppliers are not required to meet the safety criteria of U.S. regulatory agencies, it is important for agriculturalists with international expertise to offer objective views on the topic of food safety. This report contains the observations and views of one such scientist.

  15. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  16. Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Motarjemi, Yasmine

    2002-05-25

    Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries. In the report of an FAO/WHO Workshop (FAO/WHO, 1996), fermentation was reviewed and the nutritional and safety aspects of fermentation technologies and their products were assessed. Fermentation enhances the nutritional quality of foods and contributes to food safety particularly under conditions where refrigeration or other foods processing facilities are not available. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) studies of some fermented products have demonstrated that depending on the process and the hygienic conditions observed during preparation, some fermented foods, e.g. togwa prepared in Tanzania, may pose a safety risk. Fermented foods must therefore be studied following HACCP principles and small-scale food industries and households must be advised on the critical control points of fermentation processes and the control measures to be applied at these points. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of fermentation and demonstrates the application of the HACCP system to some fermented foods in developing countries.

  17. Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.

  18. An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W

    2013-08-02

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  19. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  20. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  1. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  2. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  3. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  4. New perspectives on dietary-derived treatments and food safety-antinomy in a new era.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Lin, Rui-Chao; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Dong, Hong-Guan; Tang, Min-Ke; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in science and technology and wide use of chemical drugs, dietary intervention (or food therapy) remains useful in preventing or treating many human diseases. A huge body of evidence shows that the dietary pattern or habit is also an important contributing factor to the development of chronic diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cancers. In recent years, over-the-counter health foods, nutraceuticals, and plant-derived medicinal products have been gaining popularity all over the world, particularly in developed countries. Unfortunately, owing to the contamination with various harmful substances in foods and the presence of toxic food components, food-borne diseases have also become increasingly problematic. Incidents of food poisonings or tainted food have been increasing worldwide, particularly in China and other developing countries. Therefore, the government should put in a greater effort in enforcing food safety by improving the surveillance mechanism and exerting highest standards of quality control for foods.

  5. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  6. Principles for building public-private partnerships to benefit food safety, nutrition, and health research.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Kretser, Alison; Steele, Robert; Kretsch, Molly; Applebaum, Rhona; Clydesdale, Fergus; Cummins, Deborah; Hentges, Eric; Navia, Juan; Jarvis, Ashley; Falci, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs.

  7. Principles for building public-private partnerships to benefit food safety, nutrition, and health research

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Kretser, Alison; Steele, Robert; Kretsch, Molly; Applebaum, Rhona; Clydesdale, Fergus; Cummins, Deborah; Hentges, Eric; Navia, Juan; Jarvis, Ashley; Falci, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs. PMID:24117791

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  9. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2011-05-15

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  10. Food Safety in Feeding Services: A Requirement in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Serafim, Ana Lúcia; Hecktheuer, Luisa Helena; Medeiros, Laissa Benites; Silva, Eneo Alves Da

    2016-06-10

    Access to food that is adequate in both quantity and quality is directly related to the health of a population. Unsafe food may cause an individual to experience varying degrees of illnesses known as food-borne disease. As their daily lives change, an increasing number of Brazilian people eat outside of their houses in restaurants, cafes, bakeries, and other dining establishments. Until August 2004, food services in Brazil followed the same standards recommended for other industries; these standards were determined by the Ministry of Health through Decree 326 in 1997 and completed in 2002 by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency through Resolution 275. On September 15, 2004, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency published RDC 216 that provided information about Technical Regulation of Good Practices specifically for food services. This legislation ensures safe production of the food at Brazilian food service sites through good practices and procedures. The purpose of this review is to describe the aspects related to safe food production and to discuss the main legislation for food services in Brazil.

  11. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries.

  12. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  13. Implementation of School Districts' Food Safety Plans and Perceptions of Support for Food Safety and Training in Child Nutrition Programs in One USDA Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawso Van Druff, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    School foodservice directors (FSDs) and school business officials (SBOs) in public school districts with enrollments between 2,500 and 25,000 in the USDA Mid-Atlantic geographic region provided responses to a paper-and-pencil survey. The FSDs assessed the level of implementation of a mandated school food safety plan in their districts and…

  14. Improving Food Safety Knowledge through an Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Rebecca S.; Anding, Jenna; Green, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a major public health concern in the U.S. The CDC [Centers for Disease Control] estimates that approximately 48 million Americans become ill, 128,000 hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne illnesses annually. Most of these illnesses are attributed to improper food handling. To meet the growing demand for food safety…

  15. Food Safety Training Needs of Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A sample of child-care centers and family day-care homes in Michigan was used to identify what care providers need to know about safe food handling. Their primary concern was to become informed about what causes food to become unsafe and how to prevent foodborne illnesses. Providers preferred printed materials to tapes or workshops. (AA)

  16. Need for safety of nanoparticles used in food industry.

    PubMed

    Das, Mukul; Ansari, Kausar M; Tripathi, Anurag; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology derived products are now used in various spheres of life including food industry. Indeed nanotechnology may transform entire food industry in terms of production, processing and packaging and consumption. Due to their small size, nanoparticles find application as a carrier of antimicrobial polypeptides required against microbial deterioration of food quality. Detection of food pathogens, fungus producing mycotoxins, viruses and bacteria through nanosensors, which are quick, sensitive and less labour intensive procedures, is another area having potential application. The use of nanosensors in plastic packaging to detect gases released due to food spoilage is of consumer's relevance. Majority of nanoparticles for food use are organic moieties, hence it is of utmost importance to investigate their physico-chemical characteristics followed by toxicological implications to intestinal cells. It remains to be seen that nanostructured ingredients and nutrient delivery system may also carry other foreign substances to blood. Nano sized particles for food usage, having new chemical and physical properties may vary from normal macro particles that may also influence the interaction with living systems. Hence in vitro and in vivo studies are required for nanoparticles to be used in foods prior to their commercialization.

  17. Towards a Food Safety Knowledge Base Applicable in Crisis Situations and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Falenski, Alexander; Weiser, Armin A.; Thöns, Christian; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Filter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In case of contamination in the food chain, fast action is required in order to reduce the numbers of affected people. In such situations, being able to predict the fate of agents in foods would help risk assessors and decision makers in assessing the potential effects of a specific contamination event and thus enable them to deduce the appropriate mitigation measures. One efficient strategy supporting this is using model based simulations. However, application in crisis situations requires ready-to-use and easy-to-adapt models to be available from the so-called food safety knowledge bases. Here, we illustrate this concept and its benefits by applying the modular open source software tools PMM-Lab and FoodProcess-Lab. As a fictitious sample scenario, an intentional ricin contamination at a beef salami production facility was modelled. Predictive models describing the inactivation of ricin were reviewed, relevant models were implemented with PMM-Lab, and simulations on residual toxin amounts in the final product were performed with FoodProcess-Lab. Due to the generic and modular modelling concept implemented in these tools, they can be applied to simulate virtually any food safety contamination scenario. Apart from the application in crisis situations, the food safety knowledge base concept will also be useful in food quality and safety investigations. PMID:26247028

  18. Development and Evaluation of Food Safety Modules for K-12 Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Travis K.; Pfuntner, Rachel C.; Stasiewicz, Matthew J.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Career and educational opportunities in food science and food safety are underrecognized by K-12 students and educators. Additionally, misperceptions regarding nature of science understanding persist in K-12 students despite being emphasized as an important component of science education for over 100 y. In an effort to increase awareness…

  19. Towards a Food Safety Knowledge Base Applicable in Crisis Situations and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Alexander; Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Filter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In case of contamination in the food chain, fast action is required in order to reduce the numbers of affected people. In such situations, being able to predict the fate of agents in foods would help risk assessors and decision makers in assessing the potential effects of a specific contamination event and thus enable them to deduce the appropriate mitigation measures. One efficient strategy supporting this is using model based simulations. However, application in crisis situations requires ready-to-use and easy-to-adapt models to be available from the so-called food safety knowledge bases. Here, we illustrate this concept and its benefits by applying the modular open source software tools PMM-Lab and FoodProcess-Lab. As a fictitious sample scenario, an intentional ricin contamination at a beef salami production facility was modelled. Predictive models describing the inactivation of ricin were reviewed, relevant models were implemented with PMM-Lab, and simulations on residual toxin amounts in the final product were performed with FoodProcess-Lab. Due to the generic and modular modelling concept implemented in these tools, they can be applied to simulate virtually any food safety contamination scenario. Apart from the application in crisis situations, the food safety knowledge base concept will also be useful in food quality and safety investigations.

  20. Promoting Food Safety Awareness for Older Adults by Using Online Education Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amber; Francis, Sarah L.; Shaw, Angela; Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are susceptible to and at greater risk for food-borne illness in comparison to those in other adult age groups. Online education is an underused method for the delivery of food safety information to this population. Three online mini-modules, based on social marketing theory (SMT), were created for and pilot-tested with older adults.…

  1. Feminist Heuristics: Transforming the Foundation of Food Quality and Safety Assurance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Aya Hirata

    2012-01-01

    Food safety and quality assurance systems have emerged as a key mechanism of food governance in recent years and are also popular among alternative agrofood movements, such as the organic and fair trade movements. Rural sociologists have identified many problems with existing systems, including corporate cooptation, the marginalization of small…

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  3. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  4. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.

    PubMed

    Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Rajić, A; Verloo, D

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare, and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimize biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritizing questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" [e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s), and outcome(s)]. Prioritization of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritizing systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment.

  5. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G.; Curtis, Tanya Y.; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

  6. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  7. Safety of foods derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John A

    2003-03-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have been available for clinical use for nearly three decades, but foods derived from agribiotechnology have been available for just under a decade. Controversy surrounding foods from genetically modified (GM) plants has focused primarily upon their allergenicity, with lesser concerns about antibiotic resistance genes. Concerns are related to possible environmental impacts on non-human species, including effects on non-target species (e.g., butterflies) and on the development of so-called "super weeds." Food allergies are no more prevalent in foods from GM plants than in conventional foods. Further, the use of antibiotics in the development of GM plants does not pose a significant risk to the human population. Foods from the current GM plant products have been shown not to pose any detrimental effects to humans, and, in fact, nutritionally enhanced products are being developed. GM foods are subjected globally to intense regulatory scrutiny, and extensive data have been provided consistently to regulatory agencies in the United States on a voluntary basis, with mandatory reporting of data soon to be in force. Existing environmental concerns appear to be unjustified on the basis of existing data and experience.

  8. [Safety of food contact articles in RASFF system].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Stelmach, Agnieszka; Półtorak, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Materials and articles intended for contact with food must comply with the requirements set in the Regulation EC No 1935/2007. According to article 3 of this Regulation in normal conditions of use they could not transfer their components into food in the amounts which could endanger human health, cause unacceptable changes in the composition of food or cause a deterioration in the organoleptic characteristics. The Regulation EC No 178/2002 related to the food law provides the legal basis for the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). RASFF, besides food and feed, deals with materials and articles intended to contact with food. The structure of RASFF system in the EU is functioning as a network of the official contact points in the Member States. In Poland the General Sanitary Inspectorate as a national contact point coordinates the activity of RASFF system. The products, which do not comply with the specific regulation and on the base of the risk assessment can pose the hazard to human health, are notified to this system. The notifications are classified as: alert notification, information notification and news. The notifications are published as weekly and annual reports. The majority of notifications in 2002-2006 concerned non-compliance of food contact articles with the allowed limits of overall and specific migration of the following substances: primary aromatic amines (PAA), formaldehyde, plasticizers, semicarbazide, isoprophylthioxanthone and metals. The number of notifications systematically grows up from 5 notifications in 2002 to 189 notifications in 2006. Majority of notified articles were made in China. Including of food contact materials into RASFF system allows for rapid withdrawal of non-complying products from the market.

  9. Companies' opinions and acceptance of global food safety initiative benchmarks after implementation.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Phil; Van Loo, Ellen J; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Yiannas, Frank; Dyenson, Natalie; Berdnik, Irina

    2012-09-01

    International attention has been focused on minimizing costs that may unnecessarily raise food prices. One important aspect to consider is the redundant and overlapping costs of food safety audits. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) has devised benchmarked schemes based on existing international food safety standards for use as a unifying standard accepted by many retailers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the decision made by Walmart Stores (Bentonville, AR) to require their suppliers to become GFSI compliant. An online survey of 174 retail suppliers was conducted to assess food suppliers' opinions of this requirement and the benefits suppliers realized when they transitioned from their previous food safety systems. The most common reason for becoming GFSI compliant was to meet customers' requirements; thus, supplier implementation of the GFSI standards was not entirely voluntary. Other reasons given for compliance were enhancing food safety and remaining competitive. About 54 % of food processing plants using GFSI benchmarked schemes followed the guidelines of Safe Quality Food 2000 and 37 % followed those of the British Retail Consortium. At the supplier level, 58 % followed Safe Quality Food 2000 and 31 % followed the British Retail Consortium. Respondents reported that the certification process took about 10 months. The most common reason for selecting a certain GFSI benchmarked scheme was because it was widely accepted by customers (retailers). Four other common reasons were (i) the standard has a good reputation in the industry, (ii) the standard was recommended by others, (iii) the standard is most often used in the industry, and (iv) the standard was required by one of their customers. Most suppliers agreed that increased safety of their products was required to comply with GFSI benchmarked schemes. They also agreed that the GFSI required a more carefully documented food safety management system, which often required

  10. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    PubMed

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  11. Intervention technologies for food safety on minimally processed produce:Perspectives on food-borne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Produce contamination associated with enteric pathogens such Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and others are significant challenges to food safety. This is due to the illnesses and economic impacts resulting from the outbreaks. Innovative technologies for i...

  12. Evaluating natural antimicrobials for food application, in natural antimicrobials for food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microflora of foods is of practical significance to producers, processors and consumers. Food manufacturers and distributors are responding to consumers’ demand for food products that are safe, fresher and convenient for use. In some cases foods may be improperly processed and/or contaminated wi...

  13. Costs of Food Safety Investments in the Meat and Poultry Slaughter Industries.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Muth, Mary K; Brophy, Jenna E; Noyes, Gary

    2017-02-01

    To develop regulations efficiently, federal agencies need to know the costs of implementing various regulatory alternatives. As the regulatory agency responsible for the safety of meat and poultry products, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service is interested in the costs borne by meat and poultry establishments. This study estimated the costs of developing, validating, and reassessing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), sanitary standard operating procedures (SSOP), and sampling plans; food safety training for new employees; antimicrobial equipment and solutions; sanitizing equipment; third-party audits; and microbial tests. Using results from an in-person expert consultation, web searches, and contacts with vendors, we estimated capital equipment, labor, materials, and other costs associated with these investments. Results are presented by establishment size (small and large) and species (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey), when applicable. For example, the cost of developing food safety plans, such as HACCP, SSOP, and sampling plans, can range from approximately $6000 to $87000, depending on the type of plan and establishment size. Food safety training costs from approximately $120 to $2500 per employee, depending on the course and type of employee. The costs of third-party audits range from approximately $13000 to $24000 per audit, and establishments are often subject to multiple audits per year. Knowing the cost of these investments will allow researchers and regulators to better assess the effects of food safety regulations and evaluate cost-effective alternatives.

  14. Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application.

    PubMed

    Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2012-05-01

    The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobials are approved in many countries, the recent trend has been for use of natural preservatives, which necessitates the exploration of alternative sources of safe, effective and acceptable natural preservatives. Plants contain innumerable constituents and are valuable sources of new and biologically active molecules possessing antimicrobial properties. Plants extracts either as standardized extracts or as a source of pure compounds provide unlimited opportunities for control of microbial growth owing to their chemical diversity. Many plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, yeast and molds, but the variations in quality and quantity of their bioactive constituents is the major detriments in their food use. Further, phytochemicals added to foods may be lost by various processing techniques. Several plant extracts or purified compounds intended for food use have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, but typical toxicological information is not available for them. Although international guidelines exist for the safety evaluation of food additives, owing to problems in standardization of plant extracts, typical toxicological values have not been assigned to them. Development of cost effective isolation procedures that yield standardized extracts as well as safety and toxicology evaluation of these antimicrobials requires a deeper investigation.

  15. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  16. [Safety evaluation of food from transgenic fish and the molecular biological mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-03-01

    More progresses have been made in the studying of transgenic fish in China, but the studying work of safety evaluation of food from transgenic fish are started up just now. Compared to plants and animals on the land, it is more difficult to control the mobility of fish and fish can give birth to a large number of offsprings, so the ecological risk or hazard about transgenic fish is more critical than others. Another safety problem is the chimerism which is initiated by the gene transfer methods used in the transgenic fish. Getting sterile triploid transgenic fish and fixed point integration are efficient to solve the two problems above respectively. The solution of the two problems are also the basis of safety evaluation and detection of food from transgenic fish. Up to now, there are little reports on the safety evaluation of transgenic fish including nutritional evaluation and allergic reaction, and there are no basic research on the detection of transgenic fish for the aim of food safety. In brief, it is very urgent to start up the research on the safety evaluation and detection of transgenic fish for the control of food safety.

  17. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.

  18. Taste and Safety: Is the Exceptional Cuisine Offered by High End Restaurants Paralleled by High Standards of Food Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Kanagarajah, Sanch; Mook, Piers; Crook, Paul; Awofisayo-Okuyelu, Adedoyin; McCarthy, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Restaurant guides such as the Good Food Guide Top 50 create a hierarchy focussing on taste and sophistication. Safety is not explicitly included. We used restaurant associated outbreaks to assess evidence for safety. Methods: All foodborne disease outbreaks in England reported to the national database from 2000 to 2014 were used to compare the Top 50 restaurants (2015) to other registered food businesses using the Public Health England (PHE) outbreak database. Health Protection Teams were also contacted to identify any outbreaks not reported to the national database. Among Good Food Guide Top 50 restaurants, regression analysis estimated the association between outbreak occurrence and position on the list. Results: Four outbreaks were reported to the PHE national outbreak database among the Top 50 giving a rate 39 times higher (95% CI 14.5–103.2) than other registered food businesses. Eight outbreaks among the 44 English restaurants in the Top 50 were identified by direct contact with local Health Protection Teams. For every ten places higher ranked, Top 50 restaurants were 66% more likely to have an outbreak (Odds Ratio 1.66, 95% CI 0.89–3.13). Discussion: Top 50 restaurants were substantially more likely to have had reported outbreaks from 2000-2014 than other food premises, and there was a trend for higher rating position to be associated with higher probability of reported outbreaks. Our findings, that eating at some of these restaurants may pose an increased risk to health compared to other dining out, raises the question of whether food guides should consider aspects of food safety alongside the clearly important complementary focus on taste and other aspects of the dining experience. PMID:27617168

  19. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...

  20. A Legislative Reform for the Food Safety System of China: A Regulatory Paradigm Shift and Collaborative Governance.

    PubMed

    Han, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    After describing the historical development of China's food safety system from the perspectives of legislation and administration, this article discusses progress in its food law (The Draft Amendments to Food Safety Law). As a further legislative reform for China's food safety system, the Draft Amendments to the Food Safety Law contain innovative institutional designs and manifest a regulatory paradigm shift from government-centered governance to collaborative governance. However, the Draft Amendments face challenges in their implementation. This article argues that developing collaborative governance for food safety in China can be a solution to these challenges. Based on theoretical and empirical studies of collaborative governance, this article proposes that the institutional design of collaborative governance should focus on providing obligations for administrative agencies in the process of food safety rule-making and standard-setting, increasing the independence of nongovernmental organizations, and building two-way electronic platforms for public participation.