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Sample records for address food security

  1. Africa: addressing growing threats to food security.

    PubMed

    Rukuni, Mandivamba

    2002-11-01

    Africa remains the only region in the world where the number of hungry people will still be on the increase in 2020, and the number of malnourished children will have increased correspondingly. In this report I have acknowledged the general public policy trends across Africa in terms of macroeconomic policy reforms and political transitions. These welcome trends have to still produce stable nations and economies. Although economic development is the long-term solution to Africa's challenge on hunger and poverty, this will take time. And it follows therefore that African nations have to pursue policies and strategies that promote long-term growth while at the same time offering short-term safety nets for the poorest of the poor. The growth and development strategy will have at its core the need to increase significantly the levels of public-sector investment in agriculture and rural development and to give top priority to the commercialization of smallholder agriculture so as to increase productivity and competitiveness. But food security at the household level is ultimately a balance between availability and access, and in this regard governments need complementary food security policies that increase the probability of food access by the vulnerable groups. PMID:12421867

  2. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  3. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  4. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  5. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  6. How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

  7. How can we exploit above-belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E

    2013-10-30

    Can above-belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above-belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above-belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above-belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above-belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above-belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above-belowground interactions to contribute to food security.

  8. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  9. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  10. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  11. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  12. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  13. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  14. Improving photosynthetic efficiency to address food security in the 21st century: Strategies for a more efficient crop canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLoocke, A. D.; Slattery, R.; Bernacchi, C.; Zhu, X.; Ort, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Global food production will need to increase by approximately 70% by mid-century to meet the caloric and nutritional demand of population and economic growth. Achieving this goal will require successfully implementing a wide range of strategies, spanning the social and physical sciences. Here we will present opportunities for improving crop production through increasing photosynthetic rates for a crop canopy that do not require additional agronomic inputs. We will focus on a specific strategy related optimizing the distribution of light within a crop canopy because it is a possible way to improve canopy photosynthesis in crops that form dense canopies, such as soybean, by increasing the transmission of light within a canopy via reduced chlorophyll content. We hypothesized that if decreasing chlorophyll content in soybean leaves will result in greater light penetration into the canopy then this will enhance canopy photosynthesis and improve yields. In addition, if current chlorophyll content in soybean results in excess light absorption, then decreasing chlorophyll content will result in decreased photoprotection that results in the suppression of upper canopy photosynthesis associated with super-optimal light. These hypotheses were tested in 2012 and 2013 in the field on the soybean cultivar 'Clark' (WT) and a nearly isogenic chlorophyll-b deficient mutant (Y11y11). Throughout the season, profiles of light sensors measured incident and reflected light intensity at the canopy surface as well as light levels at ten heights within the canopy. Analyses of these data indicated greater reflectivity, transmissivity and within-canopy light levels for the Y11y11 canopy relative to WT especially in the top half of the canopy. A Gas exchange method was used to determine photosynthetic capacity and suppression high light levels. Daily integrals of leaf-level photosynthesis in sun leaves were greater in Y11y11 compared to WT at several times during the growing season and

  15. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-07

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food.

  16. Food security under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  17. Food security in complex emergencies: enhancing food system resilience.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu; Alinovi, Luca; Sutton, Jacky

    2005-06-01

    This paper explores linkages between food security and crisis in different contexts, outlining the policy and institutional conditions needed to manage food security during a crisis and to rebuild the resilience of food systems in periods of relative peace. The paper reviews experiences over the past decade of countries in protracted crisis and draws lessons for national and international policy. It assesses the different alternatives on offer in fragile countries to address, for example, the disruption of institutional mechanisms and the decreasing level of support offered by international donors with respect to longer-term expectations. It proposes a Twin Track Approach to enhance food security resilience through specific policies for protracted crises that link immediate hunger relief interventions with a long-term strategy for sustainable growth. Finally, the article analyses policy options and the implications for both short- and longer-term responses vis-a-vis the three dimensions of food security: availability; access; and stability.

  18. The Role of Food Banks in Addressing Food Insecurity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bazerghi, Chantelle; McKay, Fiona H; Dunn, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Food banks play a major role in the food aid sector by distributing donated and purchased groceries directly to food insecure families. The public health implications of food insecurity are significant, particularly as food insecurity has a higher prevalence among certain population groups. This review consolidates current knowledge about the function and efficacy of food banks to address food insecurity. A systematic review was conducted. Thirty-five publications were reviewed, of which 14 examined food security status, 13 analysed nutritional quality of food provided, and 24 considered clients' needs in relation to food bank use. This review found that while food banks have an important role to play in providing immediate solutions to severe food deprivation, they are limited in their capacity to improve overall food security outcomes due to the limited provision of nutrient-dense foods in insufficient amounts, especially from dairy, vegetables and fruits. Food banks have the potential to improve food security outcomes when operational resources are adequate, provisions of perishable food groups are available, and client needs are identified and addressed. PMID:26728281

  19. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  20. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  1. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  2. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  3. Food security -- an insurance approach.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    An adequate standard of nutrition at national and individual level is a basic -- and not wholly altruistic -- objective for mankind. Its ingredients are food production and distribution. Of these the latter is currently considered the more limiting, but fluctuations in the former -- over various geographical and time scales -- can be the overriding factor when national supplies are critical. Under these conditions the automatic operations of a legal mandatory food support system -- free from political strings or connotations of welfare -- would be advantageous. A system for providing a measure of food security, using insurance principles and based on a compromise between international stockpiling and direct financial subventions, is outlined in a recent publication of the International Food Policy Research Institute. Essentially it is a means by which the international community could contribute to the food security of food deficit, developing countries without having to create large buffer stocks and stabilize world grain prices. Extracts from this publication are given below.

  4. Collaborating toward improving food security in Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    Wakegijig, Jennifer; Osborne, Geraldine; Statham, Sara; Issaluk, Michelle Doucette

    2013-01-01

    Background Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Objective The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction. Design The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium. Results In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut. Conclusions The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut. PMID:23984307

  5. Food security in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pulwarty, Roger; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, James

    2012-01-01

    By 2080 the effects of climate change—on heat waves, floods, sea level rise, and drought—could push an additional 600 million people into malnutrition and increase the number of people facing water scarcity by 1.8 billion. The precise impacts will, however, strongly depend on socioeconomic conditions such as local markets and food import dependence. In the near term, two factors are also changing the nature of food security: (1) rapid urbanization, with the proportion of the global population living in urban areas expanding from 13 percent in 1975 to greater than 50 percent at present, and (2) trade and domestic market liberalization since 1993, which has promoted removal of import controls, deregulation of prices, and the loss of preferential markets for many small economies. Over the last two years, the worst drought in decades has devastated eastern Africa. The resulting food-security crisis has affected roughly 13 million people and has reminded us that there is still a long way to go in addressing current climate-related risks. In the face of such profound changes and uncertainties, our approaches to food security must evolve. In this article, we describe four key elements that, in our view, will be essential to the success of efforts to address the linked challenges of food security and climate change.

  6. Global food security under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Schmidhuber, Josef; Tubiello, Francesco N.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between 5 million and 170 million additional people at risk of hunger by 2080) strongly depending on assumed socio-economic development. The likely impacts of climate change on the other important dimensions of food security are discussed qualitatively, indicating the potential for further negative impacts beyond those currently assessed with models. Finally, strengths and weaknesses of current assessment studies are discussed, suggesting improvements and proposing avenues for new analyses. PMID:18077404

  7. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  8. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions.

  9. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

  10. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  11. Food security and cardioprotection: the polar lipid link.

    PubMed

    Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    The projected increase in world population and therefore demand for food in the foreseeable future pose some risks on how secure is the food production system today. Millions of people are threatened by malnutrition, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, and obesity. This is a multidimensional challenge: the production of food needs to be increased but also the quality of food needs to be improved so less people suffer from undernourishment and CVDs. This hypothesis paper addresses this problem by critically evaluating recent developments on the role of food components against CVDs, presenting recent insights for assessing the nutritional value of food and suggesting novel approaches toward the sustainable production of food that would, in turn, lead to increased food security. The issue of the sustainability of lipid sources and genetically modified crops is also discussed from a food security point of view.

  12. Behavioral dimensions of food security.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2012-07-31

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  13. Behavioral dimensions of food security

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions. PMID:20855628

  14. Food Security: A Climatological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is leading the WeatCliFS consortium of international scientific unions to examine weather, climate and food security as well as to look at the interaction of food security and geophysical phenomena. The following fundamental question underpins WeatCliFS: What technologies and methodologies are required to assess the vulnerability of people and places to hazards [such as famine] - and how might these be used at a variety of spatial scales? This talk will review the historical link between climate, drought and food supplies; examine the Australian and international situation; summarise the response of the scientific community and point out the direction for future research.

  15. Challenges and Responses to Asian Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Oliveros, Jurise A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Food security is a complex phenomenon made up of multiple dimensions — food availability, physical access to food, economic access to food, food utilization — each of which has a stability dimension which underpins it. This review provides details on these dimensions and links them to two published indices which provide assessments of the state of food security in a country. The paper further provides analyses of the main supply and demand factors in the food security equation. Food security faces natural and anthropogenic threats such as loss of productive land and water, climate change and declining crop productivity, all of which are potentially amenable to solutions provided by science and technology. Demographic and accompanying diet changes further exacerbate the demands made on the natural resource base for food production. Finally, possible responses to the challenges confronting a secured food future are discussed from technological, policy and system level perspectives.

  16. School feeding, school reform, and food security: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Beryl

    2005-06-01

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities.

  17. School feeding, school reform, and food security: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Beryl

    2005-06-01

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. PMID:16075566

  18. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  19. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  20. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  1. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  2. Trees, soils, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, P. A.; Buresh, R. J.; Leakey, R. R. B.

    1997-01-01

    Trees have a different impact on soil properties than annual crops, because of their longer residence time, larger biomass accumulation, and longer-lasting, more extensive root systems. In natural forests nutrients are efficiently cycled with very small inputs and outputs from the system. In most agricultural systems the opposite happens. Agroforestry encompasses the continuum between these extremes, and emerging hard data is showing that successful agroforestry systems increase nutrient inputs, enhance internal flows, decrease nutrient losses and provide environmental benefits: when the competition for growth resources between the tree and the crop component is well managed. The three main determinants for overcoming rural poverty in Africa are (i) reversing soil fertility depletion, (ii) intensifying and diversifying land use with high-value products, and (iii) providing an enabling policy environment for the smallholder farming sector. Agroforestry practices can improve food production in a sustainable way through their contribution to soil fertility replenishment. The use of organic inputs as a source of biologically-fixed nitrogen, together with deep nitrate that is captured by trees, plays a major role in nitrogen replenishment. The combination of commercial phosphorus fertilizers with available organic resources may be the key to increasing and sustaining phosphorus capital. High-value trees, 'Cinderella' species, can fit in specific niches on farms, thereby making the system ecologically stable and more rewarding economically, in addition to diversifying and increasing rural incomes and improving food security. In the most heavily populated areas of East Africa, where farm size is extremely small, the number of trees on farms is increasing as farmers seek to reduce labour demands, compatible with the drift of some members of the family into the towns to earn off-farm income. Contrary to the concept that population pressure promotes deforestation, there is

  3. Does Financial Literacy Contribute to Food Security?

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Katherine G.; Zamarro, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members, is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity. PMID:26949563

  4. Matching food security analysis to context: the experience of the Somalia food security assessment unit.

    PubMed

    Hemrich, Günter

    2005-06-01

    This case study reviews the experience of the Somalia Food Security Assessment Unit (FSAU) of operating a food security information system in the context of a complex emergency. In particular, it explores the linkages between selected features of the protracted crisis environment in Somalia and conceptual and operational aspects of food security information work. The paper specifically examines the implications of context characteristics for the establishment and operations of the FSAU field monitoring component and for the interface with information users and their diverse information needs. It also analyses the scope for linking food security and nutrition analysis and looks at the role of conflict and gender analysis in food security assessment work. Background data on the food security situation in Somalia and an overview of some key features of the FSAU set the scene for the case study. The paper is targeted at those involved in designing, operating and funding food security information activities.

  5. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation around the following five axes

  6. Short-Term Effects of Traditional and Alternative Community Interventions to Address Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Roncarolo, Federico; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the effects of food insecurity on health are well documented, clear governmental policies to face food insecurity do not exist in western countries. In Canada, interventions to face food insecurity are developed at the community level and can be categorized into two basic strategies: those providing an immediate response to the need for food, defined “traditional” and those targeting the improvement of participants’ social cohesion, capabilities and management of their own nutrition, defined “alternative”. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of food insecurity interventions on food security status and perceived health of participants. Design This was a longitudinal multilevel study implemented in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Participants were recruited in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. Clustering units were community organizations working on food insecurity; units of analysis were participants in community food security interventions. A total of 450 participants were interviewed at the beginning and after 9 months of participation in traditional or alternative food security interventions. Food security and perceived health were investigated as dependent variables. Differences overtime were assessed through multilevel regression models. Results Participants in traditional interventions lowered their food insecurity at follow-up. Decreases among participants in alternative interventions were not statistically significant. Participants in traditional interventions also improved physical (B coefficient 3.00, CI 95% 0.42–5.59) and mental health (B coefficient 6.25, CI 95% 4.15–8.35). Conclusions Our results challenge the widely held view suggesting the ineffectiveness of traditional interventions in the short term. Although effects may be intervention-dependent, food banks decreased food insecurity and, in so doing, positively affected perceived health. Although study findings demonstrate that food banks

  7. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. PMID:25407084

  8. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  9. Urban environment and health: food security.

    PubMed

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  10. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    PubMed

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. PMID:27067740

  11. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    PubMed

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food.

  12. Mechanisms of Power within a Community-Based Food Security Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A community food security movement has begun to address problems of hunger and food insecurity by utilizing a community-based approach. Although various models have been implemented, little empirical research has assessed how power operates within community-based food security initiatives. The purpose of this research was to determine how power…

  13. Prioritizing health and community food security through the farm bill.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Food security and health are complex interrelated issues. Individual characteristics exist within the physical and built environments. Title IV of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 is analyzed in terms of how it addresses systemic food insecurity and the opportunities the policy has for improving public health by increasing support for the availability of affordable local produce to low-income households. Structural changes need to occur for programs to be equitable, efficient, and effective. Interdisciplinary leadership within government agencies, school systems, social service agencies, health care agencies, and nonprofit networks is necessary to ensure food security and health for all Americans. Social work and public health practitioners have the opportunity to change the status quo, encourage community-level interventions, advocate for producers and consumers, and encourage more equitable distribution of food to create a healthier low-income population.

  14. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  15. Consumers and Food Security: Uncertain or Empowered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneafsey, Moya; Dowler, Elizabeth; Lambie-Mumford, Hannah; Inman, Alex; Collier, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Provoked by concerns about climate change, resource depletion and economic recession, the concept of food security has experienced a renaissance in international policy and research agendas. Despite this interest, the problem of food insecurity in wealthy countries has still not received enough attention. We argue that it is worthy of research and…

  16. Food security and sustainable intensification

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Garnett, Tara

    2014-01-01

    The coming decades are likely to see increasing pressures on the global food system, both on the demand side from increasing population and per capita consumption, and on the supply side from greater competition for inputs and from climate change. This paper argues that the magnitude of the challenge is such that action is needed throughout the food system, on moderating demand, reducing waste, improving governance and producing more food. It discusses in detail the last component, arguing that more food should be produced using sustainable intensification (SI) strategies, and explores the rationale behind, and meaning of, this term. It also investigates how SI may interact with other food policy agendas, in particular, land use and biodiversity, animal welfare and human nutrition. PMID:24535385

  17. Why food in health security (FIHS)?

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Health is intrinsic to human security (HumS) although it is somewhat anthropocentric and about our own psychosocial and biomedical status more than various external threats. The 1994 United Nations Development Program definition of HumS includes economic, food, environmental, personal, community and political security with freedom from fear and want. Environmental factors are critical for health security (HealS), especially with widespread socio-economic difficulty, and health systems less affordable or accessible. The nexus between nutritionally-related disorders and infectious disease is the most pervasive world health problem. Most if not all of the Millennium Development Goals are food-linked. Maternal nutrition has life-long health effects on the yet-to-be born child. The mix of essential nutrient deprivation and energy imbalance is rife across many societies. Food systems require deeper understanding and governance to overcome these food-related health risks which are matters of food security (FoodS). Nutritionally-related Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS) are improving markedly in many parts of the world, along with poverty and hunger reduction and health system advances. But recent economic, energy, food, water, climate change and health crises along with conflict are limiting. It is time for international and regional understanding of how households and communities can collectively manage these threats in affordable and sustainable ways. There is untapped problem-solving capacity at the international local level if supported by combined food--health systems expertise, innovation, infrastructure and governance. Principles of equity and ethics must apply. The Food in Health Security (FIHS) roundtable aims to develop a Network to facilitate this process.

  18. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  19. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  20. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level. PMID:25076773

  1. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level.

  2. Climate change impacts on global food security.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security. PMID:23908229

  3. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  4. Achieving food security in times of crisis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2010-11-30

    In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies.

  5. Climate Change and Global Food Security: Food Access, Utilization, and the US Food System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Antle, J. M.; Backlund, P. W.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Walsh, M.; Ammann, C. M.; Attavanich, W.; Barrett, C. B.; Bellemare, M. F.; Dancheck, V.; Funk, C.; Grace, K.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jiang, H.; Maletta, H.; Mata, T.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Ojima, D. S.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will summarize results from the USDA report entitled 'Climate change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food system'. The report focuses on the impact of climate change on global food security, defined as "when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". The assessment brought together authors and contributors from twenty federal, academic, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private organizations in four countries to identify climate change effects on food security through 2100, and analyze the U.S.'s likely connections with that world. This talk will describe how climate change will likely affect food access and food utilization, and summarize how the U.S. food system contributes to global food security, and will be affected by climate change.

  6. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  7. Development of a food security measurement tool for New Zealand households.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Winsome R; Gray, Andrew R

    2014-10-28

    To determine the prevalence of household food insecurity in New Zealand (NZ), eight food security statements were included in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey of adults. Rasch model analysis was performed to determine whether each food security statement (addressing a food security attribute) was discrete and could be ranked on a unidimensional scale. The NZ model had marginal 'household' reliability (0·60-0·66), good item separation (17·20-17·77) and item infit/outfit values between 0·8 and 1·25. Indices could be ranked by level of severity and represent the experience of household food insecurity in NZ. Categories of food security were assigned and used to predict food choice, and energy and nutrient intakes. Compared with fully secure/almost fully secure households, those that were moderately secure or of low security were less likely to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and more likely to consume fatty meats. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, lactose and vitamin B12 increased with lower levels of food security. Intakes of glucose, fructose and vitamin C were highest in the fully secure/almost fully secure category. This unique eight-component food security measurement tool has less respondent burden than the US Core Food Security Measure. The relationships between the level of food insecurity and food choice and nutrient intakes illustrate that the most food-insecure households have less healthy diets. This relatively brief population-specific measurement tool is suitable to monitor population food security status, and is a useful marker of nutritional status.

  8. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  9. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics.

  10. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs have increased awareness about food and nutrition insecurity in the court of public opinion. Thus, it’s important to understand the potential that EBFSSs have for improving food and nutrition security governance within and across countries. The case of Brazil illustrates the strong likelihood that EBFSSs do have a strong potential to influence food and governance from the national to the municipal level. A recent Gallup World Poll data analysis on the influence of the ‘2008 food crisis’ on food hardship illustrates how even a single item from EBFSSs can help examine if food security governance in different world regions modifies the impact of crises on household food insecurity. Systematic research that bridges across economics, political science, ethics, public health and program evaluation is needed to better understand if and how measurement in general and EBFSSs in particular affect food security governance. PMID:23795344

  11. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs have increased awareness about food and nutrition insecurity in the court of public opinion. Thus, it's important to understand the potential that EBFSSs have for improving food and nutrition security governance within and across countries. The case of Brazil illustrates the strong likelihood that EBFSSs do have a strong potential to influence food and governance from the national to the municipal level. A recent Gallup World Poll data analysis on the influence of the '2008 food crisis' on food hardship illustrates how even a single item from EBFSSs can help examine if food security governance in different world regions modifies the impact of crises on household food insecurity. Systematic research that bridges across economics, political science, ethics, public health and program evaluation is needed to better understand if and how measurement in general and EBFSSs in particular affect food security governance. PMID:23795344

  12. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs have increased awareness about food and nutrition insecurity in the court of public opinion. Thus, it's important to understand the potential that EBFSSs have for improving food and nutrition security governance within and across countries. The case of Brazil illustrates the strong likelihood that EBFSSs do have a strong potential to influence food and governance from the national to the municipal level. A recent Gallup World Poll data analysis on the influence of the '2008 food crisis' on food hardship illustrates how even a single item from EBFSSs can help examine if food security governance in different world regions modifies the impact of crises on household food insecurity. Systematic research that bridges across economics, political science, ethics, public health and program evaluation is needed to better understand if and how measurement in general and EBFSSs in particular affect food security governance.

  13. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications.

  14. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications. PMID:21591303

  15. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2015-10-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food

  16. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2015-10-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food

  17. Factors affecting food security and contribution of modern technologies in food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Premanandh, Jagadeesan

    2011-12-01

    The concept of food insecurity is complex and goes beyond the simplistic idea of a country's inability to feed its population. The global food situation is redefined by many driving forces such as population growth, availability of arable lands, water resources, climate change and food availability, accessibility and loss. The combined effect of these factors has undeniably impacted global food production and security. This article reviews the key factors influencing global food insecurity and emphasises the need to adapt science-based technological innovations to address the issue. Although anticipated benefits of modern technologies suggest a level of food production that will sustain the global population, both political will and sufficient investments in modern agriculture are needed to alleviate the food crisis in developing countries. In this globalised era of the 21st century, many determinants of food security are trans-boundary and require multilateral agreements and actions for an effective solution. Food security and hunger alleviation on a global scale are within reach provided that technological innovations are accepted and implemented at all levels.

  18. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  19. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology. PMID:19722000

  20. Resilience and reactivity of global food security.

    PubMed

    Suweis, Samir; Carr, Joel A; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    The escalating food demand by a growing and increasingly affluent global population is placing unprecedented pressure on the limited land and water resources of the planet, underpinning concerns over global food security and its sensitivity to shocks arising from environmental fluctuations, trade policies, and market volatility. Here, we use country-specific demographic records along with food production and trade data for the past 25 y to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the relationship between population dynamics and food availability. We develop a framework for the assessment of the resilience and the reactivity of the coupled population-food system and suggest that over the past two decades both its sensitivity to external perturbations and susceptibility to instability have increased. PMID:25964361

  1. Resilience and reactivity of global food security.

    PubMed

    Suweis, Samir; Carr, Joel A; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    The escalating food demand by a growing and increasingly affluent global population is placing unprecedented pressure on the limited land and water resources of the planet, underpinning concerns over global food security and its sensitivity to shocks arising from environmental fluctuations, trade policies, and market volatility. Here, we use country-specific demographic records along with food production and trade data for the past 25 y to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the relationship between population dynamics and food availability. We develop a framework for the assessment of the resilience and the reactivity of the coupled population-food system and suggest that over the past two decades both its sensitivity to external perturbations and susceptibility to instability have increased.

  2. Resilience and reactivity of global food security

    PubMed Central

    Suweis, Samir; Carr, Joel A.; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The escalating food demand by a growing and increasingly affluent global population is placing unprecedented pressure on the limited land and water resources of the planet, underpinning concerns over global food security and its sensitivity to shocks arising from environmental fluctuations, trade policies, and market volatility. Here, we use country-specific demographic records along with food production and trade data for the past 25 y to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the relationship between population dynamics and food availability. We develop a framework for the assessment of the resilience and the reactivity of the coupled population–food system and suggest that over the past two decades both its sensitivity to external perturbations and susceptibility to instability have increased. PMID:25964361

  3. At the crossroads: new paradigms of food security, public health nutrition and school food.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Leah M; Sonnino, Roberta

    2013-06-01

    Public health nutrition sits at the nexus of a global crisis in food, environmental and health systems that has generated - along with numerous other problems - an urgent and changing problem of food insecurity. The 'new' food insecurity, however, is different from the old: it is bimodal, encompassing issues of both under- and over-consumption, hunger and obesity, quantity and quality; it has assumed a decidedly urban dimension; and it implicates rich and poor countries alike. The complexity of the expressions of this challenge requires new approaches to public health nutrition and food policy that privilege systemic, structural and environmental factors over individual and mechanistic ones. In this context, the current paper argues that school food systems rise with buoyant potential as promising intervention sites: they are poised to address both modes of the food security crisis; integrate systemic, structural and environmental with behavioural approaches; and comprise far-reaching, system-wide efforts that influence the wider functioning of the food system. Based on a discussion of Bogotá and other pioneering policies that explicitly aim to create a broader food system with long-term foundations for good public health and food security, the paper suggests a new research and action agenda that gives special attention to school food in urban contexts.

  4. Food security among asylum seekers in Melbourne

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This research explores food insecurity among asylum seekers who are members of the Asylum Seeker Resource Centre (ASRC) in Melbourne, Australia. Methods: Structured person‐assisted questionnaires were conducted with 56 asylum seekers. The questionnaires examined issues around access to food, cultural appropriateness of available food, transport issues, use of the ASRC Foodbank and questions about general health. Results: Findings suggest that: 1) almost all asylum seekers in this study were food insecure; 2) most of the asylum seekers using the ASRC Foodbank have no access to food other than that provided at the centre; and 3) the reason that most asylum seekers are food insecure is related to structural problems associated with limitations imposed by different visas. Conclusions and implications: The ability of asylum seekers to achieve food security is limited by their restricted access to welfare and government or work‐related income. Given that the current policy situation is likely to continue, providers such as the ASRC will find continuing demands on their services and increasing pressures to provide more than a ‘supplemental’ food supply. PMID:26094650

  5. Squaring Farm Security and Food Security in Two Types of Alternative Food Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthman, Julie; Morris, Amy W.; Allen, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Even though both farmers' markets and community supported agriculture were first developed to provide markets for farmers, recently the goals of food security have been attached to these market-based alternative food institutions, based on their potential to be "win-win" economic solutions for both small-scale farmers and low-income consumers.…

  6. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Margaret C; Ingram, Scott E; Dugmore, Andrew J; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A; McGovern, Thomas H; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Kintigh, Keith W; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A; Simpson, Ian A; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E L; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-12

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the "weight" of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy.

  7. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Margaret C; Ingram, Scott E; Dugmore, Andrew J; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A; McGovern, Thomas H; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Kintigh, Keith W; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A; Simpson, Ian A; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E L; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-12

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the "weight" of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy. PMID:26712017

  8. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Margaret C.; Ingram, Scott E.; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A.; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A.; Simpson, Ian A.; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E. L.; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K.; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the “weight” of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy. PMID:26712017

  9. Irrigation infrastructure and water appropriation rules for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing world's irrigated areas, water management and planning is often motivated by the need for lasting food security. Two important policy measures to address this need are improving the flexibility of water appropriation rules and developing irrigation storage infrastructure. Little research to date has investigated the performance of these two policy measures in a single analysis while maintaining a basin wide water balance. This paper examines impacts of storage capacity and water appropriation rules on total economic welfare in irrigated agriculture, while maintaining a water balance. The application is to a river basin in northern Afghanistan. A constrained optimization framework is developed to examine economic consequences on food security and farm income resulting from each policy measure. Results show that significant improvements in both policy aims can be achieved through expanding existing storage capacity to capture up to 150 percent of long-term average annual water supplies when added capacity is combined with either a proportional sharing of water shortages or unrestricted water trading. An important contribution of the paper is to show how the benefits of storage and a changed water appropriation system operate under a variable climate. Results show that the hardship of droughts can be substantially lessened, with the largest rewards taking place in the most difficult periods. Findings provide a comprehensive framework for addressing future water scarcity, rural livelihoods, and food security in the developing world's irrigated regions.

  10. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  11. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  12. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers. PMID:27428555

  13. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers.

  14. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  15. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  16. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  17. A life-cycle approach to food and nutrition security in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sandhya; Sekher, Madhushree; Pritchard, Bill; Rammohan, Anu

    2015-04-01

    India's poor performance on critical food and nutrition security indicators despite substantial economic prosperity has been widely documented. These failings not only hamper national progress, but also contribute significantly to the global undernourished population, particularly children. While the recently passed National Food Security Act 2013 adopts a life-cycle approach to expand coverage of subsidized food grains to the most vulnerable households and address food security, there remains much to be desired in the legislation. Access to adequate food for 1.24 billion people is a multifaceted problem requiring an interconnected set of policy measures to tackle the various factors affecting food and nutrition security in India. In the present opinion paper, we discuss a fivefold strategy that incorporates a life-cycle approach, spanning reproductive health, bolstering citizen participation in existing national programmes, empowering women, advancing agriculture and better monitoring the Public Distribution System in order to fill the gaps in both access and adequacy of food and nutrition.

  18. Food security and sustainable resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  19. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  20. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  1. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  2. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  3. Are food insecurity's health impacts underestimated in the U.S. population? Marginal food security also predicts adverse health outcomes in young U.S. children and mothers.

    PubMed

    Cook, John T; Black, Maureen; Chilton, Mariana; Cutts, Diana; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Heeren, Timothy C; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Coleman, Sharon; Weiss, Ingrid; Frank, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the US with marginal food security are more like food-insecure households than food-secure households. Similarities include socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial profiles, and patterns of disease and health risk. Building on existing knowledge, we present new research on associations of marginal food security with health and developmental risks in young children (<48 mo) and health in their female caregivers. Marginal food security is positively associated with adverse health outcomes compared with food security, but the strength of the associations is weaker than that for food insecurity as usually defined in the US. Nonoverlapping CIs, when comparing odds of marginally food-secure children's fair/poor health and developmental risk and caregivers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health with those in food-secure and -insecure families, indicate associations of marginal food security significantly and distinctly intermediate between those of food security and food insecurity. Evidence from reviewed research and the new research presented indicates that households with marginal food security should not be classified as food secure, as is the current practice, but should be reported in a separate discrete category. These findings highlight the potential underestimation of the prevalence of adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to lack of enough food for an active, healthy life in the US and indicate an even greater need for preventive action and policies to limit and reduce exposure among children and mothers.

  4. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  5. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    PubMed

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.

  6. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to

  7. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  8. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  9. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  10. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  11. Food security in a world without borders.

    PubMed

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  12. Food security in a world without borders.

    PubMed

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  13. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  14. Constraints to addressing food insecurity in protracted crises.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Russo, Luca; Alinovi, Luca

    2012-07-31

    A substantial portion of the world's people have not made adequate progress toward overcoming hunger or achieving sustainable livelihoods. The classic approach to addressing chronic food insecurity has been a strategy of agricultural development, supplemented by humanitarian assistance in the event of a shock or crisis--an approach predicated on assumptions that do not fit the context of protracted crises. This article describes protracted crises and argues that they are sufficiently different to warrant special consideration, but there are unique constraints to engagement in protracted crises. The article explores the constraints promoting sustainable livelihoods in these contexts and proposes elements of an alternative approach. It evaluates the limited evidence available about such an approach and outlines important questions for further research.

  15. Risk assessment for sustainable food security in China according to integrated food security--taking Dongting Lake area for example.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoxing; Liu, Liming; Liu, Yabin; Yao, Lan

    2013-06-01

    Integrated food security covers three aspects: food quantity security, food quality security, and sustainable food security. Because sustainable food security requires that food security must be compatible with sustainable development, the risk assessment of sustainable food security is becoming one of the most important issues. This paper mainly focuses on the characteristics of sustainable food security problems in the major grain-producing areas in China. We establish an index system based on land resources and eco-environmental conditions and apply a dynamic assessment method based on status assessments and trend analysis models to overcome the shortcomings of the static evaluation method. Using fuzzy mathematics, the risks are categorized into four grades: negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk. A case study was conducted in one of China's major grain-producing areas: Dongting Lake area. The results predict that the status of the sustainable food security in the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The number of districts at the medium-risk range will increase from six to ten by 2015 due to increasing population pressure, a decrease in the cultivated area, and a decrease in the effective irrigation area. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put forward to improve it. The results could also provide direct support for an early warning system-which could be used to monitor food security trends or nutritional status so to inform policy makers of impending food shortages-to prevent sustainable food security risk based on some classical systematic methods. This is the first research of sustainable food security in terms of risk assessment, from the perspective of resources and the environment, at the regional scale.

  16. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  17. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  18. Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-05-01

    Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity. PMID:22709776

  19. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  20. Water-energy-food security nexus: the road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    The world's growing population and increased prosperity will increase global demand for energy, as well as food and water supplies in the coming decades. In the arid and semi arid regions as in most of the world water and energy have historically been managed separately, with little consideration of cross sectoral interactions, yet in reality, water and energy are closely interconnected. By addressing water and energy together planners can identify crucial interactions, conflicting demands and potential synergies. For many countries around the world it is needed to establish a road map on: (i) how to implement nexus policies to increase efficiency of natural resources management? (ii) how to bridge science with policy and business? (iii) how governments be inspired by business? (iv) how can be business be inspired by science? (v) how can we learn from each other and how collaborate to address the challenges ahead? Such road map should seek to bring together stakeholders involved in the nexus implementation approach over the coming years to develop nexus tools for decision making to quantify water energy food resources on both national and regional level. However, experiences gained and learned lessons indicate clearly that numerous countries are facing several barriers in putting in action their nexus road map due to the lack of integrated resource management, lack of capacity for research development, lack of knowledge sharing across sectors, and not enough interaction between policy makers and scientists. Those are major challenges to be faced to achieve the water, energy and food security nexus. Furthermore, such goal cannot be reached without building and strengthening the synergy between education, research and innovation for sustainable resource management. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed in this paper. Keywords: water-energy-food security; nexus

  1. Modeling Local vs. Global Dimensions of Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; McCord, P. F.; Attari, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Food security remains a daunting challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa despite dramatic efforts to foster innovation in the agricultural sector. Food security is complicated by a diversity of factors whose relative influence varies across scales, such as the nature of transportation infrastructure, the variety of agricultural practices, and the relative importance of food production versus food access. Efforts to model food security often focus on local-level dynamics (agricultural decision-making) or regional/coarse scale dynamics (e.g. GCM output + generalized equilibrium models of food trade) - both scales are of paramount importance to food security. Yet models of food security rarely span this scale divide. We present work linking agent-based models of agricultural decision-making to regional and global dynamics of environmental change, food movement and virtual water trade in sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically we investigate the heterogeneity of environmental factors and agricultural decisions within the context of droughts of different duration and spatial extent. Drivers of meteorological drought manifest in agricultural drought through the complexity inherent in agricultural management. But efforts to model food security are often challenged by a lack of local-level empirical data to characterize the relationship between meteorological drought and agricultural drought. Our agent-based model is built using detailed information on household farm assets and individual farmer decisions, combined with crop yield estimated developed using the DSSAT cropping system model run with bias-corrected meteorological data. We then address food access through a analysis of food trade data given the increasing relevance of food movement to mitigate local and regional drought. We discuss the analytical challenges and opportunities in linking these cross-scale dynamics in food security modeling.

  2. Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant–environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts—the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:21546547

  3. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-05-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant-environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts-the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems.

  4. New technology for food systems and security.

    PubMed

    Yau, N J Newton

    2009-01-01

    In addition to product trade, technology trade has become one of the alternatives for globalization action around the world. Although not all technologies employed on the technology trade platform are innovative technologies, the data base of international technology trade still is a good indicator for observing innovative technologies around world. The technology trade data base from Sinew Consulting Group (SCG) Ltd. was employed as an example to lead the discussion on security or safety issues that may be caused by these innovative technologies. More technologies related to processing, functional ingredients and quality control technology of food were found in the data base of international technology trade platform. The review was conducted by categorizing technologies into the following subcategories in terms of safety and security issues: (1) agricultural materials/ingredients, (2) processing/engineering, (3) additives, (4) packaging/logistics, (5) functional ingredients, (6) miscellaneous (include detection technology). The author discusses examples listed for each subcategory, including GMO technology, nanotechnology, Chinese medicine based functional ingredients, as well as several innovative technologies. Currently, generation of innovative technology advance at a greater pace due to cross-area research and development activities. At the same time, more attention needs to be placed on the employment of these innovative technologies.

  5. One Health in food safety and security education: A curricular framework.

    PubMed

    Angelos, J; Arens, A; Johnson, H; Cadriel, J; Osburn, B

    2016-02-01

    The challenges of producing and distributing the food necessary to feed an anticipated 9 billion people in developed and developing societies by 2050 without destroying Earth's finite soil and water resources present extremely complex problems that lack simple solutions. The ability of modern societies to adequately address these and other food-related problems will require an educated workforce trained not only in traditional food safety, security, and public health, but also in other areas including food production, sustainable practices, and ecosystem health. To help address the need for such an educated workforce, a curricular framework was developed to assist those tasked with designing education and training for future food systems workers. One sentence summary: A curricular framework for education and training in food safety and security was developed that incorporates One Health concepts.

  6. One Health in food safety and security education: A curricular framework.

    PubMed

    Angelos, J; Arens, A; Johnson, H; Cadriel, J; Osburn, B

    2016-02-01

    The challenges of producing and distributing the food necessary to feed an anticipated 9 billion people in developed and developing societies by 2050 without destroying Earth's finite soil and water resources present extremely complex problems that lack simple solutions. The ability of modern societies to adequately address these and other food-related problems will require an educated workforce trained not only in traditional food safety, security, and public health, but also in other areas including food production, sustainable practices, and ecosystem health. To help address the need for such an educated workforce, a curricular framework was developed to assist those tasked with designing education and training for future food systems workers. One sentence summary: A curricular framework for education and training in food safety and security was developed that incorporates One Health concepts. PMID:26851591

  7. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  8. What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Ngure, Francis M.; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L.

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  9. Framing GM Crops as a Food Security Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibden, Jacqui; Gibbs, David; Cocklin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The spectre of a food security crisis has raised important questions about future directions for agriculture and given fresh impetus to a long-standing debate about the potential contribution of agricultural biotechnology to food security. This paper considers the discursive foundations for promotion of agricultural biotechnology, arguing that…

  10. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  11. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    PubMed Central

    Yach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  12. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  13. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  14. The Pivotal Role of Phosphorus in a Resilient Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus.

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P; Sharpley, Andrew N; Flaten, Don; Kleinman, Peter J A; Jenkins, Alan; Simmons, Tarra

    2015-07-01

    We make the case that phosphorus (P) is inextricably linked to an increasingly fragile, interconnected, and interdependent nexus of water, energy, and food security and should be managed accordingly. Although there are many other drivers that influence water, energy, and food security, P plays a unique and under-recognized role within the nexus. The P paradox derives from fundamental challenges in meeting water, energy, and food security for a growing global population. We face simultaneous dilemmas of overcoming scarcity of P to sustain terrestrial food and biofuel production and addressing overabundance of P entering aquatic systems, which impairs water quality and aquatic ecosystems and threatens water security. Historical success in redistributing rock phosphate as fertilizer to enable modern feed and food production systems is a grand societal achievement in overcoming inequality. However, using the United States as the main example, we demonstrate how successes in redistribution of P and reorganization of farming systems have broken local P cycles and have inadvertently created instability that threatens resilience within the nexus. Furthermore, recent expansion of the biofuels sector is placing further pressure on P distribution and availability. Despite these challenges, opportunities exist to intensify and expand food and biofuel production through recycling and better management of land and water resources. Ultimately, a strategic approach to sustainable P management can help address the P paradox, minimize tradeoffs, and catalyze synergies to improve resilience among components of the water, energy, and food security nexus. PMID:26437086

  15. The Pivotal Role of Phosphorus in a Resilient Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus.

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P; Sharpley, Andrew N; Flaten, Don; Kleinman, Peter J A; Jenkins, Alan; Simmons, Tarra

    2015-07-01

    We make the case that phosphorus (P) is inextricably linked to an increasingly fragile, interconnected, and interdependent nexus of water, energy, and food security and should be managed accordingly. Although there are many other drivers that influence water, energy, and food security, P plays a unique and under-recognized role within the nexus. The P paradox derives from fundamental challenges in meeting water, energy, and food security for a growing global population. We face simultaneous dilemmas of overcoming scarcity of P to sustain terrestrial food and biofuel production and addressing overabundance of P entering aquatic systems, which impairs water quality and aquatic ecosystems and threatens water security. Historical success in redistributing rock phosphate as fertilizer to enable modern feed and food production systems is a grand societal achievement in overcoming inequality. However, using the United States as the main example, we demonstrate how successes in redistribution of P and reorganization of farming systems have broken local P cycles and have inadvertently created instability that threatens resilience within the nexus. Furthermore, recent expansion of the biofuels sector is placing further pressure on P distribution and availability. Despite these challenges, opportunities exist to intensify and expand food and biofuel production through recycling and better management of land and water resources. Ultimately, a strategic approach to sustainable P management can help address the P paradox, minimize tradeoffs, and catalyze synergies to improve resilience among components of the water, energy, and food security nexus.

  16. Drought Dynamics and Food Security in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, N. M.; Kogan, F.; Adamenko, T. I.; Skakun, S. V.; Kravchenko, O. M.; Kryvobok, O. A.; Shelestov, A. Y.; Kolotii, A. V.; Kussul, O. M.; Lavrenyuk, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years food security became a problem of great importance at global, national and regional scale. Ukraine is one of the most developed agriculture countries and one of the biggest crop producers in the world. According to the 2011 statistics provided by the USDA FAS, Ukraine was the 8th largest exporter and 10th largest producer of wheat in the world. Therefore, identifying current and projecting future trends in climate and agriculture parameters is a key element in providing support to policy makers in food security. This paper combines remote sensing, meteorological, and modeling data to investigate dynamics of extreme events, such as droughts, and its impact on agriculture production in Ukraine. Two main problems have been considered in the study: investigation of drought dynamics in Ukraine and its impact on crop production; and investigation of crop growth models for yield and production forecasting and its comparison with empirical models that use as a predictor satellite-derived parameters and meteorological observations. Large-scale weather disasters in Ukraine such as drought were assessed using vegetation health index (VHI) derived from satellite data. The method is based on estimation of green canopy stress/no stress from indices, characterizing moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy. These conditions are derived from the reflectance/emission in the red, near infrared and infrared parts of solar spectrum measured by the AVHRR flown on the NOAA afternoon polar-orbiting satellites since 1981. Droughts were categorized into exceptional, extreme, severe and moderate. Drought area (DA, in % from total Ukrainian area) was calculated for each category. It was found that maximum DA over past 20 years was 10% for exceptional droughts, 20% for extreme droughts, 50% for severe droughts, and 80% for moderate droughts. Also, it was shown that in general the drought intensity and area did not increase considerably over past 10 years. Analysis

  17. Food security and nutrition interventions in response to the AIDS epidemic: assessing global action and evidence.

    PubMed

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Rawat, Rahul; Drimie, Scott; Claros, Joan M; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-10-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AIDS context. In the face of funding uncertainties and competing priorities, we must maintain momentum towards effective and sustainable solutions to the epidemic through continued systematic research to inform policy and through the strengthening of monitoring systems to dynamically inform intervention development.

  18. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge.

  19. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. PMID:27318260

  20. The Good Food Junction: a Community-Based Food Store Intervention to Address Nutritional Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan; Walker, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a 2-year study to assess the early impacts of a new grocery store intervention in a former food desert. Objective The purpose of the study is to understand the early health effects of the introduction of a large-scale food and nutrition-focused community-based population health intervention, the Good Food Junction (GFJ) Cooperative Store, in a geographically bounded group of socially disadvantaged neighborhoods (the “core neighborhoods”) in a midsized Canadian city. The GFJ grocery store was tasked with improving the access of residents to healthy, affordable food. The 5 research questions are: (1) What is the awareness and perception of the GFJ store among residents of the core neighborhoods? (2) Are there differences in awareness and perception among those who do and do not shop at the GFJ? (3) Will healthy food purchasing at the GFJ by residents of the core neighborhoods change over time, and what purchases are these individuals making at this store? (4) What early impact(s) will the GFJ have on key health-related outcomes (such as household food security status, vegetable and fruit intake, key aspects of self-reported mental health, self-reported health)? and (5) Are the effects of the intervention seen for specific vulnerable population groups, such as Aboriginal people, seniors (65 years old or older) and new immigrants (settled in Saskatoon for less than 5 years)? Methods The research project examined initial impacts of the GFJ on the health of the residents in surrounding neighborhoods through a door-to-door cross-sectional survey of food access and household demographics; an examination of GFJ sales data by location of shoppers' residences; and a 1-year, 3-time-point longitudinal study of self-reported health of GFJ shoppers. Results Analyses are on-going, but preliminary results show that shoppers are using the store for its intended purpose, which is to improve access to healthy food in a former food desert. Conclusions To our

  1. World Food Security and Insecurity, 1974-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Martin

    In the decade since the World Food Conference of 1974, increased attention has been directed to the problems of world food security. The emphasis on technologies of production, while important, have not sufficed. Two major shortcomings of the World Food Conference and the efforts it stimulated were (1) the failure to recognize the relationship…

  2. Satellite Technology Contribution to Water and Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.

  3. What Should We Do about Food Security? Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badir, Doris R.

    1996-01-01

    Food supply and scarcity are closely linked with issues of gender and poverty. Traditional economic development models do not guarantee equitable distribution. Home economists, with their knowledge of the economic food chain and women's cooperative enterprises, can work to improve food security worldwide. (SK)

  4. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  5. Development and validation of an Arab family food security scale.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Nord, Mark; Sassine, Anniebelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Hwalla, Nahla; Ghattas, Hala

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article was to describe 1) the validation of 2 similar but not identical food security modules used to collect data from 2 vulnerable populations, southern Lebanon residents (n = 815) and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon (n = 2501), and 2) the development and validation of an Arab Family Food Security Scale (AFFSS). The surveys used a cluster-randomized sampling design. The 2 food security subscales underwent face and construct validity. In addition, both of these tools and the AFFSS underwent psychometric assessment for internal validity by using statistical methods based on Item Response Theory. The food security questions tested by focus groups were understood and accepted in all regions of Lebanon. The food security subscales and the AFFSS had acceptable levels of internal consistency. The psychometric assessment confirmed that the 7 items of the AFFSS had good internal validity and reasonable reliability with item in-fits from 0.73 to 1.16. Food insecurity was identified among 42% of southern Lebanese and 62% of Palestinian refugee households. The determinants and consequences of food security measured in this study provide additional support for the validity of the modules. Using multivariate logistic regression, the higher the mean monthly income per household member and the higher the educational attainment of the head of household, the lower the risk of food insecurity [ORs (95% CIs): 0.99 (0.98, 0.99) and 0.66 (0.54, 0.80), respectively]. There was a strong significant association between food insecurity and lower food expenditure and lower intake of all food categories except for legumes, which was significantly associated in the opposite direction (P < 0.001). The odds of borrowing money and accepting gifts/donations were significantly higher among moderately and severely food-insecure households (P < 0.000). The AFFSS has been validated within Lebanon and can potentially be extended to other Arab-speaking populations.

  6. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27196990

  8. Global Food Security in a Changing Climate: Considerations and Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.

    2015-12-01

    Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.

  9. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  10. Global Climate Change, Food Security and the U.S. Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.

  11. Promoting Food Security for All Children.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Sixteen million US children (21%) live in households without consistent access to adequate food. After multiple risk factors are considered, children who live in households that are food insecure, even at the lowest levels, are likely to be sick more often, recover from illness more slowly, and be hospitalized more frequently. Lack of adequate healthy food can impair a child's ability to concentrate and perform well in school and is linked to higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems from preschool through adolescence. Food insecurity can affect children in any community, not only traditionally underserved ones. Pediatricians can play a central role in screening and identifying children at risk for food insecurity and in connecting families with needed community resources. Pediatricians should also advocate for federal and local policies that support access to adequate healthy food for an active and healthy life for all children and their families.

  12. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, John T; Frank, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Access to food is essential to optimal development and function in children and adults. Food security, food insecurity, and hunger have been defined and a U.S. Food Security Scale was developed and is administered annually by the Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. The eight child-referenced items now make up a Children's Food Security Scale. This review summarizes the data on household and children's food insecurity and its relationship with children's health and development and with mothers' depressive symptoms. It is demonstrable that food insecurity is a prevalent risk to the growth, health, cognitive, and behavioral potential of America's poor and near-poor children. Infants and toddlers in particular are at risk from food insecurity even at the lowest levels of severity, and the data indicate an "invisible epidemic" of a serious condition. Food insecurity is readily measured and rapidly remediable through policy changes, which a country like the United States, unlike many others, is fully capable of implementing. The food and distribution resources exist; the only constraint is political will.

  13. World Food Security and Insecurity, 1984-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Kenneth R.

    Effective economic demand, rather than resource constraints, will continue to be the dominant limiting factor in improving the security of world food supplies between now and the year 2000. The global demand for food will continue to grow but the rate of growth is declining in virtually all regions, easing the pressure on agricultural resources.…

  14. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yurasova, Elena; Idrisov, Bulat; Gnatienko, Natalia; Migliorini, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Russian Federation (Russia), an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level. PMID:26112143

  15. Climate change impact assessment on food security in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettema, Janneke; Aldrian, Edvin; de Bie, Kees; Jetten, Victor; Mannaerts, Chris

    2013-04-01

    As Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, food security is a persistent challenge. The potential impact of future climate change on the agricultural sector needs to be addressed in order to allow early implementation of mitigation strategies. The complex island topography and local sea-land-air interactions cannot adequately be represented in large scale General Climate Models (GCMs) nor visualized by TRMM. Downscaling is needed. Using meteorological observations and a simple statistical downscaling tool, local future projections are derived from state-of-the-art, large-scale GCM scenarios, provided by the CMIP5 project. To support the agriculture sector, providing information on especially rainfall and temperature variability is essential. Agricultural production forecast is influenced by several rain and temperature factors, such as rainy and dry season onset, offset and length, but also by daily and monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and its rainfall amount. A simple and advanced crop model will be used to address the sensitivity of different crops to temperature and rainfall variability, present-day and future. As case study area, Java Island is chosen as it is fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation's population and dominates it politically and economically. The objective is to identify regions at agricultural risk due to changing patterns in precipitation and temperature.

  16. A Treatment Package without Escape Extinction to Address Food Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jessica; Gutierrez, Anibal

    2015-08-21

    Feeding difficulties and feeding disorders are a commonly occurring problem for young children, particularly children with developmental delays including autism. Behavior analytic interventions for the treatment of feeding difficulties oftentimes include escape extinction as a primary component of treatment. The use of escape extinction, while effective, may be problematic as it is also associated with the emergence of challenging behavior (e.g., extinction burst). Such challenging behavior may be an acceptable side effect in treatment cases where feeding problems are severe and chronic (e.g., failure to thrive). However, in more acute cases (e.g., selective eating), the negative side effect may be unwarranted and undesired. More recent research on the behavioral treatment of food selectivity has begun to evaluate treatments for feeding difficulties that do not include escape extinction (e.g., demand fading, behavioral momentum), with some success. However, research to date reveals individual differences in responsiveness to such treatments and no clear preferable treatment has emerged. This manuscript describes a multi-component treatment package that includes shaping, sequential presentation and simultaneous presentation, for the treatment of food selectivity in four young children with developmental delays. This treatment package extends the literature on the behavioral treatment for food selectivity and offers a multi-component treatment protocol that may be clinically applicable across a range of treatment scenarios and settings.

  17. A life-cycle approach to food and nutrition security in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sandhya; Sekher, Madhushree; Pritchard, Bill; Rammohan, Anu

    2015-04-01

    India's poor performance on critical food and nutrition security indicators despite substantial economic prosperity has been widely documented. These failings not only hamper national progress, but also contribute significantly to the global undernourished population, particularly children. While the recently passed National Food Security Act 2013 adopts a life-cycle approach to expand coverage of subsidized food grains to the most vulnerable households and address food security, there remains much to be desired in the legislation. Access to adequate food for 1.24 billion people is a multifaceted problem requiring an interconnected set of policy measures to tackle the various factors affecting food and nutrition security in India. In the present opinion paper, we discuss a fivefold strategy that incorporates a life-cycle approach, spanning reproductive health, bolstering citizen participation in existing national programmes, empowering women, advancing agriculture and better monitoring the Public Distribution System in order to fill the gaps in both access and adequacy of food and nutrition. PMID:24866692

  18. A recycling index for food and health security: urban Taipei.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The modern food system has evolved into one with highly inefficient activities, producing waste at each step of the food pathway from growing to consumption and disposal. The present challenge is to improve recyclability in the food system as a fundamental need for food and health security. This paper develops a methodological approach for a Food Recycling Index (FRI) as a tool to assess recyclability in the food system, to identify opportunities to reduce waste production and environmental contamination, and to provide a self-assessment tool for participants in the food system. The urban Taipei framework was used to evaluate resource and nutrient flow within the food consumption and waste management processes of the food system. A stepwise approach for a FRI is described: (1) identification of the major inputs and outputs in the food chain; (2) classification of inputs and outputs into modules (energy, water, nutrients, and contaminants); (3) assignment of semi-quantitative scores for each module and food system process using a matrix; (4) assessment for recycling status and recyclability potential; (5) conversion of scores into sub-indices; (6) derivation of an aggregate FRI. A FRI of 1.24 was obtained on the basis of data for kitchen waste management in Taipei, a score which encompasses absolute and relative values for a comprehensive interpretation. It is apparent that a FRI could evolve into a broader ecosystem concept with health relevance. Community end-users and policy planners can adopt this approach to improve food and health security.

  19. Secure it now or secure it later: the benefits of addressing cyber-security from the outset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Nutaro, James

    2013-05-01

    The majority of funding for research and development (R&D) in cyber-security is focused on the end of the software lifecycle where systems have been deployed or are nearing deployment. Recruiting of cyber-security personnel is similarly focused on end-of-life expertise. By emphasizing cyber-security at these late stages, security problems are found and corrected when it is most expensive to do so, thus increasing the cost of owning and operating complex software systems. Worse, expenditures on expensive security measures often mean less money for innovative developments. These unwanted increases in cost and potential slowing of innovation are unavoidable consequences of an approach to security that finds and remediate faults after software has been implemented. We argue that software security can be improved and the total cost of a software system can be substantially reduced by an appropriate allocation of resources to the early stages of a software project. By adopting a similar allocation of R&D funds to the early stages of the software lifecycle, we propose that the costs of cyber-security can be better controlled and, consequently, the positive effects of this R&D on industry will be much more pronounced.

  20. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

  1. A sustainable path to food security.

    PubMed

    Xuan, V T

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes remarks made by Vo-Tong Xuan, professor of agronomy at the University of Can Tho. He states that agricultural production affects government market systems of supply and demand. The aim of world food production is to supply more food with fewer resources to meet the needs of a growing global population, which may reach 8 billion by 2025. Global food production needs to increase by 2% annually. Developing country food production needs to increase by 3% annually. There are needs for new land use patterns, improved crop choices, and market options and responsiveness. Better national and regional food monitoring systems are needed, as well as appropriate farming systems. Sustainability entails appropriate receipts for producer costs and affordable costs for consumers. Yields must be increased while lowering production costs. This may be achieved through the use of labor-intensive, low-input technology, increases in non-rice food crops, and changes in livestock and fishery production. Food for livestock must not compete with human food demand. Sustainable food production is dependent upon efficient use of irrigation systems, less consumption of rain water, integrated pest and nutrient management for reducing soil and water degradation, and high-yield, disease-resistant crop varieties suitable for a variety of land conditions. Crop loss must be reduced and better weed management implemented. Parliamentarians are important political resources for assuring the political will to make changes. Several delegations were concerned about the low prices for rice. Professor Xuan recommended reducing overproduction of rice, diversifying crops, and providing ready access to markets for food not consumed at home. Individual subsidies were discouraged in favor of better land use planning. Most delegates agreed that rice should be excluded from international trade agreements.

  2. Mechanisms of power within a community-based food security planning process.

    PubMed

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-04-01

    A community food security movement has begun to address problems of hunger and food insecurity by utilizing a community-based approach. Although various models have been implemented, little empirical research has assessed how power operates within community-based food security initiatives. The purpose of this research was to determine how power influenced participation in decision-making, agenda setting, and the shaping of perceived needs within a community-based food security planning process, with particular reference to disenfranchised stakeholders. Power influenced participation in decision-making, agenda setting, and the shaping of perceived needs through managing 1) problem framing, 2) trust, 3) knowledge, and 4) consent. To overcome these mechanisms of power, practitioners need to address individual-, community-, and institutional-level barriers to participation in community-based food security planning processes. Practitioners and researchers can work with disenfranchised groups to determine which agents have the power to create desired changes by utilizing theory-based methods and strategies that focus on changing external determinants at multiple levels.

  3. Remote sensing of global croplands for food security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Turral, Hugh; Lyon, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in populations have created an increasing demand for food crops while increases in demand for biofuels have created an increase in demand for fuel crops. What has not increased is the amount of croplands and their productivity. These and many other factors such as decreasing water resources in a changing climate have created a crisis like situation in global food security. Decision makers in these situations need accurate information based on science. Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security provides a comprehensive knowledge base in use of satellite sensor-based maps and statistics that can be used to develop strategies for croplands (irrigated and rainfed) and their water use for food security.

  4. [Transgenic products. A scientific-production evaluation of possible food (in)security].

    PubMed

    Camara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem L C; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic review, the article identifies and offers a critical analysis of scientific production by the public health field in Brazil on genetically modified organisms and food (in)security. Of the 716 articles found on the portals of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Coordinating Agency for the Development of Higher Education (Capes), only 8 address the food security of transgenic products, primarily in terms of risk exposure and the uncertainties about how these products impact health and the environment. The main conclusion involves the fact that the eight analyzed articles do not speak to the question of the security but rather the insecurity of genetically modified foods.

  5. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  6. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security. PMID:24135187

  7. Food security in a perfect storm: using the ecosystem services framework to increase understanding

    PubMed Central

    Poppy, G. M.; Chiotha, S.; Eigenbrod, F.; Harvey, C. A.; Honzák, M.; Hudson, M. D.; Jarvis, A.; Madise, N. J.; Schreckenberg, K.; Shackleton, C. M.; Villa, F.; Dawson, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security in a ‘perfect storm’ scenario is a grand challenge for society. Climate change and an expanding global population act in concert to make global food security even more complex and demanding. As achieving food security and the millennium development goal (MDG) to eradicate hunger influences the attainment of other MDGs, it is imperative that we offer solutions which are complementary and do not oppose one another. Sustainable intensification of agriculture has been proposed as a way to address hunger while also minimizing further environmental impact. However, the desire to raise productivity and yields has historically led to a degraded environment, reduced biodiversity and a reduction in ecosystem services (ES), with the greatest impacts affecting the poor. This paper proposes that the ES framework coupled with a policy response framework, for example Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR), can allow food security to be delivered alongside healthy ecosystems, which provide many other valuable services to humankind. Too often, agro-ecosystems have been considered as separate from other natural ecosystems and insufficient attention has been paid to the way in which services can flow to and from the agro-ecosystem to surrounding ecosystems. Highlighting recent research in a large multi-disciplinary project (ASSETS), we illustrate the ES approach to food security using a case study from the Zomba district of Malawi. PMID:24535394

  8. Food security in a perfect storm: using the ecosystem services framework to increase understanding.

    PubMed

    Poppy, G M; Chiotha, S; Eigenbrod, F; Harvey, C A; Honzák, M; Hudson, M D; Jarvis, A; Madise, N J; Schreckenberg, K; Shackleton, C M; Villa, F; Dawson, T P

    2014-04-01

    Achieving food security in a 'perfect storm' scenario is a grand challenge for society. Climate change and an expanding global population act in concert to make global food security even more complex and demanding. As achieving food security and the millennium development goal (MDG) to eradicate hunger influences the attainment of other MDGs, it is imperative that we offer solutions which are complementary and do not oppose one another. Sustainable intensification of agriculture has been proposed as a way to address hunger while also minimizing further environmental impact. However, the desire to raise productivity and yields has historically led to a degraded environment, reduced biodiversity and a reduction in ecosystem services (ES), with the greatest impacts affecting the poor. This paper proposes that the ES framework coupled with a policy response framework, for example Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR), can allow food security to be delivered alongside healthy ecosystems, which provide many other valuable services to humankind. Too often, agro-ecosystems have been considered as separate from other natural ecosystems and insufficient attention has been paid to the way in which services can flow to and from the agro-ecosystem to surrounding ecosystems. Highlighting recent research in a large multi-disciplinary project (ASSETS), we illustrate the ES approach to food security using a case study from the Zomba district of Malawi.

  9. Secure Naming and Addressing Operations for Store, Carry and Forward Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Ivancic, William D.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph; Hylton, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes concepts for secure naming and addressing directed at Store, Carry and Forward (SCF) distributed applications, where disconnection and intermittent connectivity between forwarding systems is the norm. The paper provides a brief overview of store, carry and forward distributed applications followed by an in depth discussion of how to securely: create a namespace; allocate names within the namespace; query for names known within a local processing system or connected subnetwork; validate ownership of a given name; authenticate data from a given name; and, encrypt data to a given name. Critical issues such as revocation of names, mobility and the ability to use various namespaces to secure operations or for Quality-of-Service are also presented. Although the concepts presented for naming and addressing have been developed for SCF, they are directly applicable to fully connected systems.

  10. Securing our Agriculture and Food Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Young, David [R-IA-3

    2016-05-26

    09/27/2016 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Sustainable Food Security in the Mountains of Pakistan: Towards a Policy Framework.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid

    2015-01-01

    The nature and causes of food and livelihood security in mountain areas are quite different to those in the plains. Rapid socioeconomic and environmental changes added to the topographical constraints have exacerbated the problem of food insecurity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region. In Pakistan, food insecurity is significantly higher in the mountain areas than in the plains as a result of a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors. The potential of mountain niche products such as fruit, nuts, and livestock has remained underutilized. Moreover, the opportunities offered by globalization, market integration, remittances, and non-farm income have not been fully tapped. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges of food security in Pakistan's mountain areas, and outlines a framework for addressing the specific issues in terms of four different types of area differentiated by agro-ecological potential and access to markets, information, and institutional services.

  12. Post-harvest proteomics and food security.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Lurie, Susan; Hertog, Maarten; Nicolaï, Bart; Mes, Jurriaan; Woltering, Ernst

    2013-06-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce post-harvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and developing countries. In recent years, a substantially increasing interest can be seen in the application of proteomics to understand post-harvest events. In the near future post-harvest proteomics will be poised to move from fundamental research to aiding the reduction of food losses. Proteomics research can help in reducing food losses through (i) identification and validation of gene products associated to specific quality traits supporting marker-assisted crop improvement programmes, (ii) delivering markers of initial quality that allow optimisation of distribution conditions and prediction of remaining shelf-life for decision support systems and (iii) delivering early detection tools of physiological or pathogen-related post-harvest problems. In this manuscript, recent proteomics studies on post-harvest and stress physiology are reviewed and discussed. Perspectives on future directions of post-harvest proteomics studies aiming to reduce food losses are presented.

  13. Post-harvest proteomics and food security.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Lurie, Susan; Hertog, Maarten; Nicolaï, Bart; Mes, Jurriaan; Woltering, Ernst

    2013-06-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce post-harvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and developing countries. In recent years, a substantially increasing interest can be seen in the application of proteomics to understand post-harvest events. In the near future post-harvest proteomics will be poised to move from fundamental research to aiding the reduction of food losses. Proteomics research can help in reducing food losses through (i) identification and validation of gene products associated to specific quality traits supporting marker-assisted crop improvement programmes, (ii) delivering markers of initial quality that allow optimisation of distribution conditions and prediction of remaining shelf-life for decision support systems and (iii) delivering early detection tools of physiological or pathogen-related post-harvest problems. In this manuscript, recent proteomics studies on post-harvest and stress physiology are reviewed and discussed. Perspectives on future directions of post-harvest proteomics studies aiming to reduce food losses are presented. PMID:23483703

  14. Crops and food security--experiences and perspectives from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Te; Fu, Tzu-Yu Richard; Chang, Su-San

    2009-01-01

    Food security is an important issue that is of concern for all countries around the world. There are many factors which may cause food insecurity including increasing demand, shortage of supply, trade condition, another countries' food policy, lack of money, high food and oil prices, decelerating productivity, speculation, etc. The food self-sufficiency ratio of Taiwan is only 30.6% weighted by energy in 2007. Total agriculture imports and cereals have increased significantly due to the expansion of livestock and fishery industries and improve living standard. The agriculture sector of Taiwan is facing many challenges, such as: low level of food self-sufficiency, aging farmers, large acreage of set-aside farmlands, small scale farming, soaring price of fertilizers, natural disasters accelerated by climate change, and rapid changes in the world food economy. To cope with these challenges, the present agricultural policy is based on three guidelines: "Healthfulness, Efficiency, and Sustainability." A program entitled "Turning Small Landlords into Large Tenants" was launched to make effective use of idle lands. Facing globalization and the food crisis, Taiwan will secure stable food supply through revitalization of its set-aside farmlands and international markets, and provide technical assistance to developing countries, in particular for staple food crops. PMID:19965342

  15. Food security and population: AFPPD plan of action for 1996.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the forthcoming activities and plans of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD). The 1996 program of action will be devoted to the linked issues of food security and population growth. AFPPD will be paying attention to the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) Food Summit that is scheduled for November 1996 in Rome, Italy. National committees, regional partners, and international partners will be asked by the AFPPD Executive Committee to focus on food security and population issues in preparation for the World Food Summit. The Chairman of the AFPPD reports that a sufficient supply of food should not be taken for granted and that the environment is in trouble. Parliamentarians must contend with the prospects of the food supply not keeping pace with population growth. There is already evidence of food shortages, particularly among women and children. AFPPD maintains ties to the FAO World Food Summit Secretariat, the FAO Director General's office in Rome, and the FAO Regional Office in Bangkok. Recently officials of these organizations met with AFPPD and were informed about AFPPD's programs. AFPPD was invited to attend the Regional Nongovernmental Organization Meeting on the World Food Summit that was held in Bangkok.

  16. On the Water-Food Nexus: an Optimization Approach for Water and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortada, Sarah; Abou Najm, Majdi; Yassine, Ali; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Water and food security is facing increased challenges with population increase, climate and land use change, as well as resource depletion coupled with pollution and unsustainable practices. Coordinated and effective management of limited natural resources have become an imperative to meet these challenges by optimizing the usage of resources under various constraints. In this study, an optimization model is developed for optimal resource allocation towards sustainable water and food security under nutritional, socio-economic, agricultural, environmental, and natural resources constraints. The core objective of this model is to maximize the composite water-food security status by recommending an optimal water and agricultural strategy. The model balances between the healthy nutritional demand side and the constrained supply side while considering the supply chain in between. It equally ensures that the population achieves recommended nutritional guidelines and population food-preferences by quantifying an optimum agricultural and water policy through transforming optimum food demands into optimum cropping policy given the water and land footprints of each crop or agricultural product. Through this process, water and food security are optimized considering factors that include crop-food transformation (food processing), water footprints, crop yields, climate, blue and green water resources, irrigation efficiency, arable land resources, soil texture, and economic policies. The model performance regarding agricultural practices and sustainable food and water security was successfully tested and verified both at a hypothetical and pilot scale levels.

  17. Sensors for Food Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

    Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.

  18. For telehealth to succeed, privacy and security risks must be identified and addressed.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joseph L; McGraw, Deven

    2014-02-01

    The success of telehealth could be undermined if serious privacy and security risks are not addressed. For example, sensors that are located in a patient's home or that interface with the patient's body to detect safety issues or medical emergencies may inadvertently transmit sensitive information about household activities. Similarly, routine data transmissions from an app or medical device, such as an insulin pump, may be shared with third-party advertisers. Without adequate security and privacy protections for underlying telehealth data and systems, providers and patients will lack trust in the use of telehealth solutions. Although some federal and state guidelines for telehealth security and privacy have been established, many gaps remain. No federal agency currently has authority to enact privacy and security requirements to cover the telehealth ecosystem. This article examines privacy risks and security threats to telehealth applications and summarizes the extent to which technical controls and federal law adequately address these risks. We argue for a comprehensive federal regulatory framework for telehealth, developed and enforced by a single federal entity, the Federal Trade Commission, to bolster trust and fully realize the benefits of telehealth.

  19. Agroforestry, climate change, and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successfully addressing global climate change effects on agriculture will require a holistic, sustained approach incorporating a suite of strategies at multiple spatial scales and time horizons. In the USA of the 1930’s, bold and innovative leadership at high levels of government was needed to enact...

  20. Reflections on food security under water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elías; Orgaz, Francisco; Gonzalez-Dugo, Victoria

    2011-08-01

    Forecasts on population growth and economic development indicate that there will be substantial increases in food demand for the forthcoming decades. We focus here on the water requirements of food production, on the issue of whether there would be enough water to produce sufficient food in the future, and we offer options to face this challenge based on recent trends observed in some agricultural systems. Given the competition for water faced by the agricultural sector, and the uncertainties associated with climate change, improving the efficiency of water use in both rain-fed and irrigated systems is the main avenue to face the challenge. In rain-fed agriculture, managing the risk associated with rainfall variability is a promising option to increase productivity. In irrigated systems, a case study on the improvements in water productivity in Andalusia, Spain, is used to illustrate some of the opportunities to make progress. Progress in reducing irrigation water use in recent decades has been substantial, but decreasing the consumptive use of crops is a much more difficult challenge. The need for more research and technology transfer on improving water-limited crop production is highlighted, and emphasis is placed on interdisciplinary approaches to gain the insight needed to achieve new breakthroughs that would help in tackling this complex problem.

  1. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    PubMed

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions.

  2. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P < 0.05). Higher fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P < 0.01 for fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P < 0.01 for fruits and vegetables). However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  3. Climate Change and Food Security: Health Impacts in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R.; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Methods: Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Results: Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Conclusions: Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate

  4. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  5. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security.

  6. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  7. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  8. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  9. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  10. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  11. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  12. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  13. Experiments in Globalisation, Food Security and Land Use Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  14. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    PubMed

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.

  15. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  16. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Bjorkman, Anne D; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H; Struik, Paul C

    2014-03-18

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world's food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.

  17. Food security practice in Kansas schools and health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Shanklin, Carol W

    2007-02-01

    This pilot study investigated perceived importance and frequency of specific preventive measures, and food and nutrition professionals' and foodservice directors' willingness to develop a food defense management plan. A mail questionnaire was developed based on the US Department of Agriculture document, Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs--Developing a Biosecurity Management Plan. The survey was sent to food and nutrition professionals and foodservice operators in 151 acute care hospitals, 181 long-term-care facilities, and 450 school foodservice operations. Chemical use and storage was perceived as the most important practice to protect an operation and was the practice implemented most frequently. Results of the study indicate training programs on food security are needed to increase food and nutrition professionals' motivation to implement preventive measures.

  18. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  19. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  20. Groundwater Depletion and Long term Food Security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, R.; Lall, U.; Modi, V.; Siegfried, T. U.; Narula, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Unsustainable extraction of groundwater has led water tables to decline in many parts of India - the same parts that tend to produce most of the country’s food. Government policies like procurement and price guarantees for water intensive grains as well as subsidies on energy for pumping, originally intended to ensure national self-sufficiency in grain, are partly responsible for unsustainable groundwater extraction. The resulting groundwater depletion is associated with increasing burdens on state budgets and farmer incomes, and also risks irreversible damages to aquifers as a result of saline intrusion and other forms of pollution, processes that can undermine the prospects of long term food security. We discuss the policies and proposed solutions that might be able to maintain food security in the face of this impending crisis.

  1. Food systems transition and disruptive low carbon innovation: implications for a food security research agenda.

    PubMed

    Tyfield, David

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing consensus that we are facing epochal challenges in global food security. Moreover, these challenges are multiple and complex. Meeting these challenges will involve nothing less than a wholesale socio-technical transition of the agri-food system. Optimizing the efficacy of the contribution of research to such a food security agenda will probably also need new institutional mechanisms and career structures to facilitate new kinds of collaborations and ongoing, longer-term projects. In short, the multiple challenges of food security demand a different political economy of research for effective intervention by science. In making this argument, the paper summarizes the major findings of a recent report regarding the potential impact of so-called 'disruptive' low-carbon innovations in China.

  2. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  3. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  4. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  5. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  6. Food Security Under Shifting Economic, Demographic, and Climatic Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Global demand for food, feed, and fuel will continue to rise in a more populous and affluent world. Meeting this demand in the future will become increasingly challenging with global climate change; when production shocks stemming from climate variability are added to the new mean climate state, food markets could become more volatile. This talk will focus on the interacting market effects of demand and supply for major food commodities, with an eye on climate-related supply trends and shocks. Lessons from historical patterns of climate variability (e.g., ENSO and its global teleconnections) will be used to infer potential food security outcomes in the event of abrupt changes in the mean climate state. Domestic food and trade policy responses to crop output and price volatility in key producing and consuming nations, such as export bans and import tariffs, will be discussed as a potentially major destabilizing force, underscoring the important influence of uncertainty in achieving--or failing to achieve--food security.

  7. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater mining in India is one of the biggest water related present and future challenges of South Asia. In the agricultural sector, the negative impact from groundwater depletion is complex and affects farmers directly and indirectly in different ways according to their existing dependence on access to groundwater for irrigation. It stems from a) a reduction in buffer capacity of groundwater as a source of backup supply in critical times of drought, b) the deprivation of access to groundwater of those farmers that cannot raise the capital to continuously drill deeper so as to chase the declining groundwater table and c) the constant reduction of per pump well yield due to the declining water tables given more or less constant pumping energy supply. As a result, rural incomes have become less reliable and household as well as national level food security are increasingly compromised. It is feared that the current deterioration of the national food security situation in India might not easily be reversed due to the unsustainable nature of consumptive groundwater use over the past decades. Access to electricity and subsidized power so as to pump groundwater for irrigation have played a critical role in increasing food production thus linking the energy and agricultural sector. The current rural public finance mechanism is highly ineffective, however, and trapped in an inefficient equilibrium. The deficiencies are that low cost and low quality electricity for agriculture likely translate into wasteful groundwater as well as inefficient energy use and thus lead to resource depletion and contribute to an erosion of the rural electricity distribution system. It is estimated that the current commercial losses to the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) amount to about 23 percent of the gross fiscal deficit of the states. The original intent of the rural subsidy program is thus lost and the current system in urgent need of repair. The uncertain future development of energy

  8. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  9. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  10. Climate change and food security in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Yuan; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It's imperative to promote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others.

  11. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  12. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  13. Development of a strategic plan for food security and safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fillion, Myriam; Laird, Brian; Douglas, Vasiliki; Van Pelt, Linda; Archie, Diane; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    Background Current social and environmental changes in the Arctic challenge the health and well-being of its residents. Developing evidence-informed adaptive measures in response to these changes is a priority for communities, governments and researchers. Objectives To develop strategic planning to promote food security and food safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Design A qualitative study using group discussions during a workshop. Methods A regional workshop gathered Inuit organizations and community representatives, university-based researchers from the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) and NWT governmental organizations. Discussions were structured around the findings from the IHS. For each key area, programs and activities were identified and prioritized by group discussion and voting. Results The working group developed a vision for future research and intervention, which is to empower communities to promote health, well-being and environmental sustainability in the ISR. The group elaborated missions for the region that address the following issues: (a) capacity building within communities; (b) promotion of the use of traditional foods to address food security; (c) research to better understand the linkages between diseases and contaminants in traditional foods, market foods and lifestyle choices; (d) and promotion of affordable housing. Five programs to address each key area were developed as follows: harvest support and traditional food sharing; education and promotion; governance and policy; research; and housing. Concrete activities were identified to guide future research and intervention projects. Conclusions The results of the planning workshop provide a blueprint for future research and intervention projects. PMID:25147772

  14. Dietary diversity and food expenditure as indicators of food security in older Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Food quality is a measure of food security in vulnerable groups. The elderly are often nutritionally vulnerable, but how much of this is reflected in food quality and determined by financial status is unclear. We determined whether expenditure on dietary quality challenges food security in the aged. We used the representative Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan during 1999-2000 (n=1783), and evaluated dietary quality by a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS, range: 0-6) based on a 24-h dietary recall. Monthly mean national food prices were used to estimate food expenditure. In general, it was found to cost more to achieve a greater DDS. The food expenditure of subjects whose DDS=6 was 2.20 times greater than the DDS ≤3 group, after controlling for covariates. Elders of lower socioeconomic status tended to choose foods which would have cost less. However, a sub-group of elders who achieve the highest DDS with limited money offer approaches to food-money management. Nutrition policy directed to food insecure groups, like the aged, could employ health promotion strategies which reduce financial barriers to healthy eating.

  15. Food security in China: lessons learned and future expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, X.

    2011-12-01

    Population expansion and rapid economic development have been and will continue placing dramatic pressure on Chinese land resources to provide food, water, and energy. Globalisation and international cooperation makes China land use system inseparable from the rest of the world. In this study, we will first analyze the historic changes of food supply/demand in China during the past by ensemble all the available dataset and information from literature. During the past 60 years, China has been self-fed its own population benefiting from the increase of productivity which helps provide enough food. By analyzing the factors behind of the increase of productivity, it raises quite some concerns with future development. Projections of possible pathways of development will be discussed in this paper. Lessons learn from the past will help study food security in other countries particularly in countries like India or African countries.

  16. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone. PMID:27228612

  17. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.

  18. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet.

  19. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. PMID:25972529

  20. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  1. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  2. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains. PMID:24741348

  3. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains. PMID:24741348

  4. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  6. The Role of Food Fortification in Addressing Iron Deficiency in Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency, one of the most widespread nutritional disorders, affects millions of people in emerging economies and, increasingly, in industrialized countries. Due to the high iron requirements during growth and development, infants and young children are among those most severely affected by iron deficiency. Iron deficiency that occurs during the critical phases of early life development has long-lasting health consequences that are reflected in increased risk of disease, reduced economic productivity and premature death, underscoring the importance of infants and young children as a key target group for addressing iron deficiency. This chapter focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective mechanism to address iron deficiency in this particularly vulnerable subpopulation. Nutritional policies that include food fortification need to be implemented within the context of effective public-private partnerships in order to address the fundamental mechanisms of accessibility, affordability and availability of nutritious food items for those in the lowest socio-economic strata. PMID:27198518

  7. [Perspectives on veterinary public health, food security, and the "One Health" joint initiative].

    PubMed

    Cartín-Rojas, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Veterinarians play a key role in food security. The health of millions of people, stimulation of national economies, development of sustainable livestock production related to this food source, and the different agricultural production systems that compose value chains, and access to more profitable international markets all depend on their efficient and transparent work. Shifting nutritional patterns globally, along with expected population growth, and the increase in marketable food commodity routes and volumes, forecast that demand for animal source food will steadily intensify over the coming decades. To successfully address these challenges, the veterinary profession should establish more practical and up-to-date conceptual and methodological frameworks for academic and professional profiles, focusing the profession on the different public health subject areas, in undergraduate and graduate courses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary alliances should also be developed--such as the "One Health" approach proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Health Organization (WHO)--to establish frameworks for joint work and public policies more in line with the domestic conditions of Latin American countries, using a collaborative, sustainable, and comprehensive approach to animal health, food security, and public health policy.

  8. Rebuilding northern foodsheds, sustainable food systems, community well-being, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, S. Craig; Loring, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple climatic, environmental and socio-economic pressures have accumulated to the point where they interfere with the ability of remote rural Alaska Native communities to achieve food security with locally harvestable food resources. The harvest of wild foods has been the historical norm, but most Alaska Native villages are transitioning to a cash economy, with increasing reliance on industrially produced, store-bought foods, and with less reliable access to and reliance on wild, country foods. While commercially available market foods provide one measure of food security, the availability and quality of market foods are subject to the vagaries and vulnerabilities of the global food system; access is dependent on one's ability to pay, is limited to what is available on the shelves of small rural stores, and, store-bought foods do not fulfill the important roles that traditional country foods play in rural communities and cultures. Country food access is also constrained by rising prices of fuel and equipment, a federal and state regulatory framework that sometimes hinders rather than helps rural subsistence users who need to access traditional food resources, a regulatory framework that is often not responsive to changes in climate, weather and seasonality, and a shifting knowledge base in younger generations about how to effectively harvest, process and store wild foods. Objective The general objective is to provide a framework for understanding the social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions of rural Alaska Native food security, and to provide information on the current trends in rural Alaska Native food systems. Design This research is based on our long-term ethnographic, subsistence and food systems work in coastal and interior Alaska. This includes research about the land mammal harvest, the Yukon River and coastal fisheries, community and village gardens, small livestock production and red meat systems that are scaled appropriately to

  9. Food security in an era of economic volatility.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Rosamond L; Falcon, Walter P

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes international commodity price movements, assesses food policies in response to price fluctuations, and explores the food security implications of price volatility on low-income groups. It focuses specifically on measurements, causes, and consequences of recent food price trends, variability around those trends, and price spikes. Combining these three components of price dynamics shows that the variation in real prices post-2000 was substantially greater than that in the 1980s and 1990s, and was approximately equal to the extreme volatility in commodity prices that was experienced in the 1970s. Macro policy, exchange rates, and petroleum prices were important determinants of price variability over 2005–2010, highlighting the new linkages between the agriculture-energy and agriculture-finance markets that affect the world food economy today. These linkages contributed in large part to misguided expectations and uncertainty that drove prices to their peak in 2008. The article also argues that there is a long-lasting effect of price spikes on food policy around the world, often resulting in self-sufficiency policies that create even more volatility in international markets. The efforts by governments to stabilize prices frequently contribute to even greater food insecurity among poor households, most of which are in rural areas and survive on the margin of net consumption and net production. Events of 2008—and more recently in 2010—underscore the impact of price variability for food security and the need for refocused policy approaches to prevent and mitigate price spikes. PMID:21174866

  10. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives. PMID:20509876

  11. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  12. Food security in the context of HIV: towards harmonized definitions and indicators.

    PubMed

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J; Castleman, Tony; Grede, Nils; Heap, Amie; Bloem, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Integration of HIV and food security services is imperative to improving the health and well-being of people living with HIV. However, consensus does not exist on definitions and measures of food security to guide service delivery and evaluation in the context of HIV. This paper reviews definitions and indicators of food security used by key agencies; outlines their relevance in the context of HIV; highlights opportunities for harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators; and discusses promising developments in data collection and management. In addition to the commonly used dimensions of food availability, access, utilization and stability, we identify three components of food security-food sufficiency, dietary quality, and food safety-that are useful for understanding and measuring food security needs of HIV-affected and other vulnerable people. Harmonization across agencies of food security indicators in the context of HIV offers opportunities to improve measurement and tracking, strengthen coordination, and inform evidence-based programming. PMID:24292252

  13. Food security in the context of HIV: towards harmonized definitions and indicators.

    PubMed

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J; Castleman, Tony; Grede, Nils; Heap, Amie; Bloem, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Integration of HIV and food security services is imperative to improving the health and well-being of people living with HIV. However, consensus does not exist on definitions and measures of food security to guide service delivery and evaluation in the context of HIV. This paper reviews definitions and indicators of food security used by key agencies; outlines their relevance in the context of HIV; highlights opportunities for harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators; and discusses promising developments in data collection and management. In addition to the commonly used dimensions of food availability, access, utilization and stability, we identify three components of food security-food sufficiency, dietary quality, and food safety-that are useful for understanding and measuring food security needs of HIV-affected and other vulnerable people. Harmonization across agencies of food security indicators in the context of HIV offers opportunities to improve measurement and tracking, strengthen coordination, and inform evidence-based programming.

  14. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  15. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?

    PubMed

    Berman, Judit; Zhu, Changfu; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Arjó, Gemma; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Banakar, Raviraj; Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Bai, Chao; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Bassié, Ludovic; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops can be used as part of a combined strategy to address food insecurity, which is defined as a lack of sustainable access to safe and nutritious food. In this article, we discuss the causes and consequences of food insecurity in the developing world, and the indirect economic impact on industrialized countries. We dissect the healthcare costs and lost productivity caused by food insecurity, and evaluate the relative merits of different intervention programs including supplementation, fortification and the deployment of GE crops with higher yields and enhanced nutritional properties. We provide clear evidence for the numerous potential benefits of GE crops, particularly for small-scale and subsistence farmers. GE crops with enhanced yields and nutritional properties constitute a vital component of any comprehensive strategy to tackle poverty, hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and thus reduce the global negative economic effects of food insecurity.

  16. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?

    PubMed

    Berman, Judit; Zhu, Changfu; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Arjó, Gemma; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Banakar, Raviraj; Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Bai, Chao; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Bassié, Ludovic; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops can be used as part of a combined strategy to address food insecurity, which is defined as a lack of sustainable access to safe and nutritious food. In this article, we discuss the causes and consequences of food insecurity in the developing world, and the indirect economic impact on industrialized countries. We dissect the healthcare costs and lost productivity caused by food insecurity, and evaluate the relative merits of different intervention programs including supplementation, fortification and the deployment of GE crops with higher yields and enhanced nutritional properties. We provide clear evidence for the numerous potential benefits of GE crops, particularly for small-scale and subsistence farmers. GE crops with enhanced yields and nutritional properties constitute a vital component of any comprehensive strategy to tackle poverty, hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and thus reduce the global negative economic effects of food insecurity. PMID:23430566

  17. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees. PMID:26594259

  18. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity. PMID:14569716

  19. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  20. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health. PMID:22907271

  1. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.

  2. Profiles of Food Security for US Farmworker Households and Factors Related to Dynamic of Change

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We recruited 248 farmworker families with preschool-aged children in North Carolina and examined food security indicators over 24 months to identify food security patterns and examine the dynamic of change over time. Methods. Participants in the Niños Sanos study, conducted 2011 to 2014, completed quarterly food security assessments. Based on responses to items in the US Household Food Security Survey Module, we identified different states of food security by using hidden Markov model analysis, and examined factors associated with different states. We delineated factors associated with changes in state by using mixed-effect ordinal logistic regression. Results. About half of the households (51%) consistently stayed in the most food-secure state. The least food-secure state was transient, with only 29% probability of this state for 2 consecutive quarters. Seasonal (vs migrant) work status, having immigration documents (vs not documented), and season predicted higher levels of food security. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in food security among farmworker households calls for tailoring intervention strategies. The transiency and unpredictability of low food security suggest that access to safety-net programs could reduce low food security risk in this population. PMID:26270304

  3. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  4. Biotechnology and food security in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Serageldin, I

    1999-07-16

    Biotechnology can contribute to future food security if it benefits sustainable small-farm agriculture in developing countries. Presently, agrobiotechnology research cites ethical, safety, and intellectual property rights issues. Protection of intellectual property rights encourages private sector investment in agrobiotechnology, but in developing countries the needs of smallholder farmers and environmental conservation are unlikely to attract private funds. Public investment will be needed, and new and imaginative public-private collaboration can make the gene revolution beneficial to developing countries. This is crucial for the well-being of today's hungry people and future generations.

  5. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes.

  6. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

  7. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Styne, Dennis M.; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers’ market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  8. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  9. Remote Sensing and Capacity Building to Improve Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    remote sensing tools, are routinely conducted by FEWS NET representatives at host country meteorological and agricultural services. These institutions are then able to produce information that can more accurately inform food security decision making. Informed decision making reduces the risk associated with a given hazard. In the case of FEWS NET, this involves identification of shocks to food availability, allowing for the pre-positioning of aid to be available when a hazard strikes. Developing tools to incorporate better information in food production estimates and working closely with local staff trained in state-of-the-practice techniques results in a more informed decision making process, reducing the impacts of food security hazards.

  10. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  11. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  12. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.

  13. [Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

  14. A Food Retail-Based Intervention on Food Security and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  15. Unravelling rootstock×scion interactions to improve food security.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Martínez-Pérez, Ascensión; Thompson, Andrew J; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed very quickly in the last 50 years, mainly to induce shoot vigour and to overcome soil-borne diseases in solanaceous and cucurbitaceous crops. In most cases, such progress has largely been due to empirical interactions between farmers, gardeners, and botanists, with limited insights into the underlying physiological mechanisms. Only during the last 20 years has science realized the potential of this old activity and studied the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in rootstock×scion interactions, thereby not only explaining old phenomena but also developing new tools for crop improvement. Rootstocks can contribute to food security by: (i) increasing the yield potential of elite varieties; (ii) closing the yield gap under suboptimal growing conditions; (iii) decreasing the amount of chemical (pesticides and fertilizers) contaminants in the soil; (iv) increasing the efficiency of use of natural (water and soil) resources; (v) generating new useful genotypic variability (via epigenetics); and (vi) creating new products with improved quality. The potential of grafting is as broad as the genetic variability able to cross a potential incompatibility barrier between the rootstock and the scion. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variability resulting from rootstock×scion×environment interactions will certainly contribute to developing and exploiting rootstocks for food security. PMID:25754404

  16. Unravelling rootstock×scion interactions to improve food security

    PubMed Central

    Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Martínez-Pérez, Ascensión; Thompson, Andrew J.; Dodd, Ian C.; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed very quickly in the last 50 years, mainly to induce shoot vigour and to overcome soil-borne diseases in solanaceous and cucurbitaceous crops. In most cases, such progress has largely been due to empirical interactions between farmers, gardeners, and botanists, with limited insights into the underlying physiological mechanisms. Only during the last 20 years has science realized the potential of this old activity and studied the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in rootstock×scion interactions, thereby not only explaining old phenomena but also developing new tools for crop improvement. Rootstocks can contribute to food security by: (i) increasing the yield potential of elite varieties; (ii) closing the yield gap under suboptimal growing conditions; (iii) decreasing the amount of chemical (pesticides and fertilizers) contaminants in the soil; (iv) increasing the efficiency of use of natural (water and soil) resources; (v) generating new useful genotypic variability (via epigenetics); and (vi) creating new products with improved quality. The potential of grafting is as broad as the genetic variability able to cross a potential incompatibility barrier between the rootstock and the scion. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variability resulting from rootstock×scion×environment interactions will certainly contribute to developing and exploiting rootstocks for food security. PMID:25754404

  17. Land take and Food Security at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardi, Ciro

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a limited, non-renewable natural resource, on which is based the 95the naturally fertile soils, suitable for a sustainable agriculture production, represent only a limited portion (13-18%) of the total land area of the Earth. On these areas are concentrated the majority of human presence and activities, leading to increasing pressures and degradation processes on soil. Land take and soil sealing, associated to urban expansion, is one of the most detrimental and irreversible degradation process, heavily affecting the food security at regional, national and global level. The current estimates of worldwide urban areas, with 1 km resolution, are ranging between 300,000 and 650,000 km2. In this research we present an estimate of urban area growth, between 2000 and 2010, of 160,000 km2. Urban growth was estimated by population and GDP, which represent the main drivers of the process. The global impact on food security was estimate in 59.9 millions of tons of cereals, corresponding at 2.49% of the cereals yearly world production.

  18. [Factors associated with food security in a rural municipality in northern Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Pico Fonseca, Sayda Milena; Pachón, Helena

    2012-09-01

    Food security is sufficient access to safe and nutritious foods to satisfy nutritional needs and personal preferences, and to lead a healthy and active life. The current study evaluated food security in 302 families with school-age children living in a rural municipality in Cauca, Colombia, and factors associated with food security. Families were participating in an evaluation of the nutrition impact of an intervention with nutritionally improved maize. A12-item food security scale was applied to the household head, as well as a sociodemographic survey. Families were classified as food secure, or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Among households, 44.37% were classified as food secure and 55.63% as food insecure (with 41.39% as mildly insecure, 12.25% as moderately insecure and 1,99% as severely insecure). Food-insecure families had fewer persons working relative to the total individuals in the home, 4 or fewer services or assets, and children with a reduced appetite, in comparison with food-secure households. In conclusion, more than half of the sample was food insecure; the factors associated with food insecurity relate to family income.

  19. Global food security: the impact of veterinary parasites and parasitologists.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L

    2013-08-01

    Global food security will require the production of more food using resources including land more efficiently, and with less waste. This goal must be achieved within the context of climate change and while ensuring minimal adverse environmental impact from both crop and livestock production. Disease, especially infectious disease, is a main constraint of biologically efficient livestock production and both endemic and exotic disease results in mortality and morbidity and hence less food than should ideally be available in current farming systems. A significant proportion of diseases affect the safety of food supplies, in addition to or instead of, their effect on volume and quality of food products. Parasitological diseases including those caused by nematodes, trematodes, protozoa and ectoparasites, have widely differing effects on meat, milk and fibre production and many new technologies have been developed in order to prevent or treat them. Approaches to developing better control of parasites have included livestock breeding strategies, improved nutrition and management, and the development of new drugs, diagnostic tests and vaccines. Some of the most important examples include both the development of new anthelmintic products, and better means of using existing drugs in order to maximise their effectiveness in the face of rapidly increasing parasite resistance; diagnostic tests which are able to detect low levels of nucleic acids or proteins from infectious agents rapidly; and vaccines derived from either native or recombinant proteins and designed to stimulate the most appropriate protective response from livestock species. Some of the parasitic diseases affect restricted regions around the world, however most affect very large global populations. The development of technologies of suitable and affordable livestock products for use in developing countries where most pressure on increased production for food will occur, provides a particular challenge. Most if

  20. Global food security: the impact of veterinary parasites and parasitologists.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L

    2013-08-01

    Global food security will require the production of more food using resources including land more efficiently, and with less waste. This goal must be achieved within the context of climate change and while ensuring minimal adverse environmental impact from both crop and livestock production. Disease, especially infectious disease, is a main constraint of biologically efficient livestock production and both endemic and exotic disease results in mortality and morbidity and hence less food than should ideally be available in current farming systems. A significant proportion of diseases affect the safety of food supplies, in addition to or instead of, their effect on volume and quality of food products. Parasitological diseases including those caused by nematodes, trematodes, protozoa and ectoparasites, have widely differing effects on meat, milk and fibre production and many new technologies have been developed in order to prevent or treat them. Approaches to developing better control of parasites have included livestock breeding strategies, improved nutrition and management, and the development of new drugs, diagnostic tests and vaccines. Some of the most important examples include both the development of new anthelmintic products, and better means of using existing drugs in order to maximise their effectiveness in the face of rapidly increasing parasite resistance; diagnostic tests which are able to detect low levels of nucleic acids or proteins from infectious agents rapidly; and vaccines derived from either native or recombinant proteins and designed to stimulate the most appropriate protective response from livestock species. Some of the parasitic diseases affect restricted regions around the world, however most affect very large global populations. The development of technologies of suitable and affordable livestock products for use in developing countries where most pressure on increased production for food will occur, provides a particular challenge. Most if

  1. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    PubMed

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  2. Earth Observations and the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Marx, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Security Nexus has received a great deal of attention internationally since 2011 when the World Economic Forum identified it as one of the three largest threats to the global economy. Since then several international conferences and research initiatives have focused on the linkages and synergies between these sectors. In addition, it has been recognized that land and/or ecosystems must also be considered as part of this nexus to fully understand the linkages between the sectors. The Global Water System Project carried out a preliminary assessment of the role of basin management on W-E-F security in a number of transboundary basins to determine the factors that drive this nexus, to understand how W-E-F security is perceived; to evaluate the degree to which data are used in making decisions related to this nexus; and to identify opportunities for enhancing the role of Earth Observations in making decisions relevant to W-E-F security. This assessment which relied on expert surveys is supplemented by a more in-depth case study in the Lake Winnipeg Basin which includes the basin of the Red River of the North. This paper provides a summary of the results of this assessment with an emphasis on the actual and potential roles of Earth Observations. In particular, their possible role is discussed in both national and transboundary basin contexts. Recommendations arising from the study deal with data sets and information systems, the need for targets related to the W-E-F Nexus, and possible new approaches for enhancing W-E-F resilience through the use Earth Observations to better plan and monitor the movement of water on the landscape.

  3. Monitoring and Predicting the African Climate for Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiaw, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the greatest challenges in Africa due to its impact on access to sanitary water and food. In response to this challenge, the international community has mobilized to develop famine early warning systems (FEWS) to bring safe food and water to populations in need. Over the past several decades, much attention has focused on advance risk planning in agriculture and water. This requires frequent updates of weather and climate outlooks. This paper describes the active role of NOAA's African Desk in FEWS. Emphasis is on the operational products from short and medium range weather forecasts to subseasonal and seasonal outlooks in support of humanitarian relief programs. Tools to provide access to real time weather and climate information to the public are described. These include the downscaling of the U.S. National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) to improve seasonal forecasts in support of Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs). The subseasonal time scale has emerged as extremely important to many socio-economic sectors. Drawing from advances in numerical models that can now provide a better representation of the MJO, operational subseasonal forecasts are included in the African Desk product suite. These along with forecasts skill assessment and verifications are discussed. The presentation will also highlight regional hazards outlooks basis for FEWSNET food security outlooks.

  4. An assessment of various household food security measures in Hawaiì has implications for national food security research and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derrickson, J P; Fisher, A G; Anderson, J E; Brown, A C

    2001-03-01

    The Core Food Security Module (CFSM), the national food security monitoring tool, requires three affirmative responses to categorize households as food insecure. If this tool is unreliable or inaccurate, vulnerable segments of our population may be adversely affected. The objectives of the present study were to assess the credibility of applying the CFSM categorical measure to a population sample from Hawaiì and to assess the concurrent validity of the CFSM, the new face-valid measure and measures adapted from the Radimer/Cornell (RC) measure and Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project. The sample included 1469 respondents gathered through a statewide telephone sample and 144 food pantry recipients. Responses to the 18 CFSM questions were used to create all four measures. The credibility of the CFSM categorical measure was also assessed via comparisons with individual items and with the 1995 national modal CFSM response pattern. Categorical measures were compared across food security prevalence estimates and indices of income and vegetable intake and with the CFSM scale measure. Differences in the modal response pattern between samples affected CFSM categorization. Only 36% of households followed the Hawaiì modal response pattern, and categorization was not consistent with the content of key items. Although 85% of the households were classified as food secure by the CFSM, only 78% were classified as food secure with each of the other food security measures. Concurrent validity of all measures was confirmed. A reassessment of the national CFSM categorical measure appears warranted.

  5. [Development of sample pretreatment techniques-rapid detection coupling methods for food security analysis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yichun; Ding, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent developments of the rapid detection methods for food security, such as sensors, optical techniques, portable spectral analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, portable gas chromatograph, etc. Additionally, the applications of these rapid detection methods coupled with sample pretreatment techniques in real food security analysis are reviewed. The coupling technique has the potential to provide references to establish the selective, precise and quantitative rapid detection methods in food security analysis.

  6. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    show how at gap closure up to about 290-470 million people could be fed by crops grown on this land, in face of the 200-300 million people that can be supported with the current crop yields. These numbers raise some concern because many of the target countries exhibit high malnourishment levels. If used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  7. Synergies and trade-offs between food security and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotoks, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Human land use activities have transformed a large proportion of the world's land surface and in particular, the expansion of agriculture has been a major driver in global land use change. The conversion of natural ecosystems to crop and pasture lands has contributed significantly to deforestation and associated biodiversity loss through habitat destruction. This loss has raised concerns about associated loss of ecological functions which directly support over one billion people worldwide. Furthermore, agriculture itself is heavily reliant on a number of ecosystem services which are essential for crop production. It is therefore essential that the global problems of food insecurity and biodiversity loss are not viewed independently as the methods used to address one will necessarily involve choices affecting the other. This poster will examine the relationship between food security provision and biodiversity hotspots by using global spatial datasets of land use and conservation value.

  8. Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

  9. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization" frame, with its…

  10. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  11. Planning for food security in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    McKersie, Bryan

    2015-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and other international agencies have concluded that global crop production is at risk due to climate change, population growth, and changing food preferences. Society expects that the agricultural sciences will innovate solutions to these problems and provide food security for the foreseeable future. My thesis is that an integrated research plan merging agronomic and genetic approaches has the greatest probability of success. I present a template for a research plan based on the lessons we have learned from the Green Revolution and from the development of genetically engineered crops that may guide us to meet this expectation. The plan starts with a vision of how the crop management system could change, and I give a few examples of innovations that are very much in their infancy but have significant potential. The opportunities need to be conceptualized on a regional basis for each crop to provide a target for change. The plan gives an overview of how the tools of plant biotechnology can be used to create the genetic diversity needed to implement the envisioned changes in the crop management system, using the development of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) as an example that has led recently to the commercial release of new hybrids in the USA. The plan requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates and coordinates research on plant biotechnology, genetics, physiology, breeding, agronomy, and cropping systems to be successful.

  12. Food and water security in a changing arctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Daniel M.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Loring, Philip; Tidwell, Amy C.; Chambers, Molly C.

    2007-10-01

    In the Arctic, permafrost extends up to 500 m below the ground surface, and it is generally just the top metre that thaws in summer. Lakes, rivers, and wetlands on the arctic landscape are normally not connected with groundwater in the same way that they are in temperate regions. When the surface is frozen in winter, only lakes deeper than 2 m and rivers with significant flow retain liquid water. Surface water is largely abundant in summer, when it serves as a breeding ground for fish, birds, and mammals. In winter, many mammals and birds are forced to migrate out of the Arctic. Fish must seek out lakes or rivers deep enough to provide good overwintering habitat. Humans in the Arctic rely on surface water in many ways. Surface water meets domestic needs such as drinking, cooking, and cleaning as well as subsistence and industrial demands. Indigenous communities depend on sea ice and waterways for transportation across the landscape and access to traditional country foods. The minerals, mining, and oil and gas industries also use large quantities of surface water during winter to build ice roads and maintain infrastructure. As demand for this limited, but heavily-relied-upon resource continues to increase, it is now more critical than ever to understand the impacts of climate change on food and water security in the Arctic.

  13. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. PMID:23315723

  14. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  15. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  16. Food fortification for addressing iron deficiency in Filipino children: benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Patrick; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional disorders in both developing and industrialized countries, making it a global public health concern. Anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency, affects one third of the world's population and is concentrated in women and children below 5 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia has a profound impact on human health and productivity, and the effects of iron deficiency are especially pronounced in the first 1,000 days of life. This critical window of time sets the stage for an individual's future physiological and cognitive health, underscoring the importance of addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children. This review focuses on the use of fortified foods as a cost-effective tool for addressing iron deficiency in infants and young children in the Philippines.

  17. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  18. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  19. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  20. [Nutritional challenges in the Brazilian Unified National Health System for building the interface between health and food and nutritional security].

    PubMed

    Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority.

  1. The pivotal and paradoxical role of phosphorus in a resilient water-energy-food security nexus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We make the case that phosphorus (P) is inextricably linked to an increasingly fragile, interconnected and interdependent ‘nexus’ of water, energy, and food security. While there are many other drivers that influence water, energy, and food security, P plays a unique and under-recognized role within...

  2. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the

  3. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations

    PubMed Central

    Antle, John M.; Stoorvogel, Jetse J.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models. PMID:24535388

  4. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Stoorvogel, Jetse J; Valdivia, Roberto O

    2014-04-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models.

  5. Food and nutrition security public initiatives from a human and socioeconomic development perspective: mapping experiences within the 1996 World Food Summit signatories.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Marie Agnès; Chaves-Dos-Santos, Sandra Maria

    2014-03-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. In a global scenario where hunger and obesity affect millions of people, public actions have been developed towards Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). In 1996 during the World Food Summit, 186 countries signed the Rome Declaration, committing themselves to assess and address Food and Nutrition Insecurity. In this exploratory study, we compile secondary internet data using keywords in four languages to map the global distribution, among signatories, of FNS public initiatives and assess their association with key national-level socioeconomic indicators. As a result, we found FNS public policies in 123 countries, reports on the state of FNS in 139 countries, and the presence of both in 114 countries (61%). The proportion of countries with any type of, as well as with specific, FNS policy or diagnostic was higher in least developed countries. There was a statistically significant association between these proportions and selected national-level socioeconomic variables. The results are discussed along with population vulnerability, international cooperation mechanisms and political discourse and how these factors impact the existence of FNS public actions.

  6. Food and nutrition security public initiatives from a human and socioeconomic development perspective: mapping experiences within the 1996 World Food Summit signatories.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Marie Agnès; Chaves-Dos-Santos, Sandra Maria

    2014-03-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. In a global scenario where hunger and obesity affect millions of people, public actions have been developed towards Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). In 1996 during the World Food Summit, 186 countries signed the Rome Declaration, committing themselves to assess and address Food and Nutrition Insecurity. In this exploratory study, we compile secondary internet data using keywords in four languages to map the global distribution, among signatories, of FNS public initiatives and assess their association with key national-level socioeconomic indicators. As a result, we found FNS public policies in 123 countries, reports on the state of FNS in 139 countries, and the presence of both in 114 countries (61%). The proportion of countries with any type of, as well as with specific, FNS policy or diagnostic was higher in least developed countries. There was a statistically significant association between these proportions and selected national-level socioeconomic variables. The results are discussed along with population vulnerability, international cooperation mechanisms and political discourse and how these factors impact the existence of FNS public actions. PMID:24581064

  7. American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Presidential Address: food for thought: it's more than nutrition.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Marion F

    2007-01-01

    Three issues were highlighted in the 30(th) Presidential Address to the society: (1) A.S.P.E.N.'s unique interdisciplinary structure; (2) support of the A.S.P.E.N. Rhoads Research Foundation; and (3) the meaning of food from the perspective of the patient who is receiving life-sustaining home enteral or parenteral nutrition. A.S.P.E.N., founded as a multidisciplinary society in the 1970s has evolved into an interdisciplinary society with an expanded and diverse membership of health care professionals and scientists with overlapping interests in clinical nutrition and metabolism. A.S.P.E.N. envisions an environment in which every patient receives safe, efficacious, and high quality patient care. The society is committed to advancing the science and practice of nutrition support therapy. In support of this direction, the A.S.P.E.N. Rhoads Research Foundation exists to fund research grants, promote evidence-based practice, and foster training and mentorship in nutrition and metabolic research. The scientific advances and technologic innovations that have enabled our profession to provide enteral and parenteral nutrition to patients has caused practitioners to forget that the meaning of food extends beyond nutrient value. Some individuals receiving long term enteral nutrition or home parenteral nutrition have expressed feelings of anger, anxiety, and depression resulting from the inability to eat normally, from losses of independence, and control of body functions. The ritual of eating may be altered when the enteral or intravenous feedings provide nourishment and, for some, the loss of the eating function is a distressing experience, especially given the cultural focus on social gatherings and meals. The emotional meaning attributed to food, and changes in food preferences and eating behaviors, may become a source of conflict for individuals who have substantial dietary restrictions, or for those individuals dependent on enteral or parenteral nutrition therapy. The

  8. The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

  9. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research. PMID:26468242

  10. Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2012-01-01

    Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.

  11. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T J; Visser, M E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A; Denlinger, D L; Dominoni, D; Ebling, F J; Elton, S; Evans, N; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M; Haydon, D T; Hazlerigg, D G; Heideman, P; Hopcraft, J G C; Jonsson, N N; Kronfeld-Schor, N; Kumar, V; Lincoln, G A; MacLeod, R; Martin, S A M; Martinez-Bakker, M; Nelson, R J; Reed, T; Robinson, J E; Rock, D; Schwartz, W J; Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tauber, E; Thackeray, S J; Umstatter, C; Yoshimura, T; Helm, B

    2015-10-22

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research.

  12. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T J; Visser, M E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A; Denlinger, D L; Dominoni, D; Ebling, F J; Elton, S; Evans, N; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M; Haydon, D T; Hazlerigg, D G; Heideman, P; Hopcraft, J G C; Jonsson, N N; Kronfeld-Schor, N; Kumar, V; Lincoln, G A; MacLeod, R; Martin, S A M; Martinez-Bakker, M; Nelson, R J; Reed, T; Robinson, J E; Rock, D; Schwartz, W J; Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tauber, E; Thackeray, S J; Umstatter, C; Yoshimura, T; Helm, B

    2015-10-22

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research. PMID:26468242

  13. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  14. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. PMID:27475055

  16. Food stamps are associated with food security and dietary intake of inner-city preschoolers from Hartford, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Ferris, A M; Drake, L; Haldeman, L; Peranick, J; Campbell, M; Peng, Y K; Burke, G; Bernstein, B

    2000-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the association of the Food Stamp Program with the food security and dietary intake of low-income children from Hartford, CT, who were enrolled in the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). We compared the food and nutrition situation of low-income preschoolers who received food stamps (FS, n = 59) with that of those who did not receive food stamps (NFS, n = 40). Children were an average age of 2.7 +/- 0.6 y, and 95% were receiving WIC benefits at the time of the study. Groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, but the socioeconomic status of the FS group was lower than that of the NFS group (P < 0.05). Food security was assessed with the Radimer/Cornell hunger scale, and dietary intake was assessed with a single 24-h recall and a 14-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate analyses within the FS group indicated that a monthly duration of food stamps of <4 wk was a predictor of household food security (odds ratio 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.56). Food stamp use was associated with above-median energy-adjusted intakes of vitamin B-6 (3.13, 1.16-8.45), folate (2.92, 1.09-7.81) and iron (3.72, 1.31-10.54). The NFS children were more likely to consume <8 mg iron/d (3.73, 1.09-12.80). These results suggest that the Food Stamp Program is associated with food security and preschoolers' micronutrient intake.

  17. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  18. Relationship of Food Security with Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Tehranian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hasan-Ghomi, Majid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firozeh; Sarbazi, Narges; Azizi, Fereidoun; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: As food insecurity has negative effects on health, the aim of this study was to determine tahe relationship between household food security and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 individuals with and 200 individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged over 40 years, were randomly selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The questionnaire on household food security proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture was completed for them by trained personnel. Logistic regression was used to determine the variable that had the most significant relationship with food security status. Results: The average of food security score was 2.38 ± 2.0 in non-diabetic and 2.25 ± 2.0 in diabetic individuals (P = 0.6). In both groups, the risk for food insecurity in women was more than in men. In the diabetic group, being single and having education levels below high school increased the risk of food insecurity. In the non-diabetic group, the risk of food insecurity in obese individuals was 3.3 times higher than normal individuals (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–4.1). Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non-diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity. PMID:26605019

  19. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries.

  20. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries. PMID:22433997

  1. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed.

  2. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed. PMID:25728881

  3. Household food security status in the Northeast of Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Ali; Foroozanfar, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important issue the world faces today is ensuring that households living in different countries have access to enough food to maintain a healthy life. Food insecurity is prevalent in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the household food security status and related factors among different rural districts of Neyshabur (A city in northeast of Iran). Methods: Of 5000 selected rural households 4647 were studied in this cross-sectional study. A validated short questionnaire (with six questions) was used to measure food security. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis through SPSS software. Results: In total, 2747 households (59.1%) were identified as food secure. The highest prevalence of food security was observed in Central district (62.3%) and the lowest was in Miyanjolgeh district (52.9%). Backward multiple logistic regression revealed that car ownership, presence of chronic disease in household and household income (per month) were significantly associated with food security in all of surveyed districts (p< 0.05). Conclusion: According to results of this study, lower than 60% of Neyshabur rural households were food secure and economic variables were the most important factors. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to this health problem in these regions. PMID:26478885

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  5. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  6. The Need to Address Mobile Device Security in the Higher Education IT Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Karen P.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets, enable users to access corporate data from anywhere. In 2013, people will purchase 1.2 billion mobile devices, surpassing personal computers as the most common method for accessing the Internet. However, security of these mobile devices is a major concern for organizations. The two leading…

  7. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  8. An Analysis of China's Fertilizer Policies: Impacts on the Industry, Food Security, and the Environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Lin; Huang, Gaoqiang; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2013-07-01

    China has made remarkable strides in recent decades to grow enough food to feed 20% of the world's population with only 9% of the world's arable land. Meanwhile, the nation is experiencing exacerbated air and water pollution problems. Agricultural growth and the pollution aggravation are closely linked with policies affecting fertilizer production and use. Essentially nonexistent in 1950, China's fertilizer industry is now a robust conglomerate producing fertilizers in amounts that not only meet domestic demand but also contribute to international trade. The industry's growth stemmed from a series of policy progressions, featuring (i) a total control system with state ownership and central planning (1949-1984), (ii) a dual system of central planning and market adjustment (1985-1997), (iii) a market-driven system with government-mandated price caps (1998-2009), and (iv) a complete market-oriented system (since 2009). In conjunction with the policy changes were massive subsidy programs totaling more than $18 billion in 2010. The support policies and subsidies helped grow the industry and safeguard an adequate supply of fertilizers at affordable costs to farmers, but the artificially low-priced fertilizers also contributed to a nationwide trend of fertilizer overuse, leading to nutrient pollution. China needs innovative policies and programs to address food security and sustainability challenges. In this study, we review and analyze policies and programs related to China's fertilizer production and use in a 60-yr span (1950-2010) and discuss its impact on the development of the industry, food security, and pressing environmental issues. Finally, our study analyzes long-term trends in fertilizer use in China and offers some key viewpoints to stimulate debates among all stakeholders.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  10. Toward Improved Understanding of Food Security: A Methodological Examination Based in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Tracy; Kemp, Robert S.; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of household food security is essential to generate adequate information on the proportion of households experiencing food insecurity, especially in areas or regions vulnerable to food shortages and famine. This manuscript offers a methodological examination of three commonly used indicators of household food security – experience of hunger, dietary diversity, and coping strategies. Making use of data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, we examine the association between the indicators themselves to improve understanding of the different insight offered by each food security “lens.” We also examine how the choice of indicator shapes the profile of vulnerable households, with results suggesting that dietary diversity scores may not adequately capture broader food insecurity. Concluding discussion explores programmatic and policy implications as related to methodological choices. PMID:25414598

  11. [Research on food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2000 to 2005: trends and challenges].

    PubMed

    Prado, Shirley Donizete; Gugelmin, Silvia Angela; de Mattos, Rubem Araújo; Silva, Juliana Klotz; Olivares, Priscila Dos Santos Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Discussion of Research on Food and Nutritional Security (FNS) in Brazil started with the Directory of Brazilian Research Groups from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Searches using the expression 'food security' allowed the identification of 72 groups in 2005. Proportions between researchers and students suggest little dynamism and consolidation of such research. Groups in the area of Food Science and Technology, and those concerned with food quality are predominant; then there is the Nutrition area, mainly discussing the nutritional state of population groups; in the field of Humanities there is a small number of groups discussing political, economic and social aspects within FNS's national and regional scopes. It seems that investments in the integration between food and nutrition components of research on FNS are necessary, in order to attenuate differences between the economic (food security) and the social focus (human rights to a healthy nutrition).

  12. Toward Improved Understanding of Food Security: A Methodological Examination Based in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tracy; Kemp, Robert S; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne S

    2013-03-01

    Accurate measurement of household food security is essential to generate adequate information on the proportion of households experiencing food insecurity, especially in areas or regions vulnerable to food shortages and famine. This manuscript offers a methodological examination of three commonly used indicators of household food security - experience of hunger, dietary diversity, and coping strategies. Making use of data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, we examine the association between the indicators themselves to improve understanding of the different insight offered by each food security "lens." We also examine how the choice of indicator shapes the profile of vulnerable households, with results suggesting that dietary diversity scores may not adequately capture broader food insecurity. Concluding discussion explores programmatic and policy implications as related to methodological choices.

  13. The climate sensitivity of food security in Mali - a historical perspective on availability and access dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A.; Krishnamurthy, P. K.; Cousin, R.; Choularton, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present results based on an analysis of a 2005 livelihood survey of ~2000 rural households in ~200 villages scattered across Mali, a sparsely populated, large land-locked country in West Africa, to elucidate the role of climate variability and change in shaping availability and access dimensions of food security. The Comprehensive Food Security Vulnerability Analysis is a recurrent survey carried out by the World Food Programme and in-country partners to map out nutritional and socio-economic status during normal (~food secure) conditions in the hope of understanding underlying cause(s) and prevent the next food security crisis. We set the spatial characterization of food security that emerges from the CFSVA against the background of a varying climate, on intra-seasonal, interannual and multi-decadal time scales: through elucidation of the influence of climate on agricultural production we arrive at an interpretation of structural and conjunctural events affecting food security. We conclude with a discussion of possible interventions to reduce vulnerability.

  14. [The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2014-11-01

    Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition.

  15. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Abigail; Jennison, Meaghan

    2012-07-01

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the

  16. 75 FR 23565 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which was published on January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4912... from Food Stamp Program to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The Office of...

  17. Food in health security in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Le Danh

    2009-01-01

    With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

  18. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    among the high-income LAC countries. We conclude that despite the large contribution of LAC's agriculture to global water and food security, this goal is at present intensively tapping into LAC's natural capital. Also, regional improvements in water security have improved, but important goals remain and new challenges are emerging. Water governance in LAC is evolving to address the challenges posed by rapid socio-economic changes, however, as is often the case, the implementation of reforms lags behind.

  19. Household food security among migrant and seasonal latino farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Early, Julie; Tapia, Janeth; Davis, Jessie D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is defined as lack of access at all times, due to economic barriers, to enough food for an active and healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was threefold: to characterize levels of food security, food insecurity, and hunger among migrant and seasonal Latino farmworkers; to assess predictors of food insecurity for this group; and to describe the strategies farmworkers use to cope with food insecurity. METHODS: Adults from 102 farmworker households in North Carolina responded to a survey that used a Spanish-language adaptation of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about sociodemographic characteristics and food behaviors. Twenty-five farmworkers participated in in-depth interviews in which they described their households' food security situation and coping strategies. RESULTS: Forty-eight of the 102 sample households (47.1%) were classified as food insecure, including 10 (9.8%) with moderate hunger and five (4.9%) with severe hunger. Households with children had a significantly higher prevalence of food insecurity than those without children (56.4% vs. 36.2%). Households with children accessed food programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) that were unavailable to those without children, while those without children were more likely to access food pantries and to consume wild game or fish. Coping strategies included borrowing money, reducing food variety, and adults consuming less food to protect children from hunger. Food insecurity was more than four times as prevalent among farmworker households as among the general U.S. population. CONCLUSION: Policy changes to increase economic resources and access to federal programs are needed to decrease this food insecurity. PMID:15504448

  20. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    annual reductions in welfare will be about 24.3 billion for 2008 to 2030. This study highlights the importance of considering the interplay between climate and water availability in assessments of food security.

  1. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.

  2. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements. PMID:19965351

  3. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  4. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  5. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  6. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P < 0·0001). This was related to less frequent consumption and consumption of smaller amounts of vegetables and of foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P < 0·0001) and on the price of meat/fish (P = 0·026). Households with economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P < 0·0001) were the most vulnerable, whereas education (P = 0·030), social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons. PMID:22017887

  7. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P < 0·0001). This was related to less frequent consumption and consumption of smaller amounts of vegetables and of foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P < 0·0001) and on the price of meat/fish (P = 0·026). Households with economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P < 0·0001) were the most vulnerable, whereas education (P = 0·030), social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.

  8. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  9. Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Claros, Joan M; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W

    2014-10-01

    Food security and nutrition play an important role in HIV and TB care and treatment, including for improving treatment outcomes, adherence and uptake of HIV and TB care. This AIDS and behaviour supplement on "Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition" provides an overview of the current evidence and knowledge about the barriers to uptake and retention in HIV and TB treatment and care and on whether and how food and nutrition assistance can help overcome these barriers. It contains nine papers on three topic areas discussing: (a) adherence and food and nutrition security in context of HIV and TB, their definitions, measurement tools and the current situation; (b) food and nutrition insecurity as barriers to uptake and retention; and (c) food and nutrition assistance to increase uptake and retention in care and treatment. Future interventions in the areas of food security, nutrition and social protection for increasing access and adherence should be from an HIV sensitive lens, linking the continuum of care with health systems, food systems and the community, complementing existing platforms through partnerships and integrated services. PMID:25092515

  10. [Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhuo; Xie, Yong-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population (Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi, and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the minimum standard of 0.14 bm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  11. Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Claros, Joan M; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W

    2014-10-01

    Food security and nutrition play an important role in HIV and TB care and treatment, including for improving treatment outcomes, adherence and uptake of HIV and TB care. This AIDS and behaviour supplement on "Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition" provides an overview of the current evidence and knowledge about the barriers to uptake and retention in HIV and TB treatment and care and on whether and how food and nutrition assistance can help overcome these barriers. It contains nine papers on three topic areas discussing: (a) adherence and food and nutrition security in context of HIV and TB, their definitions, measurement tools and the current situation; (b) food and nutrition insecurity as barriers to uptake and retention; and (c) food and nutrition assistance to increase uptake and retention in care and treatment. Future interventions in the areas of food security, nutrition and social protection for increasing access and adherence should be from an HIV sensitive lens, linking the continuum of care with health systems, food systems and the community, complementing existing platforms through partnerships and integrated services.

  12. Regionalizing Food Security? Imperatives, Intersections and Contestations in a Post-9/11 World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Clare

    2013-01-01

    In the early 21st century, food security has become an urgent public concern, arguably more entangled with social, political and environmental problems at multiple scales now than in the past. This paper examines approaches to food system change emphasizing regionalization, rather than either localization or globalization, to consider framings of…

  13. Predictors of College-Student Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Differ by Housing Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabitur, Erica; Peterson, Karen E.; Rathz, Colleen; Matlen, Stacey; Kasper, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether college-student characteristics associate with food security and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and whether these associations differ in students in housing with and without food provision. Participants: 514 randomly-sampled students from a large, Midwestern, public university in 2012 and 2013 Methods: Ordered…

  14. Self-reported concern about food security associated with obesity--Washington, 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    2003-09-01

    Obesity is epidemic among all segments of the U.S. population and in all regions of the country, and persons who are obese are at higher risk for several chronic diseases. Previous studies have suggested a possible relation between obesity and food insecurity (i.e., not having access at all times to enough safe and nutritious food for an active, healthy lifestyle because such foods are not available consistently or household resources are insufficient to meet the cost). To assess the relation between obesity and concern about food security, the Washington state Department of Health analyzed statewide data from the 1995-1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of the analysis, which indicate that concern about food security is associated with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether food insecurity causes obesity so appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented.

  15. Spending our water and soils for food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A third of the world’s population suffers from food insecurity. With an expected 2 billion population increase in the next few decades that number is expected to rise significantly, leading to more people that are insecure and starving unless our soils can produce more food. Added to the problem are...

  16. Food Security and the Justification of Productivism in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The spike in food commodity prices in 2007-2008 is frequently represented as a crisis for the global food system. Interpreted as a failure to achieve the utopian imperative to feed the world, the crisis can potentially expose the distortions inherent to the productivist ideology framing the existing system. As a result, it can act as a shock that…

  17. Crop Diversity: An Unexploited Treasure Trove for Food Security.

    PubMed

    Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Cheng, Acga

    2016-05-01

    The prediction is that food supply must double by 2050 to cope with the impact of climate change and population pressure on global food systems. The diversification of staple crops and the systems in which they grow is essential to make future agriculture sustainable, resilient, and suitable for local environments and soils. PMID:27131298

  18. Household food security and buffering mechanisms in Thai and non-Thai households in Nong Loo Sub-district, Sangkhla Buri, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cho, May Myat; Knowles, Jacqueline; Atwood, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    This was a cross sectional study to measure any difference between Thai and Non-Thai households in the prevalence of food security and the effect of state and local buffering mechanisms on household food security status in Nong Loo Sub-district in Kanchanaburi Province. Seventy-five point eight percent of 211 households (120 Thai and 91 non-Thai households) were food insecure. Non-Thai households were found to be significantly more food insecure than Thai households (95.6% compared with 60.8%; OR=21.4). Non-Thais tended to have less knowledge of and access to buffering mechanisms; however, this was not statistically significant. Of interest, however, was that no statistically significant association was found between household food insecurity and lack of access to buffering mechanisms. Qualitative interview results suggested that landownership, possession of a Thai card (Government registration card), increased food prices, and a dependence on imported food from other districts were important factors associated with household food insecurity in the sub-district. This survey underlines the importance of the food insecurity as a problem among Thai and, more severely, among non-Thai households and provides stake holders with information that can be used to intensify programs to address this problem. Thailand has a long border area with a high proportion of non-Thai households, and it is likely that similar food insecurity problems exist in other areas also. Further research on nutrition security (as distinct from food security) of this population is recommended in order to better assess the impact of the observed food insecurity.

  19. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  20. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  1. An integrated water-energy-food-livelihoods approach for assessing environmental livelihood security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Boruff, B.; Bruce, E.; Neef, A.; McNeill, K.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Haworth, B.; Duce, S.; Horsley, J.; Pauli, N.; Curnow, J.; Imanari, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental livelihood security refers to the challenges of maintaining global food security and universal access to freshwater and energy to sustain livelihoods and promote inclusive economic growth, whilst sustaining key environmental systems' functionality, particularly under variable climatic regimes. Environmental security is a concept complementary to sustainable development, and considers the increased vulnerability people have to certain environmental stresses, such as climatic change. Bridging links between the core component concepts of environmental security is integral to future human security, and in an attempt to create this bridge, the nexus approach to human protection has been created, where water resource availability underpins food, water and energy security. The water-energy-food nexus has an influential role in attaining human security, yet little research has made the link between the nexus and livelihoods. In this research we provide a critical appraisal of the synergies between water-energy-food nexus framings and sustainable livelihoods approaches, both of which aim to promote sustainable development. In regions where livelihoods are dependent on environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development is critical for ensuring future environmental and human security. Given our appraisal we go on to develop an integrated framework for assessing environmental livelihood security of multiscale and multi-level systems. This framework provides a tangible approach for assessing changes in the water-energy-food-livelihood indicators of a system. Examples of where system applications may occur are discussed for the Southeast Asia and Oceania region. Our approach will be particularly useful for policy-makers to inform evidence-based decision-making, especially in localities where climate change increases the vulnerability of impoverished communities and extenuates environmental livelihood insecurity.

  2. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  3. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  4. Soil fertility and the role of soils for food security in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittonell, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Addressing current and future food security is not just a matter of producing more food globally. Agricultural productivity must increase where food is most needed, and where both rural and urban populations are expected to increase the fastest in the near future. This is the situation in most of sub-Saharan Africa and in several other regions of Latin America, Asia and the Pacific. There are some common denominators to these regions. In the first place, the inability of the majority of farmers to access and/or to afford agricultural inputs. Second, the severity with which climate change impacts on some of these regions. Third, the extent of soil degradation, which is estimated at 25% of the arable land in the world. And finally, the fact that some of these regions are hosting valuable biodiversity and/or delivering ecosystem services of global or regional importance, which often leads to competing claims between the local and international communities. It has been repeatedly shown that the technologies of industrial agriculture as practiced in developed regions are ineffective at sustaining soil productivity in the context of smallholder family agriculture. Restoring soil productivity and ecosystem functions in these contexts requires new ways of managing soil fertility. These include: (i) innovative forms of 'precision' agriculture that consider the diversity, heterogeneity and dynamics of smallholder farming systems; (ii) a systems approach to nutrient acquisition and management; (iii) agroecological strategies for the restoration of degraded soils and the maintenance of soil physical properties; and (iv) to capitalize on the recent and growing understanding on soil trophic networks to increase nutrient and water use efficiency. I will provide examples on advances in these fronts, and discuss the challenges ahead their broad implementation by farmers in developing regions.

  5. Informal Labor and Social Relations in Northern Malawi: The Theoretical Challenges and Implications of Ganyu Labor for Food Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Food insecurity is a problem faced by smallholder farmers in Malawi. In any given year between 70 and 85 percent of households run out of food stocks several months prior to the next harvest. Once food stocks are depleted many households obtain food by doing ganyu. This paper uses qualitative data to examine ganyu in relation to food security in…

  6. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts.

  8. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  9. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  10. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  11. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  12. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  13. Climate Change, Nutrition and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    Food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa have long been affected by variations in the weather. Vulnerability to these hazards, along with economic shocks and an adverse political environment, is often uneven in a community. Some individuals and households are more susceptible to emergencies or crises than others, and thus determining who is most vulnerable are and how they are responding to a shock or crises is essential to understand the impact on food security. Daily, quantitative and global observations derived from satellite remote sensing instruments can contribute to understanding how food production has declined due to drought, flood or other weather-related hazard, but it can say nothing about the likelihood that the people living in that area are suffering food insecurity as a result. As Amartya Sen argued, a famine can occur even when there is an absolute surplus of food in a region. Thus organizations like the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) work to integrate biophysical and socio-economic indicators together with on-the ground assessments to estimate the food security consequences of a variety of events. Climate change is likely to restructure local, regional and global agricultural systems and commodity markets. Although remote sensing information has been used to identify seasonal production declines for the past two decades, new ways of using the data will need to be developed in order to understand, document and respond to the impact of climate change on food security as it is manifested in shorter term shocks. In this article, the contribution of remote sensing is explained, along with the other factors that affect food security

  14. Food security and environmental degradation in northern Nigeria: demographic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, M

    1991-07-01

    The Malthusian controversy about the causes of environmental change and food insecurity in Hausaland in northern Nigeria is examined. The argument is irresolvable based on available data at the macro level. The individual and household level are appropriate for answering the question about how high density populations survive on a savannah. To understand population pressure in Hausaland, it is important to read Malthus very carefully and to understand the existing demographic structure in which economic and kinship relations support high fertility even where land is scarce. Demographic responses vary with economic strata. Policies ignore individual level differences. Since 1953, the densely populated areas of Sokoto, Katsina, Zaria, and Kano have spread in an area that is largely dry with a moderate-to-high risk of desertification. Food insecurity exists not only in times of drought, but also annually in the form of chronic shortages of staples for poor farmers. Average land holdings/capita have become smaller. Population pressure has also contributed to shifts in land use. Food prices have increased. Possible explanations include 1) the drought and the oil boom have a greater impact on environmental change and food insecurity and rural Hausa farmers have responded by raising yields, managing tree resources, and practicing soil conservation and 2) an independent source of income from non-agricultural activities is an essential part of the economy. The relationship among population pressure, land shortage, and food insecurity is complex. It is inaccurate to label Hausa as subsistence farmers, when trading in grain is an important enterprise. The role that commercialization of agriculture plays in food insecurity is discussed. Malthusian disaster is not imminent. The proximate determinants of fertility, birth spacing practices and infertility, should lead to high fertility rates, but in this case they do not. Determinants responsive to economic factors tend to be

  15. Monitoring the vulnerability and adaptation planning for food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the earth’s carbon-based products, such as food, fiber, fuel, and petrochemicals and fresh water come from the terrestrial ecosystem. This is a thin living skin covering the earth’s land surface. The earth’s thin mantel of soil, a major component of this ecosystem captures, stores, and rele...

  16. Plant science called up to provide food security.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of plant biochemistry, physiology and genetics, along with insights into ecology, plant evolution and the domestication of common crop species will have to serve agricultural applications to ensure that the growing population of our rapidly changing planet will have sufficient food in the coming decades. Michael Gross reports.

  17. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food wi...

  18. Household Food Security in Isfahan Based on Current Population Survey Adapted Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Morteza; Rastegari, Hosein Ali; Ghiasi, Mojdeh; Shahsanaie, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM). Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old) and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult's and children's questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children's group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of “lack of enough money for buying food” (item 2) and the item of “lack of balanced meal” (3rd item) have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4th item and keeps increasing into 10th item. PMID:24498498

  19. Household food security status measured by the US-Household Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US-FSSM) is in line with coping strategy indicators found in urban and rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2007-01-01

    The food security assessment used by the United State's Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US- FSSM) was used in five studies: these were in two urban and four rural areas in Indonesia between February 2004- August 2005. The number of households assessed was 3,704 and consisted of 45% urban and 55% rural. All households had children below five years. This paper aims to assess the applicability of US-FSSM for measuring household food-insecurity in Indonesia. Common coping-strategies discussed are to borrow money from the family, get an additional job, to lessen portion size of food, and to sell small assets. Although households in urban and rural areas were similar in size/number of children and male headed; the urban households were more income-secure, educated, and had better access to electrical appliances. A majority of the households was food-insecure (77% and 84% in urban and rural consecutively). More food-insecure households without and with hunger were found in rural areas. The number of affirmative responses to 17 out of 18 questions in the USFSSM was more in the rural households, showing less fortunate cases of food-insecurity. For a given coping strategy, as food-security status becomes more severe, the higher the percentage of households employing it. For a given food-security status, percentage of households was higher among lower-degree and less among higher-degree coping. Combining food-security and coping-strategy indicators may help to identify transient-food-secure households. Observing both indicators throughout different time of the year continuously may further identify adaptive mechanism by chronic-food-insecure households. Information on household food diversity could enrich findings on dietary intake modification, hence moving from food-security to nutrition-security.

  20. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: climate change, phosphorus, ozone and other environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two articles on challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on five mechanisms, which can be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios, described in the first paper, may become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. This article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements. PMID:19965353

  1. Rice proteomics: a model system for crop improvement and food security.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sang Gon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2014-03-01

    Rice proteomics has progressed at a tremendous pace since the year 2000, and that has resulted in establishing and understanding the proteomes of tissues, organs, and organelles under both normal and abnormal (adverse) environmental conditions. Established proteomes have also helped in re-annotating the rice genome and revealing the new role of previously known proteins. The progress of rice proteomics had recognized it as the corner/stepping stone for at least cereal crops. Rice proteomics remains a model system for crops as per its exemplary proteomics research. Proteomics-based discoveries in rice are likely to be translated in improving crop plants and vice versa against ever-changing environmental factors. This review comprehensively covers rice proteomics studies from August 2010 to July 2013, with major focus on rice responses to diverse abiotic (drought, salt, oxidative, temperature, nutrient, hormone, metal ions, UV radiation, and ozone) as well as various biotic stresses, especially rice-pathogen interactions. The differentially regulated proteins in response to various abiotic stresses in different tissues have also been summarized, indicating key metabolic and regulatory pathways. We envision a significant role of rice proteomics in addressing the global ground level problem of food security, to meet the demands of the human population which is expected to reach six to nine billion by 2040.

  2. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  3. [Nutritional challenges in the Brazilian Unified National Health System for building the interface between health and food and nutritional security].

    PubMed

    Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority. PMID:27049315

  4. The Interconnected Challenges for Food Security from a Food Regimes Perspective: Energy, Climate and Malconsumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of food price volatility in global markets encourages closer examination of the dynamics underlying the global food system and reveals a range of contingent factors. Meanwhile a common thread of many recent expert reports has emphasised the need to intensify agricultural production to double food output by 2050. Drawing upon a…

  5. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration.

    PubMed

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2015-03-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing worldwide demand for protein. Their preliminary work is promising, as it suggests that when compared to other sources of meat, insects can be an efficient, safe, and low-impact source of nutrients. Additionally, in many sites with endemic malnutrition, people find insects tasty. The problem these scientists are grappling with, however, is that insects that are easily mass-produced are not the insects people typically want to eat. This paper shows how the contingency of edibility complicates existing scientific models of travel that posit that singular objects spread peripherally outwards from a center into a globally connected, singular world. The scientists are finding that the production of successful food products necessitates that insects be constantly tinkered with: there is no "insect" that can be globally edible since "the global" itself is not a singular entity. This in turn complicates the vision of replicability and "scaling up" inherent in an OWOH vision of science. The researchers' process of moving their goods from the laboratory boxes they work with into the mealtime practices they seek to impact is compelling them to cultivate and articulate new ideals for research, methods of translation, and pathways by which goods can travel. They are finding that if they want to affect the health of "the world," they must engage with many different worlds. PMID:24973999

  6. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration.

    PubMed

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2015-03-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing worldwide demand for protein. Their preliminary work is promising, as it suggests that when compared to other sources of meat, insects can be an efficient, safe, and low-impact source of nutrients. Additionally, in many sites with endemic malnutrition, people find insects tasty. The problem these scientists are grappling with, however, is that insects that are easily mass-produced are not the insects people typically want to eat. This paper shows how the contingency of edibility complicates existing scientific models of travel that posit that singular objects spread peripherally outwards from a center into a globally connected, singular world. The scientists are finding that the production of successful food products necessitates that insects be constantly tinkered with: there is no "insect" that can be globally edible since "the global" itself is not a singular entity. This in turn complicates the vision of replicability and "scaling up" inherent in an OWOH vision of science. The researchers' process of moving their goods from the laboratory boxes they work with into the mealtime practices they seek to impact is compelling them to cultivate and articulate new ideals for research, methods of translation, and pathways by which goods can travel. They are finding that if they want to affect the health of "the world," they must engage with many different worlds.

  7. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  8. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  9. Quality and safety aspects of food products addressing the needs of pregnant women and infants.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Heck, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a primary concern for pregnant women and infants as the immune system is weakened during pregnancy and not developed enough in infants, which makes them especially vulnerable to suffering from the negative effects of nonquality food products. However, food contaminations not only affect an individual's health but also a country's economic development, social harmony, food trade and even politics, as seen during the Chinese infant formula crisis in 2008. Thus, quality control is crucial in the production processes in order to have safe food products on the market. But quality control alone is not enough: manufacturers must embrace quality beyond classic in-process parameters and perform a final microbiological analysis at the end of the production process. This requires a clear and trustworthy approach to quality and safety and the involvement of all stakeholders from industry, government and academia over policy makers to consumers. This paper provides an introductory context for current quality management systems and gives real-life examples of challenges that manufacturers face during quality management and control throughout the production process.

  10. Measuring food and nutrition security: tools and considerations for use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Anema, Aranka; Fergusson, Pamela; Muldoon, Katherine; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2014-10-01

    As an increasing number of countries implement integrated food and nutrition security (FNS) and HIV programs, global stakeholders need clarity on how to best measure FNS at the individual and household level. This paper reviews prominent FNS measurement tools, and describes considerations for interpretation in the context of HIV. There exist a range of FNS measurement tools and many have been adapted for use in HIV-endemic settings. Considerations in selecting appropriate tools include sub-types (food sufficiency, dietary diversity and food safety); scope/level of application; and available resources. Tools need to reflect both the needs of PLHIV and affected households and FNS program objectives. Generalized food sufficiency and dietary diversity tools may provide adequate measures of FNS in PLHIV for programmatic applications. Food consumption measurement tools provide further data for clinical or research applications. Measurement of food safety is an important, but underdeveloped aspect of assessment, especially for PLHIV.

  11. Healthy options: a community-based program to address food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Amy B; Hess, Audrey; Horton, Camille; Constantian, Emily; Monani, Salma; Wargo, Betsy; Davidson, Kim; Gaskin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to better understand the lived experience of food insecurity in our community and to examine the impact of a community-based program developed to increase access to local, healthy foods. Participants were given monthly vouchers to spend at local farmers' markets and invited to engage in a variety of community activities. Using a community-based participatory research framework, mixed methods were employed. Survey results suggest that most respondents were satisfied with the program and many increased their fruit and vegetable consumption. However, over 40% of respondents reported a higher level of stress over having enough money to buy nutritious meals at the end of the program. Photovoice results suggest that the program fostered cross-cultural exchanges, and offered opportunities for social networking. Building on the many positive outcomes of the program, community partners are committed to using this research to further develop policy-level solutions to food insecurity. PMID:25898216

  12. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented. PMID:27524756

  13. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented.

  14. Global Maize Trade and Food Security: Implications from a Social Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability were decreased due to factors such as diversion to non-food uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, while Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents US maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which US maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. PMID:23656551

  15. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  16. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  17. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  18. [Determinants of success in nutrition and food security programs].

    PubMed

    Morón, Cecilio; Mazar, Irela

    2004-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of factors which determine the effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of community-based food and nutrition programmes, FAO has developed a conceptual framework and methodology to analyze these programmes. Based on selection criteria, 9 case studies were carried out in Latin America, Africa and Asia. The success factors associated with programme efficiency were analyzed in terms of these factors: enabling political environment; continuous awareness processes; community participation in programme planning, implementing and monitoring; measurable and time-bound objectives, management capacity of the programmes; participation of local non-governmental organizations; provision of basic services; association between the local government and the community to facilitate the shared ownership of the programme; and financial and technical arrangements necessary to ensure the sustainability of the results. Based on the lessons learned, FAO has elaborated a practical guide to analyze the community-based food and nutrition programmes, with the view to improve their efficiency and impact and to strengthen the analytical capacity of all those involved in programme design and analysis.

  19. Assessing Community Readiness to Reduce Childhood Diarrheal Disease and Improve Food Security in Dioro, Mali.

    PubMed

    Borresen, Erica C; Stone, Cordelia; Boré, Abdoulaye; Cissoko, Alima; Maiga, Ababacar; Koita, Ousmane A; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea and malnutrition represent leading causes of death for children in Mali. Understanding a community's needs and ideas are critical to ensure the success of prevention and treatment interventions for diarrheal disease, as well as to improve food security to help reduce malnutrition. The objective of this study was to incorporate the Community Readiness Model (CRM) for the issues of childhood diarrheal disease and food security in Mali to measure baseline community readiness prior to any program implementation. Thirteen key respondents residing in Dioro, Mali were selected based on varied social roles and demographics and completed two questionnaires on these public health issues. The overall readiness score to reduce childhood diarrheal disease was 5.75 ± 1.0 standard deviation (preparation stage). The overall readiness score to improve food security was 5.5 ± 0.5 standard deviation (preparation stage). The preparation stage indicates that at least some of the community have basic knowledge regarding these issues, and want to act locally to reduce childhood diarrhea and improve food security and nutrition. Proposed activities to increase community readiness on these issues are provided and are broad enough to allow opportunities to implement community- and culturally-specific activities by the Dioro community. PMID:27338428

  20. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

  1. [Evaluation of public policies and initiatives in food and nutrition security: dilemmas and methodological perspectives].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rosana

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the main challenges and perspectives linked to the evaluation of public policies in food and nutrition security. The conclusion reached is that considering the complexity of actions in this area, it is important to discuss the limits of traditional evaluation strategies and move forward with the creation of new theoretical and methodological alternatives.

  2. Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985. Agricultural Information Bulletin Number 498.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Lewrene K.

    This report summarizes the 18 titles of the Food Security Act of 1985 and compares it with previous legislation where applicable. It describes the act's provisions for dairy; wool and mohair; wheat; feed grains; cotton; rice; peanuts; soybeans; sugar; other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; agricultural research,…

  3. Food Security: The Elaboration of Contested Claims to a Consensus Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Patrick H.; Hunt, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates Gamson's claim that behind the apparent agreement implied by "consensus frames" lies considerable dissensus. Ironically, the very potency of consensus frames may generate contested claims to the ownership of a social problem. Food security is a potent consensus frame that has generated at least three distinct collective…

  4. Assessing Community Readiness to Reduce Childhood Diarrheal Disease and Improve Food Security in Dioro, Mali.

    PubMed

    Borresen, Erica C; Stone, Cordelia; Boré, Abdoulaye; Cissoko, Alima; Maiga, Ababacar; Koita, Ousmane A; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2016-06-08

    Diarrhea and malnutrition represent leading causes of death for children in Mali. Understanding a community's needs and ideas are critical to ensure the success of prevention and treatment interventions for diarrheal disease, as well as to improve food security to help reduce malnutrition. The objective of this study was to incorporate the Community Readiness Model (CRM) for the issues of childhood diarrheal disease and food security in Mali to measure baseline community readiness prior to any program implementation. Thirteen key respondents residing in Dioro, Mali were selected based on varied social roles and demographics and completed two questionnaires on these public health issues. The overall readiness score to reduce childhood diarrheal disease was 5.75 ± 1.0 standard deviation (preparation stage). The overall readiness score to improve food security was 5.5 ± 0.5 standard deviation (preparation stage). The preparation stage indicates that at least some of the community have basic knowledge regarding these issues, and want to act locally to reduce childhood diarrhea and improve food security and nutrition. Proposed activities to increase community readiness on these issues are provided and are broad enough to allow opportunities to implement community- and culturally-specific activities by the Dioro community.

  5. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  6. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  7. The Role of Education in Agricultural Projects for Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walingo, Mary Khakoni

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural development projects have been promoted in many places as a feature of poverty-reduction strategies. Such projects have often been implemented without a strong in-built education component, and hence have had little success. Agricultural projects seek to improve food security by diversifying a household's resource base and…

  8. A systems science perspective and transdisciplinary models for food and nutrition security

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ross A.; Dubé, Laurette

    2012-01-01

    We argue that food and nutrition security is driven by complex underlying systems and that both research and policy in this area would benefit from a systems approach. We present a framework for such an approach, examine key underlying systems, and identify transdisciplinary modeling tools that may prove especially useful. PMID:22826247

  9. Assessing Community Readiness to Reduce Childhood Diarrheal Disease and Improve Food Security in Dioro, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Erica C.; Stone, Cordelia; Boré, Abdoulaye; Cissoko, Alima; Maiga, Ababacar; Koita, Ousmane A.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea and malnutrition represent leading causes of death for children in Mali. Understanding a community’s needs and ideas are critical to ensure the success of prevention and treatment interventions for diarrheal disease, as well as to improve food security to help reduce malnutrition. The objective of this study was to incorporate the Community Readiness Model (CRM) for the issues of childhood diarrheal disease and food security in Mali to measure baseline community readiness prior to any program implementation. Thirteen key respondents residing in Dioro, Mali were selected based on varied social roles and demographics and completed two questionnaires on these public health issues. The overall readiness score to reduce childhood diarrheal disease was 5.75 ± 1.0 standard deviation (preparation stage). The overall readiness score to improve food security was 5.5 ± 0.5 standard deviation (preparation stage). The preparation stage indicates that at least some of the community have basic knowledge regarding these issues, and want to act locally to reduce childhood diarrhea and improve food security and nutrition. Proposed activities to increase community readiness on these issues are provided and are broad enough to allow opportunities to implement community- and culturally-specific activities by the Dioro community. PMID:27338428

  10. Making Biochar to Improve Food Security and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biochars can improve soil quality in many ways. When biochars are incorporated in the soil they act as carbon sinks and improve plant health by supporting microbial communities, improving soil tilth, and improving water holding capacity. Biochars can improve water quality; reduce nutrient runoff; and enhance remediation. Biochar application can lead to improved germination and survival of food crops, and to vegetative solutions for stormwater and remediation. Biochar quality can be varied with feedstocks and processing conditions. Biochar processes and formulations are emerging that can replace or enhance more expensive materials like peat and activated carbon. Recent research, development, and commercial demonstrations will be described that have led to the discovery of feedstock and biochar blends that stimulate plant growth and enhance nutrient capture.

  11. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  12. 78 FR 70090 - Request for Public Comments on the UN Committee on World Food Security Principles for Responsible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... for Public Comments on the UN Committee on World Food Security Principles for Responsible Agricultural... on the draft UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment. Comments received will be shared in full with the CFS for consideration. DATES: All...

  13. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  14. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  15. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  16. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  17. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  18. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide.

  19. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. PMID:23656551

  20. Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

  1. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H M; Peterson, A Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  2. Can Agriculture meet the Global Food Demands for a Food Secure World?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global food demands are projected to significantly increase over the next 35 years to feed the projected population of 9 billion; however, there are questions about the ability of agriculture to produce these quantities of food. These concerns rise from the projected trends in grains and oilseeds an...

  3. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  4. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  5. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.

    PubMed

    Golub, Alla A; Henderson, Benjamin B; Hertel, Thomas W; Gerber, Pierre J; Rose, Steven K; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-12-24

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands.

  6. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  7. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.

    PubMed

    Golub, Alla A; Henderson, Benjamin B; Hertel, Thomas W; Gerber, Pierre J; Rose, Steven K; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-12-24

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands. PMID:23019587

  8. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Alla A.; Henderson, Benjamin B.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Gerber, Pierre J.; Rose, Steven K.; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands. PMID:23019587

  9. Effects of the 2008 flood on economic performance and food security in Yemen: a simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Breisinger, Clemens; Ecker, Olivier; Thiele, Rainer; Wiebelt, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and droughts can have devastating consequences for individual well being and economic development, in particular in poor societies with limited availability of coping mechanisms. Combining a dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the Yemeni economy with a household-level calorie consumption simulation model, this paper assesses the economy-wide, agricultural and food security effects of the 2008 tropical storm and flash flood that hit the Hadramout and Al-Mahrah governorates. The estimation results suggest that agricultural value added, farm household incomes and rural food security deteriorated long term in the flood-affected areas. Due to economic spillover effects, significant income losses and increases in food insecurity also occurred in areas that were unaffected by flooding. This finding suggests that while most relief efforts are typically concentrated in directly affected areas, future efforts should also consider surrounding areas and indirectly affected people. PMID:26282701

  10. Effects of the 2008 flood on economic performance and food security in Yemen: a simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Breisinger, Clemens; Ecker, Olivier; Thiele, Rainer; Wiebelt, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and droughts can have devastating consequences for individual well being and economic development, in particular in poor societies with limited availability of coping mechanisms. Combining a dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the Yemeni economy with a household-level calorie consumption simulation model, this paper assesses the economy-wide, agricultural and food security effects of the 2008 tropical storm and flash flood that hit the Hadramout and Al-Mahrah governorates. The estimation results suggest that agricultural value added, farm household incomes and rural food security deteriorated long term in the flood-affected areas. Due to economic spillover effects, significant income losses and increases in food insecurity also occurred in areas that were unaffected by flooding. This finding suggests that while most relief efforts are typically concentrated in directly affected areas, future efforts should also consider surrounding areas and indirectly affected people.

  11. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Isobel

    2013-01-01

    Within the emergent international policy arena of "food security", the imperative to double global food production by 2050 has become ubiquitous. This statistic, as well as a revised figure of a 70% increase by 2050, have been widely used by key individuals in the food policy arena and have come to play a significant role in framing current UK and…

  12. Research on early warning of food security using a system dynamics model: evidence from Jiangsu province in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the early warning of food security, this paper sets the self-sufficiency rate as the principal indicator in a standpoint of supplement. It is common to use the quantitative methods to forecast and warning the insecurity. However, this paper considers more about the probable outcome when the government intervenes. By constructing the causal feedbacks among grain supplement, demand, productive input, and the policy factors to simulate the future food security in Jiangsu province, conclusions can be drawn as the following: (1) The situation of food security is insecure if the self-sufficiency rate is under 68.3% according to the development of system inertia. (2) it is difficult to guarantee the food security in Jiangsu just depending on the increase of grain sown area. (3) The valid solution to ensure the food security in Jiangsu is to improve the productivity.

  13. The impact of the 2008 financial crisis on food security and food expenditures in Mexico: a disproportionate effect on the vulnerable

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Sandoval-Olascoaga, Sebastian; Bernal-Stuart, Ana; Shimoga, Sandhya; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present paper investigated the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on food security in Mexico and how it disproportionally affected vulnerable households. Design A generalized ordered logistic regression was estimated to assess the impact of the crisis on households’ food security status. An ordinary least squares and a quantile regression were estimated to evaluate the effect of the financial crisis on a continuous proxy measure of food security defined as the share of a household’s current income devoted to food expenditures. Setting Both analyses were performed using pooled cross-sectional data from the Mexican National Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2008 and 2010. Subjects The analytical sample included 29 468 households in 2008 and 27 654 in 2010. Results The generalized ordered logistic model showed that the financial crisis significantly (P < 0·05) decreased the probability of being food secure, mildly or moderately food insecure, compared with being severely food insecure (OR = 0·74). A similar but smaller effect was found when comparing severely and moderately food-insecure households with mildly food-insecure and food-secure households (OR = 0·81). The ordinary least squares model showed that the crisis significantly (P < 0·05) increased the share of total income spent on food (β coefficient of 0·02). The quantile regression confirmed the findings suggested by the generalized ordered logistic model, showing that the effects of the crisis were more profound among poorer households. Conclusions The results suggest that households that were more vulnerable before the financial crisis saw a worsened effect in terms of food insecurity with the crisis. Findings were consistent with both measures of food security – one based on self-reported experience and the other based on food spending. PMID:25428800

  14. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    population under hunger and poverty. In light of these threats and opportunities facing the global food system, the proposed study takes a long-term perspective and addresses the main medium and long- term drivers of agricultural markets using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade developed by the Environment and Production Technology Division of IFPRI to project future production, consumption, and trade of key agricultural commodities. The main objective of the study is to analyze the link between energy and agricultural markets, focusing on the "new" role of agriculture as a supplier of energy for transportation through biofuels, and the subsequent impact on land use and demand for water from the agricultural sector. In this context, this study incorporates various scenarios of future energy demand and energy price impacts on global agricultural markets (food prices and food security), water use implications (irrigation water consumption by agricultural sector), and land use implications (changes in national and global crop area). The scenarios are designed to understand the impact of energy prices on biofuel production, cost of production for agricultural crops, conversion of rainfed area to irrigated area, and necessary levels of crop productivity growth to counter these effects.

  15. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste.

  16. FACE-IT. A Science Gateway for Food Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Montella, Raffaele; Kelly, David; Xiong, Wei; Brizius, Alison; Elliott, Joshua; Madduri, Ravi; Maheshwari, Ketan; Porter, Cheryl; Vilter, Peter; Wilde, Michael; Zhang, Meng; Foster, Ian

    2015-07-14

    Progress in sustainability science is hindered by challenges in creating and managing complex data acquisition, processing, simulation, post-processing, and intercomparison pipelines. To address these challenges, we developed the Framework to Advance Climate, Economic, and Impact Investigations with Information Technology (FACE-IT) for crop and climate impact assessments. This integrated data processing and simulation framework enables data ingest from geospatial archives; data regridding, aggregation, and other processing prior to simulation; large-scale climate impact simulations with agricultural and other models, leveraging high-performance and cloud computing; and post-processing to produce aggregated yields and ensemble variables needed for statistics, for model intercomparison, and to connect biophysical models to global and regional economic models. FACE-IT leverages the capabilities of the Globus Galaxies platform to enable the capture of workflows and outputs in well-defined, reusable, and comparable forms. We describe FACE-IT and applications within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project and the Center for Robust Decision-making on Climate and Energy Policy.

  17. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980. PMID:12348868

  18. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980.

  19. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. PMID:25912518

  20. Policy Framework for Addressing Personal Security Issues Concerning Women and Girls. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document presents a policy framework for improving the personal security of women and girls. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Policy Background" (the concept of personal security, the societal context of women's personal security, consequences of violence for women and girls, long-term policy concern, and building an integrated…

  1. Household Food Security in the Rural South: Assuring Access to Enough Food for Healthy Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Food insecurity is more prevalent in the rural South than in metropolitan areas of the South and rural areas in other regions. This reflects the lower incomes and higher poverty rates in the rural South. On the other hand, the prevalence of poverty-linked hunger--the most severe range of food insecurity--is about the same in the rural South as in…

  2. How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals?

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Popp, Alexander; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lauk, Christian; Harper, Richard; Tubiello, Francesco N; de Siqueira Pinto, Alexandre; Jafari, Mostafa; Sohi, Saran; Masera, Omar; Böttcher, Hannes; Berndes, Göran; Bustamante, Mercedes; Ahammad, Helal; Clark, Harry; Dong, Hongmin; Elsiddig, Elnour A; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranath, Nijavalli H; Rice, Charles W; Robledo Abad, Carmenza; Romanovskaya, Anna; Sperling, Frank; Herrero, Mario; House, Joanna I; Rose, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Feeding 9-10 billion people by 2050 and preventing dangerous climate change are two of the greatest challenges facing humanity. Both challenges must be met while reducing the impact of land management on ecosystem services that deliver vital goods and services, and support human health and well-being. Few studies to date have considered the interactions between these challenges. In this study we briefly outline the challenges, review the supply- and demand-side climate mitigation potential available in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use AFOLU sector and options for delivering food security. We briefly outline some of the synergies and trade-offs afforded by mitigation practices, before presenting an assessment of the mitigation potential possible in the AFOLU sector under possible future scenarios in which demand-side measures codeliver to aid food security. We conclude that while supply-side mitigation measures, such as changes in land management, might either enhance or negatively impact food security, demand-side mitigation measures, such as reduced waste or demand for livestock products, should benefit both food security and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Demand-side measures offer a greater potential (1.5-15.6 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) ) in meeting both challenges than do supply-side measures (1.5-4.3 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) at carbon prices between 20 and 100 US$ tCO2 -eq. yr(-1) ), but given the enormity of challenges, all options need to be considered. Supply-side measures should be implemented immediately, focussing on those that allow the production of more agricultural product per unit of input. For demand-side measures, given the difficulties in their implementation and lag in their effectiveness, policy should be introduced quickly, and should aim to codeliver to other policy agenda, such as improving environmental quality or improving dietary health. These problems facing humanity in the 21st Century are extremely challenging, and policy that

  3. How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals?

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Popp, Alexander; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lauk, Christian; Harper, Richard; Tubiello, Francesco N; de Siqueira Pinto, Alexandre; Jafari, Mostafa; Sohi, Saran; Masera, Omar; Böttcher, Hannes; Berndes, Göran; Bustamante, Mercedes; Ahammad, Helal; Clark, Harry; Dong, Hongmin; Elsiddig, Elnour A; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranath, Nijavalli H; Rice, Charles W; Robledo Abad, Carmenza; Romanovskaya, Anna; Sperling, Frank; Herrero, Mario; House, Joanna I; Rose, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Feeding 9-10 billion people by 2050 and preventing dangerous climate change are two of the greatest challenges facing humanity. Both challenges must be met while reducing the impact of land management on ecosystem services that deliver vital goods and services, and support human health and well-being. Few studies to date have considered the interactions between these challenges. In this study we briefly outline the challenges, review the supply- and demand-side climate mitigation potential available in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use AFOLU sector and options for delivering food security. We briefly outline some of the synergies and trade-offs afforded by mitigation practices, before presenting an assessment of the mitigation potential possible in the AFOLU sector under possible future scenarios in which demand-side measures codeliver to aid food security. We conclude that while supply-side mitigation measures, such as changes in land management, might either enhance or negatively impact food security, demand-side mitigation measures, such as reduced waste or demand for livestock products, should benefit both food security and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Demand-side measures offer a greater potential (1.5-15.6 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) ) in meeting both challenges than do supply-side measures (1.5-4.3 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) at carbon prices between 20 and 100 US$ tCO2 -eq. yr(-1) ), but given the enormity of challenges, all options need to be considered. Supply-side measures should be implemented immediately, focussing on those that allow the production of more agricultural product per unit of input. For demand-side measures, given the difficulties in their implementation and lag in their effectiveness, policy should be introduced quickly, and should aim to codeliver to other policy agenda, such as improving environmental quality or improving dietary health. These problems facing humanity in the 21st Century are extremely challenging, and policy that

  4. Space-Derived Phenology, Retrieval and Use for Drought and Food Security Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Schucknecht, A.; LEO, O.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation conditions is a critical activity for assessing food security in Africa. Rural populations relying on rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing are highly exposed to large seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in water availability. Monitoring the state, evolution, and productivity of vegetation, crops and pastures in particular, is important to conduct food emergency responses and plan for a long-term, resilient, development strategy in this area. The timing of onset, the duration, and the intensity of vegetation growth can be retrieved from space observations and used for food security monitoring to assess seasonal vegetation development and forecast the likely seasonal outcome when the season is ongoing. In this contribution we present a set of phenology-based remote sensing studies in support to food security analysis. Key phenological indicators are retrieved using a model-fit approach applied to SOPT-VEGETATION FAPAR time series. Remote-sensing phenology is first used to estimate i) the impact of the drought in the Horn of Africa, ii) crop yield in Tunisia and, iii) rangeland biomass production in Niger. Then the impact of the start and length of vegetation growing period on the total biomass production is assessed over the Sahel. Finally, a probabilistic approach using phenological information to forecast the occurrence of an end-of-season biomass production deficit is applied over the Sahel to map hot-spots of drought-related risk.

  5. A Public Policy Advocacy Project to Promote Food Security: Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences.

    PubMed

    Atkey, Kayla M; Raine, Kim D; Storey, Kate E; Willows, Noreen D

    2016-09-01

    To achieve food security in Canada, comprehensive approaches are required, which involve action at the public policy level. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 14 stakeholders engaging in a 9-month participatory public policy advocacy project to promote community food security in the province of Alberta through the initiation of a campaign to develop a Universal School Food Strategy. Through this exploration, four main themes were identified; a positive and open space to contribute ideas, diversity and common ground, confidence and capacity, and uncertainty. Findings from this study suggest that the participatory advocacy project provided a positive and open space for stakeholders to contribute ideas, through which the group was able to narrow its focus and establish a goal for advocacy. The project also seems to have contributed to the group's confidence and capacity to engage in advocacy by creating a space for learning and knowledge sharing, though stakeholders expressed uncertainty regarding some aspects of the project. Findings from this study support the use of participatory approaches as a strategy for facilitating engagement in public policy advocacy and provide insight into one group's advocacy experience, which may help to inform community-based researchers and advocates in the development of advocacy initiatives to promote community food security elsewhere.

  6. A Public Policy Advocacy Project to Promote Food Security: Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences.

    PubMed

    Atkey, Kayla M; Raine, Kim D; Storey, Kate E; Willows, Noreen D

    2016-09-01

    To achieve food security in Canada, comprehensive approaches are required, which involve action at the public policy level. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 14 stakeholders engaging in a 9-month participatory public policy advocacy project to promote community food security in the province of Alberta through the initiation of a campaign to develop a Universal School Food Strategy. Through this exploration, four main themes were identified; a positive and open space to contribute ideas, diversity and common ground, confidence and capacity, and uncertainty. Findings from this study suggest that the participatory advocacy project provided a positive and open space for stakeholders to contribute ideas, through which the group was able to narrow its focus and establish a goal for advocacy. The project also seems to have contributed to the group's confidence and capacity to engage in advocacy by creating a space for learning and knowledge sharing, though stakeholders expressed uncertainty regarding some aspects of the project. Findings from this study support the use of participatory approaches as a strategy for facilitating engagement in public policy advocacy and provide insight into one group's advocacy experience, which may help to inform community-based researchers and advocates in the development of advocacy initiatives to promote community food security elsewhere. PMID:27199148

  7. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.

    2014-12-01

    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  8. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence.

  9. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  10. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  11. Food Security Hotspots in India under Changing Climate and Growing Populatio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change, unprecedented population growth, and rapid urbanization have elevated the possibility of food and water shortages in many regions across the world. The likelihood of such shortages in the future is further exacerbated by the fact that increased greenhouse forcing and rapid growth in human population will continue for at least the next several decades. These socio-environmental changes will likely put some regions under enormous economic and environmental stress by forcing them to adapt to new conditions. India with its rapidly growing population and high rates of urbanization and industrialization is one such region whose agricultural resources will be particularly vulnerable to the impact of these changes. This study collectively reviews and analyses the possible impacts of climate change, population growth and resulting land use change on the availability of food and water in the coming decades for India. By analyzing and fusing a wide variety of existing data and research on the impact of land use change, population, and climate change, on water and food resources this study develops an understanding of the broader implications of each of the changes on food security in the region. In addition, the study focuses on the need to assess and quantify the combination of such impacts at a regional level and identify food security hotspots spatially across India that will help to narrow down regions in the country which will be severely affected and need priority adaptation and mitigation measures.

  12. Threat to future global food security from climate change and ozone air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Amos P. K.; Martin, Maria Val; Heald, Colette L.

    2014-09-01

    Future food production is highly vulnerable to both climate change and air pollution with implications for global food security. Climate change adaptation and ozone regulation have been identified as important strategies to safeguard food production, but little is known about how climate and ozone pollution interact to affect agriculture, nor the relative effectiveness of these two strategies for different crops and regions. Here we present an integrated analysis of the individual and combined effects of 2000-2050 climate change and ozone trends on the production of four major crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybean) worldwide based on historical observations and model projections, specifically accounting for ozone-temperature co-variation. The projections exclude the effect of rising CO2, which has complex and potentially offsetting impacts on global food supply. We show that warming reduces global crop production by >10% by 2050 with a potential to substantially worsen global malnutrition in all scenarios considered. Ozone trends either exacerbate or offset a substantial fraction of climate impacts depending on the scenario, suggesting the importance of air quality management in agricultural planning. Furthermore, we find that depending on region some crops are primarily sensitive to either ozone (for example, wheat) or heat (for example, maize) alone, providing a measure of relative benefits of climate adaptation versus ozone regulation for food security in different regions.

  13. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Taylor, Anna; Way, Sally-Anne; Leaning, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. The initial aim of the revision was to ensure that the Sphere Minimum Standards better reflected the principles embodied in the Humanitarian Charter. This was later broadened to ensure that key legal standards and principles from human rights and humanitarian law were considered and also incorporated, in part to fill the "protection gap" within the existing standards. In relation to the food security, nutrition and food aid standards, it was agreed by participants in the process that the human right to adequate food and freedom from hunger should be incorporated. In relation to more general principles underlying the Humanitarian Charter, itself drawn largely from human rights and humanitarian law, it was agreed that there was a need to strengthen "protection" elements within the standards and a need to incorporate the basic principles of the right to life with dignity, non-discrimination, impartiality and participation, as well as to explore the relevance of the concept of the progressive realisation of the right to food. The questions raised in linking rights to operational standards required thought, on the one hand, about whether the technical standards reflected a deep understanding of the values expressed within the legal instruments, and whether the existing standards were adequate in relation to those legal rights. On the other hand, it also required reflection on how operational standards like Sphere could give concrete content to human rights, such as the right to food and the right to be free from hunger. However, there remain challenges in examining what a rights-based approach will mean in terms of the role of humanitarian

  14. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  15. Hydrologic variability in dryland regions: impacts on ecosystem dynamics and food security.

    PubMed

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash

    2012-11-19

    Research on ecosystem and societal response to global environmental change typically considers the effects of shifts in mean climate conditions. There is, however, some evidence of ongoing changes also in the variance of hydrologic and climate fluctuations. A relatively high interannual variability is a distinctive feature of the hydrologic regime of dryland regions, particularly at the desert margins. Hydrologic variability has an important impact on ecosystem dynamics, food security and societal reliance on ecosystem services in water-limited environments. Here, we investigate some of the current patterns of hydrologic variability in drylands around the world and review the major effects of hydrologic fluctuations on ecosystem resilience, maintenance of biodiversity and food security. We show that random hydrologic fluctuations may enhance the resilience of dryland ecosystems by obliterating bistable deterministic behaviours and threshold-like responses to external drivers. Moreover, by increasing biodiversity and the associated ecosystem redundancy, hydrologic variability can indirectly enhance post-disturbance recovery, i.e. ecosystem resilience.

  16. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  17. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries’ data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks’ Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p<.05. Data were presented in tables, means and percentages. Mean CPI, Population, FSI, and LE in LCC and MCC were 71.5% and 24.2%; 34.8 and 41.7million; 75.0% and 37.4%; and 78.4years and 62.4years. There was a significant difference between CPI, FSI and LE in LCC and MCC (p < 0.05). CPI had a significant positive relationship with FSI and LE in LCC not MCC. There was also a significant relationship between FSI and LE in MCC. Low CPI influenced high FSI and LE in LCC while Low LE was associated with low FSI in MCC. Policies discouraging corrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:26090058

  18. Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources workshop; a brief report.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the workshop on Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources, held in January 1997 in Mumbai, India. The workshop was organized jointly by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and the Indian Association of Women's Studies. The aim was to examine the food security situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in the west, the initiative to build alternative institutions, legal changes augmenting industrialization, and how traditional rights to common property resources can be legalized and how the poor can have access to new resources. The workshop organizers were unable to obtain experts on some topics. Core discussion centered on changes in industrialization, natural resources, gender and food security; access to natural resources and poverty alleviation programs; initiatives to create food security; and laws related to access to land and water. Discussions revealed the alienation of small and marginal farmers, landless laborers, and artisans from their livelihoods and survival strategies for these disenfranchised groups. The design of drought eradication and water conservation programs did not permit women and men working at construction sites to have access to the program assets. Case studies revealed situations in which women won the right of access to community water and then negotiated for land in lease. The women used landowners to negotiate credit and access development program assets, but normal channels of the National Bank of Agricultural Research and Development could have provided these benefits. Participants discussed how governments can be held accountable and how public funds could be used to revamp poverty alleviation and asset creation programs. All agreed that macrolevel development should give priority to agricultural development and legal constraints or problems. Five follow-up activities are identified.

  19. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p < .05. Data were presented in tables, means and percentages. Mean CPI, Population, FSI, and LE in LCC and MCC were 71.5% and 24.2%; 34.8 and 41.7 million; 75.0% and 37.4%; and 78.4 years and 62.4 years. There was a significant difference between CPI, FSI and LE in LCC and MCC (p < 0.05). CPI had a significant positive relationship with FSI and LE in LCC not MCC. There was also a significant relationship between FSI and LE in MCC. Low CPI influenced high FSI and LE in LCC while Low LE was associated with low FSI in MCC. Policies discouraging corrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries.

  20. Enhancing Nutrition Security via India's National Food Security Act: Using an Axe instead of a Scalpel?§

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, India passed a historic National Food Security Act. This paper examines the potential impact of the two central pillars of this act - expansion of the Public Distribution System and strengthening of the Integrated Child Development Schemes – on child nutrition. Using new data from the India Human Development Survey of 2011-12, this paper shows that access to subsidized grains via PDS is not related to improved child nutrition, and while ICDS seems to be related to lower child undernutrition, it has a limited reach in spite of the universalization of the program. The paper suggests that a tiered strategy in dealing with child undernutrition that starts with the identification of undernourished children and districts and follows through with different strategies for dealing with severe, acute malnutrition, followed by a focus on moderate malnutrition, could be more effective than the existing focus on cereal distribution rooted in the NFSA. PMID:27034596

  1. Livestock and food security: vulnerability to population growth and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Godber, Olivia F; Wall, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production is an important contributor to sustainable food security for many nations, particularly in low-income areas and marginal habitats that are unsuitable for crop production. Animal products account for approximately one-third of global human protein consumption. Here, a range of indicators, derived from FAOSTAT and World Bank statistics, are used to model the relative vulnerability of nations at the global scale to predicted climate and population changes, which are likely to impact on their use of grazing livestock for food. Vulnerability analysis has been widely used in global change science to predict impacts on food security and famine. It is a tool that is useful to inform policy decision making and direct the targeting of interventions. The model developed shows that nations within sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the Sahel region, and some Asian nations are likely to be the most vulnerable. Livestock-based food security is already compromised in many areas on these continents and suffers constraints from current climate in addition to the lack of economic and technical support allowing mitigation of predicted climate change impacts. Governance is shown to be a highly influential factor and, paradoxically, it is suggested that current self-sufficiency may increase future potential vulnerability because trade networks are poorly developed. This may be relieved through freer trade of food products, which is also associated with improved governance. Policy decisions, support and interventions will need to be targeted at the most vulnerable nations, but given the strong influence of governance, to be effective, any implementation will require considerable care in the management of underlying structural reform. PMID:24692268

  2. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  3. Livestock and food security: vulnerability to population growth and climate change.

    PubMed

    Godber, Olivia F; Wall, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Livestock production is an important contributor to sustainable food security for many nations, particularly in low-income areas and marginal habitats that are unsuitable for crop production. Animal products account for approximately one-third of global human protein consumption. Here, a range of indicators, derived from FAOSTAT and World Bank statistics, are used to model the relative vulnerability of nations at the global scale to predicted climate and population changes, which are likely to impact on their use of grazing livestock for food. Vulnerability analysis has been widely used in global change science to predict impacts on food security and famine. It is a tool that is useful to inform policy decision making and direct the targeting of interventions. The model developed shows that nations within sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the Sahel region, and some Asian nations are likely to be the most vulnerable. Livestock-based food security is already compromised in many areas on these continents and suffers constraints from current climate in addition to the lack of economic and technical support allowing mitigation of predicted climate change impacts. Governance is shown to be a highly influential factor and, paradoxically, it is suggested that current self-sufficiency may increase future potential vulnerability because trade networks are poorly developed. This may be relieved through freer trade of food products, which is also associated with improved governance. Policy decisions, support and interventions will need to be targeted at the most vulnerable nations, but given the strong influence of governance, to be effective, any implementation will require considerable care in the management of underlying structural reform.

  4. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  5. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products. PMID:23020616

  6. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  7. Addressing malnutrition in young children in South Africa. Setting the national context for paediatric food-based dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Lesley T; Hendricks, Michael K; Marais, Debbie; Eley, Brian

    2007-10-01

    Despite various national nutrition and primary healthcare programmes being initiated in South Africa over the last decade, child health has deteriorated. This is seen by the rise in infant and child mortality rates, the high prevalence of preventable childhood diseases, e.g. diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract infections, and the coexistence of under-nutrition along with HIV/AIDS. Poor dietary intake, food insecurity and poor quality of basic services prevail within this precarious causal web. The national Integrated Nutrition Programme is a comprehensive nutrition strategy that focuses on children below 6 years old, at-risk pregnant and lactating women, and those affected by communicable and non-communicable diseases. Focus areas relevant to pre-school children include disease-specific nutrition treatment, support and counselling; growth monitoring and promotion (GMP); micronutrient malnutrition control; breastfeeding promotion, protection and support; contributions to household food security; nutrition interventions among HIV-infected children; and nutrition promotion, education and advocacy. Progress towards this includes the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; mandatory fortification of maize meal and wheat flour with multiple micronutrients; vitamin A supplementation coverage and mandatory iodization of salt by legislation; the provision of free road-to-health charts for GMP; and the National School Nutrition Programme. Since 2003, the basis of the nutrition education strategy has been the locally developed food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), directed at adults and school-going children. This review sketches the backdrop to and motivation for the introduction of specifically targeted paediatric FBDGs, for mothers and caregivers of children from birth to age 7 years, as a national initiative. PMID:17824851

  8. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems. PMID:26260147

  9. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems.

  10. Securing the Future of Water, Energy and Food: Can solutions for the currently stressed countries provide the direction for ensuring global water sustainability and food security in the 21st century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    Where will the food for the 9 billion people we expect on Earth by 2050 come from? The answer to this question depends on where the water and the energy for agriculture will come from. This assumes of course, that our primary food source will continue to be based on production on land, and that irrigation and the use of fertilizers to improve production are needed to address climate shocks and deteriorating soil health. Given this, establishing an economically, environmentally and physically feasible pathway to achieve water, energy and food security in the face of a changing climate is crucial to planetary well-being. A central hypothesis of the proposed paper is that innovation towards agricultural sustainability in countries such as India and China, that have large populations relative to their water, energy and arable land endowment, and yet have opportunity for improvement in productivity metrics such as crop yield per unit water or energy use, can show us the way to achieve global water-food-energy sustainability. These countries experience a monsoonal climate, which has a high frequency of climate extremes (more floods and droughts, and a short rainy season) relative to the developed countries in temperate climates. Global climate change projections indicate that the frequency and severity of extremes may pose a challenge in the future. Thus, strategies that are resilient to such extremes in monsoonal climates may be of global value in a warmer, more variable world. Much of the future population growth is expected to occur in Africa, S. America and S. Asia. Targeting these regions for higher productivity and resilience is consequently important from a national security perspective as well. Through this paper, we propose to (a) layout in detail, the challenges faced by the water, energy and food sectors in emerging countries, with specific focus on India and China and (b) provide the scientific background for an integrated systems analytic approach to

  11. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  12. Impact of food support on food security and body weight among HIV antiretroviral therapy recipients in Honduras: a pilot intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn; Martinez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern. However, no studies among PLHIV have investigated the impact of food support on nutritional outcomes in these settings. We therefore assessed the effect of food support on food insecurity and body weight in a population of PLHIV with high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We implemented a pilot intervention trial in four government-run HIV clinics in Honduras. The trial tested the effect of a monthly household food ration plus nutrition education (n = 203), compared to nutrition education alone (n = 197), over 12 months. Participants were clinic patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Assessments were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes for this analysis were food security, using the validated Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and body weight (kg). Thirty-one percent of participants were overweight (22%) or obese (8%) at baseline. At 6 months, the probability of severe food insecurity decreased by 48.3% (p < 0.01) in the food support group, compared to 11.6% in the education-only group (p < 0.01). Among overweight or obese participants, food support led to average weight gain of 1.13 kg (p < 0.01), while nutrition education alone was associated with average weight loss of 0.72 kg (p < 0.10). Nutrition education alone was associated with weight gain among underweight and normal weight participants. Household food support may improve food security but not necessarily nutritional status of ART recipients above and beyond nutrition education. Improving nutritional tailoring of food support and testing the impact of nutrition education should be prioritized for PLHIV in Latin America and similar settings. PMID:25429691

  13. Impact of food support on food security and body weight among HIV antiretroviral therapy recipients in Honduras: a pilot intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn; Martinez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern. However, no studies among PLHIV have investigated the impact of food support on nutritional outcomes in these settings. We therefore assessed the effect of food support on food insecurity and body weight in a population of PLHIV with high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We implemented a pilot intervention trial in four government-run HIV clinics in Honduras. The trial tested the effect of a monthly household food ration plus nutrition education (n = 203), compared to nutrition education alone (n = 197), over 12 months. Participants were clinic patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Assessments were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes for this analysis were food security, using the validated Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and body weight (kg). Thirty-one percent of participants were overweight (22%) or obese (8%) at baseline. At 6 months, the probability of severe food insecurity decreased by 48.3% (p < 0.01) in the food support group, compared to 11.6% in the education-only group (p < 0.01). Among overweight or obese participants, food support led to average weight gain of 1.13 kg (p < 0.01), while nutrition education alone was associated with average weight loss of 0.72 kg (p < 0.10). Nutrition education alone was associated with weight gain among underweight and normal weight participants. Household food support may improve food security but not necessarily nutritional status of ART recipients above and beyond nutrition education. Improving nutritional tailoring of food support and testing the impact of nutrition education should be prioritized for PLHIV in Latin America and similar settings.

  14. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies.

  15. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. PMID:26610287

  16. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  17. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  18. Household food security is associated with infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kuntal K; Frongillo, Edward A; Alam, Dewan S; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2008-07-01

    Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1-3, 1-6, 1-9, and 1-12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3-6 mo but was associated with better IFP during 6-9 and 9-12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3-6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh.

  19. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat’s place as one of the world’s most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield. PMID:25540461

  20. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  1. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context – results from an international workshop discussion

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A.; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs. PMID:23940840

  2. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs. PMID:23940840

  3. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  4. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  5. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-01-01

    security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises. PMID:16433102

  6. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-11-29

    security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises.

  7. Poverty, food intake, and malnutrition: implications for food security in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Schiff, M; Valdes, A

    1990-12-01

    The relation between household income, food intake, and nutritional status in less developed countries is examined, and a framework that explicitly relates household behavior patterns with public policy options designed to improve the nutritional status of the rural and urban poor is presented. For rural areas, nutritional and health status depends largely upon the levels of private inputs provided by households. In turn, level depends upon income. Consequently, increasing income may also lead to improvements in nutrition and health status. Regrettably, post-World War II development strategy in most developing countries has undervalued the potential contribution of agricultural development to economic development. Domestic economic policies practiced thus far have most probably had serious negative effects upon the nutrition and heal status of the poorest segments of developing nations. Economic development policy reform is therefore called for as a measure to alleviate rural poverty in developing countries.

  8. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  9. Development of a computer workstation for famine early warning and food security.

    PubMed

    Marsh, S E; Hutchinson, C F; Pfirman, E E; Des Rosiers, S A; van der Harten, C

    1994-06-01

    Beginning in 1990, the University of Arizona, Arizona Remote Sensing Center (ARSC) has been involved in a collaborative effort with the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Remote Sensing Center of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in designing and developing an integrated computer workstation for famine early warning. The goal of the project is to provide food security analysts with a set of computer tools to manage a very large and diverse set of data for predicting the onset of food security emergencies for every country on Earth. The initial stage of the project involved the conceptual definition of system elements and the development of overall system architecture. We are now developing an open, flexible, and portable system designed to significantly assist the work of the analysts. System architecture provides a task-specific and user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) within a Windows environment that will link image processing, geographic information system (GIS), spreadsheet, text, and graphics software packages into a single operational environment. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is serving as the back-end of the workstation to facilitate data storage and retrieval and as a means to preserve analysis methodologies.

  10. The potential for underutilized crops to improve security of food production.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S; Massawe, F J; Alderson, P G; Roberts, J A; Azam-Ali, S N; Hermann, M

    2012-02-01

    Staple crops face major challenges in the near future and a diversification away from over-reliance on staples will be important as part of the progress towards the goal of achieving security of food production. Underutilized or neglected crops species are often indigenous ancient crop species which are still used at some level within the local, national or even international communities, but have the potential to contribute further to the mix of food sources than they currently do. The most cost-effective and easily disseminated changes that can be made to a crop are changes to the genetics, as these are contained within the seed itself and, for many species, the seed is a pure breeding, self-replicating, resource. This article focuses on the potential of underutilized crops to contribute to food security and, in particular, whether genetics and breeding can overcome some of the constraints to the enhanced uptake of these species in the future. The focus here is on overview rather than detail and subsequent articles will examine the current evidence base.

  11. Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security.

  12. Philippine alliance of fisherfolk: ecohealth practitioners for livelihood and food security.

    PubMed

    Añabieza, Mario; Pajaro, Marivic; Reyes, Gonzalo; Tiburcio, Fernando; Watts, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Pamana Ka Sa Pilipinas (Pamana) is a grassroots fisherfolk alliance of Philippine Marine Protected Areas with more than 6,000 individual fisherfolk and their 30,000 family members. Access to food, education, and health services for Philippine fisherfolk families is directly dependant upon the fish harvest and related health of the marine environment. Pamana represents a unique "ecohealth" strategy, linking the health of coastal people and that of their surrounding marine ecosystem. Pamana's activities are viewed by both their membership and barangay (village) health workers as a contribution to nutritional and community health. The alliance has developed an approach to the empowerment of fisherfolk that has led to improvement in health, food security, and nutritional status of their communities. The development of Pamana provides a model for building capacity in other fishing- and resource-based cultures, through engagement and empowerment. In less developed countries, grassroots initiatives, such as Pamana, may be the only solution for sustainable fisheries contributions to food security, given the challenges of fisherfolk poverty, environmental degradation, and limited finances.

  13. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  14. Food safety and security: what were favourite topics for research in the last decade?

    PubMed

    Marušić, Ana

    2011-06-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greatest impact on the research community, judged by their annual rate of citations during the last decade, were food-borne pathogens and toxins, with emerging genetic studies and new methods of visualising toxins on surfaces. Epidemiological and survey studies demonstrated that there was systematic effort to document, rapidly detect and control epidemic spread of disease and that these measures decreased the threat to food safety in developed countries, but that there is still much room for improvement. Research relevant for developing countries included the potential molecular targets to alleviate accumulation of arsenic in rice. As in other areas of research and life, human factor seems to be the most important one for the safety of food. The five keys to safer food of the WHO - keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials - are thus still very relevant for the developed as much as the developing world. PMID:23198104

  15. Food safety and security: what were favourite topics for research in the last decade?

    PubMed Central

    Marušić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greatest impact on the research community, judged by their annual rate of citations during the last decade, were food-borne pathogens and toxins, with emerging genetic studies and new methods of visualising toxins on surfaces. Epidemiological and survey studies demonstrated that there was systematic effort to document, rapidly detect and control epidemic spread of disease and that these measures decreased the threat to food safety in developed countries, but that there is still much room for improvement. Research relevant for developing countries included the potential molecular targets to alleviate accumulation of arsenic in rice. As in other areas of research and life, human factor seems to be the most important one for the safety of food. The five keys to safer food of the WHO – keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials – are thus still very relevant for the developed as much as the developing world. PMID:23198104

  16. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity

  17. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  18. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  19. Food Security, Decision Making and the Use of Remote Sensing in Famine Early Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2008-01-01

    Famine early warning systems use remote sensing in combination with socio-economic and household food economy analysis to provide timely and rigorous information on emerging food security crises. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is the US Agency for International Development's decision support system in 20 African countries, as well as in Guatemala, Haiti and Afghanistan. FEWS NET provides early and actionable policy guidance for the US Government and its humanitarian aid partners. As we move into an era of climate change where weather hazards will become more frequent and severe, understanding how to provide quantitative and actionable scientific information for policy makers using biophysical data is critical for an appropriate and effective response.

  20. How can an understanding of plant-pollinator interactions contribute to global food security?

    PubMed

    Bailes, Emily J; Ollerton, Jeff; Pattrick, Jonathan G; Glover, Beverley J

    2015-08-01

    Pollination of crops by animals is an essential part of global food production, but evidence suggests that wild pollinator populations may be declining while a number of problems are besetting managed honey bee colonies. Animal-pollinated crops grown today, bred in an environment where pollination was less likely to limit fruit set, are often suboptimal in attracting and sustaining their pollinator populations. Research into plant-pollinator interactions is often conducted in a curiosity-driven, ecological framework, but may inform breeding and biotechnological approaches to enhance pollinator attraction and crop yield. In this article we review key topics in current plant-pollinator research that have potential roles in future crop breeding for enhanced global food security. PMID:26116979

  1. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  2. Interactive effects of temperature and drought on cassava growth and toxicity: implications for food security?