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Sample records for address grave acts

  1. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Native American Graves... and Clauses 352.242-72 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. As prescribed in 342.302(c)(4), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Native American...

  2. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Native American Graves... and Clauses 352.242-72 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. As prescribed in 342.302(c)(4), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Native American...

  3. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Native American Graves... and Clauses 352.242-72 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. As prescribed in 342.302(c)(4), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Native American...

  4. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Native American Graves... and Clauses 352.242-72 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. As prescribed in 342.302(c)(4), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Native American...

  5. 76 FR 39007 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations- Definition of “Indian Tribe”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Office of the Secretary of the Interior 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD98 Native American Graves Protection... regulations implementing the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) removes the... implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, including the issuance...

  6. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. 352.242-72 Section 352.242-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.242-72 Native...

  7. Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

  8. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951, April 29, 1994); Executive Order... Office of the Secretary of the Interior 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD99 Native American Graves Protection.... SUMMARY: This final rule revises regulations implementing the Native American Graves Protection...

  9. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... first rules to implement the Act on December 4, 1995 (43 CFR part 10, 60 FR 62158). --We published rules for assessing civil penalties under the Act on April 3, 2003 (43 CFR 10.12, 68 FR 16354). --We....13, 72 FR 13189). --We are publishing this rule today. --We are developing additional rules to...

  10. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  11. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  12. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  13. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  14. Graves disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... these treatments, you will have an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). You will need to take replacement thyroid hormones ...

  15. Graves disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called hyperthyroidism . (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine often will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  16. [Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, A; Dekowski, D; Führer-Sakel, D; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Esser, J

    2016-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease and the full clinical picture can impair the quality of life of the patients considerably. Active inflammation can often be effectively treated by intravenous steroids/immunosuppression, however does not lead to full remission, since inflammation rather quickly results in irreversible fibrosis and increase of orbital fat. Very important is the control of risk factors (smoking cessation, good control of thyroid function, selenium supplementation) to prevent progression to severe stages. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of activity and severity of GO. Rehabilitative surgery (orbital decompression, squint surgery, eyelid surgery) is needed in many patients to restore function and appearance. Anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies do specifically occur in these patients and correlate to the course of thyroid and eye disease. The levels of these antibodies can be used for treatment decisions at certain time points of the disease. PMID:27059986

  17. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  18. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  19. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  20. Energy codes and the Recovery Act: Guidance for states addressing 90% compliance requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jeremiah Lee

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided state financial support aimed at stimulating the national economy while creating efficiency gains through the implementation of modern building energy codes. These requirements call for compliance with targeted energy codes, including a plan to demonstrate a 90% compliance rate by 2017. In support of these requirements, the Federal Government has published a recommended methodology for states to reference as they work to demonstrate compliance with new energy codes. Unfortunately, the path to meeting this goal remains unclear and many questions still exist at the state and stakeholder levels. The present study examines compliance issues faced within U.S. states to enable effective policy decisions, with a primary goal to provide states with guidance and options to address energy code compliance requirements. A descriptive statistical analysis of survey responses gathered in code enforcement jurisdictions provides a baseline of local practices and current implementation issues. State challenges and subsequent recommendations are analyzed through recent case studies, and considered against expectations of the Federal methodology. Findings culminate in a set of recommendations with consideration for unique background scenarios and barriers observed in the study. The resulting guidance can be considered by states as they install policies and take action in addressing Recovery Act requirements.

  1. 78 FR 21410 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of two meetings of the Native American Graves... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of two meetings of the Native American Graves...

  2. State of the Research & Literature Address: ACT with Children, Adolescents and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) has been found effective in treating a wide number of psychological conditions affecting adults. To date, however, little research has been done on the use of ACT with youth and parents. Few efforts have been made at summarizing the literature that does exist. This article,…

  3. State of the Research and Literature Address: ACT with Children, Adolescents and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) has been found effective in treating a wide number of psychological conditions affecting adults. To date, however, little research has been done on the use of ACT with youth and parents. Few efforts have been made at summarizing the literature that does exist. This article,…

  4. 2012 CCCC Chair's Address: Stories Take Place--A Performance in One Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Malea

    2012-01-01

    This is a written version of the address that Malea Powell gave at the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) Convention in St. Louis, Missouri, on Thursday, March 22, 2012. This address is a collection of stories. According to her, stories take place. Stories practice place into space. Stories produce habitable spaces. She…

  5. 77 FR 65407 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of Nomination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of.... SUMMARY: The National Park Service is soliciting nominations for one member of the Native American Graves... Review Committee was established by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of...

  6. Modeling Graves' Orbitopathy in Experimental Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Banga, J P; Moshkelgosha, S; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Eckstein, A

    2015-09-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO), also known as thyroid eye disease is an inflammatory disease of the orbital tissue of the eye that arises as a consequence of autoimmune thyroid disease. The central feature of the disease is the production of antibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSHR) that modulate the function of the receptor leading to autoimmune hyperthyroidism and GO. Over the years, all viable preclinical models of Graves' disease have been incomplete and singularly failed to progress in the treatment of orbital complications. A new mouse model of GO based upon immunogenic presentation of human TSHR A-subunit plasmid by close field electroporation is shown to lead to induction of prolonged functional antibodies to TSHR resulting in chronic disease with subsequent progression to GO. The stable preclinical GO model exhibited pathologies reminiscent of human disease characterized by orbital remodeling by inflammation and adipogenesis. Inflammatory lesions characterized by CD3+ T cells and macrophages were localized in the orbital muscle tissue. This was accompanied by extensive adipogenesis of orbital fat in some immune animals. Surprisingly, other signs of orbital involvement were reminiscent of eyelid inflammation involving chemosis, with dilated and congested orbital blood vessels. More recently, the model is replicated in the author's independent laboratories. The pre-clinical model will provide the basis to study the pathogenic and regulatory roles of immune T and B cells and their subpopulations to understand the initiation, pathophysiology, and progression of GO. PMID:26287396

  7. Don Graves Remembered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Don Graves died Tuesday, September 28, 2010. In the early 1980s, Don blew open the door to teaching children to write. His qualitative research and subsequent 26 books transformed the teaching of writing in elementary schools. He showed how much could be learned by the simple, powerful strategy of sitting beside children and asking them about…

  8. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  9. Neuroimaging of Graves' orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Forell, Wibke; Kahaly, George J

    2012-06-01

    Neuroimaging of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) plays an important role in the differential diagnosis and interdisciplinary management of patients with GO. Orbital imaging is required in unclear or asymmetric proptosis, in suspected optic neuropathy and prior to decompression surgery. Especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging show the actual objective morphological findings, quantitative MR imaging giving additional information concerning the acuteness or chronicity of the disease. Major morphological diagnostic criteria include a spindle like spreading of the rectus muscles without involvement of the tendon, a compression of the optic nerve in the orbital apex (crowded orbital apex syndrome) and the absence of any space occupying intraorbital process. A longer lasting course of the disease may lead to a corresponding impression of the lamina papyracae, the normally parallel configured medial wall of the orbit, similar to a spontaneous decompression. PMID:22632363

  10. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment. PMID:20305330

  11. 75 FR 9429 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meetings AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of three meetings of the Native American Graves... agreement, of Native American human remains determined to be culturally unidentifiable; and presentations...

  12. 77 FR 53228 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a meeting of the Native American Graves..., as required by law, in order to effect the agreed-upon disposition of Native American human...

  13. 77 FR 7180 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of two meetings of the Native American Graves Protection... of Native American human remains determined to be culturally unidentifiable; presentations by...

  14. 76 FR 12132 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a meeting of the Native American Graves Protection and... the Interior, as required by law, in order to effect the agreed-upon disposition of Native...

  15. 76 FR 69282 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a meeting of the Native American Graves Protection and... effect the agreed-upon disposition of Native American human remains determined to be...

  16. Digging your own grave: OSL signatures in experimental graves.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy J; Olley, Jon

    2014-11-01

    Excavation of mock graves in sediments of aeolian and fluvial origin were conducted to test the bleaching efficiency of grave digging in materials that commonly host ancient burials in Australia. Grave-size pits were dug into Pleistocene aeolian sediments at Willandra Lakes and younger fluvial sediments on the Lachlan River, backfilled, and re-excavated. Samples for optical dating were taken from sediment infilling the mock graves and from the adjacent, undisturbed substrate, and analysed using the single aliquot-regenerative dose (SAR) protocol applied to single quartz grains. The resulting equivalent dose (De) distributions revealed that ≤1% of grains had been fully zeroed in both settings, and an additional 1-6% of poorly bleached grains were apparent in the fluvial sediments. Insufficient and heterogeneous bleaching of sediments during excavation and backfilling produced a decrease in the central dose of between 3 and 6 Gy, and an increase in over-dispersion values of between 5 and 10%. These differences were insufficient to clearly distinguish the disturbance event from the effects of bioturbation, biological mixing, or other sources of De variation. The use of the Minimum Age Model substantially over-estimated the burial age (zero years) in both depositional environments, with the degree of over-estimation increasing with the age of the host sediments. These results suggest that optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques will not produce accurate ages for grave infill in a number of forensic and archaeological settings. Further study of the bleaching susceptibility of grains within grave infills, as well as the effectiveness of grave-digging as a bleaching mechanism is required. In other archaeological and geomorphological applications of OSL dating we recommend routine checks on the effective zeroing of sediments in modern equivalent situations. PMID:24953668

  17. Diagnosis and management of Graves disease: a global overview.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by goitre, hyperthyroidism and, in 25% of patients, Graves ophthalmopathy. The hyperthyroidism is caused by thyroid hypertrophy and stimulation of function, resulting from interaction of anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) with the TSH receptor on thyroid follicular cells. Measurements of serum levels of TRAb and thyroid ultrasonography represent the most important diagnostic tests for Graves disease. Management of the condition currently relies on antithyroid drugs, which mainly inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis, or ablative treatments ((131)I-radiotherapy or thyroidectomy) that remove or decrease thyroid tissue. None of these treatments targets the disease process, and patients with treated Graves disease consequently experience either a high rate of recurrence, if receiving antithyroid drugs, or lifelong hypothyroidism, after ablative therapy. Geographical differences in the use of these therapies exist, partially owing to the availability of skilled thyroid surgeons and suitable nuclear medicine units. Novel agents that might act on the disease process are currently under evaluation in preclinical or clinical studies, but evidence of their efficacy and safety is lacking. PMID:24126481

  18. 77 FR 74874 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a telephonic meeting of the Native American... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a telephonic meeting of the Native American...

  19. Important considerations in the management of Graves' disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Lazarus, John H

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor cause hyperthyroidism through unregulated stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. Effective management of Graves' disease in pregnancy must address the competing fetal and maternal priorities of controlling hyperthyroidism in the mother on the one hand, and on the other, minimizing the impact of maternal disease and antithyroid drugs on the well-being of the fetus. Optimal strategies for achieving this intricate balance are currently a source of continued debate among thyroid experts and studies in recent decades are now providing greater clarity into the risk posed to the unborn baby by the combination of biochemical, immunological and pharmacological hazards arising from Graves' disease and its therapy. This review summarizes the current best practice and highlights important considerations and areas of uncertainty in the management of Graves' disease in pregnant women. PMID:26041458

  20. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  1. Surgical treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Anja; Schittkowski, Michael; Esser, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    The aims of surgical treatment in Graves's orbitopathy (GO) are improvement of function and appearance. Since antiinflammatory treatment of GO rarely results in a complete resolution of symptoms, surgical treatment is very important for patients well being. Rehabilitative surgery includes orbital decompression, squint correction, lid lengthening and blepharoplasty and these procedures have to be performed in centres of expertise. Various techniques have been developed for orbital decompression which allow now a graded approach to proptosis reduction and optic nerve decompression in emergency situations. Extraocular muscle recessions can be successfully performed to treat most of the patients with diplopia. Only large or complex squint angles are difficult to treat and step by step procedures are recommended in these patients. Lid lengthening procedures are performed most often in GO patients and should be performed under local anaesthesia to get a good result. Serious complications are rare. PMID:22632370

  2. Current treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, T.; Shimaoka, K.; Mimura, T.; Ito, K.

    1987-04-01

    In this review we have described the rationale for the appropriate treatment of patients with Graves' disease. Because the etiology of this disorder remains obscure, its management remains controversial. Since antithyroid drugs and radioiodine became readily available in the early 1950s, they have been widely used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and the number of cases treated surgically has markedly decreased. However, almost four decades of experience have disclosed an unexpectedly high incidence of delayed hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment and a low remission rate after antithyroid therapy. As a result, surgery is again being advocated as the treatment of choice. The three modalities of treatment have different advantages and disadvantages, and selection of treatment is of importance. In principle, we believe that for most patients a subtotal thyroidectomy should be performed after the patient has been rendered euthyroid by antithyroid drugs. We attempt to leave a thyroid remnant of 6 to 8 gm.36 references.

  3. Radiation therapy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, M.W.; Leone, C.R. Jr.; Janaki, L.

    1983-08-01

    We used radiation therapy (a total of 2,000 rads) to treat 14 patients (three men and 11 women, ranging in age from 27 to 72 years) with Graves' disease. Three of these patients had refused to take corticosteroids and the other 11 had failed to respond to them, had experienced side effects, or had other contraindications to their use. After follow-up periods ranging from six months to three years, soft-tissue inflammation was reduced in 13 of the 14 patients. All but two patients showed a decrease in proptosis of 1 to 3 mm. Myopathy showed the least improvement. Although we noted transient eyelid erythema, there were no permanent sequelae and none of the patients has had a recurrence of the inflammation.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erdei, Annamária; Steiber, Zita; Gazdag, Annamária; Bodor, Miklós; Berta, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Szántó, Antónia; Ujhelyi, Bernadett; Barna, Sándor; Berényi, Ervin; Nagy, V Endre

    2016-02-21

    Graves' orbitopathy is the extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, which is the most common cause of exophthalmos. As eye symptoms usually coincide with the development of thyrotoxicosis, the diagnosis of the disease is rarely difficult. The aim of the authors was to summarize the differential diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy based on literature review and presentation of their own four problematic cases on this topic. They conclude that symptoms similar to endocrine orbitopathy are present in other disorders. Endocrinologists need to be aware of these other conditions to avoid treatment failures. PMID:26876268

  5. Medical Treatment of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Campi, I

    2015-09-01

    The medical treatment of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is usually reserved to moderate to severe disease. Steroids have been widely employed and possess anti-inflammatory activity, but about 20-30% of patients are not responsive and about 20% present with disease recurrence. Immunosuppressive therapy alternative to corticosteroids may target the different antigens involved in pathogenic mechanisms of GO. Some have already been employed in clinical studies and showed interesting results, although the lack of randomized and controlled trials suggests caution for their use in clinical practice. Potential targets for therapy in GO are the TSH receptor and the IGF-1 receptor on the fibroblasts, inflammatory cytokines, B and T cells. Most promising results are obtained by interacting with the PIK3/mTORC1 signaling cascades for adipogenesis and the anti-IGF-1R with the monoclonal antibody teprotumumab. A recent open study has shown that tocilizumab, an anti-sIL-6R antibody, inactivates GO. Consistent reports on the efficacy of rituximab have recently been challenged by randomized controlled trials. Clinical practice will greatly benefit from the use of disease modifying agents in GO, as compared to steroids, currently standard treatment for GO. Among these, rituximab may be useful, especially in patients resistant to steroid or with contraindications to steroids. However, larger randomized controlled trials are needed for definitive data on the potential disease-modifying role of rituximab in GO. Direct targeting of the orbital fibroblast via immunosuppression or nonimmunosuppressive drugs is emerging as a promising alternative. PMID:26361263

  6. 78 FR 16295 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Meeting AGENCY... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix (1988), of a meeting of the Native American... previously noticed in the Federal Register (77 FR 53228-53229, August 31, 2012), to occur on May 22-23,...

  7. [Neonatal hyperthyroidism and maternal Graves disease].

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, K; Chioukh, F Z; Marmouch, H; Ben Hamida, H; Bizid, M; Monastiri, K

    2015-04-01

    The onset of Graves disease during pregnancy exposes the neonate to the risk of hyperthyroidism. The newborn must be monitored and treatment modalities known to ensure early treatment of the newborn. We report on the case of an infant born at term of a mother with Graves disease discovered during pregnancy. He was asymptomatic during the first days of life, before declaring the disease. Neonatal hyperthyroidism was confirmed by hormonal assays. Hyperthyroidism was treated with antithyroid drugs and propranolol with a satisfactory clinical and biological course. Neonatal hyperthyroidism should be systematically sought in infants born to a mother with Graves disease. The absence of clinical signs during the first days of life does not exclude the diagnosis. The duration of monitoring should be decided according to the results of the first hormonal balance tests. PMID:25727474

  8. Compilation of Projects Addressing the Early Childhood Provisions of IDEA: Discretionary Projects Supported by the Office of Special Education Programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Fiscal Year, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Armijo, Caroline; Hipps, Cherie; Kraus, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This directory contains 262 discretionary projects addressing the early childhood provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It was compiled from four volumes separately published by the ERIC/OSEP Special Project. The discretionary grants and contracts authorized by the 1997 Amendments to the IDEA are administered by the…

  9. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  10. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 9/-9..mu..Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  11. Finding the Heartbeat: Applying Donald Graves's Approaches and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshewa, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Donald Graves's early professional books inspired Koshewa to look more deeply into student writing during the 1980s, and to value all phases of the writing process. Graves's perspective on uncovering and celebrating voice elevated Koshewa's writing instruction to a new plane. In this article, he writes about the impact that Donald Graves's work…

  12. Unusual Manifestation of Graves' Disease: Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Haketa, Akira; Abe, Masanori; Tahira, Kazunobu; Hatanaka, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Sho; Ueno, Takahiro; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that thyrotoxicosis causes rhythm disorders including sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in thyrotoxicosis, occurring in 5-15% of patients over 60 years of age, whereas ventricular arrhythmia is an unusual manifestation. Case Report An 18-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our emergency department because of loss of consciousness caused by ventricular fibrillation. She had been diagnosed with Graves' disease only 5 days earlier and had no other past medical history. Blood examination showed no obvious abnormality except thyrotoxicosis, and coronary angiography revealed patent coronary arteries. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm due to Graves' disease and is currently healthy during outpatient follow-up. Conclusion This case highlights that thyrotoxicosis can, albeit extremely rarely, cause ventricular fibrillation even in the absence of hypokalemia or underlying cardiovascular disease. PMID:26558239

  13. Global reference analysis and visualization environment (GRAVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Todd K.; Cochand, Jeffrey A.; Sivak, Joseph A.

    1993-03-01

    The Global Reference Analysis and Visualization Environment (GRAVE) is a research prototype multimedia system that manages a diverse variety of data types and presents them to the user in a format that is geographically referenced ton the surface of a globe. When the user interacts with the globe, the system automatically manages the `level-of-detail' issues to support these user actions (allowing flexible functionality without sacrificing speed or information content). To manage the complexity of the presentation of the (visual) information to the user, data instantiations may be represented in an iconified format. When the icons are picked, or selected, the data `reveal' themselves in their `native' format. Object-oriented programming and data type constructs were employed, allowing a single`look and feel' to be presented to the user for the different media types. GRAVE currently supports the following data types: imagery (from various sources of differing resolution, coverage, and projection); elevation data (from DMA and USGS); physical simulation results (atmospherics, geological, hydrologic); video acquisitions; vector data (geographical, political boundaries); and textual reports. GRAVE was developed in the Application Visualization System (AVS) Visual Programming Environment (VPE); as such it is easily modifiable and reconfigurable, supporting the integration of new processing techniques/approaches as they become available or are developed.

  14. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Endocrine dilemma: management of Graves' orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Campi, Irene; Vannucchi, Guia; Salvi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) must be based on the correct assessment of activity and severity of the disease. Activity is usually assessed with the Clinical Activity Score, whereas severity is classified according to a European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) consensus statement as mild, moderate-to-severe, and sight-threatening. Myopathic and chronic congestive forms are uncommon clinical presentations of GO. Restoration and maintenance of stable euthyroidism are recommended in the presence of GO.In moderate-to-severe disease, steroids have been widely employed and have shown to possess an anti-inflammatory activity, but about 20-30% of patients are not responsive and present recurrence. Some novel immunosuppressors have already been employed in clinical studies and have shown interesting results, although the lack of randomized and controlled trials suggests caution for their use in clinical practice. Potential targets for therapy in GO are the thyroid-stimulating hormone and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor on the fibroblasts, inflammatory cytokines, B and T cells, and the PIK3/mTORC1 signaling cascades for adipogenesis. A recent open study has shown that tocilizumab, an anti-sIL-6R antibody, inactivates GO. Consistent reports on the efficacy of rituximab have recently been challenged by randomized controlled trials.As the main goal of treatment is the well-being of the patient, the therapeutic strategy should be addressed to better suit the patient needs, more than improving one or more biological parameters. The increasing availability of new therapies will expand the therapeutic options for GO patients and allow the clinician to really personalize the treatment to better suit the patients' personal needs. PMID:27032693

  15. Graves' disease. Manifestations and therapeutic options

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, K.F.; Saleeby, G.

    1988-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Clinical features include thyroid enlargement, eye signs, tachycardia, heat intolerance, emotional lability, weight loss, and hyperkinesis. Three modes of therapy are available. The preferences of the patient and physician are usually prime considerations in devising the therapeutic plan. Radioactive iodine is the most frequently used and safest method of treatment for adults. Antithyroid drugs are preferred for children and pregnant women. Surgery is usually reserved for patients in whom the other forms of treatment are not acceptable. Considerable patient education during the decision-making process enhances the success of the therapeutic plan.

  16. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  17. [Graves’ orbitopathy in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Mendoza F, Carolina; Lacourt R, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is rare in pediatric patients, however is the most common extrathyroid manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD), being present in 30-67% of patients. GO is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder involving orbital connective and fatty tissues as well as the extraocular muscles. In children, GO is less common and less severe than in adults. The most common symptoms are upper eyelid retraction, conjunctival injection, and proptosis and periorbital edema. Severe complications include dysthyroid optic neuropathy, corneal ulceration and eyeball subluxation. The diagnosis is established by clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. There are no management guidelines for GO in children but adult recommendations include the assessment of clinical activity and its severity, to implement the best treatment. Supportive therapies are intended to relieve symptoms and prevent corneal damage in mild cases. Tobacco exposure should also be avoided. The first line of treatment is systemic administration of corticosteroids in active and severe cases. Other options as somatostatin use and retrobulbar radiation have not been used in children, therefore their use is not recommended. PMID:26436933

  18. Genetics of Graves' disease: the lost concept.

    PubMed

    Sibarani, Roy Panusunan

    2009-01-01

    A key issue of Really Significant Genes (RSG) that caused Graves Disease is unresolved. RSGs are considered likely major contributors to genetic risk for a disease. These genes should be strongly linked within families and they could become clinically useful as predictors of disease. Some Graves Disease susceptibility genes have been identified. The first identified was the Human-Leucocyte-Antigen DR (HLA-DR) gene locus, then a non-HLA genes as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4), CD40, protein tyrosine phosphatase-22 (PTPN22), thyroglobulin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene. The sites observed in different populations were not always the same. With the completion of the HapMap, which provided the geography of thousands single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the search of more minor associated genes started again although studies never revealed stronger candidates, meanwhile, the role of the environment in disease development remains poorly understood. The importance of the environment with the mechanisms involved including genetic factors is needed to be decided. PMID:19258680

  19. Therapeutic use of conservatorship in the treatment of gravely disabled psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H R; Weinberger, L E

    1993-02-01

    In California conservatorship is a legal mechanism that allows an individual or agency (the conservator) to act on behalf of a gravely disabled mentally ill person (the conservatee) to determine what arrangements are necessary to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, and treatment, including hospitalization when indicated. Conservatorship can play an important role in clinical management and treatment, particularly if the gravely disabled person does not have close family involvement and support, as case histories indicate. The benefits of conservatorship can be greatly enhanced by combining it with case management. When family members are appointed as conservators, skilled clinical staff can help them use the leverage of conservatorship therapeutically. By giving up some of their freedom, many conservatees who would ordinarily need to be hospitalized for long periods are able to retain most of their independence and their community status. PMID:8432498

  20. 75 FR 65030 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Native American Graves Protection and... nominations for two members of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee....

  1. 75 FR 13140 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Native American Graves Protection and... nominations for one member of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee....

  2. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase leukocyte overexpression in Graves' opthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Budny, Bartłomiej; Zybek-Kocik, Ariadna; Sowiński, Jerzy; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of NAMPT/visfatin in euthyroid patients with Graves' disease without (GD) and with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), we analyzed NAMPT leukocyte expression and its serum concentration. This was a single-center, cross-sectional study with consecutive enrollment. In total, 149 patients diagnosed with Graves' disease were enrolled in the study. We excluded subjects with hyper- or hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, other autoimmune disorders, active neoplastic disease, and infection. The control group was recruited among healthy volunteers adjusted for age, sex, and BMI with normal thyroid function and negative thyroid antibodies. Serum levels of visfatin, TSH, FT4, FT3, antibodies against TSH receptor (TRAb), antithyroperoxidase antibodies, antithyroglobulin antibodies, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured. NAMPT mRNA leukocyte expression was assessed using RT-qPCR. NAMPT/visfatin serum concentration was higher in GD (n = 44) and GO (n = 49) patients than in the control group (n = 40) (p = 0.0275). NAMPT leukocyte expression was higher in patients with GO (n = 30) than in GD patients (n = 27) and the control group (n = 29) (p < 0.0001). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that NAMPT/visfatin serum concentration was significantly associated with GD (β = 1.5723; p = 0.021). When NAMPT leukocyte expression was used as a dependent variable, simple regression analysis found association with TRAb, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, GD, and GO. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we confirmed the association between higher serum NAMPT/visfatin level and GD (coefficient = 1.5723; p = 0.0212), and between NAMPT leukocyte expression and GO (coefficient = 2.4619; p = 0.0001) and TRAb (coefficient = 0.08742; p = 0.006). Increased NAMPT leukocyte expression in patients with GO might suggest a presently undefined role in the pathogenesis of GO. PMID:26767650

  3. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  4. Predictive Factors of Development of Graves' Ophthalmopathy for Patients with Juvenile Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Jasinskas, Vytautas; Jankauskiene, Jurate

    2016-01-01

    Background. Due to low incidence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) among children, the manifestation is poorly analyzed, posing a risk to late identification of insidious disease. Purposes. To identify predictive factors that may influence the development of GO in pediatric and young patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods. A cross-sectional study of patients newly diagnosed with pediatric or juvenile GD during 2002–2012 was conducted at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Ocular evaluation was based on European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy survey. The ocular manifestations were analyzed in relation to demographic, environmental, and clinical factors. Results. In total, 130 patients with juvenile GD were included; 29.2% had GO. Median age at GD onset was 17 yrs (IQR 4–29). Main symptoms of GO were eyelids retraction (73.7%), proptosis (65.8%), injection of conjunctiva (42.1%), and eyeball motility disturbance (21.1%). Major significant and independent risk factors for GO development were high initial concentration of FT4 (OR = 5.963), TTHAb (OR = 6.358), stress (OR = 6.030), and smoking (OR = 7.098). Conclusion. The major factors that could influence GO development were smoking, stress, and increased levels of initial TRAb, FT4. Slight proptosis, retraction of eyelids, and conjunctive injection were found as predominant ophthalmological symptoms in juvenile GO. PMID:27413373

  5. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  7. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  8. Confessions of a Wannabe (American Folklore Society Presidential Invited Plenary Address, October 2009).

    PubMed

    Welsch, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a written rendering of a plenary address delivered at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Folklore Society. Drawing on materials from his forthcoming book Confessions of a Wannabe, the author provides a personal account of the deeply emotional sense of responsibility, obligation, and reciprocity involved in long-term ethnographic research among Native American communities, particularly the Omaha and Pawnee tribes of Nebraska. The author details the ways in which personal relations with the people and communities he has observed have shaped his personal and professional life, and he calls into question the ideal of purportedly neutral or distanced ethnography. Details are provided of the author's experiences in converting his farm into an appropriate reburial site for repatriated Pawnee remains recovered under the aegis of the Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act (NAGPRA). PMID:21280353

  9. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Graves' thyrotoxicosis-induced reversible cardiomyopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad S; Aljohani, Naji

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a case of Graves' thyrotoxicosis-induced cardiomyopathy. This is a case of a 26 year old woman that presented with severe symptomatic congestive heart failure and was subsequently diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to Graves' disease. Despite an initial left ventricular systolic ejection fraction of 20% on echocardiography, treatment with anti-thyroid agents led to rapid improvement of her clinical status and normalization of her ejection fraction. The proposed mechanisms underlying the development of systolic dysfunction in thyrotoxicosis are discussed and the literature on similar cases previously reported is highlighted. Cardiomyopathy should be considered even in young patients with Graves' thyrotoxicosis. PMID:23645990

  11. Development of Graves' disease following radiation therapy in Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, J.S.; Tarbell, N.J.; Garber, J.R.; Mauch, P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-related thyroid dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with mantle field radiation. Although chemical and clinical hypothyroidism are most commonly seen, Graves' disease has also been described. We have examined the records of 437 surgically staged patients who received mantle field irradiation between April 1969 and December 1980 to ascertain the frequency of manifestations of Graves' disease. Within this group, seven patients developed hyperthyroidism accompanied by ophthalmic findings typical of those seen in Graves' disease. The actuarial risk of developing Graves' disease at 10 years following mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's disease was 3.3% in female patients and 1% in male patients in this study. The observed/expected ratios were 5.9 and 5.1 for female and male patients, respectively. This observed risk significantly exceeded that seen in the general population.

  12. Graves disease with ophthalmopathy following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.; Fleming, B.J.

    1984-12-01

    The number of patients achieving long-term survival following neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is increasing. Paralleling this increase in survivors is the development of late complications of the therapy itself. Eleven patients have previously been reported who developed Graves ophthalmopathy 18 months to seven years after receiving neck radiotherapy for nonthyroidal malignancies. The seven patients who had HLA typing were all HLA-B8 negative, despite the reported association of the HLA-B8 antigen with Graves disease. A patient who is HLA-B8 positive who developed Graves ophthalmopathy and hyperthyroidism nine years after receiving mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease is reported. It is recommended that Graves disease be included among the thyroid diseases that receive consideration during follow-up of patients who have received mantle radiotherapy.

  13. 1. OVERVIEW WITH WILLIAM MORRIS GRAVE MONUMENT, THE INSCRIPTION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW WITH WILLIAM MORRIS GRAVE MONUMENT, THE INSCRIPTION ON WHICH READS: 'GOD'S FINGER TOUCHED HIM AND HE SLEPT.' - Pratt Mines, Fraternal Cemetery, Crest of Sheridan Road, Irish Hill, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, R M; Imbesi, S; Saitta, S; Campennì, A; Cannavò, S; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions lasting for more than 6 weeks. In about 75% of cases, the underlying causes remain unknown, and the term chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is used to emphasize that wheals develop independently of identified external stimuli. Although CIU affects about 1.0% of the general population, its etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood. It is now widely accepted that in many cases CIU should be regarded as an autoimmune disorder caused by circulating and functionally active IgG autoantibodies specific for the IgE receptor (FceRI) present on mast cells and basophils or for IgE itself. The well-known association of CIU with other autoimmune processes/diseases represents further indirect evidence of its autoimmune origin. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, represent the most frequently investigated diseases in association with CIU. Here we review this topic with particular regard to the association between Graves' disease and CIU. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical implications of such an association are discussed. PMID:23609949

  15. Delineation of graves using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nero, Callistus; Aning, Akwasi Acheampong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Noye, Reginald M.

    2016-03-01

    A suspected old royal cemetery has been surveyed at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus, Kumasi, Ghana using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with the objective of detecting graves in order to make informed decisions with regard to the future use of the area. The survey was conducted on a 10,000 m2 area. Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) was combined with the roll along technique for 51 profiles with 1 m probe separation separated by 2 m. Inverted data results indicated wide resistivity variations ranging between 9.34 Ωm and 600 Ωm in the near surface. Such heterogeneity suggests a disturbance of the soil at this level. Both high (≥ 600 Ωm) and low resistivity (≤ 74.7 Ωm) anomalies, relative to background levels, were identified within the first 4 m of the subsurface. These were suspected to be burial tombs because of their rectangular geometries and resistivity contrasts. The results were validated with forward numerical modeling results. The study area is therefore an old cemetery and should be preserved as a cultural heritage site.

  16. Grave Complication of Pharyngitis: Lemierre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ankit Kumar B.; Patel, Kimmyben; Doshi, Raj Kumar P.; Patel, Narottam A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is the causative agent in the pharyngitis. After invasion of the oropharyngeal mucosa by the organism leads to the development of the grave complications like superficial thrombophlebitis of internal jugular vein, septic emboli in the lung and coagulopathy. A 23-year-old male presented with chief complaints of sore throat, headache and high grade fever with past history of upper respiratory tract infection one month ago. On examination, he had high grade fever, tachycardia, hypotension and tender cervical lymph nodes. Oropharyngeal mucosa appeared ooedematous and congested. Leucocytosis with raised ESR was present. Blood culture positive for Fusobacterium necrophorum. Dilated right IJV with the hypoechoic thrombosis seen on Ultrasonography & Doppler. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Lemierre syndrome secondary to oropharyngeal infection was made. He was treated with intravenous imipenem and metronidazole, and then shifted to oral amoxicillin. After completion of full course of the therapy of 6 weeks, patient was improved clinically and all routine blood investigations were normalized. Blood culture was negative for Fusobacterium necrophorum. No evidence of thrombosis within the right internal jugular vein on Doppler. PMID:26266187

  17. Fly Ash: From Cradle to Grave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Margaret S.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey promotes and supports coal research to improve the understanding of the coal endowment of the United States. This results in geologically based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other federal and state agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, nongovernmental groups, academia, and other scientists. A more integrated approach to our coal quality work involves what we call a 'cradle to grave' approach. These types of studies focus not on just one aspect of the coal but rather on how or where different quality parameters form and (or) occur and what happens to them through the mining, production, transport, utilization and waste disposal process. An extensive suite of coal quality analyses, mineralogical, petrology, and leaching investigations are determined on samples taken from the different phases of the coal utilization process. This report consists of a tutorial that was given on June 10, 2007 at the 32nd International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems, The Power of Coal, Clearwater Coal Conference in Clearwater, Florida, USA. This tutorial covers how these studies are conducted and the importance of providing improved, comprehensive, science-based data sets for policy and decision makers.

  18. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals.

  19. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 uveitis after Graves' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, K; Mochizuki, M; Watanabe, T; Yoshimura, K; Shirao, M; Araki, S; Miyata, N; Mori, S; Kiyokawa, T; Takatsuki, K

    1994-01-01

    A distinct clinical entity of uveitis associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been reported previously. During the period between January 1989 and April 1992, 93 patients were observed with HTLV-I uveitis and a significant correlation was found between Graves' disease and HTLV-I uveitis. Sixteen of the 93 patients with HTLV-I uveitis (17.2%) had a previous history of Graves' disease. Fifteen patients were female (15/60, 25.0%) and one was male (1/33, 3.0%). Interestingly, uveitis occurred after the onset of Graves' disease in all cases. On the other hand, none of 222 patients with idiopathic uveitis who were seronegative to HTLV-I had a history of Graves' disease. Although the mechanisms by which HTLV-I causes the correlation between uveitis and Graves' disease are unknown, the present data suggest that immune mediated or autoimmune mechanisms are involved in HTLV-I uveitis. Images PMID:8148330

  20. Radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Kalina, R.E.; Brower, S.A.; Mills, R.P.; Johnson, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    Recent reports indicate that orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy is sometimes beneficial, particularly for dysthyroid optic neuropathy, and is not associated with serious complications. We are aware, however, of four patients who were found to have radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Grave's ophthalmopathy. All four patients have decreased central acuity, and three of the four are legally blind in one or both eyes. Computer reconstruction of the dosimetry, based on computed tomography and beam profiles, shows that errors in dosage calculations and radiotherapy technique probably account for the radiation retinopathy in three of the four patients. Radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy should be administered only by competent radiotherapists who are experienced in the treatment of this disease. Similar errors in dosage calculations and treatment techniques may account for other reports of radiation retinopathy after reportedly safe dosages.

  1. [Radioiodine versus surgery in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Stanicić, Josip; Petric, Vlado; Kusić, Zvonko

    2010-01-01

    The most common etiologic cause of thyrotoxicosis in children and adults is autoimmune Graves' (Basedow's) disease. Antithyroid medications, surgery and radioactive iodine have been used in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism for more than six decades. The use of antithyroid drugs is the most common therapeutic approach. However, long-term remission with antithyroid drugs can be expected in 20-50% of adults and 20-30% of children. The methods for definitive treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism are iodine-131 (radioiodine) and surgery. Both treatment modalities have benefits and risks and the decision is made according to the age, patient preference and the presence of other co-morbidities, individual characteristics of patients and the availability of certain treatment modality. Radioiodine is simple, safe, effective and economic procedure for definitive treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism. It is administered ambulatory and can be given to the patient in thyrotoxicosis. Due to many benefits, radioiodine is preferred in most of the adult patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism while only small proportion of patients is sent to surgery. Radioiodine is especially the treatment of choice in elderly patients and patients with heart disease. In these patients radioiodine is indicated immediately after reaching euthyroidism with antithyroid drugs. Surgery is mainly indicated in younger patients, in the case of patient preference or in special indications. Clear indications for surgical treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism are: suspected or confirmed malignancy, coexisting pathology that demands surgical treatment, pregnancy and breastfeeding, large goiter (> 80 grams) or goiter with symptoms and signs of compression, severe toxic side effects of antithyroid medications, requirement for immediate control of disease, age younger than 5 years and active ophtalmopathy. The risk of surgical treatment is negatively correlated with the surgeon's experience and nowadays

  2. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  3. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  4. Advances in the pharmacological treatment of Graves' orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruchała, Marek; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Graves' orbitopathy has a deteriorating effect on patients' appearance and vision, thus significantly decreases their quality of life. A multidisciplinary team of endocrinologists, ophthalmologists, head and neck surgeons, nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, and psychologists should constitute a standard health care team for those patients. It is vital that the therapy is based on an individual approach, with patients being well informed and involved in the decision-making process. Generally, traditional therapies include immunosuppression with steroids, orbital irradiation and surgical decompression. Novel treatment modalities include: biological agents, somatostatin analogs, antioxidants, methotrexate. Better insight into pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy is the only chance for targeted therapy development. PMID:26966785

  5. Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings

    SciTech Connect

    Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

    1982-02-01

    Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  6. 75 FR 32538 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Sunshine Act Meeting Notice June 10, 2010. The TVA Board of Directors will hold a public meeting on June 10, 2010, at Lane College, Graves Auditorium, 545 Lane Avenue, Jackson, Tennessee 38301, to consider the matters listed below. The public...

  7. Current perspectives on the role of orbital fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Dik, Willem A; Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an extra-thyroidal complication of Graves' disease (GD; Graves' hyperthyroidism) characterized by orbital tissue inflammation, expansion, remodeling and fibrosis. Although the initiating trigger of GO is still indistinct, excessive orbital fibroblast activity is at the heart of its pathogenesis. Orbital fibroblasts are activated by cellular interactions with immune cells and the soluble factors they secrete. Orbital fibroblasts, especially from GO patients, express the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-receptor; TSHR), and activation of the orbital fibroblast population by stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the TSHR may provide an important link between GD and GO. Furthermore, stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor have been proposed to contribute to orbital fibroblast activation in GO. Activated orbital fibroblasts produce inflammatory mediators thereby contributing to the orbital inflammatory process in GO. Moreover, orbital fibroblasts exhibit robust proliferative activity and extracellular matrix (especially hyaluronan) synthesizing capacity and can differentiate into adipocytes and myofibroblasts with disease progression, thereby contributing to tissue expansion/remodeling and fibrosis in GO. Orbital fibroblasts, especially those from GO patients, exhibit a hyper-responsive phenotype when compared to fibroblasts from other anatomical regions, which may further contribute to GO pathogenesis. Fibrocytes have been identified as additional source of orbital fibroblasts in GO, where they may contribute to orbital tissue inflammation, adipogenesis and remodeling/fibrosis. This review addresses our current view on the role that orbital fibroblasts fulfill in GO pathogenesis and both established as well as less established not fully crystallized concepts that need future studies will be discussed. PMID:26675405

  8. 77 FR 65406 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of Nomination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of.... SUMMARY: The National Park Service is soliciting nominations for one member of the Native American Graves... nominations submitted by Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and traditional Native...

  9. 77 FR 12875 - Proposed Information Collection; Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation... Number ``1024- 0144, Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Regulations'' in the subject line... entire ICR package free of charge. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Native American...

  10. 78 FR 22292 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of Nomination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of.... SUMMARY: The National Park Service is soliciting nominations for one member of the Native American Graves... nominations submitted by Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and traditional Native...

  11. Reduced myo-inositol and total choline measured with cerebral MRS in acute thyrotoxic Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Elberling, T V; Danielsen, E R; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Waldemar, G; Thomsen, C

    2003-01-14

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute thyrotoxic phase of Graves' disease suggest involvement of brain processes. Short-echo-time proton MRS was used to measure the cerebral metabolite profile in newly diagnosed and untreated Graves' disease. Sixteen patients with Graves' disease and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were studied. The patients had significantly reduced total choline and myo-inositol in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis compared with the healthy volunteers. PMID:12525741

  12. Graves' Disease Associated with Cerebrovascular Disease and Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khochtali, Ines; Hamza, Nadia; Gassab, Elyes; Baba, Asma; Kacem, Maha; Frih, Mahbouba; Mahjoub, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are commonly associated with coagulopathy. Patients with hyperthyroidism have increased risk for developing thromboembolic accidents, which are favoured by a simultaneous presence of antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome. in this paper, we describe the case of a patient with Graves' disease, who developed strokes with antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome. PMID:20862345

  13. 1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOMBSTONES, STATUES AND GRAVE PLOTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOMBSTONES, STATUES AND GRAVE PLOTS OF THE DUCHOCK, MOSKO, BENKO AND OTHER FAMILIES OF THIS FORMER COAL MINING AREA SETTLED BY CZECH AND SLAVIC MINERS IN THE 1880S AND 1890S - St. Michael's Cemetery, Brookside Road, Brookside, Jefferson County, AL

  14. [Radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease: problems and new developments].

    PubMed

    Reiners, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    In Germany, patients with Graves' disease are usually treated with radioiodine after unsuccessful antithyroid drug medication, occurrence of side effects from antithyroid drugs or an increased risk from surgery. In patients with normal or only slightly enlarged thyroid glands (volume < or = 50 ml), radioiodine therapy is particularly effective. Radioiodine is the preferential treatment for Graves' patients with high titres of TSH-receptor antibodies and cigarette smoking. Children are still rarely treated with radioiodine in Germany. In contrast, treatment with radioiodine should be more liberally applied in elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiac symptoms. Individual dosimetry to determine the therapeutic activity is mandatory in Germany. Patients with large goitres obviously need higher organ doses than patients with smaller goitres or normal thyroid glands. Antithyroid drug treatment may interfere with radioiodine therapy. Therefore, it is recommendable to withdraw antithyroid drugs several days before treatment with radioiodine is initiated (and a preceding radioiodine uptake test is performed). In patients with Graves' orbitopathy prophylaxis with corticosteroids can prevent the worsening of symptoms that may be induced by radioiodine treatment. Currently, a risk adapted procedure is recommended according to which prophylactic medication with corticosteroids before applying radioiodine treatment is not necessary in patients with symptoms of orbitopathy and lack of other risk factors (cigarette smoking, in particular). Present results suggest that the risks of radioiodine treatment in Graves' disease patients are very low, while at the same time the cost-effectiveness of this treatment regimen is high. PMID:15255314

  15. Time-lapse geophysical investigations over a simulated urban clandestine grave.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John; Cassella, John P; Cassidy, Nigel J

    2008-11-01

    A simulated clandestine shallow grave was created within a heterogeneous, made-ground, urban environment where a clothed, plastic resin, human skeleton, animal products, and physiological saline were placed in anatomically correct positions and re-covered to ground level. A series of repeat (time-lapse), near-surface geophysical surveys were undertaken: (1) prior to burial (to act as control), (2) 1 month, and (3) 3 months post-burial. A range of different geophysical techniques was employed including: bulk ground resistivity and conductivity, fluxgate gradiometry and high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR), soil magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and self potential (SP). Bulk ground resistivity and SP proved optimal for initial grave location whilst ERT profiles and GPR horizontal "time-slices" showed the best spatial resolutions. Research suggests that in complex urban made-ground environments, initial resistivity surveys be collected before GPR and ERT follow-up surveys are collected over the identified geophysical anomalies. PMID:18808369

  16. Les trois accents: aigu, grave et circonflexe (2e partie) (The Three Accents: Acute, Grave and Circumflex. 2nd Part).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csecsy, Madeleine

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the correspondence between French phonology and spelling with regard to the role of accents. Refers the reader to the first part of the essay (n162, Jul 1981), then analyzes vowel harmony, free variation, the diacritic function of the grave accent, and the etymologic function of the circumflex accent. (MES)

  17. Long-acting stimulants for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on extended-release formulations and the prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to address continuing clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Frank A; Leroux, Jacques R

    2013-09-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show pervasive impairments across family, peer, and school or work functioning that may extend throughout the day. Psychostimulants are highly effective medications for the treatment of ADHD, and the development of long-acting stimulant formulations has greatly expanded the treatment options for individuals with ADHD. Strategies for the formulation of long-acting stimulants include the combination of immediate-release and delayed-release beads, and an osmotic-release oral system. A recent development is the availability of the first prodrug stimulant, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). LDX itself is inactive but is cleaved enzymatically, primarily in the bloodstream, to release d-amphetamine (d-AMP). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that long-acting stimulants are effective in reducing ADHD symptoms compared with placebo. Analog classroom and simulated adult workplace environment studies have shown that long-acting stimulants produce symptom reduction for at least 12 h. Long-acting stimulants exhibit similar tolerability and safety profiles to short-acting equivalents. While variations in gastric pH and motility can alter the availability and absorption of stimulants released from long-acting formulations, the systemic exposure to d-AMP following LDX administration is unlikely to be affected by gastrointestinal conditions. Long-acting formulations may also improve adherence and lower abuse potential compared with their short-acting counterparts. The development of long-acting stimulants provides physicians with an increased range of medication options to help tailor treatment for individuals with ADHD. PMID:23564273

  18. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  19. Sudden unexpected death due to Graves' disease during physical altercation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dengming; Yuan, Xiaogang; Yang, Tiantong; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Xiang; Burke, Allen; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. PMID:23919315

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Graves Property - Yakama Nation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Graves property (140 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also documented the general ecological condition of the property. The Graves property was significantly damaged from past/present livestock grazing practices. Baseline HEP surveys generated 284.28 habitat units (HUs) or 2.03 HUs per acre. Of these, 275.50 HUs were associated with the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type while 8.78 HUs were tied to the riparian shrub cover type.

  1. Drug-induced graves disease from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary; Hinkle, David M; Cia, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, useful for treatment of metastatic melanoma, blocks CTLA-4 mediated T-cell suppression and can also cause a Graves ophthalmopathy like syndrome. Epidemiologic study has linked variant polymorphisms of CTLA-4 receptor gene to the presence of thyroid eye disease. The combination of these observations suggests CTLA-4 mediated T-cell functions are important to the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated eye disease. PMID:21242854

  2. Treatment of Graves' disease and the course of ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Sridama, V.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    Contradictory results have been obtained with regards to the effect of various treatment modes on the exacerbation of Graves' ophthalmopathy, probably because the number of patients in each study was small and some studies were analyzed only in relation to one type of treatment. To circument these problems, we studied the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy after various modes of therapy for thyrotoxicosis among 537 patients with Graves' disease. A total of 537 patients with Graves' disease were prospectively studied over an 11-year period. Thirty-one patients were lost to follow-up during the first six months after treatment and were excluded from the study. Of those remaining, 426 received one form of treatment, 79 received two kinds of therapy, and one received three kinds of therapy. Thus, surgical treatments numbered 164, radioactive iodine-131 (/sup 13/1I) treatments numbered 241, and medical treatments numbered 182. Ocular signs were considered improved or exacerbated by the following criteria: decrement or increment of the exophthalmos of 2 mm or more, improvement or deterioration of visual acuity, and regression or progression of extraocular muscle involvement causing diplopia. Among patients who did not have infiltrative ophthalmopathy before treatment, there was no difference in the occurrence of posttreatment exophthalmos in the surgically, medically, and 131I-treated patients (7.1%, 6.7%, and 4.9%, respectively). The incidence and the degree of progression of ophthalmopathy in patients who already had exophthalmos before treatment were similar in the medically, surgically, and 131I-treated groups (19.2%, 19.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Most of the progression occurred in the posttreatment euthyroid stage. The incidence of improvement of ophthalmopathy was also similar 14.1%, 12.6%, and 12.3% in the medically, surgically, and 131I-treated patients.

  3. Treatment options in the young patient with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Bliss, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The treatment options in the young patient with Graves' disease are the same as in adults, namely antithyroid drug (ATD), surgery (partial or total thyroidectomy) and radioiodine. However, the emphasis and expectation is different in the young person, reflecting a range of considerations including age, pubertal status, disease natural history, likely impact of ATD on disease course and the implications of radiation exposure. New therapeutic strategies that could increase the likelihood of long-term remission are being explored. PMID:26252256

  4. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    John, Mathew; Sundrarajan, Rajasree; Gomadam, S Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU) either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD) treatment of Graves' disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves's disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences. PMID:25932387

  5. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  6. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  7. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  8. [Corticosteroids and radiotherapy in the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Nasr, Elie; Khater, Sherine; Nehme-Nasr, Dolly; Azoury, Fares; Jambart, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is a debilitating disease impairing the quality of life of affected individuals. The management of moderate-to-severe active Graves' ophthalmopathy is a major therapeutic challenge, and the treatment outcome is often unsatisfactory. We have carried out a retrospective study to assess the efficacy of combined orbital irradiation and systemic corticosteroids. Ten patients were included; all patients had received 20 Grays to the retrobulbar tissues in ten fractions, and oral or intravenous glucocorticoids. The main therapeutic outcome measures were the criteria of Donaldson and co-workers and a self-assessment evaluation. The quality of life outcome was also evaluated by the GO-QOL (Graves' ophthalmopathy quality of life) questionnaire. Seven patients (70%) demonstrated improvement in ocular parameters; the response was excellent in three cases, good in three cases and fair in one case. Three patients showed no response to the treatment. The self-assessment evaluation showed that 75% of patients were satisfied with the results of the treatment. Proptosis was the most responsive sign to radiation and steroids. A duration of the eye disease of more than 18 months was associated with less improvement and a higher failure of the treatment. Concerning the quality of life, the score for visual fonctionning was 882 +/- 18.2 after treatment, while the score for appearance was 63.3 +/- 23.3. In conclusion, a combination of orbital irradiation and systemic steroids is associated with 70% of favorable responses, but the quality of life is not restored in the same proportions and remains impaired after treatment. PMID:20549894

  9. Detection of single graves by airborne hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, G; Kalacska, M; Soffer, R

    2014-12-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was assessed as a potential tool to locate single grave sites. While airborne HSI has shown to be useful to locate mass graves, it is expected the location of single graves would be an order of magnitude more difficult due to the smaller size and reduced mass of the targets. Two clearings were evaluated (through a blind test) as potential sites for containing at least one set of buried remains. At no time prior to submitting the locations of the potential burial sites from the HSI were the actual locations of the sites released or shared with anyone from the analysis team. The two HSI sensors onboard the aircraft span the range of 408-2524nm. A range of indicators that exploit the narrow spectral and spatial resolutions of the two complimentary HSI sensors onboard the aircraft were calculated. Based on the co-occurrence of anomalous pixels within the expected range of the indicators three potential areas conforming to our underlying assumptions of the expected spectral responses (and spatial area) were determined. After submission of the predicted burial locations it was revealed that two of the targets were located within GPS error (10m) of the true burial locations. Furthermore, due to the history of the TPOF site for burial work, investigation of the third target is being considered in the near future. The results clearly demonstrate promise for hyperspectral imaging to aid in the detection of buried remains, however further work is required before these results can justifiably be used in routine scenarios. PMID:25447169

  10. Graves disease associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Bansal, A S; Hayman, G R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is well known to be associated with antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and autoimmune thyroiditis. Coexisting Graves disease has only rarely been observed. We describe 2 patients with CIU who developed autoimmune hyperthyroidism with antithyrotropin receptor antibodies. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were also present in 1 of the patients, but both responded poorly to high-dose antihistamine therapy. Both patients improved significantly, and their thyroid function recovered with carbimazole. We advise clinicians to be alert to the symptoms of hyperthyroidism when patients with CIU respond poorly to antihistamine therapy, as prompt treatment of hyperthyroidism significantly improves urticaria. PMID:19274930

  11. 8 CFR 265.1 - Reporting change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting change of address. 265.1 Section... ADDRESS § 265.1 Reporting change of address. Except for those exempted by section 263(b) of the Act, all aliens in the United States required to register under section 262 of the Act must report each change...

  12. 8 CFR 265.1 - Reporting change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting change of address. 265.1 Section... ADDRESS § 265.1 Reporting change of address. Except for those exempted by section 263(b) of the Act, all aliens in the United States required to register under section 262 of the Act must report each change...

  13. [Medico-legal opinion in establishing "exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health"].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of competence of the forensic expert opinions on the exposure to "direct danger of death or grave detriment to health". According to the analysis of judicial verdicts and the comments of lawyers "direct danger" depends closely on the probability, time and number of occurrences between the behavior of the perpetrator and the threatening act. The competence of the forensic expert does not allow for the legal qualification of the act but for the assessment of from the medicolegal point of view, defining the threat and possible outcomes in a descriptive fashion. The assessment of "direct danger" should be the result of close cooperation between the judicial representative and forensic expert. PMID:15984124

  14. Graves' Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Barrio-Barrio, Jesús; Sabater, Alfonso L.; Bonet-Farriol, Elvira; Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Galofré, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3–7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified “GO activity assessment checklist” for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients. PMID:26351570

  15. Graves orbitopathy: correlation of CT and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Belkin, R I; Neigel, J M; Rootman, J; Robertson, W D; Spinelli, J; Graeb, D A

    1990-12-01

    The clinical and high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) findings in 71 patients (142 orbits) with Graves orbitopathy and 20 healthy patients (40 orbits) were retrospectively reviewed. The orbits with orbitopathy were subgrouped at clinical examination into those with (n = 18) and those without (n = 124) optic neuropathy. Mean extraocular muscle diameters and the calculated muscle diameter index were significantly increased in all orbits with ophthalmopathy, particularly in those with optic neuropathy. Graves orbitopathy affected the superior muscle group (63.4%) more than the medial (61.3%) or inferior (57%) recti. The most common pattern of muscle involvement involved all five measured extraocular muscles. Solitary muscle involvement most frequently involved the superior muscle group (6.3%). Significant enlargements of the retrobulbar optic nerve sheath and superior ophthalmic vein were noted only in orbits with optic neuropathy. Anterior displacement of the lacrimal gland at CT correlated with clinical palpability and occurred more frequently in patients with optic neuropathy. Severe apical crowding was the most sensitive indication of optic neuropathy at CT. PMID:2243967

  16. Radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism in Graves' disease: factors associated

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnien, A.J.; Hay, I.D.; Gorman, C.A.; Offord, K.P.; Scanlon, P.W.

    1982-11-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of the records of 454 patients who received their first /sup 131/I treatment for Graves' disease during six periods covering 1951 to 1978. In the earliest group, 3% of patients were hypothyroid 3 mo after /sup 131/I use, and 40% were hypothyroid at 1 yr. In the most recent group, 36% of patients were hypothyroid at 3 mo and 91% were myxedematous at 1 yr. Although no obvious trends were noted, whether in the number of patients pretreated with thionamide drugs, in the mean 24-hr /sup 131/I uptake, or in the calculated dose of /sup 131/I (muCi/estimated gram of thyroid tissue) during the years of the study, the initial mean dose of /sup 131/I administered increased from 8.1 mCi in the earliest group to 13.8 mCi in the latest group. Concurrently, estimates of gland size increased from a mean of 26 g in the first group to 43 g in the last. If, in patients with Graves' disease, the thyroid gland size did not truly increase during the years of the study, the increasing occurrence of early hypothyroidism seen after /sup 131/I use may reflect the conscious or unconscious decision to use larger doses of /sup 131/I calculated on the basis of inflated estimates of thyroid gland weight.

  17. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  18. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  19. Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves' orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Allan C. Pieroni; Gebrim, Eloísa M. M. S.; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy is primarily made clinically based on laboratory tests indicative of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity, imaging studies, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and color Doppler imaging, play an important role both in the diagnosis and follow-up after clinical or surgical treatment of the disease. Imaging studies can be used to evaluate morphological abnormalities of the orbital structures during the diagnostic workup when a differential diagnosis versus other orbital diseases is needed. Imaging may also be useful to distinguish the inflammatory early stage from the inactive stage of the disease. Finally, imaging studies can be of great help in identifying patients prone to develop dysthyroid optic neuropathy and therefore enabling the timely diagnosis and treatment of the condition, avoiding permanent visual loss. In this paper, we review the imaging modalities that aid in the diagnosis and management of Graves' orbitopathy, with special emphasis on the diagnosis of optic nerve dysfunction in this condition. PMID:23184212

  20. Strategies for Using Information Technology to Improve Institutional Performance: An Interview with William H. Graves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with William H. Graves, a professor emeritus of mathematics at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill. From 1989 to 1997, he also served UNC as senior technology officer (under various titles) and as founder and director of the Institute for Academic Technology. Graves took leave from the…

  1. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bartalena, Luigi; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Eckstein, Anja; Kahaly, George J.; Marcocci, Claudio; Perros, Petros; Salvi, Mario; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Adamidou, Fotini; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Ayvaz, Goksun; Azzolini, Claudio; Boschi, Antonella; Bournaud, Claire; Clarke, Lucy; Currò, Nicola; Daumerie, Chantal; Dayan, Colin; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Konuk, Onur; Marinò, Michele; Morris, Daniel; Nardi, Marco; Pearce, Simon; Pitz, Susanne; Rudovsky, Gottfried; Vannucchi, Guia; Vardanian, Christine; von Arx, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27099835

  2. 77 FR 23196 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... amendments to the regulation concerning: Civil penalties (68 FR 16354, April 3, 2003); Future applicability (72 FR 13189, March 21, 2007); and Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains (75 FR 12378... Department of the Interior (Department) published the initial rules to implement NAGPRA (60 FR...

  3. Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with Graves' disease in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Koeda, Norihiko; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Akiko; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which predominantly affects women, has been associated with various autoimmune diseases. Although hypothyroidism accompanying PBC is well documented, the concomitance of PBC and hyperthyroidism is rare. Herein, we report the case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed with PBC several years after the development of Graves' disease. This is the first case of a male patient developing PBC with Graves' disease. Both serum alanine aminotransferase levels and serum thyroid hormone levels were normalized after the administration of thiamazole for Graves' disease. However, the cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities continued, indicating that the PBC was actualized by the administration of thiamazole. After starting ursodeoxycholic acid treatment, cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities improved. Taken together, when a cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes is observed during follow-up for Graves' disease, an association between Graves' disease and PBC should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26935935

  4. Developing the use of Structure-from-Motion in mass grave documentation.

    PubMed

    Baier, Waltraud; Rando, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Methods for mass-grave documentation have changed markedly since the first forensic investigations nearly 70 years ago. Recently, however, there has been little advancement in developing new and better methodology, especially when compared to other forensic disciplines and even within traditional archaeology. This paper proposes a new approach, using 3D modelling for the documentation and eventual analysis of mass-graves. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which creates digital 3D models from a set of still photographs, was tested on a small, simulated mass grave. The results of this test suggest that the method offers resolution previously unavailable to mass-grave investigators, and facilitates stronger analytical potential than the more traditional methods. Further tests are needed to validate these methods, but these initial findings are promising and their application could enhance our knowledge of mass grave dynamics. PMID:26874051

  5. Radioiodine thyroid ablation in graves' hyperthyroidism: merits and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nwatsock, J F; Taieb, D; Tessonnier, L; Mancini, J; Dong-A-Zok, F; Mundler, O

    2012-01-01

    Ablative approaches using radioiodine are increasingly proposed for the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) but their ophthalmologic and biological autoimmune responses remain controversial and data concerning clinical and biochemical outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) occurrence after radioiodine thyroid ablation in GD. We reviewed 162 patients treated for GD by iodine-131 ((131)I) with doses ranging from 370 to 740 MBq, adjusted to thyroid uptake and sex, over a 6-year period in a tertiary referral center. Collected data were compared for outcomes, including effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT) as primary endpoint, evolution of TRAb, and occurrence of GO as secondary endpoints. The success rate was 88.3% within the first 6 months after the treatment. The RIT failure was increased in the presence of goiter (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-12.0, P = 0.010). The TRAb values regressed with time (r = -0.147; P = 0.042) and patients with a favorable outcome had a lower TRAb value (6.5 ± 16.4 U/L) than those with treatment failure (23.7 ± 24.2 U/L, P < 0.001). At the final status, 48.1% of patients achieved normalization of serum TRAb. GO occurred for the first time in 5 patients (3.7%) who were successfully cured for hyperthyroidism but developed early and prolonged period of hypothyroidism in the context of antithyroid drugs (ATD) intolerance (P = 0.003) and high TRAb level (P = 0.012). On the basis the results of this study we conclude that ablative RIT is effective in eradicating Graves' hyperthyroidism but may be accompanied by GO occurrence, particularly in patients with early hypothyroidism and high pretreatment TRAb and/or ATD intolerance. In these patients, we recommend an early introduction of LT4 to reduce the duration and the degree of the radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism. PMID:22942775

  6. Monitoring controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John J.; Martin, Michael M.

    2012-08-01

    Implementing controlled geophysical research is imperative to understand the variables affecting detection of clandestine graves during real-life forensic searches. This study focused on monitoring two empty control graves (shallow and deep) and six burials containing a small pig carcass (Sus scrofa) representing different burial forensic scenarios: a shallow buried naked carcass, a deep buried naked carcass, a deep buried carcass covered by a layer of rocks, a deep buried carcass covered by a layer of lime, a deep buried carcass wrapped in an impermeable tarpaulin and a deep buried carcass wrapped in a cotton blanket. Multi-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected monthly over a 12-month monitoring period. The research site was a cleared field within a wooded area in a humid subtropical environment, and the soil consisted of a Spodosol, a common soil type in Florida. This study compared 2D GPR reflection profiles and horizontal time slices obtained with both 250 and 500 MHz dominant frequency antennae to determine the utility of both antennae for grave detection in this environment over time. Overall, a combination of both antennae frequencies provided optimal detection of the targets. Better images were noted for deep graves, compared to shallow graves. The 250 MHz antenna provided better images for detecting deep graves, as less non-target anomalies were produced with lower radar frequencies. The 250 MHz antenna also provided better images detecting the disturbed ground. Conversely, the 500 MHz antenna provided better images when detecting the shallow pig grave. The graves that contained a pig carcass with associated grave items provided the best results, particularly the carcass covered with rocks and the carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin. Finally, during periods of increased soil moisture levels, there was increased detection of graves that was most likely related to conductive decompositional fluid from the carcasses.

  7. [The necklace from the 660 grave in Megara Iblea].

    PubMed

    Verger, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the 660 grave in Megara Iblea, a Greek colony in Sicily, in which a woman has been buried. On her breast a magnificent neckless was found, made of amulets recalling the travel of the sun during the summer solstice. Some objects allude to solar cults (a cock; round pendants), others seem to came from Gallia and Macedonia (summer far West and East), others recall archeological contexts such as tombs in Marvinci, in the Vardar Valley, and allude to relations with female practices of medicine and magic and to female roles characterized by extraordinary powers, due to being descendants of the Sun god. These solar symbols, joint with the discovery of many little objects, typical of children burials, allow to hypotize a relation with the cult of Mater Matuta and seem to point out a difficult or anomalous pregnancy or birth. PMID:21941988

  8. Bifocal orbital and nasopharyngeal amyloidomas presenting as Graves disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert Y; Chapman, William B; Witterick, Ian J; Deangelis, Dan D

    2011-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with a slowly progressive left hyperglobus, left infraduction deficit, bilateral lower eyelid retraction, and dysphagia. He had a notable chin-down head position, diplopia in primary position, and 3 mm of left proptosis. He had been diagnosed with Graves disease 3 years before presentation. CT scans showed enlargement of the left inferior and medial rectus muscles with associated stranding of the retrobulbar fat and a low-density heterogeneous mass in the left aspect of the neck protruding in the nasopharynx. Biopsies of the orbit and nasopharynx revealed focal areas of amyloid. This represents the first report of bifocal amyloidomas of the orbit and nasopharynx. PMID:21178798

  9. Outcome Prediction of Treatment of Graves' Hyperthyroidism with Antithyroid Drugs.

    PubMed

    Piantanida, E; Lai, A; Sassi, L; Gallo, D; Spreafico, E; Tanda, M L; Bartalena, L

    2015-09-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas and is ultimately due to antibodies interacting with the TSH receptor on thyroid follicular cells [TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb)]. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) belonging to the family of thionamides are the first-line treatment in Europe. ATD treatment is commonly continued for 18-24 months. Its major limitation is the high rate of relapses after drug withdrawal. Factors particularly bound to subsequent relapses are the large thyroid volume, smoking habit, persistence of TRAb in the circulation at the end of treatment, and the post-partum period. Under these conditions, consideration should be given to a definitive therapy for hyperthyroidism (radioiodine treatment, thyroidectomy), particularly if the patient is at risk of cardiovascular complications that might be exacerbated by persistence or recurrence of hyperthyroidism. PMID:26197855

  10. Association between Polymorphisms in the TSHR Gene and Graves' Orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Ploski, Rafal; Kula, Dorota; Szymanski, Konrad; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Ambroziak, Urszula; Hasse-Lazar, Kornelia; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Kolosza, Zofia; Jarzab, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves' orbitopathy (GO) as well as Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism originate from an autoimmune reaction against the common auto-antigen, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). GO phenotype is associated with environmental risk factors, mainly nicotinism, as well as genetic risk factors which initiate an immunologic reaction. In some patients GO is observed before diagnosis of GD hyperthyroidism, while it can also be observed far after diagnosis. The intensity of GO symptoms varies greatly in these patients. Thus, the pathogenesis of GD and GO may correlate with different genetic backgrounds, which has been confirmed by studies of correlations between GO and polymorphisms in cytokines involved in orbit inflammation. The aim of our analysis was to assess genetic predisposition to GO in young patients (age of diagnosis ≤30 years of age), for whom environmental effects had less time to influence outcomes than in adults. Methods 768 GD patients were included in the study. 359 of them had clinically evident orbitopathy (NOSPECS ≥2). Patients were stratified by age at diagnosis. Association analyses were performed for genes with a known influence on development of GD - TSHR, HLA-DRB1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22). Results The rs179247 TSHR polymorphism was associated with GO in young patients only. In young GO-free patients, allele A was statistically more frequent and homozygous carriers had a considerable lower risk of disease incidence than patients with AG or GG genotypes. Those differences were not found in either elderly patients or the group analyzed as a whole. Conclusions Allele A of the rs179247 polymorphism in the TSHR gene is associated with lower risk of GO in young GD patients. PMID:25061884

  11. Total thyroidectomy as primary definitive treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Samuel; Govednik, Cara; Lairmore, Terry; Jiang, Da-Shu; Song, Juhee

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of total thyroidectomy (TT) for hyperthyroidism secondary to Graves' disease (GD) with TT for other benign thyroid diseases to determine if TT should be considered more often as first-line therapy for GD. Seven hundred eighty patients underwent TT for benign disease: 203 for GD, 56 for other hyperthyroidisms, and 521 for other benign diseases from March 1, 2003, to December 31, 2009. The perioperative results of these three groups were compared for demographics, blood loss, operative time, complications, and hospitalization. There were no significant differences among the three groups except the patients with GD were more likely to be younger (42 vs 56 vs 57 years; P < 0.001), have more blood loss (154 vs 99 vs 110 mL; P = 0.05), and were more likely to develop permanent hypoparathyroidism (1.0 vs 1.8 vs 0%; P = 0.03) when compared with other causes of hyperthyroidism and other benign thyroid diseases. Permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury did not occur in the GD group (0 vs 0 vs 0.4% nerves at risk; P = 0.69) with transient recurrent laryngeal nerve injury occurring in 1.7 versus 2.7 versus 3.1 per cent nerves at risk (P = 0.35). The lack of a euthyroid state preoperatively had no influence on surgical outcomes or complications. Eighty percent of the TTs for GD were done as same-day outpatient procedures. TT offers a safe, low-risk, and rapid cure for GD to justifiably be considered as a reasonable first-line therapy in selected patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. PMID:24351357

  12. Management of Neonates Born to Mothers With Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    van der Kaay, Daniëlle C M; Wasserman, Jonathan D; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Neonates born to mothers with Graves' disease are at risk for significant morbidity and mortality and need to be appropriately identified and managed. Because no consensus guidelines regarding the treatment of these newborns exist, we sought to generate a literature-based management algorithm. The suggestions include the following: (1) Base initial risk assessment on maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies. If levels are negative, no specific neonatal follow-up is necessary; if unavailable or positive, regard the newborn as "at risk" for the development of hyperthyroidism. (2) Determine levels of TSH-receptor antibodies in cord blood, or as soon as possible thereafter, so that newborns with negative antibodies can be discharged from follow-up. (3) Measurement of cord TSH and fT4 levels is not indicated. (4) Perform fT4 and TSH levels at day 3 to 5 of life, repeat at day 10 to 14 of life and follow clinically until 2 to 3 months of life. (5) Use the same testing schedule in neonates born to mothers with treated or untreated Graves' disease. (6) When warranted, use methimazole (MMI) as the treatment of choice; β-blockers can be added for sympathetic hyperactivity. In refractory cases, potassium iodide may be used in conjunction with MMI. The need for treatment of asymptomatic infants with biochemical hyperthyroidism is uncertain. (7) Assess the MMI-treated newborn on a weekly basis until stable, then every 1 to 2 weeks, with a decrease of MMI (and other medications) as tolerated. MMI treatment duration is most commonly 1 to 2 months. (8) Be cognizant that central or primary hypothyroidism can occur in these newborns. PMID:26980880

  13. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  14. Graves' Patient with Thymic Expression of Thyrotropin Receptors and Dynamic Changes in Thymic Hyperplasia Proportional to Graves' Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Shin; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Chung, June-Key; Park, Do Joon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic hyperplasia is frequently observed in Graves' disease. However, detectable massive enlargement of the thymus is rare, and the mechanism of its formation has remained elusive. This case showed dynamic changes in thymic hyperplasia on serial computed tomography images consistent with changes in serum thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) antibodies and thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, the patient's thymic tissues underwent immunohistochemical staining for TSH-R, which demonstrated the presence of thymic TSH-R. The correlation between serum TSH-R antibody levels and thymic hyperplasia sizes and the presence of TSH-R in her thymus suggest that TSH-R antibodies could have a pathogenic role in thymic hyperplasia. PMID:26996584

  15. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene with Graves diseases and Graves ophthalmopathy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haibo; Wu, Mingxing; Yi, Hong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Qian; Nadirshina, Sophia; Zhou, Xiyuan; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common thyroid disease, and Graves ophthalmopathy(GO) is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation of GD. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene with GD and GO have been studied in different population groups for a long time. We aimed to obtain a more precise estimation of the effects of TSHR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on GD/GO using a meta-analysis. Publications were searched on Pub Med and EMBASE up to December 30, 2015. Eight studies involving three SNPs (rs179247, rs12101255, and rs2268458), which included 4790 cases and 5350 controls, met the selection criteria. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. SNPs rs179247 (dominant model [GG + GA vs. AA]: OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.61-0.73, P = 0.000, I(2) = 0%) and rs12101255 (dominant model [TT + TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.53-1.83, P = 0.000, I(2) = 0%) were significantly associated with GD in all of the genetic models. TSHR rs12101255 and rs2268458 polymorphisms had no association between GO and GD (GD without GO). The results indicate that rs179247 and rs12101255 are likely to be genetic biomarkers for GD. Further studies with different population groups and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the genetic associations of the TSHR gene with GD/GO. PMID:27456991

  16. Experiments to Detect Clandestine Graves from Interpreted High Resolution Geophysical Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, C. M.; Hernandez, O.; Pringle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This project refers to the search for clandestine sites where possibly missing people have been buried based on interpreted near surface high resolution geophysical anomalies. Nowadays, there are thousands of missing people around the world that could have been tortured and killed and buried in clandestine graves. This is a huge problem for their families and governments that are responsible to warranty the human rights for everybody. These people need to be found and the related crime cases need to be resolved. This work proposes to construct a series of graves where all the conditions of the grave, human remains and related objects are known. It is expected to detect contrasting physical properties of soil to identify the known human remains and objects. The proposed geophysical methods will include electrical tomography, magnetic and ground penetrating radar, among others. Two geographical sites will be selected to located and build standard graves with contrasting weather, soil, vegetation, geographic and geologic conditions. Forward and inverse modeling will be applied to locate and enhance the geophysical response of the known graves and to validate the methodology. As a result, an integrated geophysical program will be provided to support the search for clandestine graves helping to find missing people that have been illegally buried. Optionally, the methodology will be tested to search for real clandestine graves.

  17. Nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide dynamics from experimental pig graves.

    PubMed

    Dalva, M; Moore, T R; Kalacska, M; Leblanc, G; Costopoulos, A

    2015-02-01

    Twelve pig carcasses were buried in single, shallow and deep (30 and 90 cm, respectively) graves at an experimental site near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with three shallow and three deep wrapped in black plastic garbage bags. An additional six carcasses were left at the surface to decompose, three of which were bagged. Six reference pits without remains were also dug. The objective of this three-year study was to examine the biogeochemistry and utility of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in grave detection and whether grave depth or cadaver condition (bagged versus bare) affected soil pore air concentrations and emission of the three gases. Graves showed significantly higher (α=0.05) concentrations and surface fluxes of N2O and CO2 than reference pits, but there was no difference in CH4 between graves and reference pits. While CH4 decreased with depth in the soil profiles, N2O and CO2 showed a large increase compared to reference pits. Shallow graves showed significantly higher emissions and pore air concentrations of N2O and CO2 than deep graves, as did bare versus bagged carcasses. PMID:25544693

  18. Radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. An assessment of its potential risks

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Burman, K.D.

    1986-12-01

    Concern about the side effects of radiation exposure has deterred physicians from using radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, although the efficacy and safety of this treatment have been established in the 35 years since its introduction. In that time, no significant side effects have been discovered. We believe iodine-131 should be considered the treatment of choice in most patients with Graves' disease. This article reviews the current understanding of the risks in radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease, including the risks for teratogenicity, genetic damage, carcinogenesis, and cellular dysfunction.

  19. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 286 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addressing FOIA Requests B Appendix B to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DOD FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. B Appendix B to Part 286—Addressing FOIA...

  1. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  4. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  5. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  6. Clinical efficacy of Yingliu treatment for Graves disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Bi, Xiaojuan; Tang, Hong; Zeng, Juanhua; Cong, Yilei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Qiuye

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mixture Yingliu combined with methimazole medication for the treatment of Graves disease (GD). Method: In a randomized, paralleled control study, 92 GD patients were randomized into a Yingliu mixture treatment and a control treatment group, both receiving methimazole. Both treatments lasted for 12 weeks and outcome parameter were thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, TCM symptome scores and safety indicators. Results: The clinical efficiency of the Yingliu mixture-methimazole combination was 92.5% vs. 82.5% (P < 0.05) of the solely methimazole medication group. After 12 weeks treatments the Yingliu mixture in combination with methimazole improved free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) values significantly more than methimazole alone and TCM symptome scores were significant lower after 12 week treatment in the Yingliu mixture- methimazole group (P < 0.05). The thyroid enlargement (21 vs. 10, P < 0.05), fatigue (39 vs. 30, P < 0.01) and dry mouth symptoms (37 vs. 29, P < 0.05) were superior improved in the Yingliu than in the control medication group, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding safety evaluations between both treatment groups (P = 0.499). Conclusion: Yingliu mixture as combined medication with methimazole can significantly improve the outcome of a solely methimazole application for GD treatments. PMID:26131218

  7. Dilated cardiomyopathy with Graves disease in a young child.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Jung; Jang, Jun Ho; Park, So Hyun; Oh, Jin-Hee; Koh, Dae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Graves disease (GD) can lead to complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. Although dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) has been occasionally reported in adults with GD, it is rare in children. We present the case of a 32-month-old boy with DCMP due to GD. He presented with irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea. He also had a history of weight loss over the past few months. On physical examination, he had tachycardia without fever, a mild diffuse goiter, and hepatomegaly. The chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary edema, while the echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle with an ejection fraction (EF) of 28%. The thyroid function test (TFT) showed elevated serum T3 and decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The TSH receptor autoantibody titer was elevated. He was diagnosed with DCMP with GD; treatment with methylprednisolone, diuretics, inotropics, and methimazole was initiated. The EF improved after the TFT normalized. At follow-up several months later, although the TFT results again showed evidence of hyperthyroidism, his EF had not deteriorated. His cardiac function continues to remain normal 1.5 months after treatment was started, although he still has elevated T3 and high TSH receptor antibody titer levels due to poor compliance with drug therapy. To summarize, we report a young child with GD-induced DCMP who recovered completely with medical therapy and, even though the hyperthyroidism recurred several months later, there was no relapse of the DCMP. PMID:27462586

  8. Dilated cardiomyopathy with Graves disease in a young child

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu Jung; Jang, Jun Ho; Oh, Jin-Hee; Koh, Dae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Graves disease (GD) can lead to complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. Although dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) has been occasionally reported in adults with GD, it is rare in children. We present the case of a 32-month-old boy with DCMP due to GD. He presented with irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea. He also had a history of weight loss over the past few months. On physical examination, he had tachycardia without fever, a mild diffuse goiter, and hepatomegaly. The chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary edema, while the echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle with an ejection fraction (EF) of 28%. The thyroid function test (TFT) showed elevated serum T3 and decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The TSH receptor autoantibody titer was elevated. He was diagnosed with DCMP with GD; treatment with methylprednisolone, diuretics, inotropics, and methimazole was initiated. The EF improved after the TFT normalized. At follow-up several months later, although the TFT results again showed evidence of hyperthyroidism, his EF had not deteriorated. His cardiac function continues to remain normal 1.5 months after treatment was started, although he still has elevated T3 and high TSH receptor antibody titer levels due to poor compliance with drug therapy. To summarize, we report a young child with GD-induced DCMP who recovered completely with medical therapy and, even though the hyperthyroidism recurred several months later, there was no relapse of the DCMP. PMID:27462586

  9. A case of autoimmune hepatitis combined with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kang, Wonseok; Kim, Sewha; Kim, Do Young

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with jaundice, palpitation, and weight loss of 5 kg during a period of 2 weeks. Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST 1,282 IU/L, ALT 1,119 IU/L) and total bilirubin (6.4 mg/dL); negative for hepatitis virus infection; elevated serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3, 3.60 ng/dL), free thyroxine (fT4, 3.82 ng/dL), and lowered serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, <0.025 μIU/mL); and positive for thyroid stimulating antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA). The liver biopsy findings were consistent with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Accordingly, oral steroid therapy was started with 60 mg of prednisolone under the impression of AIH associated with Graves' disease. After a week of steroid therapy, the clinical manifestation showed significant improvement, with normalization of both liver and thyroid functions. Diagnosis of the liver condition of patients who present with hyperthyroidism and liver dysfunction is important, so that appropriate therapy can be promptly initiated. PMID:25603854

  10. [Computerized tomography of the orbit in Graves' ophthalmopathy. New observations].

    PubMed

    Bagnolesi, P; Cilotti, A; Campassi, C; Lencioni, R; Napoli, V; Bartolozzi, C

    1992-05-01

    In order to evaluate Graves' ophthalmopathy new CT parameters have been introduced such as: the diameters of the five extraocular muscles, the value of their addition, the grade of apical crowding, the enlargement of optic nerve sheaths and of the superior ophthalmic vein, and the anterior displacement of the lacrimal gland. On this subject we report our further experience after reviewing 68 cases in which the new ocular parameters were correlated with altered ocular motility and optic neuropathy. The results confirmed our previous study, dealing with several groups of patients, which at the moment seem to be 2, instead of 3 groups: a) patients with increase in both muscular and fatty tissue (54/68 cases); b) patients with main or exclusive increase in fatty tissue (14/68 cases). Relevant clinical signs were present only in the first group of patients, where the medial, inferior and superior muscles were affected in 53/55, 53/55 and 50/55 cases respectively. A muscle increase by nearly 50% was more frequently found in cases with altered ocular motility, an increase by 90% was often associated with optic neuropathy. In case of optic neuropathy apical crowding was often observed, mainly in coronal scans, together with significant enlargement of the optic nerve sheath and of the superior ophthalmic vein. As to proptosis, preseptal area and anterior displacement of the lacrimal gland, they demonstrated lower correlation with the reference symptoms, even though their occurrence was high in symptomatic patients. PMID:1631331

  11. Optimal iodine-131 dose for eliminating hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, R.A.; Gilbert, F.I. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Since hypothyroidism is commonplace after treatment of Graves' disease with radioiodine, the goal should be cure of hyperthyroidism rather than avoidance of hypothyroidism. To find the optimal dose to accomplish cure, we treated 605 patients with stepwise increasing doses of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 mCi, analyzing the relationship of dose, age, sex, gland weight, and thyroidal uptake to cure. Estimates of cure at doses above 10 mCi were made from the literature. Cure was directly related to dose between 5 and 10 mCi. There was no significant relationship between cure and age (chi-square, p = 0.74), sex (chi-square, p = 0.12), and 24-hr uptake if over 30% (chi-square for slope, p greater than 0.10). Cure and gland weight had an inverse relationship (chi-square for slope, 0.01 less than p less than 0.02). We concluded that the optimal 131I dose for curing hyperthyroidism is approximated by starting with 10 mCi and increasing it for unusually large glands or for special patient circumstances.

  12. Cradle-to-Grave Logistic Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L.; Ewert, Michael K.; Shull, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of exiting and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA is Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing four logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion supply gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description, benefits, and challenges of the four technologies under development and a status of progress at the mid ]point of the three year AES project.

  13. An unusual presenting symptom of graves' disease: myalgia.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, N; Perros, P

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient presented with severe myalgia involving her proximal muscles for 3-4 weeks. She also reported mild thyrotoxic symptoms over the same time period. Examination revealed mild thyrotoxicosis, a moderate diffuse goiter and no eye signs. The clinical picture was dominated by muscle pain and tenderness involving mainly her proximal arms and legs, her calves and her fingers, requiring opiate analgesia. Muscle power and tendon reflexes were normal. Laboratory evaluation revealed undetectable serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with raised FT4, FT3 and positive TSH receptor antibodies. Treatment with carbimazole was started. Additional laboratory investigations were negative (inflammatory markers, creatine kinase and antibodies to antinuclear antibodies, gastric parietal cell, smooth muscle, mitochondrial, dsDNA, centromere, extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) ribonucleoprotein, ENA Sm, ENA Ro, ENA Anti-La, ENA Scl70, ENA Jo-1, anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor). Further assessment in the rheumatology clinic confirmed there was no small joint tenderness or loss of range of movement of her limbs, but widespread and profound muscle tenderness of the common extensors of the forearms, biceps, trapezius, calves and thighs. She was treated symptomatically with analgesic medication and continued on carbimazole. A month later she was euthyroid and her myalgia had resolved. Hyperthyroidism has a profound effect on skeletal muscle and often leads to myopathy. Severe myalgia in association with Graves' disease is rare and resolves with the restoration of euthyroidism. PMID:24783030

  14. Working to Address Treaty Enforcement Rapidly for Texas Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2013-06-10

    06/10/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4060) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  16. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  17. Refractory Graves' Disease Successfully Cured by Adjunctive Cholestyramine and Subsequent Total Thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeoree; Hwang, Seawon; Kim, Minji; Lim, Yejee; Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Sohee; Lim, Dong Jun; Kang, Moo Il; Cha, Bong Yun

    2015-12-01

    The three major forms of treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy and thyroidectomy. Surgery is the definitive treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis that is generally recommended when other treatments have failed or are contraindicated. Generally, thyrotoxic patients should be euthyroid before surgery to minimize potential complications which usually requires preoperative management with thionamides or inorganic iodine. But several cases of refractory Graves' disease have shown resistance to conventional treatment. Here we report a 40-year-old female patient with Graves' disease who complained of thyrotoxic symptoms for 7 months. Her thyroid function test and thyroid autoantibody profiles were consistent with Graves' disease. One kind of thionamides and β-blocker were started to control her disease. However, she was resistant to nearly all conventional medical therapies, including β-blockers, inorganic iodine, and two thionamides. She experienced hepatotoxicity from the thionamides. What was worse is her past history of serious allergic reaction to corticosteroids, which are often used to help control symptoms. A 2-week regimen of high-dose cholestyramine improved her uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis and subsequent thyroidectomy was successfully performed. In conclusion, cholestyramine could be administered as an effective and safe adjunctive agent for preoperative preparation in patients with severe hyperthyroid Graves's disease that is resistant to conventional therapies. PMID:26394731

  18. Refractory Graves' Disease Successfully Cured by Adjunctive Cholestyramine and Subsequent Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yeoree; Hwang, Seawon; Kim, Minji; Lim, Yejee; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Sohee; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The three major forms of treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy and thyroidectomy. Surgery is the definitive treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis that is generally recommended when other treatments have failed or are contraindicated. Generally, thyrotoxic patients should be euthyroid before surgery to minimize potential complications which usually requires preoperative management with thionamides or inorganic iodine. But several cases of refractory Graves' disease have shown resistance to conventional treatment. Here we report a 40-year-old female patient with Graves' disease who complained of thyrotoxic symptoms for 7 months. Her thyroid function test and thyroid autoantibody profiles were consistent with Graves' disease. One kind of thionamides and β-blocker were started to control her disease. However, she was resistant to nearly all conventional medical therapies, including β-blockers, inorganic iodine, and two thionamides. She experienced hepatotoxicity from the thionamides. What was worse is her past history of serious allergic reaction to corticosteroids, which are often used to help control symptoms. A 2-week regimen of high-dose cholestyramine improved her uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis and subsequent thyroidectomy was successfully performed. In conclusion, cholestyramine could be administered as an effective and safe adjunctive agent for preoperative preparation in patients with severe hyperthyroid Graves's disease that is resistant to conventional therapies. PMID:26394731

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  20. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  1. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020

  2. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  3. Predicting relapse following medical therapy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Wilson, R.; Pearson, D.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Jenkins, C.; Caine, S.; Thomson, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 40 patients with Graves' disease (35 female, 5 male; mean age at presentation = 38 yrs) the authors examined the ability of thyroidal /sup 99m/Tc uptake and serum thyroid stimulating immunoglobins (TSI) to identify patients who would relapse after a course of medical therapy. Serum TSI and 20 minute thyroidal /sup 99m/Tc uptake were estimated every 3 months during a 12 month course of carbimazole and tri iodothyronine. TSI levels were estimated by inhibition of receptor binding and expressed as an index (normal value <25). 17 patients (Group 1) remained biochemically euthyroid for at least 1 year after cessation of therapy. 23 (Group II) developed recurrent thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid hormone level did not differ between Groups I and II at presentation. /sup 99m/Tc uptake did not differ significantly in the two groups at presentation and overlap of values persisted throughout therapy. 3 patients had undetectable TSI levels at presentation and throughout follow-up. In the remaining 37, TSI levels at presentation were significantly higher in Group II and all 7 patients with initial values >80 relapsed. After 12 months therapy a TSI level of >25 was present in 1 Group I patient and 16 Group II patients who had detectable TSI at presentation. /sup 99m/Tc uptake was a poor predictor of relapse of thyrotoxicosis. A very high TSI level at presentation (>80) was associated with relapse. An abnormal TSI on completion of 12 months medical therapy had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 94% for prediction of relapse of thyrotoxicosis in the subsequent year.

  4. The interleukin-1 family gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Khalilzadeh, O; Anvari, M; Esteghamati, A; Momen-Heravi, F; Mahmoudi, M; Rashidi, A; Amiri, H M; Ranjbar, M; Tabataba-Vakili, S; Amirzargar, A

    2010-09-01

    Genetic factors, including cytokine gene polymorphisms, are potential contributors to the pathogenesis of the Graves' disease (GD). We attempted in this study to determine the association between GD and the following polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family genes: IL-1alpha (-889C/T), IL-1ss (-511C/T), IL-1ss (+3962C/T), IL-1R (Pst-1 1970C/T) and IL-1RA (Mspa-I 11100C/T). We studied 107 patients with an established diagnosis of GD and 140 healthy controls. Cytokine typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers assay. Genotype distributions among patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all polymorphisms. The frequency of the IL-1alpha -889T allele was significantly higher in patients than in controls (51.9% vs. 31.6%, OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.61-3.38; p<0.0001). The IL-1RA Msp-I 11100C allele was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls (50.0% vs. 22.9%, OR=3.38, 95% CI=2.29-4.97, p<0.0001). No significant associations were found for other polymorphisms. Although the IL-1 family has well-known roles in GD pathogenesis, the contributions of their genetic variations to the disease are unclear. In this study, we documented a highly significant association between GD and polymorphism in IL-1alpha and IL-1RA genes. Further studies in other populations are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:20400062

  5. Lithium as an Alternative Option in Graves Thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ishita; Nylen, Eric Sixtus; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms of Graves thyrotoxicosis. Biochemistry results were as follows: TSH was undetectable; FT4 was >6.99 ng/dL (0.7–1.8); FT3 was 18 pg/mL (3–5); TSI was 658% (0–139). Thyroid uptake and scan showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in the thyroid gland. The patient was started on methimazole 40 mg BID, but her LFTs elevated precipitously with features of fulminant hepatitis. Methimazole was determined to be the cause and was stopped. After weighing pros and cons, lithium was initiated to treat her persistent thyrotoxicosis. Lithium 300 mg was given daily with a goal to maintain between 0.4 and 0.6. High dose Hydrocortisone and propranolol were also administered concomitantly. Free thyroid hormone levels decreased and the patient reached a biochemical and clinical euthyroid state in about 8 days. Though definitive RAI was planned, the patient has been maintained on lithium for more than a month to control her hyperthyroidism. Trial removal of lithium results in reemergence of thyrotoxicosis within 24 hours. Patient was maintained on low dose lithium treatment with lithium level just below therapeutic range which was sufficient to maintain euthyroid state for more than a month. There were no signs of lithium toxicity within this time period. Conclusion. Lithium has a unique physiologic profile and can be used to treat thyrotoxicosis when thionamides cannot be used while awaiting elective radioablation. Lithium levels need to be monitored; however, levels even at subtherapeutic range may be sufficient to treat thyrotoxicosis. PMID:26425375

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  8. The Nurse Reinvestment Act revisited.

    PubMed

    Luther, Ann P

    2007-01-01

    The United States is in the midst of a widely recognized critical nursing shortage. In 2002 the "Nurse Reinvestment Act" was passed with overwhelming bipartisan support in an effort to address this serious public health threat. The Act is due for reauthorization of funding in 2007. This paper provides a brief overview of the programs contained within the Act and describes practical ways in which members of the nursing community can take action to insure renewed support for the Act. PMID:17691598

  9. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  10. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  11. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  12. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene with Graves diseases and Graves ophthalmopathy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haibo; Wu, Mingxing; Yi, Hong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Qian; Nadirshina, Sophia; Zhou, Xiyuan; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is a common thyroid disease, and Graves ophthalmopathy(GO) is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation of GD. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene with GD and GO have been studied in different population groups for a long time. We aimed to obtain a more precise estimation of the effects of TSHR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on GD/GO using a meta-analysis. Publications were searched on Pub Med and EMBASE up to December 30, 2015. Eight studies involving three SNPs (rs179247, rs12101255, and rs2268458), which included 4790 cases and 5350 controls, met the selection criteria. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. SNPs rs179247 (dominant model [GG + GA vs. AA]: OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.61–0.73, P = 0.000, I2 = 0%) and rs12101255 (dominant model [TT + TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.53–1.83, P = 0.000, I2 = 0%) were significantly associated with GD in all of the genetic models. TSHR rs12101255 and rs2268458 polymorphisms had no association between GO and GD (GD without GO). The results indicate that rs179247 and rs12101255 are likely to be genetic biomarkers for GD. Further studies with different population groups and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the genetic associations of the TSHR gene with GD/GO. PMID:27456991

  13. Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

    2012-06-10

    A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

  14. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: A Key Factor in the Pathogenesis of Graves' Ophthalmopathy and Potential Target for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert; Dalm, Virgil A.S.H.; Paridaens, Dion; van Hagen, P. Martin; Dik, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of orbital fibroblasts resulting in excessive proliferation, cytokine and hyaluronan production and differentiation into adipocytes, is a main determinant of orbital tissue inflammation and tissue expansion in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). During the last years we have shown that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB are increased in orbital tissue from GO patients with active and inactive disease. These PDGF isoforms exhibit the capacity to stimulate proliferation, hyaluronan and cytokine/chemokine production by orbital fibroblasts. Moreover, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB increase thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression by orbital fibroblasts, which enhances the orbital fibroblast activating capacity of the THSR stimulatory autoantibodies present in Graves' disease (GD) patients. Of these PDGF isoforms PDGF-BB exhibits the strongest orbital fibroblast activating effects, which is likely related to its ability to bind both the PDGF-receptor (PDGF-R)α and PDGF-Rβ chains. Thus the PDGF-system fulfills important roles in orbital fibroblast activation in both active and inactive GO, which supports a therapeutic rationale for blocking PDGF signaling in GO. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be candidates to target PDGF signaling. Of several TKIs tested dasatinib exhibited the highest potency to block PDGF-R signaling in orbital fibroblasts and may represent a promising compound for the treatment of GO as it was effective at low dosage and is associated with less side effects compared to imatinib mesylate and nilotinib. In this review the contribution of PDGF to the pathophysiology of GO as well as therapeutic approaches to target this PDGF-system will be addressed. PMID:25759797

  15. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  16. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  17. Change in Practice over Four Decades in the Management of Graves' Disease in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. M.; Dutta, S.; Ahmed, F.; Thaha, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    There is continuing debate on the optimal treatment for Grave's thyrotoxicosis with a resultant variation in clinical practice. The present study aimed to ascertain changes in practice in the treatment of Grave's thyrotoxicosis in Tayside, Scotland, over the past four decades. Methods. The “Scottish automated follow-up register” (SAFUR) was queried to identify all patients treated for Grave's thyrotoxicosis from 1968 to 2007 inclusive. Patients were divided into 4 groups (Groups A to D) according to the decades. Demographic profile, treatment modalities, radioactive iodine (RAI) dose, and recurrence rates were studied and outcomes were compared by χ2 test and ANOVA using SPSS v15.0. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Altogether, 3737 patients were diagnosed with Grave's thyrotoxicosis over the 4 decades. Use of RAI has increased from 43.1% in Group A to 68% in Group D (p < 0.001). The dose of RAI has increased (p < 0.001) and there has been a reduction in recurrence rate with higher dose of RAI. Surgical intervention rates decreased from 55.3% to 12.3% (p < 0.001) over time. Conclusions. Analysis of a large dataset of patients with Grave's thyrotoxicosis suggests increasing use of RAI as the preferred first line of treatment. Furthermore, using a single higher dose of RAI and adoption of total thyroidectomy have decreased recurrence rates. PMID:27313946

  18. Magnetic Ghosts: Mineral Magnetic Measurements On Roman and Anglo-saxon Graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, N.

    The location of inhumations, in the absence of ferrous grave goods, often presents a considerable challenge to archaeological geophysics given the small physical size of the features and the slight contrast between the fill of the grave and the surround- ing subsoil. Even during excavation, the identification of graves may be complicated where site conditions do not favour the preservation of human skeletal remains and often only a subtle soil stain is likely to survive. A recent initiative in the United King- dom has seen the formation of the Buried Organic Matter Decomposition Integrated with Elemental Status (BODIES) research group, to examine the decomposition of organic artefacts in ancient graves with respect to localised changes in pH, redox po- tential and nutrient status. This paper presents initial results from a limited mineral magnetic study of two grave sites in an attempt to ascertain whether the decomposi- tion of organic remains may lead to a detectable magnetic signature within the soil. Results from a series of isothermal, hysteresis and magneto-thermal experiments will be presented together with surface magnetometer and topsoil susceptibility surveys.

  19. Two adolescent patients with coexistent Graves' disease and Moyamoya disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Su Yung; Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular condition that results in the narrowing of the vessels of the circle of Willis and collateral vessel formation at the base of the brain. Although relationships between Graves' disease and cerebrovascular accidents in Moyamoya disease are obscure, the coexistence of the two diseases is noteworthy. Moyamoya disease has been rarely reported in adolescent patients with thyrotoxicosis. Recently, we encountered two adolescent Korean patients with Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease who presented with episodic right-sided hemiparesis and syncope. These two girls who had Graves' disease had no history of other diseases or head trauma. A thyroid function test revealed a euthyroid state and a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody titer at that time. The patients were diagnosed with Moyamoya disease based on brain magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral four-vessel angiography. The patients underwent cranial revascularization by encephalo-duroarterio-synangiosis as soon as a diagnosis was made, which resulted in successful symptom resolution. They fared well and had no additional neurological symptoms as of their last follow-up visits. Here, we report these two cases of confirmed Moyamoya disease complicated by Graves' disease with a review of the literature, and discuss the possible association between the two diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report in South Korea on Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease in adolescents with a euthyroid. PMID:25076974

  20. Predicting relapse of Graves' disease following treatment with antithyroid drugs

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LIN; LU, HONGWEN; LIU, YANG; LIU, CHANGSHAN; XUN, CHU

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor long term antithyroid drug treatments and to identify prognostic factors for Graves' disease (GD). A total of 306 patients with GD who were referred to the Endocrinology Clinic at Weifang People's Hospital (Weifang, China) between August 2005 and June 2009 and treated with methimazole were included in the present study. Following treatment, patients were divided into non-remission, including recurrence and constant treatment subgroups, and remission groups. Various prognosis factors were analyzed and compared, including: Patient age, gender, size of thyroid prior to and following treatment, thyroid hormone levels, disease relapse, hypothyroidism and drug side-effects, and states of thyrotropin suppression were observed at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Sixty-five patients (21.2%) were male, and 241 patients (78.8%) were female. The mean age was 42±11 years, and the follow-up was 31.5±6.8 months. Following long-term treatment, 141 patients (46%) demonstrated remission of hyperthyroidism with a mean duration of 18.7±1.9 months. The average age at diagnosis was 45.6±10.3 years in the remission group, as compared with 36.4±8.8 years in the non-remission group (t=3.152; P=0.002). Free thyroxine (FT)3 levels were demonstrated to be 25.2±8.9 and 18.7±9.4 pmol/l in the non-remission and remission groups, respectively (t=3.326, P=0.001). The FT3/FT4 ratio and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were both significantly higher in the non-remission group (t=3.331, 3.389, P=0.001), as compared with the remission group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that elevated thyroid size, FT3/FT4 ratio and TRAb at diagnosis were associated with poor outcomes. The ratio of continued thyrotropin suppression in the recurrent subgroup was significantly increased, as compared with the remission group (P=0.001), as thyroid function reached euthyroid state at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Patients with GD exhibiting

  1. Improving America's Schools Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.

  2. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis in Long Standing Graves' Disease: An Unusual Presentation with Normokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Lakshmi; Kim, Young Nam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that is underdiagnosed and frequently missed. It is relatively common in Asian men with Graves' disease. TPP attacks are frequently associated with hypokalemia. Case Report: Here we report a non-Asian female patient with Graves' disease, who presented with flaccid paralysis associated with an episode of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Interestingly, she was found to have low normal potassium levels in the serum during the initial attack despite which she continues to require low dose potassium supplementation to prevent recurrent TPP attacks. Unique features in our patient include her gender, ethnicity, time lag between initial diagnosis of Graves' disease, and the development of TPP and borderline low potassium levels, with the continuous need for prophylactic potassium supplementation. Conclusion: It is important to be aware of this complication of hyperthyroidism that has a dramatic yet variable presentation, but is readily amenable to therapy. PMID:25839004

  3. A Study of Human Leukocyte D Locus Related Antigens in Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Nadir R.; Sampson, Laura; Noel, Elke P.; Barnard, John M.; Mandeville, Robert; Larsen, Bodil; Marshall, William H.; Carter, Nicholas D.

    1979-01-01

    An association between Graves' disease and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has previously been reported. The disease was more strongly associated with the HLA D locus antigen Dw3 than with HLA B8. Products of the HLA D locus are determined by the interaction of test cells with standard typing lymphocytes, a technically difficult procedure. Recently, it has been possible to type serologically for D locus related (DRw) specificities on peripheral bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes. Blood B lymphocytes from 50 unrelated controls and 41 patients with Graves' disease were typed for seven HLA DRw specificities. 28 patients with Graves' disease (68%) were positive for DRw3, in contrast to 14 controls (28%); whereas only 21 patients (50%) were HLA B8 positive, compared with 13 (26%) controls. Thus, positivity for DRw3 afforded a relative risk for Graves' disease of 5.5, whereas that for HLA B8 amounted to 3.0. Additionally, a family with multiple cases of Graves' disease in which the disease was previously shown to be inherited with the haplotype, was linked to DRw2, which suggests that the susceptibility to the disease was inherited in association with that antigen. Two HLA B/glyoxalase recombination events were observed in this family; in both instances HLA DRw followed HLA B. This study thus demonstrates that the disease susceptibility gene for Graves' disease is in strong linkage disequilibrium with DRw3; however, it may be associated with other DRw specificities and inherited within family units in association with them. PMID:105012

  4. Role of oxidative stress and selenium in Graves' hyperthyroidism and orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Marcocci, C; Bartalena, L

    2013-11-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism and its main extrathyroidal manifestation, Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are characterized by an increased oxidative stress. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs is usually associated with an amelioration of biochemical parameters associated with oxidative stress. Association of antithyroid drugs with antioxidants may favor a prompter control of thyroid hyperfunction. Reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of GO. A recent, large, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with mild GO clearly demonstrated that selenium supplementation has beneficial effects on the quality of life and the overall ophthalmic involvement of these patients, while reducing the risk of progression to more severe forms of GO. PMID:24419055

  5. Postpartum thyrotoxicosis in a patient with Graves' disease. Association with low radioactive iodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Eckel, R.H.; Green, W.L.

    1980-04-11

    A patient with previously diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism had a transient episode of thyrotoxicosis three months postpartum. This was associated with a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, a rise in antithyroid microsomal antibody titer, a 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) of 1%, and an aspiration biopsy specimen suggestive of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. An alternative cause for the depressed RAIU was not discovered. This case would suggest that patients with previously diagnosed Graves' disease can have thyrotoxicosis without an enhanced RAIU and that the postpartum thyrotoxin syndrome may involve an immunologic injury causing a release of performed thyroid hormone.

  6. Ocular Changes and Approaches of Ophthalmopathy in Basedow – Graves- Parry- Flajani Disease

    PubMed Central

    SARACI, George; TRETA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune condition with multiple local and systemic aspects. Among these, oculopathy has a major impact on patient's life from both functional and esthetic point of view. Basedow-Graves oculopathy requires an appropriate positive and differential diagnosis using clinical and imagistic approaches. Treatment is always required in moderate or severe forms and it begins with simple general points and continues with medical and surgical therapies. Current article stresses upon the most characteristic clinical signs of thyroidian ophthalmopathy and the required current therapeutic approaches. PMID:22205899

  7. TSH receptor antibody titers measured with a third-generation assay did not reflect the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy in untreated Japanese Graves' disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mukasa, Koji; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Kouzaki, Ai; Ohye, Hidemi; Kunii, Yo; Watanabe, Natsuko; Yoshihara, Ai; Matsumoto, Masako; Suzuki, Miho; Ito, Koichi

    2016-02-29

    TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) titer has been reported to be correlated with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). However, the correlation between GO activity and TRAb titer assessed with a third-generation assay has not been reported. We enrolled 238 untreated Graves' disease patients who came to the outpatient clinic of Ito Hospital and 28 patients who were euthyroid. All of the patients were assessed for GO by an ophthalmologist within 3 months of their initial visit to Ito Hospital. Clinical activity score (CAS), short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR), and sum of the maximum external orbital muscle areas (SEOMA) on a frontal sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The TRAb titer was significantly higher in patients with inactive ophthalmopathy (the inactive-GO group) than in patients with active ophthalmopathy (the active-GO group) (17.7 ± 13.5 IU/L vs 13.0 ± 13.1 IU/L, p=0.0082). The SEOMA values were not correlated with TRAb titer. The prevalence of active-GO was higher in euthyroid patients than in hyperthyroid patients although the difference was not significant. In conclusion, TRAb titer measured with a third-generation assay dose not correlate with GO activity based on MRI findings in untreated Graves' disease patients, and the prevalence of active-GO is higher in euthyroid patients with lower TRAb titers than in hyperthyroid patients. PMID:26581710

  8. "Why Didn't I Know about This Book When I Started?": In Memory of Donald Graves and Arthur Applebee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosky, Anthony; Mihalakis, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores Donald Graves' groundbreaking research of the 1980s. We show how Graves' approach to the teaching of writing built on his sensitive appreciation of the ways children actually engage in the composing process when they are given the opportunity to produce writing that is meaningful to them. However, the issue for us is not simply…

  9. A Cross-cultural Assessment of the Maitland Graves Design Judgment Test Using U.S. and Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uduehi, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Reiterates the criticism that the Maitland Graves Design Judgment Test is inadequate in measuring aesthetic judgment as defined by Graves, especially in a cross-cultural setting. United States students consistently scored highest. Nonetheless, all students responded favorably to three factors: symmetry, three-dimensionality, and complex design.…

  10. Maximinus Daia, a Roman emperor who may have had Graves' disease and died of a thyrotoxic crisis.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the Roman emperor Maximinus Daia had Graves' disease and died of severe thyrotoxicosis. The information about this emperor's terminal illness is drawn from the writings of the 4th century writers Eusebius and Lactantius. An existing statue indicates that the emperor had bilateral Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:23624140

  11. Nurse Reinvestment Act. Public Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, which amends the Public Health Service Act to address the increasing shortage of registered nurses by instituting a series of policies to improve nurse recruitment and nurse retention. Title I details two initiatives to boost recruitment of nurses. The first initiative includes the…

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Addressing FOIA Requests B Appendix B to Part 518 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 518, App. B Appendix B to Part 518—Addressing FOIA Requests (a) General. Army...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addressing FOIA Requests B Appendix B to Part 518 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 518, App. B Appendix B to Part 518—Addressing FOIA Requests (a) General. Army...

  14. 32 CFR 806.26 - Addressing FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addressing FOIA requests. 806.26 Section 806.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.26 Addressing FOIA requests. (a) FOIA requests concerning Air National Guard Inspector General...

  15. Treatment of Ipilimumab Induced Graves' Disease in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Umal; Liebner, David; Joehlin-Price, Amy; Agrawal, Amit; Nabhan, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid disease has been reported among the endocrinopathies that can occur after treatment with ipilimumab. Graves' disease, however, has been rarely reported with this medication. Here we report a case of Graves' disease diagnosed after initiation of ipilimumab in a patient with melanoma. Methods. We present the clinical presentation and management course of this patient followed by a related literature review. Results. A 67-year-old male with metastatic melanoma was started on ipilimumab. He developed hyperthyroidism after two doses of ipilimumab. The cause of hyperthyroidism was determined to be Graves' disease. Ipilimumab was held and the patient was started on methimazole with return to euthyroid status. Ipilimumab was resumed and the patient continued methimazole during the course of ipilimumab therapy, with controlled hyperthyroidism. Restaging studies following four cycles of ipilimumab showed complete response in the lungs, with residual melanoma in the neck. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and left neck dissection as a definitive treatment for both hyperthyroidism and residual melanoma. Conclusion. Graves' disease can develop after starting ipilimumab and methimazole can be an effective treatment. For patients whose hyperthyroidism is well-controlled on methimazole, ipilimumab may be resumed with close monitoring. PMID:26881150

  16. Multiple Fractures in Patient with Graves' Disease Accompanied by Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hyon-Seung; Kim, Ji Min; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Younghak; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon

    2016-02-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is known to decrease bone mineral density due to deficiency of sex steroid hormone. Graves' disease is also an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, IHH does not preclude the development of primary hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, leading to more severe osteoporosis rapidly. Here, we describe the first case of 35-year-old Asian female patient with IHH accompanied by Graves' disease and osteoporosis-induced multiple fractures. Endocrine laboratory findings revealed preserved anterior pituitary functions except for secretion of gonadotropins and showed primary hyperthyroidism with positive autoantibodies. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly small sized pituitary gland without mass lesion. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed severe osteoporosis in lumbar spine and femur neck of the patient. Plain film radiography of the pelvis and shoulder revealed a displaced and nondisplaced fracture, respectively. After surgical fixation with screws for the femoral fracture, the patient was treated with antithyroid medication, calcium, and vitamin D until now and has been recovering fairly well. We report a patient of IHH with Graves' disease and multiple fractures that is a first case in Korea. PMID:26981520

  17. Treatment of Ipilimumab Induced Graves' Disease in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Azmat, Umal; Liebner, David; Joehlin-Price, Amy; Nabhan, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid disease has been reported among the endocrinopathies that can occur after treatment with ipilimumab. Graves' disease, however, has been rarely reported with this medication. Here we report a case of Graves' disease diagnosed after initiation of ipilimumab in a patient with melanoma. Methods. We present the clinical presentation and management course of this patient followed by a related literature review. Results. A 67-year-old male with metastatic melanoma was started on ipilimumab. He developed hyperthyroidism after two doses of ipilimumab. The cause of hyperthyroidism was determined to be Graves' disease. Ipilimumab was held and the patient was started on methimazole with return to euthyroid status. Ipilimumab was resumed and the patient continued methimazole during the course of ipilimumab therapy, with controlled hyperthyroidism. Restaging studies following four cycles of ipilimumab showed complete response in the lungs, with residual melanoma in the neck. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and left neck dissection as a definitive treatment for both hyperthyroidism and residual melanoma. Conclusion. Graves' disease can develop after starting ipilimumab and methimazole can be an effective treatment. For patients whose hyperthyroidism is well-controlled on methimazole, ipilimumab may be resumed with close monitoring. PMID:26881150

  18. Multiple Fractures in Patient with Graves' Disease Accompanied by Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hyon-Seung; Kim, Ji Min; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Younghak; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is known to decrease bone mineral density due to deficiency of sex steroid hormone. Graves' disease is also an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, IHH does not preclude the development of primary hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, leading to more severe osteoporosis rapidly. Here, we describe the first case of 35-year-old Asian female patient with IHH accompanied by Graves' disease and osteoporosis-induced multiple fractures. Endocrine laboratory findings revealed preserved anterior pituitary functions except for secretion of gonadotropins and showed primary hyperthyroidism with positive autoantibodies. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly small sized pituitary gland without mass lesion. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed severe osteoporosis in lumbar spine and femur neck of the patient. Plain film radiography of the pelvis and shoulder revealed a displaced and nondisplaced fracture, respectively. After surgical fixation with screws for the femoral fracture, the patient was treated with antithyroid medication, calcium, and vitamin D until now and has been recovering fairly well. We report a patient of IHH with Graves' disease and multiple fractures that is a first case in Korea. PMID:26981520

  19. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  20. Soilwater Conductivity Analysis to Date and Locate Clandestine Graves of Homicide Victims.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R; Williams, Anna; Cross, Peter; Cassidy, Nigel J

    2015-07-01

    In homicide investigations, it is critically important that postmortem interval and postburial interval (PBI) of buried victims are determined accurately. However, clandestine graves can be difficult to locate; and the detection rates for a variety of search methods (ranging from simple ground probing through to remote imaging and near-surface geophysics) can be very low. In this study, simulated graves of homicide victims were emplaced in three sites with contrasting soil types, bedrock, and depositional environments. The long-term monthly in situ monitoring of grave soil water revealed rapid increases in conductivity up to 2 years after burial, with the longest study evidencing declining values to background levels after 4.25 years. Results were corrected for site temperatures and rainfall to produce generic models of fluid conductivity as a function of time. The research suggests soilwater conductivity can give reliable PBI estimates for clandestine burials and therefore be used as a grave detection method. PMID:26190264

  1. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Yunusa, Garba H; Kotze, Tessa; Brink, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease. The subject of this presentation is a 50-year-old lady who was diagnosed with Graves' disease at the age of 29, for which she had a subtotal thyroidectomy following failure of medical and radioactive iodine treatment. Three years later, the patient was referred to our nuclear medicine department with a clinical diagnosis of suspected metastatic lymph nodes presumably from a thyroid malignancy.She had an 123I diagnostic whole body scan that showed 123I avid areas in the thyroid bed as well as left cervical lymph nodes, which later turned out to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid on histology. She was treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Follow-up radioactive iodine scans and serum thyroglobulin assays showed no evidence of malignant thyroid tissue. The occurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid after a subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease is hereby reported. The need for vigilance and regular follow-up in patients who receive all forms of treatment for benign thyroid diseases is emphasized. PMID:24705115

  2. The role of TSH receptor antibodies in the management of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David C; Syed, Akheel A

    2011-06-01

    The central role of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease has been recognised for several decades. However, the practical application of testing for TRAbs in clinical decision making remains the subject of controversy. The diagnosis of Graves' disease can be made in most cases simply based on a patient's clinical presentation. The TRAb test is therefore of most value in ambiguous clinical scenarios such as in the differential diagnosis of unilateral exophthalmos, euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy, subclinical hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and painless thyroiditis. It may also have a role in predicting the risk of a recurrence of Graves' disease following a course of antithyroid drug treatment. One further clinical utility of the TRAb test is in pregnancy where antibody titre measured during the third trimester is used to predict the risk of neonatal thyroid dysfunction. The TRAb titre not only aids in clinching a difficult diagnosis but can also help guide treatment in some patients. Although the TRAb assay has become more affordable in recent years, cost remains an important factor when considering its use routinely. Nonetheless, this is an underutilised blood test that could augment standard endocrine investigations in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. PMID:21570635

  3. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  4. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  5. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  6. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). It involves simulated trips down the ...

  7. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  8. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  9. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  10. A case of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome presenting as Graves disease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ye-Jee; Sohn, Tae-Seo; Kang, Seung-Hun; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Ha, Won-Chul; Oh, Su-Jin; Son, Hyun-Shik

    2012-01-01

    The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by aplasia of the uterus and the upper part of the vagina in an XX individual with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics. Individuals with this syndrome may also present with renal and skeletal abnormalities. We report a case of a 16-year-old girl presenting with thyrotoxicosis and primary amenorrhea. After being diagnosed with Graves disease, this patient was placed on antithyroid medication. Although her thyroid function normalized, she did not start to menstruate. Therefore, we assessed her primary amenorrhea and diagnosed the patient with MRKH syndrome through pelvic imaging. To our knowledge, an association between Graves disease and MRKH syndrome has not yet been reported. PMID:23329766

  11. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. PMID:24571660

  12. Correlation of stress with outcome of radioiodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.; Rochon, J.; Lenfestey, R.; Wise, P.

    1985-06-01

    Between November 1965 and December 1983, 293 patients were treated for Graves disease using /sup 131/I. All patients were asked to identify a stressful event antedating the onset of overt clinical symptoms. Eighty-one patients were able to do this (27.6%). Two hundred forty-four patients received a single treatment, 49 required two or more treatments. Patients with stress initiating the symptoms of Graves disease became hypothyroid earlier, 50% at 12 mo compared with 36 mo for the nonstress group. At 10 yr 5% of the stress group remained euthyroid compared with 17% nonstress. The authors conclude that stress in the 12 mo or less before the onset of clinical symptoms potentiates the development of hypothyroidism induced by a standard dose of radioiodine.

  13. Radiotherapy for Graves' disease. The possible role of low-dose radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Meritxell; Sabater, Sebastià; Jiménez, Pedro Lara; Rovirosa, Àngels; Biete, Albert; Linares, Victoria; Belles, Montse; Panés, Julià

    2016-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) have been used for the treatment of several benign diseases, including arthrodegenerative and inflammatory pathologies. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease and radiotherapy (RT) is a therapeutic option for ocular complications. The dose recommended in the clinical practice is 20 Gy (2 Gy/day). We hypothesized that lower doses (<10 Gy total dose, <1 Gy/day) could results in higher efficacy if we achieved anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of LD-RT. We review current evidence on the effects of RT in the treatment of Graves' disease and the possible use of LD-RT treatment strategy. PMID:27601953

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ecthyma gangrenosum in a woman with recurrent Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Yao; Zhang, Guo-Xue; Yu, Zuo-Zhong; Li, Zhao-Jun; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2014-04-01

    A 35-year-old woman with postoperative recurrent Graves' disease presented with a 5-day history of a red swelling on the right cheek associated with 4 days of remittent hyperpyrexia. Investigations revealed fever, a gangrenous ulcer on the right cheek, submandibular lymphadenopathy, and thyroid gland enlargement. Her white blood cell count, immunoglobulins, and lymphocyte subsets were unremarkable. Thyroid function tests showed low thyroid-stimulating hormone, high free thyroxine, and elevated radioactive iodine uptake. Repeated pus cultures grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but blood cultures were negative. An ill-demarcated erythematous plaque occurred on the right leg on hospital day 3. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics with topical gentamicin, recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor, and radioiodine therapy with anti-thyroid drugs. The ulcer healed leaving a depressed scar at 35 days after discharge. This patient may represent the first case of P. aeruginosa ecthyma gangrenosum and cellulitis in postoperative recurrent Graves' disease. PMID:24560831

  15. Predicting the Risk of Recurrence Before the Start of Antithyroid Drug Therapy in Patients With Graves' Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vos, Xander G; Endert, Erik; Zwinderman, A H; Tijssen, Jan G P; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-04-01

    Genotyping increases the accuracy of a clinical score (based on pretreatment age, goiter size, FT4, TBII) for predicting recurrence of Graves' hyperthyroidism after a course of antithyroid drugs: a prospective study. PMID:26863422

  16. 40 CFR 700.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses for the Office of Pollution... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Addresses § 700.17 Addresses for the Office of Pollution... non-docket materials—(1) United States Postal Service mailing address. Office of Pollution...

  17. 40 CFR 700.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses for the Office of Pollution... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Addresses § 700.17 Addresses for the Office of Pollution... non-docket materials—(1) United States Postal Service mailing address. Office of Pollution...

  18. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted. PMID:25824071

  19. Cradle-to-Grave Nuclear Fuel Supply Assurance Workshop: Industry’s Potential Role

    SciTech Connect

    Bengelsdorf, Harold; Hund, Gretchen; Kessler, Carol E.; Mahy, Heidi A.; McGoldrick, Fred; Seward, Amy M.

    2007-09-30

    The Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security hosted a workshop on June 6, 2007 in Washington D.C. to discuss the feasibility, merits and implications of the United States offering cradle-to-grave nuclear fuel cycle services to other countries. The workshop consisted of a small group of senior individuals from the private sector, government and the national laboratories. The workshop is summarized and recommendations given.

  20. Toolmark identification of a mattock to a clod of soil from a grave.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    At a recent bushland gravesite that contained a deceased male, a clod of soil displaying a striated toolmark was collected during the excavation of the grave. This clod was preserved, and the mark was cast using Mikrosil™. Shovels and a mattock, which had been discarded by the suspects, were subsequently found at another location. A toolmark comparison identified the hoe end of the mattock head as having produced the striated toolmark. PMID:20735700

  1. The philosopher Socrates had exophthalmos (a term coined by Plato) and probably Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    According to a previously published theory, Socrates was afflicted with temporal lobe epilepsy since his childhood. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristoxenus described Socrates as having exophthalmos, probably diplopia, and some symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism. Using these data, we theorize that Socrates had Graves' disease. In order to determine a cause of his temporal lobe epilepsy, we speculate that the philosopher also had autoimmune thyroiditis and Hashimoto encephalopathy during his childhood and his epilepsy may have been a sequel to this hypothesized encephalopathy. PMID:25553768

  2. A study of the effect of seasonal climatic factors on the electrical resistivity response of three experimental graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, John R.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2014-09-01

    Electrical resistivity surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. However, some aspects of grave detection with resistivity surveys remain imperfectly understood. One such aspect is the effect of seasonal changes in climate on the resistivity response of graves. In this study, resistivity survey data collected over three years over three simulated graves were analysed in order to assess how the graves' resistivity anomalies varied seasonally and when they could most easily be detected. Thresholds were used to identify anomalies, and the ‘residual volume' of grave-related anomalies was calculated as the area bounded by the relevant thresholds multiplied by the anomaly's average value above the threshold. The residual volume of a resistivity anomaly associated with a buried pig cadaver showed evidence of repeating annual patterns and was moderately correlated with the soil moisture budget. This anomaly was easiest to detect between January and April each year, after prolonged periods of high net gain in soil moisture. The resistivity response of a wrapped cadaver was more complex, although it also showed evidence of seasonal variation during the third year after burial. We suggest that the observed variation in the graves' resistivity anomalies was caused by seasonal change in survey data noise levels, which was in turn influenced by the soil moisture budget. It is possible that similar variations occur elsewhere for sites with seasonal climate variations and this could affect successful detection of other subsurface features. Further research to investigate how different climates and soil types affect seasonal variation in grave-related resistivity anomalies would be useful.

  3. Hazardous substance management system (HSMS): Full ``cradle to grave`` implementation at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    SciTech Connect

    Krake, J.N.; Taylor, M.J.; Boss, R.D.; Senhen, L.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Hazardous Substance Management System (HSMS) is an automated system for `cradle to grave` tracking and managing of hazardous material (HM) and hazardous waste (HW). This paper describes the procedure for disposition of hazardous material as waste, the pilot transfer of hazardous waste, and how the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC SD) has successfully implemented HSMS to track HM and HW from cradle to grave.

  4. Treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Y; Izumi, M; Kiriyama, T; Yokoyama, N; Morita, S; Kakezono, F; Ohtakara, S; Morimoto, I; Okamoto, S; Nagataki, S

    1987-12-01

    This preliminary study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of high-dose iv methylprednisolone pulse therapy in 5 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. One gram of methylprednisolone sodium succinate was given iv daily for 3 successive days. The 3-day infusion was repeated 3 to 7 times at intervals of 1 week; total duration of pulse therapy was 3 to 7 weeks. The clinical improvement of eye involvements by pulse therapy was assessed immediately after the last pulse therapy. The clinical assessment of the effect of pulse therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy showed a good response in 3 patients, a fair response in one, and no response in one. However, in one patient, who was judged to show no response, complete improvement of the enlarged extraocular muscle was observed on orbital computed tomography. Moreover, two patients, who have been followed without any other therapies, showed no relapse of eye involvements for 32 and 10 months, respectively. Although it is impossible to determine whether pulse therapy is more effective than other immunosuppressive therapies, the results of this preliminary study suggest that pulse therapy may be a good immunosuppressive therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy too. Controlled studies are desired. PMID:3321820

  5. GRAVE: An Interactive Geometry Construction and Visualization Software System for the TORT Nuclear Radiation Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2000-05-07

    A software system, GRAVE (Geometry Rendering and Visual Editor), has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform interactive visualization and development of models used as input to the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization displays are included. Display capabilities include image rotation, zoom, translation, wire-frame and translucent display, geometry cuts and slices, and display of individual component bodies and material zones. The geometry can be interactively edited and saved in TORT input file format. This system is an advancement over the current, non-interactive, two-dimensional display software. GRAVE is programmed in the Java programming language and can be implemented on a variety of computer platforms. Three- dimensional visualization is enabled through the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), a free-ware C++ software library developed for geometric and data visual display. Future plans include an extension of the system to read inputs using binary zone maps and combinatorial geometry models containing curved surfaces, such as those used for Monte Carlo code inputs. Also GRAVE will be extended to geometry visualization/editing for the DORT two-dimensional transport code and will be integrated into a single GUI-based system for all of the ORNL discrete ordinates transport codes.

  6. mRNA-Seq Reveals Novel Molecular Mechanisms and a Robust Fingerprint in Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sachidanandam, Ravi; Morshed, Syed; Latif, Rauf; Shi, Ruijin; Davies, Terry F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The immune response in autoimmune thyroid disease has been shown to occur primarily within the thyroid gland in which the most abundant antigens can be found. A variety of capture molecules are known to be expressed by thyroid epithelial cells and serve to attract and help retain an intrathyroidal immune infiltrate. Objective: To explore the entire repertoire of expressed genes in human thyroid tissue, we have deep sequenced the transcriptome (referred to as mRNA-Seq). Design and Patients: We applied mRNA-Seq to thyroid tissue from nine patients with Graves' disease subjected to total thyroidectomy and compared the data with 12 samples of normal thyroid tissue obtained from patients having a thyroid nodule removed. The expression for each gene was calculated from the sequencing data by taking the median of the coverage across the length of the gene. The expression levels were quantile normalized and a gene signature was derived from these. Results: On comparison of expression levels in tissues derived from Graves' patients and controls, there was clear evidence for overexpression of the antigen presentation pathway consisting of HLA and associated genes. We also found a robust disease signature and discovered active innate and adaptive immune signaling networks. Conclusions: These data reveal an active immune defense system in Graves' disease, which involves novel molecular mechanisms in its pathogenesis and development. PMID:24971664

  7. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  8. Reversible increase of serum activin A levels in women with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Centanni, M; Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Reis, F M; Gargano, L; Maiani, F; Franchi, A; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of activin A in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Serum activin A and FSH levels were measured in a total of 93 females (64 regularly cycling and 29 post-menopausal). Of these, 20 were hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 33 were euthyroid goitrous patients (20 had autoimmune thyroiditis AT and 13 only had goiter) representing the internal control group and 40 were healthy subjects representing the external control group. Serum levels of activin A were higher in goitrous patients with AT than in control subjects (p=0.0388). Activin A levels were almost doubled in the cycling and in post-menopausal hyperthyroid women (0.91+/-0.21 vs 0.43+/-0.07 microg/l; p<0.0001 and 0.92+/-0.22 vs 0.48+/-0.24 microg/l; p=0.0001, respectively). In 10 cycling hyperthyroid patients, studied even after methimazole treatment, that increase was substantially reversed, once euthyroidism was attained (p=0.002). These findings indicate that thyroid function and autoimmune processes significantly affect serum levels of activin A in patients with Graves' disease. PMID:12553556

  9. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment. PMID:23612147

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of Graves' disease with particular emphasis on appropriate techniques in nuclear medicine. General state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Prasek, Karolina; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease. It accounts for 50-80% of cases of hyperthyroidism. Antibodies against the TSH receptor (TRAb) are responsible for hyperthyroidism (TRAB). The key role in monitoring and diagnosis of Graves' disease plays the level of hormones of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Helpful is an ultrasound of the thyroid scintigraphy which due to its functional character is both a valuable addition to morphological studies as well as plays an important role in the diagnosis and therapy in patients with Graves' disease. There is no perfect treatment for Graves' disease. The reason for this is the lack of therapy directed against primary pathogenic mechanisms. Currently available treatments need to be thoroughly discussed during the first visit as the patient's understanding of the choice of a treatment constitutes a vital role in the success of therapy. Graves' disease treatment is based on three types of therapies that have been carried out for decades including: pharmacological treatment anti-thyroid drugs, I131 therapy and radical treatment - thyroidectomy. The purpose of the treatment is to control symptoms and patient to return to euthyreosis. Treatment of Graves' disease is of great importance because if left untreated, it can lead to long-term harmful effects on the heart, bone and mental well-being of patients. PMID:26315874

  11. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2... INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI)...

  12. ACTS TDMA network control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inukai, T.; Campanella, S. J.

    This paper presents basic network control concepts for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. Two experimental systems, called the low-burst-rate and high-burst-rate systems, along with ACTS ground system features, are described. The network control issues addressed include frame structures, acquisition and synchronization procedures, coordinated station burst-time plan and satellite-time plan changes, on-board clock control based on ground drift measurements, rain fade control by means of adaptive forward-error-correction (FEC) coding and transmit power augmentation, and reassignment of channel capacities on demand. The NASA ground system, which includes a primary station, diversity station, and master control station, is also described.

  13. [Diagnostic error and the patient's rights act].

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Dralle, H

    2013-02-01

    The question which party bears the burden of proof has significant influence on the result of a medical liability process. The party that bears the burden of proof and cannot provide the proof loses the lawsuit. Particularly important in this context is an omitted medical examination. In the case of such an omitted medical examination the courts may grant reversal of the burden of proof to patients in subsequent medical processes. The civil courts differentiate between a simple mistake or a grave error in treatment and furthermore, the medical examination has to be distinguished from the duty of diagnosis.In the new patients' rights act the burden of proof is established by law. Thereafter in principle the patient must still prove that the doctor made a mistake and that this was the cause of the damage. PMID:23340974

  14. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  15. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  16. Statement on Addressing Racial Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Inc.

    This short document is a statement by the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Board of Directors on racial harassment and colleges' and universities' responsibilities to create an environment where such acts are unacceptable. The statement defines racial harassment and asserts the educational community's need to stand against…

  17. 77 FR 11383 - Change of Address and Electronic Submission of FOIA Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... INVESTMENT BOARD 5 CFR Parts 1630, 1631, and 1632 Change of Address and Electronic Submission of FOIA... address and to permit Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests via electronic mail and facsimile. DATES... Submission of Freedom of Information Act Requests Section 1631.6(a) currently permits submission of...

  18. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. PMID:24320715

  19. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  20. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  1. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  2. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  3. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  4. Comparison of Fixed versus Calculated Activity of Radioiodine for the Treatment of Graves Disease in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Paulette N.; Jimeno, Cecilia A.; Obaldo, Jerry M.; Ogbac, Ruben V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine as a treatment modality has been shown in several studies to be a safe and effective therapy for Graves disease. However, there is still no uniformity regarding optimal dosing method. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of calculated and fixed dosing of radioiodine for the treatment of Graves disease. Methods A hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with Graves disease were randomized to receive either fixed or calculated dose of radioiodine. Those randomized to fixed activity received either low fixed activity at 9.9 mCi for thyroid gland size <40 g or high fixed activity at 14.9 mCi for thyroid gland size 40 to 80 g, and those grouped to calculated activity received 160 µCi/g of thyroid tissue adjusted for 24 hours radioiodine uptake. Thyroid function tests (free thyroxine [T4] and thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) were monitored at 10, 16, and 24 weeks after radioactive iodine therapy. The primary outcome, treatment failure was defined as persistently elevated free T4 and low TSH. Results Of the 122 patients randomized, 56 in the fixed dose group and 56 in the calculated dose group completed the follow-up. At the end of 6 months, the percentage of treatment failure was 37.50% in the calculated dose group versus 19.64% in the fixed dose group with a relative risk of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.98) favoring the fixed dose group. Conclusion Fixed dose radioiodine has a significantly lower incidence of persistent hyperthyroidism at 6 months post-radioactive therapy. PMID:26996425

  5. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  6. Discordant hypothyroxinemia and hypertriiodothyroninemia in treated patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.; Ladenson, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    Hypothyroxinemia and hypertriiodothyroninemia may occur in the course of antithyroid drug or /sup 131/I treatment for hyperthyroid Graves' disease. To determine the frequency of combined high serum T3 and low serum T4 concentrations during such treatment and to assess the clinical significance of its recognition, we reviewed 60 patients treated for hyperthyroid Graves' disease with antithyroid drugs (n = 43) or radioactive iodine (n = 17). Six of these patients (10%) were found to have high serum T3 and low serum T4 concentrations during therapy. Four were receiving antithyroid drugs, and 2 had received radioactive iodine. At the time this abnormality occurred, 4 patients were euthyroid, 1 was hypothyroid, and 1 was hyperthyroid. The serum TSH concentration was increased in 2, at the upper limit of normal in 1, and undetectable in 3 patients. After discontinuation or reduction in the dose of antithyroid drug, clinical and chemical euthyroidism was restored in 2 additional patients with previously elevated TSH levels. In 2 patients, both of whom previously had undetectable serum TSH levels, clinical hyperthyroidism persisted or recurred, and additional therapy was required. No patient developed permanent hypothyroidism during the period of follow-up (1-22 months). An additional 19 of the 60 patients (32%) had an elevated serum T3 level with a normal serum T4 concentration during the course of follow-up. Among the 19 patients, the magnitude of serum T3 elevation was not different between clinically euthyroid (n = 13) and hyperthyroid (n = 6) patients. We conclude that discordance of serum T4 and T3 concentrations is frequently encountered in patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease during or after therapy. The low serum T4 level does not predict hypothyroidism, nor does a high serum T3 level predict hyperthyroidism.

  7. Use of corticosteroids to prevent progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Bogazzi, F.; Panicucci, M.; Lepri, A.; Pinchera, A. )

    1989-11-16

    We studied the effects of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease on Graves' ophthalmopathy and the possible protective role of corticosteroids. Between June 1985 and June 1988, 26 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine alone (group 1) and 26 to treatment with this agent and concomitant administration of systemic prednisone for four months (group 2). The initial dose of prednisone was 0.4 to 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight for one month; the drug was gradually withdrawn over the next three months. All patients were evaluated at 3-month intervals for 18 months after they underwent radioiodine therapy. Ocular changes were assessed with the ophthalmopathy index; patients with moderate-to-severe changes (scores greater than or equal to 4) were excluded from the study. Before treatment, 10 patients in group 1 and 5 in group 2 had no evidence of ophthalmopathy: in none of them did ocular symptoms appear after radioiodine therapy. Among the patients in group 1 with an initial ophthalmopathy index greater than or equal to 1, ocular disease worsened in 56 percent (mostly involving soft-tissue changes and extraocular-muscle function) and did not change in 44 percent. In contrast, ophthalmopathy improved in 52 percent and did not change in 48 percent of group 2. The mean ophthalmopathy index increased from 1.5 to 3.0 in group 1 (P less than 0.005) and decreased from 2.2 to 1.3 in group 2 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that systemic corticosteroid treatment prevents the exacerbations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that occur after radioiodine therapy in a substantial proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism who have some degree of ocular involvement before treatment.

  8. Crystal structure of a TSH receptor monoclonal antibody: insight into Graves' disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Rong; Hubbard, Paul A; Salazar, Larry M; McLachlan, Sandra M; Murali, Ramachandran; Rapoport, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit is more effective than the holoreceptor in inducing thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) that cause Graves' disease. A puzzling phenomenon is that 2 recombinant, eukaryotic forms of A-subunits (residues 22-289), termed active and inactive, are recognized mutually exclusively by pathogenic TSAb and mouse monoclonal antibody 3BD10, respectively. Understanding the structural difference between these TSHR A-subunit forms could provide insight into Graves' disease pathogenesis. The 3-dimensional structure of the active A-subunit (in complex with a human TSAb Fab, M22) is known, but the structural difference with inactive A-subunits is unknown. We solved the 3BD10 Fab 3-dimensional crystal structure. Guided by prior knowledge of a portion of its epitope, 3BD10 docked in silico with the known active TSHR-289 monomeric structure. Because both TSAb and 3BD10 recognize the active TSHR A-subunit monomer, this form of the molecule can be excluded as the basis for the active-inactive dichotomy, suggesting, instead a role for A-subunit quaternary structure. Indeed, in silico analysis revealed that M22, but not 3BD10, bound to a TSHR-289 trimer. In contrast, 3BD10, but not M22, bound to a TSHR-289 dimer. The validity of these models is supported experimentally by the temperature-dependent balance between active and inactive TSHR-289. In summary, we provide evidence for a structural basis to explain the conformational heterogeneity of TSHR A-subunits (TSHR-289). The pathophysiologic importance of these findings is that affinity maturation of pathogenic TSAb in Graves' disease is likely to involve a trimer of the shed TSHR A-subunit. PMID:25419797

  9. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Cara M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language…

  10. Unusual locations of localized myxedema in Graves disease. Report of three cases

    SciTech Connect

    Noppakun, N.; Bancheun, K.; Chandraprasert, S.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with Graves disease had very unusual locations of localized myxedema. One patient had localized myxedema on the pretibial and shoulder areas after sodium iodide I 131 therapy. The second patient had localized myxedema on his neck, shoulders, and upper part of the back as well as on the pretibial area. The third patient had localized myxedema on the pinnae, also following sodium iodide I 131 therapy. After surgical removal followed by intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injections, the first patient's lesions recurred. The lesions in the second case did not respond to topical steroid cream. The third patient had a partial response to intralesional steroid injections.

  11. In the absence of dental records, do we need forensic odontologists at mass grave sites?

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark; Alempijevic, Djordje; Stanojevic, Aleksandar

    2010-09-10

    With the exception of exhumations of mass graves in Latin America, forensic dentists and odontologists are rarely involved in the examination of mortal remains recovered from mass graves. The cited reason is often that "there are no dental records-so what is the point"? In this presentation we review the published accounts of examination of remains arising from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia between 1991 and 1999 in which dental examinations are reported. There are roughly 30,000 missing persons of which more than 15,000 mortal remains have been identified, mostly based on DNA. There are 9 sources which describe postmortem dental examinations of 3919 sets of remains; of these, 23% were purported to have been identified specifically from dental information. Of the 8100 listed missing persons from the Srebrenica mass killings in 1995, we located 600 dental records. A sample of 263 charts was examined for information about first molar treatment as we are concerned that dental charting of individuals who lose their first molars may be incorrectly done if allowance is not made for mesial drift of the remaining molars. We found that of all the first molar extractions that are ever going to occur according to these dental charts, 63% have taken place by age 18. The majority of extracted first molars have a functional age of 17 years. We observe that an adult's remains from Srebrenica usually have only second and third molars, which have often drifted forward to occupy the position of the first molar creating the appearance of third molar agenesis. We conclude: that, since dental identifications of victims in mass graves and mass disasters is the exception rather than the rule, even in the absence of DNA-based identifications, international forensic odontologists have an ethical obligation to become more involved in examination of mass grave victims, that there must be more determined searches for antemortem dental records; that local dentists should be approached

  12. Radiotherapy in benign orbital disease. II: Ophthalmic Graves' disease and orbital histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, A. N.; Doughty, D.; Hirst, A.; Plowman, P. N.

    1988-01-01

    Ophthalmic Graves' disease and histiocytosis X involving the orbit are occasionally refractory to treatment, so that vision may be threatened. In these situations megavoltage external beam radiotherapy should be employed, and the indications for this treatment are discussed. A highly accurate technique is described, using precise planning with information obtained from high definition CT scans, a complete patient head shell for immobilisation, and modern megavoltage radiotherapy treatment machines. As a result the dose to the lens is minimised (to a maximum of 10% of the prescribed dose), and late morbidity will be small. Two cases are described to illustrate this procedure and the response to treatment. Images PMID:3259894

  13. Hyperthyroidism Improves the Pathological Condition of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Case of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Teruki; Matsuura, Bunzo; Furukawa, Shinya; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Yoshida, Osamu; Imai, Yusuke; Watanabe, Takao; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Hirooka, Masashi; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Seike, Hirotaka; Miyauchi, Shozo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine regulates the glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hepatic steatosis. Several groups have shown the relationships between hypothyroidism and nonalcoholic fatty liver and hypothyroidism and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the effect of hyperthyroidism on NASH has not yet been investigated. We herein report effects of thyroid hormone on the pathological condition of NASH in a patient with NASH complicated by Graves' disease. In our case, the liver enzyme level improved with the increasing thyroid hormone level; however, the liver enzyme level was aggravated with the improving thyroid hormone level. Therefore, hyperthyroidism may improve the pathological condition of NASH. PMID:27477408

  14. A review of treatment options for Graves' disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I(131)iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves' disease. PMID:27609732

  15. Analysis of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles in Graves' disease by oligonucleotide probing of enzymatically amplified DNA.

    PubMed

    Weetman, A P; Zhang, L; Webb, S; Shine, B

    1990-07-01

    We have tested the possible association of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles with Graves' thyrotoxicosis, with or without severe ophthalmopathy, by polymerase chain amplification of genomic DNA and allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. There was no significantly abnormal distribution of DQB alleles compared to 50 control subjects except for a reduced prevalence of DQw 3.1 in the Graves' patients with severe ophthalmopathy (X2 = 6.23, P less than 0.02). HLA-DPB 2.1/8 was found in only 1 of 40 of these patients compared with 15 of the controls (X2 = 11.49, P less than 0.001). Ten of 48 patients with Graves' disease but without clinically significant eye involvement were HLA-DPB 2.1/8 positive, not significantly different from controls, but significantly different from the ophthalmopathy group (X2 = 6.70, P less than 0.01). The other DPB alleles in both groups of Graves' disease patients were the same as controls. These results suggest that HLA-DPB 2.1/8 may confer a protective effect in Graves' disease with respect to ophthalmopathy. PMID:2401099

  16. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs. This is called an overactive thyroid or hyperthyroidism. An overactive thyroid causes every function of the body to speed up, such as heart rate and the rate ...

  17. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... radioiodine therapy. Anti-thyroid medications can cause side effects in some people, including allergic reactions such as rashes and itching a decrease in the number of white blood cells in the body, which can lower a person’s resistance to infection ...

  18. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog. ​ Additional Links Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a Specialist ... everyone who receives radioactive iodine treatment eventually develops hypothyroidism, which occurs when the thyroid does not make ...

  19. [Perioperative treatment for the urgent orbital decompression surgery in a 30-weeks pregnant woman with Graves' orbitopathy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; López-Herrera-Rodríguez, D; Domínguez-Blanco, A; Medina-de Moya, I; Sánchez-Carrillo, F

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a rare extra-thyroid complication usually associated with Graves' disease. This disease can occur in the euthyroid pregnant patient. Graves' orbitopathy is characterized by eyelid retraction, proptosis, extraocular muscle dysfunction, and periorbital edema. In some cases an emergency surgical repair may be required to avoid irreversible vision loss. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman in her 30th gestational week, who suffered from Graves' ophthalmopathy, severe exophthalmia, and visual acuity decrease. Following consultations among anesthesiologists, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, endocrinologists, obstetricians and the patient, it was decided to perform a surgical orbital wall decompression. The anesthetic and perioperative implications associated with gestational age and the considerations for this surgical procedure, and how to avoid increasing intraocular pressure are discussed. PMID:23835254

  20. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Associated with Graves' Disease Presenting As Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis with Bilateral Lower Limb DVT.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with bilateral lower limb swelling and a thyroid swelling with clinical features consistent with thyrotoxicosis. Investigations revealed the presence of a thrombus in bilateral external, internal iliac veins, and inferior vena cava extending up to its infrahepatic part. Hormone profile and radioiodine uptake scan confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease. Further workup revealed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (confirmed after a repeat test at 12 weeks). The patient was treated with antithyroid drugs and anticoagulants. The patient improved with normalization of thyroid function and partial recanalization of the infrahepatic part of inferior vena cava. Hyperthyroidism has been implicated as a potential hypercoagulable state; however, the association of Graves' disease with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is limited to isolated case reports. This case highlights a new mechanism underlying hypercoagulability associated with Graves' disease. PMID:24812529

  1. Post-radioiodine De Novo Onset Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ruchika; Krishnasamy, Senthil Kumar; Buch, Harit; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2015-05-01

    New-onset Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine treatment (RAI) and worsening of existing GO are well-described in the endocrinology literature. These phenomena are recognized by ophthalmologists, yet poorly documented in the ophthalmology literature. Two male patients, aged 43 and 62 years, respectively, with Graves' disease without GO, received RAI. Four months later, one patient developed acute GO with unilateral reduction in visual acuity, conjunctival chemosis, lagophthalmos, bilateral severely restricted ocular motility, and lid retraction. High-dose intravenous steroids, followed by oral steroids, led to a dramatic clinical improvement. The second patient received a second dose of RAI for persistent hyperthyroidism and subsequently developed acute GO-comprising restricted ocular motility, peri-orbital swelling, and conjunctival chemosis. Symptoms gradually resolved on continued carbimazole treatment. Neither patient received pre-RAI prophylactic glucocorticoids, as currently they are only recommended for patients with pre-existing GO or multiple risk factors. We discuss the limitations of using this risk-based approach in preventing new-onset GO following RAI therapy. PMID:24409943

  2. Parathyroid adenoma in patients with Graves' disease: a report of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2015-03-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is frequently associated with mild hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia may be due to the activation of osteoclastic bone resorption caused by the excess thyroid hormone. In some cases of GD, the hypercalcemia can be attributable to concomitant parathyroid diseases. In this study, 21 patients with a history of GD developed parathyroid adenoma based on histology, intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring, and other clinical features. There were 11 patients with a history of radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) for GD. The latency time of RAI was from 12 to 41 years. The case cohort was divided into two groups: patients with (group GR: 11 patients) and patients without a history of RAI (group G: 10 patients). Mean age of patients in group GR was 54.8 years compared to 62.2 years of group G (P = 0.08). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the parathyroid weight, serum calcium, and pre- and post-parathyroidectomy PTH levels. There was no histopathologic difference between the two groups. In conclusion, we report 21 cases of parathyroid adenoma in patients with Graves' disease. There may be a possible link between GD patients with a RAI history and an increased risk of parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid adenomas showed no clinicopathological differences between GD patient with and without a history of RAI. PMID:25501495

  3. Role of octreoscan and correlation with MR imaging in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, G; Diaz, M; Just, M; Beyer, J; Lieb, W

    1995-04-01

    Since the identification of somatostatin receptors on lymphocytes, orbital infiltration with mononuclear cells in Graves' ophthalmopathy has provided a rationale for receptor imaging with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog Octreotide. In 40 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and 10 controls, 110 MBq indium-Octreotide were administered i.v., and scans were performed at 4 and 24 h after injection. An uptake ratio between the orbits and the brain was determined. In 20 ophthalmophathy patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbits was performed and the T2 relaxation time was measured within the rectus muscles. Compared to controls (4 h Octreotide uptake: median 6.0 counts/pixel/MBq, orbit/brain ratio 5.6), ophthalmopathy patients showed a 2- to 3-fold increased uptake (15.8 counts/pixel/MBq vs controls p = 0.0032; ratio 12.6, vs controls p = 0.003). When considering patients with active disease only, a higher uptake was registered (16.8 counts/pixel/MBq vs controls p 0.0048, ratio 15.6 vs controls p = 0.0006). Untreated patients showed a markedly higher uptake (23 counts/pixel/MBq) compared to patients receiving steroid therapy (12.6, p = 0.001). MRI of the orbit revealed a correlation between T2 relaxation time of the eye muscles and orbital uptake of Octreotide (p < 0.001). PMID:7647569

  4. Protracted Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Pilot Study of Clinical and Radiologic Response

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro de Deus Cardoso, Cejana; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Borri Wolosker, Angela Maria; Souhami, Luis; Gois Manso, Paulo; Souza Dias, Rodrigo; Comodo Segreto, Helena Regina; Araujo Segreto, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic response of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy given low-dose orbital radiotherapy (RT) with a protracted fractionation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients (36 orbits) received orbital RT with a total dose of 10 Gy, fractionated in 1 Gy once a week over 10 weeks. Of these, 9 patients received steroid therapy as well. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at 6 months after treatment. Clinical response assessment was carried out using three criteria: by physical examination, by a modified clinical activity score, and by a verbal questionnaire considering the 10 most common signs and symptoms of the disease. Radiologic response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Improvement in ocular pain, palpebral edema, visual acuity, and ocular motility was observed in all patients. Significant decrease in symptoms such as tearing (p < 0.001) diplopia (p = 0.008), conjunctival hyperemia (p = 0.002), and ocular grittiness (p = 0.031) also occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in ocular muscle thickness and in the intensity of the T2 sequence signal in the majority of patients. Treatments were well tolerated, and to date no complications from treatment have been observed. There was no statistical difference in clinical and radiologic response between patients receiving RT alone and those receiving RT plus steroid therapy. Conclusion: RT delivered in at a low dose and in a protracted scheme should be considered as a useful therapeutic option for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  5. A case of Graves' disease with false hyperthyrotropinemia who developed silent thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Iitaka, M; Ishii, J; Ishikawa, N; Yoshimura, H; Momotani, N; Saitou, H; Ito, K

    1991-12-01

    We encountered a patient who developed silent thyroiditis during the course of Graves' disease. The diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made on the basis of a low thyroidal 131I uptake, no response to the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test, and subsequent hypothyroidism despite the presence of high titers of thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb). The patient, in addition, had a discrepancy between serum TSH and thyroid hormone values. This was due to the presence of interfering substances that react to mouse IgG in the sera since serum TSH levels were decreased in a dose dependent manner by the addition of increasing amounts of mouse IgG to the sera. It should therefore be noted that silent thyroiditis can develop in patients with Graves' disease. Furthermore, clinicians should be aware that two-site immunoassay kits that use mouse monoclonal antibodies are subject to interference by some substances, possibly antibodies which react to mouse IgG. PMID:1688049

  6. Radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism in Graves' disease: factors associated with the increasing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnien, A.J.; Hy, I.D.; Gorman, C.A.; Offord, K.P.; Scanlon, P.W.

    1982-11-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of the records of 454 patients who received their first I-131 treatment for Graves' disease during six periods covering 1951 to 1978. In the earliest group, 3% of patients were hypothyroid 3 mo after I-131 use, and 40% were hypothyroid at 1 yr. In the most recent group, 36% of patients were hypothyroid at 3 mo and 91% were myxedematous at 1 yr. Although no obvious trends were noted, whether in the number of patients pretreated with thionamide drugs, in the mean 24-hr I-131 uptake, or in the calculated dose of I-131 (..mu..Ci/estimated gram of thyroid tissue) during the years of the study, the initial mean dose of I-131 administered increased from 8.1 mCi in the earliest group to 13.8 mCi in the latest group. Concurrently, estimates of gland size increased from a mean of 26 g in the first group to 43 g in the last. If, in patients with Graves' disease, the thyroid gland size did not truly increase during the years of the study, the increasing occurrence of early hypothyroidism seen after I-131 use may reflect the conscious or unconscious decision to use larger doses of I-131 calculated on the basis of inflated estimates of thyroid gland weight.

  7. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves' Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael T; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves' disease will help in the timely management of patients. PMID:26864507

  8. The gravimeter "B-grave" for the in-situ surface gravity measurements of an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruymbeke, Michel; karatekin, ozgur; rasson, jean; wielant, françois; dumont, Phillipe; Ritter, Birgit; zhu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the preliminary study phase for the CubeSats supporting ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) to the Didymos, we investigate a miniaturized gravimeter as part of the geophysical instrument package for the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX). AGEX intends to land a CubeSat on the secondary object in the Didymos system, Didymoon in order to characterize the asteroid surface and internal structure A 3D compact gravimeter is developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Its design allows to meter a weak 50 μm/sec² gravity field corresponding to 5 ppm of Earth gravity in a harsh environment. A system with three components mounted in an orthogonal geometry allows obtaining the gravity field in amplitude and in angular position without any requirement of levelling. B-GRAVES will use a in-situ calibration and multi-parameter approach for validation of the measurements. A laboratory simulation is induced with centrifugal forces applied to the pendulum set-up in a vertical position to reject the Earth gravity field. Signal treatment and uncertainties are discussed keeping in mind questions of thermal and vibration influence. The B-GRAVES can serve as a novel and robust instrument for future lander and rover missions .

  9. Combined segregation and linkage analysis of Graves disease with a thyroid autoantibody diathesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, D.C.; Ratanachaiyavong, S.; McGregor, A.M.; Collins, A.; Morton, N.E.

    1994-09-01

    Combined segregation and linkage analysis is a powerful technique for modeling linkage to diseases whose etiology is more complex than the effect of a well-described single genetic locus and for investigating the influence of single genes on various aspects of the disease phenotype. Graves disease is familial and is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele DR3. Probands with Graves disease, as well as close relatives, have raised levels of thyroid autoantibodies. This phenotypic information additional to affection status may be considered by the computer program COMDS for combined segregation and linkage analysis, when normals are classified into diathesis classes of increasing thyroid autoantibody titer. The ordinal model considers the cumulative odds of lying in successive classes, and a single additional parameter is introduced for each gene modeled. Distributional assumptions are avoided by providing estimates of the population frequencies of each class. Evidence for linkage was increased by considering the thyroid autoantibody diathesis and by testing two-locus models. The analysis revealed evidence for linkage to HLA-DR when the strong coupling of the linked locus to allele DR3 was considered (lod score of 6.6). Linkage analysis of the residual variation revealed no evidence of linkage to Gm, but a suggestion of linkage to Km. 32 refs., 10 tabs.

  10. Clinical efficacy of combined rituximab treatment in a woman with severe Graves' ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Guo, Hui; Liu, Juan; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a female Chinese patient with Graves' disease (GD) and severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) in its active phase, who was treated with propylthiouracil and oral prednisolone for 2 months at a local hospital. However, a lack of improvement in symptoms meant that the patient was transferred to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China), whereupon the patient received high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, although with limited efficacy. Subsequently, rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) combined with orbital irradiation treatment was initiated. The patient responded positively to the combined treatment; the clinical symptoms and enlargement of the extraocular muscles were ameliorated, and there were marked decreases in the clinical activity and NOSPECS grading scores. Furthermore, the serum levels of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) were markedly decreased at 2 months following RTX therapy. The patient was maintained in a euthyroid state by treatment with methimazole during and following RTX therapy. It was concluded that RTX treatment may attenuate severe GO by depleting lymphocytes, and may promote the recovery of GD by reducing the serum levels of TRAb. PMID:27446325

  11. Use of antihistamines after serious allergic reaction to methimazole in pediatric Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Toderian, Amy B; Lawson, Margaret L

    2014-05-01

    Antithyroid drugs are usually considered first-line therapy for management of pediatric Graves' disease because they avoid permanent hypothyroidism, provide a chance for remission, and are less invasive than the alternatives of thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine. Methimazole (MMI) is the only antithyroid drug recommended in pediatrics due to the risk of propylthiouracil-induced liver toxicity. Allergic reactions with MMI occur in up to 10% of patients and, when mild, can be managed with concurrent antihistamine therapy. Guidelines recommend discontinuation of MMI with serious allergic reactions. We present the case of an adolescent girl with Graves' disease and a serious allergic reaction after starting MMI whose family refused radioactive iodine and was reluctant to proceed to surgery. Antihistamine therapy was successfully used to allow continued treatment with MMI. This case demonstrates extension of management guidelines for minor cutaneous allergic reactions to MMI, through the use of antihistamines for a serious allergic reaction, allowing us to continue MMI and provide treatment consistent with the family's preferences and values. PMID:24777217

  12. Act resilient.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Genie; Bice-Stephens, Wynona

    2014-01-01

    Attendees have reported changing from being fearful to serene, from listless to energized, from disengaged to connected, and becoming markedly less anxious in a few weeks. Anecdotally, self-reported stress levels have been reduced by over 50% after just one class. Attendees learn not to be afraid of their feelings by working with emotions in a playful manner. When a person can act angry, but separate himself from his personal story, the emotional energy exists in a separate form that is not attached to specific events, and can be more easily dealt with and neutralized. Attendees are taught to "take out the emotional trash" through expressive comedy. They become less intimated by their own emotional intensity and triggers as they learn how even metaphorical buckets of anger, shame, guilt and hurt can be emotionally emptied. The added benefit is that this is accomplished without the disclosure of personal information of the requirement to reexperience past pain which can trigger its own cascade of stress. PMID:24706248

  13. The Environmental Education Act of 1970: Success or Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Melvin G.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies and interprets several problems that beset environmental education (EE) and the Office of Environmental Education (OEE). Areas addressed include Public Law 91-516 (Environmental Education Act) and the OEE, problems related to implementing the act, funding, misinterpretation of the act's intent, the act's identity, and the status of EE…

  14. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  17. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  18. Environmental Politics and the Endangered Species Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahr, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the controversial issue of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) discussing the Act and the scope of the extinction problem. Reviews the arguments for and against the ESA, addresses the tactics that have been used in the political struggle over the ESA, and highlights the future of the ESA. Includes teaching activities. (CMK)

  19. 78 FR 66806 - Privacy Act of 1974

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... security number, physical address, phone number, email address), health-related information (e.g., vital... drug abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, sickle cell anemia or infection with the human... Act) and guidelines issued by OMB (65 FR 77677), December 12, 2000. Approved: October 9, 2013. Jose...

  20. 78 FR 18473 - Army Privacy Act Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Register (71 FR 46052), the Department of the Army issued a final rule. This final rule corrects the... Litigation Division when complaints citing the Privacy Act are filed in order to correct the mailing address in Sec. 505.12. The address for notifying the Army Litigation Division of cases citing the...

  1. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  2. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  5. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves, facteurs et critères de gravité

    PubMed Central

    Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Tourabi, Khalid; Abir, Bader-eddine; Zouhair, Said; Lahmiti, Saad; Hattab, Nadia Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    La cellulite cervico-faciale grave est une infection polymicrobienne extensive et redoutable du tissu cellulo-adipeux de la face et du cou. L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser certains facteurs favorisants et d’évaluer les critères de gravité en fonction des formes anatomo-cliniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée, entre janvier 2007 et décembre 2012, au service de chirurgie maxillo faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Sur 147 cas de cellulites cervico-faciales pris en charge au niveau du service, 13 dossiers de cellulites graves ont été retenus. Neuf hommes (69%) et quatre femmes (31%) ont fait l'objet de cette étude, avec un âge moyen de 35 ans. Tous les patients ont été adressés pour prise en charge secondaire après avoir pris des anti-inflammatoires (AI). Sept cas (54%) étaient immunocompétents. La cause dentaire était soulevée chez neufs cas (69%). Cinq cas (38%) ont présenté une forme pseudo phlegmoneuse avec des signes compressifs des voies aéro-digestives. L'extension médiastinale a été observée chez quatre patients (31%). La forme nécrosante extensive a été retrouvée dans trois cas (23%). L’étude bactériologique, réalisée chez tous les patients, avait mis en évidence une flore microbienne mixte et polymorphe. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves posent un réel problème de prise en charge thérapeutique. L'analyse des facteurs favorisants et l’évaluation des critères de gravité dans cette série ont permis de limiter une évolution défavorable. PMID:26113891

  6. Graves' disease, Celiac disease and liver function abnormalities in a patient--clinical manifestation and diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Góra-Gębka, Magdalena; Woźniak, Małgorzata; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna; Korpal-Szczyrska, Maria; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Zagierski, Maciej; Jankowska, Irena; Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna; Kamińska, Barbara; Liberek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases due to probable common pathogenesis tend to coexist in some patients. Complex clinical presentation with diverse timing of particular symptoms and sophisticated treatment with numerous side effects, may cause diagnostic difficulties, especially in children. The paper presents diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in a child with Graves' disease, celiac disease and liver function abnormalities. PMID:24904927

  7. L'Attitude Chirurgicale dans les Brulures Electriques Graves par Haut Voltage: À Propos de Deux Cas

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, A.; Fejjal, N.; Achbouk, A.; Tourabi, K.; Ribag, Y.; Bakkali, H.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Devant une brûlure électrique grave, deux attitudes chirurgicales se distinguent: 1. une attitude conservatrice; 2. une attitude d'amputation. A la lumière de deux observations, les Auteurs discutent les avantages et les difficultés de la mise en oeuvre de chaque attitude. PMID:21991118

  8. Interferon-alpha-induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with chronic hepatitis C: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Choi, Young Sik; Park, Yo Han; Lee, Sang Uk

    2011-12-01

    Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) is a major clinical problem for patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. But, destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease associated with IFN-α therapy is very rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of pegylated IFN-α (pegIFN-α) induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with HCV infection. A 31-yr-old woman suffered from chronic active hepatitis C and was treated with pegIFN-α and ribavirin for 12 months. Results of a thyroid function test and autoantibody levels were normal before IFN-α therapy was initiated. Destructive thyrotoxicosis appeared seven months after the initiation of IFN-α therapy, followed by Graves' thyrotoxicosis two months after the cessation of therapy. The diagnoses of destructive thyroiditis and Graves' disease were confirmed by the presence of TSH receptor antibodies in addition to Tc-99m scintigraphy findings. The patient's antithyroglobulin antibody titer increased gradually during IFN-α therapy and remained weakly positive after IFN-α therapy was discontinued. PMID:22148004

  9. Funerary practices of the Iberomaurusian population of Taforalt (Tafoughalt, Morocco, 11-12,000 BP): the case of Grave XII.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Condemi, Silvana; Mariotti, Valentina

    2010-06-01

    The Iberomaurusian necropolis of Taforalt (Morocco, 11-12000 BP), excavated by Roche in the 1950s, contains 28 multiple graves. The funerary practices of the Taforalt population have been the focus of a previous work (Mariotti et al., 2009). In the absence of the excavation records of the necropolis, these funerary practices were investigated through the analysis of the contents of each grave and the distribution of intentionally modified specimens (ochre-dyeing, cut marks). Previous research has drawn particular attention to Grave XII (containing three male adults and two juveniles), where many intentionally modified specimens were identified. The present study focused specifically on the human remains recovered from Grave XII. Analysis of these remains has provided evidence of interventions, such as dismemberment and defleshing of the cadaver, and the use of ochre to colour the bones. Furthermore, the presence of lesions on two skulls suggests the possibility of intentional killing and cannibalism among the Taforalt population. This study further supports our previous impression of the complex and diversified funerary practices, characterising the social life of the Iberomaurusian population of Taforalt. PMID:20471665

  10. Thyrotropinoma with Graves' disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Alagoz, Engin; Arslan, Nuri; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Bolu, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves' disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. PMID:27095865

  11. The Presence of Thyroid-Stimulation Blocking Antibody Prevents High Bone Turnover in Untreated Premenopausal Patients with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Bae, Jae Hyun; Noh, Gyeong Woon; Kim, Ye An; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Chung, June-Key; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures are one of the complications of Graves' disease. This study hypothesized that the different actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antibodies, both stimulating and blocking activities in Graves' disease patients might oppositely impact bone turnover. Newly diagnosed premenopausal Graves' disease patients were enrolled (n = 93) and divided into two groups: patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity (stimulating activity group, n = 83) and patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity combined with blocking activity (blocking activity group, n = 10). From the stimulating activity group, patients who had matched values for free T4 and TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) to the blocking activity group were further classified as stimulating activity-matched control (n = 11). Bone turnover markers BS-ALP, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide were significantly lower in the blocking activity group than in the stimulating activity or stimulating activity-matched control groups. The TBII level showed positive correlations with BS-ALP and osteocalcin levels in the stimulating activity group, while it had a negative correlation with the osteocalcin level in the blocking activity group. In conclusion, the activation of TSHR antibody-activated TSH signaling contributes to high bone turnover, independent of the actions of thyroid hormone, and thyroid-stimulation blocking antibody has protective effects against bone metabolism in Graves' disease. PMID:26650844

  12. Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yürekli, Yakup; Cengiz, Arzu; Güney, Engin

    2015-10-01

    Graves' disease (GD) may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT) for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA) and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG). We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient's serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels gradually increased. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) were also positive. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse intense uptake after four months of RAIT. Radiation-induced GD should be considered in patients with aggravated hyperthyroidism 3-4 months after therapy. PMID:27529890

  13. Downhole fiber optic sensing: the oilfield service provider's perspective: from the cradle to the grave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Neal G.; Maida, John L.

    2014-06-01

    For almost three decades, interest has continued to increase with respect to the application of fiber-optic sensing techniques for the upstream oil and gas industry. This paper reviews optical sensing technologies that have been and are being adopted downhole, as well as their drivers. A brief description of the life of a well, from the cradle to the grave, and the roles fiber-optic sensing can play in optimizing production, safety, and protection of the environment are also presented. The performance expectations (accuracy, resolution, stability, and operational lifetime) that oil companies and oil service companies have for fiber-optic sensing systems is described. Additionally, the environmental conditions (high hydrostatic pressures, high temperatures, shock, vibration, crush, and chemical exposure) that these systems must tolerate to provide reliable and economically attractive oilfield monitoring solutions are described.

  14. Thyrotoxic hypokalaemic periodic paralysis: a rare presentation of Graves' disease in a Hispanic patient.

    PubMed

    Matta, Abhishek; Koppala, Jahnavi; Gossman, William

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old Hispanic man with no significant medical history presented to our emergency room with gradual onset weakness of his lower extremities. He was haemodynamically stable and examination revealed loss of motor function in his lower limbs up to the level of hips. Laboratory data revealed hypokalaemia. The patient was started on potassium supplementation and he recovered his muscle strength. Differential diagnosis included familial hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). Further investigations revealed a low thyroid-stimulating hormone and high free thyroxine levels. Radio iodine 123 scan revealed an enhanced homogeneous uptake in the thyroid suggesting Graves' disease. Thyroid stimulating antibodies were also found to be elevated. The patient was started on methimazole and propranolol and he never had another attack of TPP even at 1 year follow-up. PMID:24717588

  15. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves' Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-04-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves' disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  16. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  17. 99Tc-MDP treatment for the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, choroidal neovascularisation and Graves' ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    WU, QIAN; NI, YANG; YANG, QINGRUI; SUN, HONGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Technetium 99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate, which is an anti-inflammatory drug, can inhibit macrophage infiltration and downregulate a number of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Recently, numerous studies have indicated that it could improve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity by upregulating the frequency of peripheral γδ T cells and cluster of differentiation CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, affecting the serum cytokine environment, inhibiting osteoclast formation and reducing the concentrations of rheumatoid factor-immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG/IgA. As well, it may have a therapeutic role for choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Therefore, it will be a valuable choice in the treatment of RA, CNV and GO. PMID:27073620

  18. Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis due to Both Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in the Same Three Patients.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ashley; Puthenpura, Vidya; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are the 2 most common autoimmune disease processes affecting the thyroid gland. The relationship between the two is complex and not clearly understood. It has been theorized that HT and GD are 2 separate disease processes due to unique genetic differences demonstrated by genome studies. On the other hand, based on occurrence of both HT and GD in monozygotic twins and within the same family, they have been regarded to represent 2 ends of the same spectrum. This case report describes 3 patients who presented with thyrotoxicosis due to both GD and HT. The initial presentation was thyrotoxicosis due to GD treated with antithyroid medication followed by temporary resolution. They all subsequently experienced recurrence of thyrotoxicosis in the form of Hashitoxicosis due to HT, and then eventually all developed thyrotoxicosis due to GD, requiring radioablation therapy. PMID:27340576

  19. Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis due to Both Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in the Same Three Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Ashley; Puthenpura, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are the 2 most common autoimmune disease processes affecting the thyroid gland. The relationship between the two is complex and not clearly understood. It has been theorized that HT and GD are 2 separate disease processes due to unique genetic differences demonstrated by genome studies. On the other hand, based on occurrence of both HT and GD in monozygotic twins and within the same family, they have been regarded to represent 2 ends of the same spectrum. This case report describes 3 patients who presented with thyrotoxicosis due to both GD and HT. The initial presentation was thyrotoxicosis due to GD treated with antithyroid medication followed by temporary resolution. They all subsequently experienced recurrence of thyrotoxicosis in the form of Hashitoxicosis due to HT, and then eventually all developed thyrotoxicosis due to GD, requiring radioablation therapy. PMID:27340576

  20. Radioiodine uptake following iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease: an early indicator of need for retreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, W.R.; Gilliland, P.F.; Piziak, V.K.; Petty, F.C.; McConnell, B.G.; Verdonk, C.A.; Ibarra, J.D.; Thompson, J.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Graves' disease were studied prospectively to determine if 24-hour I-131 uptake measurements alone or in combination with serum thyroid hormone levels at six weeks would determine the necessity for retreatment of the thyrotoxicosis. All patients with an I-131 uptake greater than 30% at six weeks required retreatment. No patient with an I-131 uptake of less than 15% required retreatment. Patients with uptakes between 15% and 30% were variable. An elevated free thyroxin index at 6 weeks is not helpful to determine which patients will remain thyrotoxic. Patients with a free thyroxin index within the normal range at six weeks can be predicted to be euthyroid by 12 weeks if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is between 15% and 30% and to be hypothyroid if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is below 15%. There was no difference between patient groups treated initially with antithyroid medication and those who were not.

  1. Examination of Sarmatian age human skeletal remains from the Madaras graves.

    PubMed

    Antónia, Marcsik; Lãszló, Paja

    2009-01-01

    The Madaras cemetery is the only one totally excavated Sarmatian site on the Great Hungarian Plain. The cemetery contained 623 graves from the Sarmatian period (from the second century till the middle of the fifth century AD). The preservation of the skeletons are very poor and fragmentary. The ratio of males is 30%, the ratio of skeletons belongig to females is 41%, while the children took 29%. Among pathological cases severe coxarthritis and in one case a metastatic carcinoma of a skull were found. At four individuals artificial deformation of the skull was diagnosed. On the basis of the metric and taxonomic analysis the Madaras population was heterogeneous, wich can be explained by the fact, that this population was diverse or mixed. PMID:20063665

  2. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Diego R G; Tatumi, Sonia H; Yee, Márcio; Brito, Silvio L M; Morais, José L; Morais, Daisy de; Piedade, Silvia C; Munita, Casimiro S P; Hazenfratz, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at "Luz" Monastery, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments. PMID:22569952

  3. Graves' Disease Mechanisms: The Role of Stimulating, Blocking, and Cleavage Region TSH Receptor Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Morshed, S A; Davies, T F

    2015-09-01

    The immunologic processes involved in Graves' disease (GD) have one unique characteristic--the autoantibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR)--which have both linear and conformational epitopes. Three types of TSHR antibodies (stimulating, blocking, and cleavage) with different functional capabilities have been described in GD patients, which induce different signaling effects varying from thyroid cell proliferation to thyroid cell death. The establishment of animal models of GD by TSHR antibody transfer or by immunization with TSHR antigen has confirmed its pathogenic role and, therefore, GD is the result of a breakdown in TSHR tolerance. Here we review some of the characteristics of TSHR antibodies with a special emphasis on new developments in our understanding of what were previously called "neutral" antibodies and which we now characterize as autoantibodies to the "cleavage" region of the TSHR ectodomain. PMID:26361259

  4. A predictive mathematical model for the calculation of the final mass of Graves' disease thyroids treated with 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, Antonio C.; Di Martino, Fabio; Grosso, Mariano; Monzani, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Caraccio, Nadia; Mariani, Giuliano; Lazzeri, Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Substantial reductions in thyroid volume (up to 70-80%) after radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism are common and have been reported in the literature. A relationship between thyroid volume reduction and outcome of 131I therapy of Graves' disease has been reported by some authors. This important result could be used to decide individually the optimal radioiodine activity A0 (MBq) to administer to the patient, but a predictive model relating the change in gland volume to A0 is required. Recently, a mathematical model of thyroid mass reduction during the clearance phase (30-35 days) after 131I administration to patients with Graves' disease has been published and used as the basis for prescribing the therapeutic thyroid absorbed dose. It is well known that the thyroid volume reduction goes on until 1 year after therapy. In this paper, a mathematical model to predict the final mass of Graves' diseased thyroids submitted to 131I therapy is presented. This model represents a tentative explanation of what occurs macroscopically after the end of the clearance phase of radioiodine in the gland (the so-called second-order effects). It is shown that the final thyroid mass depends on its basal mass, on the radiation dose absorbed by the gland and on a constant value α typical of thyroid tissue. α has been evaluated based on a set of measurements made in 15 reference patients affected by Graves' disease and submitted to 131I therapy. A predictive equation for the calculation of the final mass of thyroid is presented. It is based on macroscopic parameters measurable after a diagnostic 131I capsule administration (0.37-1.85 MBq), before giving the therapy. The final mass calculated using this equation is compared to the final mass of thyroid measured 1 year after therapy administration in 22 Graves' diseased patients. The final masses calculated and measured 1 year after therapy are in fairly good agreement (R = 0.81). The possibility, for the physician, to decide a

  5. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. Moyamoya syndrome associated with Graves' disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Malik, Shaneela; Russman, Andrew N; Katramados, Angelos M; Silver, Brian; Mitsias, Panayiotis D

    2011-11-01

    We report a patient and critically review the literature in order to define the demographic, clinical, neuroradiologic, and treatment features of moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in the setting of Graves' disease (GD). We performed a comprehensive English language Medline search using the keywords "moyamoya," "Graves' disease," and "thyrotoxicosis." We included all patients with angiographic findings consistent with MMS. A 23-year-old woman with active GD presented with intermittent confusion and right arm paresis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute left and chronic bilateral hemispheric infarcts. Cerebral angiography revealed multivessel intracranial occlusive disease. Initial treatment with plasmapheresis plus aspirin stabilized the patient's neurologic deficits. Antithyroid treatment plus subsequent surgical encephalomyosynangiosis resulted in prolonged neurologic stability. We studied 30 patients (27 women [90%], 23 of Asian descent [77%]), with a mean age of 29 ± 11.6 years. Hemiparesis (n = 12; 40%) was the leading clinical sign, and ischemic infarction was the most frequent neuroimaging finding (n = 26; 87%). Treatment regimens included antithyroid medications alone (n = 5; 17%), antithyroid plus antiplatelet agents (n = 9; 30%), neurosurgical revascularization after antithyroid medication (n = 11; 37%), and plasmapheresis in the acute thyrotoxic state (n = 2; 7%). Most patients had good short-to-medium term outcome (n = 14; 78% of reported outcome). Plasmapheresis-treated patients achieved neurologic stabilization and had good outcomes. MMS, an infrequent complication of GD, typically affects young women. Our findings indicate that plasmapheresis can stabilize the neurologic picture in the acute phase, and that antithyroid and antiplatelet therapy, combined with revascularization surgery, may improve long-term outcomes. Further work is needed to establish an optimal treatment strategy. PMID:21130668

  8. Comparison of radioiodine with radioiodine plus lithium in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bogazzi, F; Bartalena, L; Brogioni, S; Scarcello, G; Burelli, A; Campomori, A; Manetti, L; Rossi, G; Pinchera, A; Martino, E

    1999-02-01

    Effectiveness of radioiodine for Graves' hyperthyroidism depends also on its intrathyroidal persistence. The latter is enhanced by lithium by blocking iodine release from the thyroid. One hundred ten patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine or radioiodine plus lithium, stratified according to goiter size (< or =40 or >40 mL) and evaluated for changes in thyroid function and goiter size, at monthly intervals, for 12 months. Cure of hyperthyroidism occurred in 33 of 46 patients (72%) treated with radioiodine and in 45 of 54 patients (83%) treated with radioiodine plus lithium. The probability of curing hyperthyroidism was higher and its control prompter (P = 0.02) in the radioiodine-plus-lithium group. Patients with < or =40-mL goiters had similar persistence of hyperthyroidism (13%), but lithium-treated patients had hyperthyroidism controlled earlier (P = 0.04). Among patients with >40-mL goiters, hyperthyroidism was cured in 6 of 15 patients (40%) treated with radioiodine alone and in 12 of 16 patients (75%) treated with radioiodine plus lithium (P = 0.07), and cure occurred earlier in the latter (P = 0.05). Goiters shrank in both groups (P < 0.0001), more effectively and promptly (P < 0.0005) in the radioiodine-plus-lithium group. Serum free T4 and T3 levels increased shortly after therapy only in the radioiodine group (P < 0.01). Lithium carbonate enhances the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy, in terms of prompter control of hyperthyroidism, in patients with small or large goiters. In the latter group, lithium also increases the rate of permanent control of hyperthyroidism. PMID:10022407

  9. Correlation of CT scanning and pathologic features of ophthalmic Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Trokel, S L; Jakobiec, F A

    1981-06-01

    Correlating the CT scan features of patients with orbital Graves' disease with histopathologic observations allows one to focus more specifically on the distinguishing features of this disease with future research implications. Both CT scanning and pathologic studies have shown clearly that the extraocular muscles are the primary focus of the disease. Swelling of the extraocular muscles generally occurs within their bellys with sparing of the tendons. This contrast with idiopathic inflammation of the muscles or myositis, which tends to involve the tendon as well. All of the associated findings in orbital Graves' disease probably flow from the enlarged volume of the extraocular muscles: proptosis, bowing of the medial lamina papyracea to accommodate the swollen belly of the medial rectus muscle, venous engorgement from stasis induced by direct compression of the orbital venous drainage, conjunctival and lid swelling, and lacrimal gland enlargement. Both radiographic and pathologic changes in the orbital fat are secondary and comparatively insignificant. While there appears to be no selective inflammation of the optic nerve meninges or the perineural connective tissues, enlargement of the extraocular muscle bellys where they converge at the crowded orbital apex brings about compression of the optic nerve, impairs its function, and causes visual decrease. Lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltration along with edema within the endomysium of the extraocular muscles leads to the activation of fibroblasts with the production of acid mucopolysaccharides and progressive fibrosis. It is not known what attracts the lymphocytes to the extraocular muscles, why certain extraocular muscles are affected preferentially, why the disease may be asymmetrically unilateral, and whether a defect in T cell or B cell functions (or both) is immunologically at fault. PMID:6894976

  10. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeun; Kim, Nam Keun; Cho, Yong Wook; Lew, Helen

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) remains to be entirely elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the association between phenotypic expression of the MTHFR gene and susceptibility to GO in patients with Graves' disease (GD). A prospective case‑controlled study was conducted with 122 patients with GD and GO (n=72) or without GO (n=50) and 100 healthy controls in South Korea. Patient history, including smoking, nutritional status, thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies were investigated and clinical activity score, VISA classification (which includes vision, inflammation, strabismus and appearance/exposure) and orbit computed tomography were evaluated. Fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration was measured, and genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was conducted. The TT homozygous genotype was associated with a two‑fold increased risk of GO [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78‑6.14]. However, this result was not significant. The TT genotype significantly increased the risk of GO compared with that in healthy controls (AOR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.11‑7.65). The MTHFR 677CT/1298AA genotype decreased the risk of GO in patients with GD (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08‑0.91). tHcy levels in patients with GD without GO were significantly higher than in patients with GO, however, they were within the normal limit. The current study identified an association between MTHFR polymorphisms and GO. These results will aid understanding of the pathogenesis of GO and facilitate development of genetic therapeutic strategies. PMID:27430300

  11. Usefulness of Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Antibody at the Time of Antithyroid Drug Withdrawal for Predicting Relapse of Graves Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyemi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Mijin; Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism relapse in Graves disease after antithyroid drug (ATD) withdrawal is common; however, measuring the thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) at ATD withdrawal in order to predict outcomes is controversial. This study compared measurement of thyroid stimulatory antibody (TSAb) and thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) at ATD withdrawal to predict relapse. Methods This retrospective study enrolled patients with Graves disease who were treated with ATDs and whose serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were normal after receiving low-dose ATDs. ATD therapy was stopped irrespective of TRAb positivity after an additional 6 months of receiving the minimum dose of ATD therapy. Patients were followed using thyroid function tests and TSAb (TSAb group; n=35) or TBII (TBII group; n=39) every 3 to 6 months for 2 years after ATD withdrawal. Results Twenty-eight patients (38%) relapsed for a median follow-up of 21 months, and there were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics between groups. In the TSAb group, relapse was more common in patients with positive TSAb at ATD withdrawal (67%) than patients with negative TSAb (17%; P=0.007). Relapse-free survival was shorter in TSAb-positive patients. In the TBII group, there were no differences in the relapse rate and relapse-free survivals according to TBII positivity. For predicting Graves disease relapse, the sensitivity and specificity of TSAb were 63% and 83%, respectively, whereas those of TBII were 28% and 65%. Conclusion TSAb at ATD withdrawal can predict the relapse of Graves hyperthyroidism, but TBII cannot. Measuring TSAb at ATD withdrawal can assist with clinical decisions making for patients with Graves disease. PMID:27118279

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. Graves' disease TSHR-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) induce the activation of immature thymocytes: a clue to the riddle of TSAbs generation?

    PubMed

    Giménez-Barcons, Mireia; Colobran, Roger; Gómez-Pau, Ana; Marín-Sánchez, Ana; Casteràs, Anna; Obiols, Gabriel; Abella, Raúl; Fernández-Doblas, Joaquín; Tonacchera, Massimo; Lucas-Martín, Ana; Pujol-Borrell, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease defined by the production of stimulating autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) (TSAbs) that induce a sustained state of hyperthyroidism in patients. We previously demonstrated that TSHR, the target of this autoimmune response, is also a key susceptibility gene for GD, probably acting through thymic-dependent central tolerance. We also showed that TSHR is, unexpectedly, expressed in thymocytes. In this report, we confirm the expression of TSHR in thymocytes by protein immunoblotting and quantitative PCR, and show that expression is confined to maturing thymocytes. Using functional assays, we show that thymic TSHR is functional and that TSAbs can stimulate thymocytes through this receptor. This new activity of TSAbs on thymocytes may: 1) explain GD-associated thymic enlargement (hyperplasia), and 2) suggest the provocative hypothesis that the continuous stimulation of thymocytes by TSAbs could lead to a vicious cycle of iterative improvement of the affinity and stimulating capability of initially low-affinity antibacterial (e.g., Yersinia) Abs cross-reactive with TSHR, eventually leading to TSAbs. This may help to fill one of the gaps in our present understanding of unusual characteristics of TSAbs. PMID:25801430

  14. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700-11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Nadel, Dani; Danin, Avinoam; Power, Robert C; Rosen, Arlene M; Bocquentin, Fanny; Tsatskin, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danny; Yeshurun, Reuven; Weissbrod, Lior; Rebollo, Noemi R; Barzilai, Omry; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-07-16

    Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700-11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000-11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene. PMID:23818584

  15. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700–11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Nadel, Dani; Danin, Avinoam; Power, Robert C.; Rosen, Arlene M.; Bocquentin, Fanny; Tsatskin, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danny; Yeshurun, Reuven; Weissbrod, Lior; Rebollo, Noemi R.; Barzilai, Omry; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700–11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000–11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene. PMID:23818584

  16. The Civil Rights Act and the Weight of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Terrence G.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the contributions to this volume and revisits the original focus of the Civil Rights Act (CRA). It considers how much progress has been made in addressing the original concerns regarding ethnic and racial discrimination that the act was intended to address and the intersection of language issues with them. The article…

  17. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... chapter shall be directed to one of the following addresses, as appropriate: Region 1 Connecticut, Maine...-332, Pub. L. 94-385, Pub. L. 95-70, and Pub. L. 95-91; Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42...

  18. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... chapter shall be directed to one of the following addresses, as appropriate: Region 1 Connecticut, Maine...-332, Pub. L. 94-385, Pub. L. 95-70, and Pub. L. 95-91; Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42...

  19. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter shall be directed to one of the following addresses, as appropriate: Region 1 Connecticut, Maine...-332, Pub. L. 94-385, Pub. L. 95-70, and Pub. L. 95-91; Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42...

  20. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chapter shall be directed to one of the following addresses, as appropriate: Region 1 Connecticut, Maine...-332, Pub. L. 94-385, Pub. L. 95-70, and Pub. L. 95-91; Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42...

  1. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... chapter shall be directed to one of the following addresses, as appropriate: Region 1 Connecticut, Maine...-332, Pub. L. 94-385, Pub. L. 95-70, and Pub. L. 95-91; Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42...

  2. Pediatric medical devices: a look at significant US legislation to address unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Samuels-Reid, Joy H; Blake, Erica D

    2014-03-01

    There are many barriers to the availability of medical devices intended for the pediatric population causing healthcare providers to use creative measures to address pediatric unmet device needs. The USA has taken significant legislative measures to spur medical device development and address the unmet needs in all pediatric subpopulations. For example, the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002 amended the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act by adding new provisions intended to promote the development of safe and effective pediatric devices, and to protect the pediatric population during clinical trials. In 2004, the Medical Devices Technical Corrections Act was added to address potential difficulties in bringing pediatric devices to the market. Further, the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007 and the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 provided the FDA significant new responsibilities and authorities regarding pediatric use. PMID:24387679

  3. Patient Information in Graves' Disease and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy: Readability Assessment of Online Resources

    PubMed Central

    Denniston, Alastair K.; Boelaert, Kristien; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Durrani, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is a vital source of information for patients hoping to learn more about their disease. Health literacy of the general population is known to be poor, with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) recommending that patient-oriented literature be written at a fourth- to sixth-grade reading level to optimize comprehensibility. In this study we assessed the readability of online literature specifically for Graves' disease (GD) and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: Readability of the content of the top 20 English-language GD patient-oriented online resources and top 30 of the equivalent TAO resources returned by Google search was analyzed. Web pages were identified using the Google search terms “Graves' disease” and “Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy,” respectively. Extraneous text (e.g., hyperlinks, affiliations, disclaimers) was removed. Relevant text proceeded to readability analysis using four validated measures: Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Gunning-Fog Index. Readability was compared with USDHHS standards. Results: Overall, median word count (with interquartile range [IQR] and range) was 990 (IQR 846, 195–3867), with a median of 18 words per sentence (IQR 4.0, 7.5–28). Median Flesch Reading Ease Score was 46 (IQR 13, 24–64), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 11 (IQR 3.0, 7.2–17), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook 13 (IQR 2.0, 9.6–17), and Gunning-Fog Index 13 (IQR 3.0, 9.2–19), each equivalent to a reading level of >11th grade and “difficult” on the USDHHS classification. None of the web pages evaluated had readability scores in accordance with published guidelines. There was no significant difference with the country of origin of each web page, website commercial status, or with pages predominantly focused on GD or TAO. Conclusions: Readability scores for online GD and TAO patient-focused materials are inferior to those recommended

  4. Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Cemetery: Teachers Discover Evidence of Unmarked Graves in Prairie View, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Baldwin, R.; Kahera, A.; Thoms, A.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, a group of nineteen K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface. In a period of two weeks, the group acquired and interpreted 59 GPR profiles in Wyatt Chapel Cemetery and surrounding areas in order to determine the local stratigraphy and try to locate unmarked graves. The sandy soil in this area is ideally suited for GPR investigations and numerous geophysical anomalies were identified. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850's. Participants in a summer course at Rice University conducted a geophysical investigation of the site. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. GPR is an excellent tool for investigating the sandy soil encountered at Wyatt Chapel Cemetery. The stratigraphy in the area consists of 3-6 feet of reddish-brown, medium-grained sand overlying a light gray, highly compacted clay. The sand-clay boundary appears as a strong reflector on the GPR profiles. Participants identified numerous anomalies in the GPR data and two were excavated. One consisted of a pair of bright hyperbolae, suggesting two edges of a metal object. This excavation resulted in the discovery of a metal plank thought to be a burial cover. The second anomaly consisted of a break in the horizon representing the top of the clay layer, and subsequent excavation revealed a grave shaft. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used

  5. Determining thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life for the treatment planning of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, Jose; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Barberio Coura Filho, George; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Traino, Antonio C.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life (T{sub eff}) is an essential parameter in patient therapy when accurate radiation dose is desirable for producing an intended therapeutic outcome. Multiple {sup 131}I uptake measurements and resources from patients themselves and from nuclear medicine facilities are requisites for determining T{sub eff}, these being limiting factors when implementing the treatment planning of Graves' disease (GD) in radionuclide therapy. With the aim of optimizing this process, this study presents a practical, propitious, and accurate method of determining T{sub eff} for dosimetric purposes. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD were included in this prospective study. Thyroidal {sup 131}I uptake was measured at 2-h, 6-h, 24-h, 48-h, 96-h, and 220-h postradioiodine administration. T{sub eff} was calculated by considering sets of two measured points (24-48-h, 24-96-h, and 24-220-h), sets of three (24-48-96-h, 24-48-220-h, and 24-96-220-h), and sets of four (24-48-96-220-h). Results: When considering all the measured points, the representative T{sub eff} for all the patients was 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, whereas when using such sets of points as (24-220-h), (24-96-220-h), and (24-48-220-h), this was 6.85 ({+-}0.81), 6.90 ({+-}0.81), and 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, respectively. According to the mean deviations 2.2 ({+-}2.4)%, 2.1 ({+-}2.0)%, and 0.04 ({+-}0.09)% found in T{sub eff}, calculated based on all the measured points in time, and with methods using the (24-220-h), (24-48-220-h), and (24-96-220-h) sets, respectively, no meaningful statistical difference was noted among the three methods (p > 0.500, t test). Conclusions: T{sub eff} obtained from only two thyroid {sup 131}I uptakes measured at 24-h and 220-h, besides proving to be sufficient, accurate enough, and easily applicable, attributes additional major cost-benefits for patients, and facilitates the application of the method for dosimetric purposes in the treatment planning of

  6. Characterization and clinical relevance of circulating CD4+CD28- T cells in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengming; Chen, Lei; Shen, Qiong; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Lian; Gu, Xinhua; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cuiping

    2015-05-01

    During autoimmune disease the fraction of CD4+CD28- T cells in the peripheral blood of has been found to be elevated. In the present study, peripheral blood was collected from 61 patients with Graves' disease (GD) and 30 healthy control participants. Serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TRAb) were measured and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) surface expression of CD4 and CD28 molecules was detected by flow cytometry. CD4+CD28- cells were sorted from six patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy and cultured ex vivo. The influence of TSH pretreated thyroid follicular cells on CD4+CD28- cell proliferation was evaluated using the agonist CD40 mAb 5C11, the blocking CD40L mAb 4F1 or B7-1 mAb 4E5 in 3H-TdR assays. Our data showed that the fraction of CD4+CD28- T cells was higher in GD patients than healthy donors (10.21%±8.56% vs. 2.33%±1.94%; P<0.001), and further elevated in 24 of 61 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) (7.00±6.57% vs. 15.21±8.96%; P<0.001). A higher proportion of CD4+CD28- cells was detected in patients with degree II or III goiter than those with degree I goiter (11.53±9.18% vs. 6.11±3.97%; P<0.05 and 14.50±10.41% vs. 6.11±3.97%; P<0.01). The percentage of CD4+CD28- T cells correlated positively with serum levels of FT3 (r=0.354, P<0.01) and TRAb (r=0.304, P<0.05), but did not correlate with serum FT4 or TSH. Ex vivo, 5C11 enhanced proliferation of CD4+CD28+ cells (P<0.05), but did not influence the proliferation of CD4+CD28- cells. 4F1 inhibited the proliferation of both CD4+CD28+ (P<0.05) and CD4+CD28- (P<0.01) cells, and 4E5 inhibited proliferation of CD4+CD28+ cells (P<0.05). The elevation in circulating CD4+CD28- cells in GD patients correlates with disease severity and maybe plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GD. PMID:25839128

  7. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  8. 16 CFR 681.2 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. 681.2 Section 681.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES § 681.2 Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. (a) Scope. This...

  9. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  10. 16 CFR 681.2 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. 681.2 Section 681.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES § 681.2 Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. (a) Scope. This...

  11. 16 CFR 681.2 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. 681.2 Section 681.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES § 681.2 Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. (a) Scope. This...

  12. 16 CFR 681.2 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. 681.2 Section 681.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES § 681.2 Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. (a) Scope. This...

  13. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  18. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  19. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  20. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  1. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  2. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  3. Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis-Related Genes Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kau, Hui-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Bei; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for the development or deterioration of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Smoke-induced increased generation of reactive oxygen species may be involved. However, it remains to be clarified how orbital fibroblasts are affected by cigarette smoking. Our study demonstrated that Graves' orbital fibroblasts have exaggerated response to cigarette smoke extract challenge along with increased oxidative stress, fibrosis-related genes expression, especially connective tissue growth factor, and intracellular levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-1β. The findings obtained in this study provide some clues for the impact of cigarette smoking on Graves' ophthalmopathy and offer a theoretical basis for the potential and rational use of antioxidants in treating Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:27340508

  4. 77 FR 32111 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...'s name, home address, home telephone number, personal cell phone number, personal email address(es... phone and cell phone number(s), complainant(s), and file identification name and/or number, etc... COMMISSION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice; one...

  5. Iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Snell, L; Morris, D V

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myxoedema madness was first described as a consequence of severe hypothyroidism in 1949. Most cases were secondary to long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism. We present the first reported case of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a second concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. A 29-year-old woman presented with severe hypothyroidism, a 1-week history of psychotic behaviour and paranoid delusions 3 months after treatment with radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease. Her psychiatric symptoms abated with levothyroxine replacement. She was concurrently found to be hypertensive and hypokalemic. Primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed. This case report serves as a reminder that myxoedema madness can be a complication of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease and that primary hyperaldosteronism may be associated with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Learning points Psychosis (myxoedema madness) can present as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease.Primary hyperaldosteronism may be caused by idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia even in the presence of an adrenal adenoma seen on imaging.Adrenal vein sampling is a useful tool for differentiating between a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is managed surgically, and an idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, which is managed medically.The management of autoimmune hyperthyroidism, iatrogenic hypothyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia in patients planning pregnancy includes delaying pregnancy 6 months following radioactive iodine treatment and until patient is euthyroid for 3 months, using amiloride as opposed to spironolactone, controlling blood pressure with agents safe in pregnancy such as nifedipine and avoiding

  6. Single-grain optical dating of grave-infill associated with human burials at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olley, Jon M.; Roberts, Richard G.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Bowler, James M.

    2006-10-01

    Recent age constraints on Australia's oldest human remains (Mungo I and III), found at Lake Mungo in western New South Wales, relied on optical dating of sands from the same stratigraphic units as those into which the remains had been inserted (42±3 ka) and those that overlay the graves (38±2 ka), giving a burial age of 40±2 ka. This indirect means of dating the burials was necessary because the original site from which the remains had been excavated had been completely eroded away. At the time of the original excavation of the Mungo III grave, blocks of sediment from the grave-infill were collected for sediment fabric analysis. These sediment blocks were impregnated with polyester resin, sectioned for analysis and the remaining resin-impregnated sediment blocks were then stored in a cupboard, where they have lain for the last 30 years. Here we report on optical dating of single grains of quartz extracted from one of these sediment blocks. Grains extracted from the centre of the block show a wide distribution of equivalent doses (0.0±0.3 to 43.7±8.3 Gy), indicating that not all of the grains have remained hidden from light (light-safe) following excavation. We show that the population of grains with the maximum equivalent dose produces an age consistent with that of the previous study, indicating that some of the grains have remained light-safe. We also use linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence to identify light-safe grains. These yield an age of 41±4 ka, which represents a direct optical age for the grave-infill and which is consistent with the age obtained in the previous study for sands from the same stratigraphic unit as that containing the burial. The results reported here demonstrate the potential of applying optical dating to archived sediment samples that have not been stored in a light-safe environment.

  7. Semblance analysis to assess GPR data from a five-year forensic study of simulated clandestine graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Adam D.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2016-02-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. There has been extensive research into the geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in different burial scenarios and ground conditions. Whilst these studies have been used to suggest optimum dominant radar frequencies, the data themselves have not been quantitatively analysed to-date. This study uses a common-offset configuration of semblance analysis, both to characterise velocity trends from GPR diffraction hyperbolae and, since the magnitude of a semblance response is proportional to signal-to-noise ratio, to quantify the strength of a forensic GPR response. 2D GPR profiles were acquired over a simulated clandestine burial, with a wrapped-pig cadaver monitored at three-month intervals between 2008 and 2013 with GPR antennas of three different centre-frequencies (110, 225 and 450 MHz). The GPR response to the cadaver was a strong diffraction hyperbola. Results show, in contrast to resistivity surveys, that semblance analysis have little sensitivity to changes attributable to decomposition, and only a subtle influence from seasonality: velocity increases (0.01-0.02 m/ns) were observed in summer, associated with a decrease (5-10%) in peak semblance magnitude, SM, and potentially in the reflectivity of the cadaver. The lowest-frequency antennas consistently gave the highest signal-to-noise ratio although the grave was nonetheless detectable by all frequencies trialled. These observations suggest that forensic GPR surveys could be undertaken with little seasonal hindrance. Whilst GPR analysis cannot currently provide a quantitative diagnostic proxy for time-since-burial, the consistency of responses suggests that graves will remain detectable beyond the five years shown here.

  8. The Accuracy of the Osteological Sexing of Cremated Human Remains: A Test Based on Grave Goods from East Lithuanian Barrows.

    PubMed

    Kurila, Laurynas

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of the sex determination of cremated human remains is one of the vital parameters for archaeologists and skeletal anthropologists dealing with cremations. Few studies have so far aimed at testing it. In the present paper, the accuracy of the sexing techniques was assessed by paralleling biological sex (identified morphologically) to gender (presumed on the basis of the grave goods which accompanied the deceased). A collection of cremated bones from East Lithuanian barrows (c. fourth/fifth--eleventh/twelfth centuries AD) was employed. The fragmentary nature and poor state of the bones generally represents cremains from similar archaeological contexts. The database inevitably underwent several stages of filtration. Out of 364 cremations with a minimum of 445 individuals, only 157 were sexed single adult burials, of which only 81 had "gender-related" grave goods. The relationship of artefact type to gender was defined statistically, revising the results in line with the chronological and typological differences and the probable symbolism of the grave goods. Sex and gender coincided in 56 cases (69.14%), but a considerable distance between the results for both sexes was observed. Biological females displayed a fairly high match level, i.e. 35 out of the 41 (85.37%) individuals osteologically identified as females had been given "feminine" items. The burials of biological males, on the other hand, yielded a surprisingly low match rate, i.e. only 21 out of 40 (52.50%). This disparity suggests a possible misinterpretation of grave goods as gender markers, rather than (only?) erroneous sexing. It is thus argued that for females, the mean value for the accuracy of sexing is 85.5%. In most cases, such precision is entirely satisfactory for the analysis of a poorly-preserved osteological material. For males, however, the accuracy is likely to fall somewhere in the range between 52.5 and 85.5%, with the applied methodology so far failing to contribute to higher

  9. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. PMID:26921813

  10. Synthetic gene network restoring endogenous pituitary-thyroid feedback control in experimental Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism because of autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on the thyroid gland, triggering thyroid hormone release. The physiological control of thyroid hormone homeostasis by the feedback loops involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis is disrupted by these stimulating autoantibodies. To reset the endogenous thyrotrophic feedback control, we designed a synthetic mammalian gene circuit that maintains thyroid hormone homeostasis by monitoring thyroid hormone levels and coordinating the expression of a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antagonist (TSHAntag), which competitively inhibits the binding of thyroid-stimulating hormone or the human autoantibody to TSHR. This synthetic control device consists of a synthetic thyroid-sensing receptor (TSR), a yeast Gal4 protein/human thyroid receptor-α fusion, which reversibly triggers expression of the TSHAntag gene from TSR-dependent promoters. In hyperthyroid mice, this synthetic circuit sensed pathological thyroid hormone levels and restored the thyrotrophic feedback control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis to euthyroid hormone levels. Therapeutic plug and play gene circuits that restore physiological feedback control in metabolic disorders foster advanced gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26787873

  11. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  12. Evaluating the Efficacy of Primary Treatment for Graves' Disease Complicated by Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rita Yuk-Kwan; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Chan, Ai Chen; Wong, Kai Pun

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a potentially life-threatening complication of Graves' disease (GD). The present study compared the long-term efficacy of antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine (RAI), and surgery in GD/TPP. Methods. Sixteen patients with GD/TPP were followed over a 14-year period. ATD was generally prescribed upfront for 12–18 months before RAI or surgery was considered. Outcomes such as thyrotoxic or TPP relapses were compared between the three modalities. Results. Eight (50.0%) patients had ATD alone, 4 (25.0%) had RAI, and 4 (25.0%) had surgery as primary treatment. Despite being able to withdraw ATD in all 8 patients for 37.5 (22–247) months, all subsequently developed thyrotoxic relapses and 4 (50.0%) had ≥1 TPP relapses. Of the four patients who had RAI, two (50%) developed thyrotoxic relapse after 12 and 29 months, respectively, and two (50.0%) became hypothyroid. The median required RAI dose to render hypothyroidism was 550 (350–700) MBq. Of the 4 patients who underwent surgery, none developed relapses but all became hypothyroid. Conclusion. To minimize future relapses, more definitive primary treatment such as RAI or surgery is preferred over ATD alone. If RAI is chosen over surgery, a higher dose (>550 MBq) is recommended. PMID:25147568

  13. Choroidal changes observed with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in patients with mild Graves orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Özkan, B; Koçer, Ç A; Altintaş, Ö; Karabaş, L; Acar, A Z; Yüksel, N

    2016-07-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the choroidal thickness in patients with Graves orbitopathy (GO) using enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).MethodsThirty-one patients with GO were evaluated prospectively. All subjects underwent ophthalmologic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, biomicroscopic, and fundus examination. Choroidal thickness was measured at the central fovea. In addition, visual evoked potential measurement and visual field evaluation were performed.ResultsThe mean choroidal thickness was 377.8±7.4 μ in the GO group, and 334±13.7 μ in the control group. (P=0.004). There was a strong correlation between the choridal thickness and the clinical activity scores (CAS) of the patients (r=0.281, P=0.027). Additionally, there was a correlation between the choroidal thickness and the visual-evoked potential (VEP) P100 latency measurements of the patients (r=0.439, P=0.001).ConclusionsThe results of this study demonstrate that choroid is thicker in patients with GO. The choroidal thickness is also correlated with the CAS and VEP P100 latency measurements in these patients. PMID:27315349

  14. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  15. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  16. Autoantibody against diiodinated tyrosine-gastrin in a patient with Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, M.; Adachi, H.; Aoki, E.; Iida, Y.; Kasagi, K.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Torizuka, K.

    1987-01-01

    We describe autoantibodies against iodinated gastrin in a patient with Graves' disease. Values for serum gastrin differed in this case, depending on which of two different radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits was used. RIA with the dextran-coated charcoal method for separation of free tracer gastrin gave a value less than 9.5 pmol/L, whereas the value by a RIA kit by the double-antibody method was 318 pmol/L. The patient's serum contained a binding protein for /sup 125/I-labeled gastrin, as detected by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The IgG fraction was responsible for the ability of serum to bind /sup 125/I-labeled gastrin. Interestingly, of the two possible forms of iodinated gastrins, monoiodinated (MIT) and diiodinated (DIT) tyrosine-/sup 125/I-labeled gastrin, only the latter bound to patient's IgG. Furthermore, DIT-gastrin, but not gastrin or MIT-gastrin, inhibited the binding of DIT-/sup 125/I-labeled gastrin. The patient's serum evidently contains autoantibodies against DIT-gastrin that interfere with RIA of gastrin.

  17. Variable regions of Ig heavy chain genes encoding antithyrotropin receptor antibodies of patients with Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Euy Kyun; Akamizu, Takashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Sugawa, Hideo; Fujikura, Junji; Mori, Toru; Honjo, Tasuku )

    1994-02-01

    The authors have established EBV-transformed human B cell clones producing monoclonal antithyrotropin receptor antibodies from two patients with Graves' disease. They then isolated and characterized Ig H chain genes of 5 B cell clones with thyrotropin-binding inhibitor Ig (TBII) activity and 4 B cell clones with thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) activity. They found that V[sub H] gene families used in the 5 TBII clones were diverse, including V[sub H-II, -III, -IV,] and [sub -V]. Most of V[sub H] segments used in TBII and TSAb are commonly used in other autoantibodies and fetal liver repertoire. The frequency of somatic mutations in TBII was higher than that in TSAb. In as much as the same germline V[sub H] segment (V3-23) was used for both TBII and TSAb, the frequency and position of somatic mutations may be important for generation of TBII and TSAb. 56 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Analyses to help identify individuals from a historical mass grave in Kassel, Germany.

    PubMed

    v Grumbkow, Philipp; Zipp, Anna; Grosskopf, Birgit; Fueldner, Kai; Hummel, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the skeletal remains of more than 60 human individuals were found in a mass grave on the grounds of the University of Kassel, Germany. There was no evidence helping to identify them or throwing light on the cause of their death. Mainly due to 14C age determination and initial hints on age and sex distribution, historians hypothesized that they had been soldiers of Napoleon's army who died in an epidemic in the winter of 1813/14. To test this assumption, morphological and molecular analyses were carried out on a sample. The morphological analyses comprised an age and sex determination as well as a macro- and micro-morphological inspection for pathological deviations after the commingled bones had been assembled as individuals. The molecular investigations aimed to identify the geographic origin of the remains. For this, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplotypings were carried out. The results point to a group of mainly young men, some of them suffering from systemic inflammation of the periosteum. Others revealed severe aberrations in bone microstructure. The greatest similarities revealed by Y-haplogroup and -haplotype distribution were to populations that live in what are now the Benelux countries. All aspects support the thesis that these were soldiers of the Napoleonic army. PMID:22338792

  19. Late onset of atypical paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia with remote history of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Nadeem, Ambreen; Yousuf, Muhammad Saad; Kachhvi, Zakerabibi M

    2013-10-01

    Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a rare hyperkinetic movement disorder and falls under the category of paroxysmal movement disorders. In this condition, episodes are spontaneous, involuntary, and involve dystonic posturing with choreic and ballistic movements. Attacks last for minutes to hours and rarely occur more than once per day. Attacks are not typically triggered by sudden movement, but may be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, or chocolate. We report a patient with multiple atypical features of PNKD. She had a 7-year history of this condition with onset at the age of 59, and a remote history of Graves' disease requiring total thyroidectomy. The frequency of attacks in our case ranged from five to six times a day to a minimum of twice per week, and the duration of episode was short, lasting not more than 2 min. Typically, PNKDs occur at a much younger age and have longer attack durations with low frequency. Administering clonazepam worked to reduce her symptoms, although majority of previous research suggests that pharmacological interventions have poor outcomes. PMID:24347956

  20. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  1. Educational interventions targeted at minors in situations of grave social vulnerability and their families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Bartau Rojas, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The design, intervention and assessment process of this study was carried out in two phases over a period of a year and a half. For both phases, three different groups—of men/fathers, women/mothers and children—were established. Study variables (parenting skills and children's personal and social development) were evaluated before and after the intervention in every group, as well as during the entire process. The results, taking into account the improvements reported by all the participants (social workers, group monitors, fathers, mothers, children) show that inter-professional involvement and coordination at all phases of the intervention is vital in order to achieve small but significant improvements.

  2. Pneumopathie grave avec atteinte bronchique compliquant une varicelle chez un adulte immunocompétent

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Chkoura, Khalid; Hjira, Nawfal; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La varicelle est une infection virale cosmopolite, très contagieuse, due au virus varicelle-zona (VZV) et caractérisée par de la fièvre et une éruption papulo-vésiculeuse prurigineuse. L'incidence de la varicelle a significativement augmenté dans les dernières décennies en Europe et aux États-Unis. Chez l'enfant, la varicelle est une infection habituellement bénigne. Chez l'adulte, son évolution peut être émaillée de complications. La pneumonie varicelleuse est la plus fréquente des complications graves de la varicelle chez l'adulte, avec une incidence estimée de 16 à 33% et une mortalité pouvant atteindre 20%. Nous rapportons un cas de varicelle compliquée d'une pneumopathie hypoxémiante. L'examen endoscopique bronchique met en évidence des lésions vésiculeuses de la muqueuse bronchique. Sous traitement antiviral, l’évolution est favorable. PMID:25829973

  3. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection. PMID:25596556

  4. Iodine-131 treatment of Graves' disease using modified early iodine-131 uptake measurements in therapy dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.A.; Akre, C.M.; Gorman, C.A. )

    1990-04-01

    We hypothesized that early uptake of iodine-131 (131I) at 3-6 hr (EU) by the thyroid could be used to calculate 131I therapy with results comparable to those obtained using late uptake of 131I at 20-28 hr (LU) results. A retrospective study was undertaken. Twenty-seven patients with untreated thyrotoxic Graves' disease were given 3-5 microCi of 131I and EU and LU were determined with an uptake probe. We derived a best fit curve on plots of EU (X-axis) and LU (Y-axis). The equation for the curve (LU = -55.7 + 73.2 log EU) was used to predict late uptake (PU) from EU results on a second group of 24 similarly defined Graves' patients. PU and measured LU were then applied to 131I treatment calculations in these 24 patients. PU correlated closely with LU (r = 0.94). Dose calculations based on PU and LU gave very similar results (r = 0.97). Using this method, same day diagnosis and treatment of Graves' is achievable.

  5. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 4 - Freedom of Information Public Inspection Facilities, and Addresses for Requests for Records Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freedom of Information Public Inspection Facilities, and Addresses for Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act, and Requests for Correction or Amendment Under the Privacy Act A Appendix A to Part 4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...

  6. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. The Efficacy of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Graves' Orbitopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Matthiesen, Chance; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Farris, Bradley; Wilkes, Byron; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence; Bogardus, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review our institutional outcomes of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for Graves' orbitopathy (GO), assess the role of orbital reirradiation, and identify prognostic factors of complete response (CR). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of 211 patients who presented with a diagnosis of GO and received RT between January 2000-2010. RT dose was 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Patient median age was 51 years (range, 15-84 years), median follow-up was 11 months (range, 1-88 months). Patient symptoms included any combination of proptosis (90.9%), extraocular muscle dysfunction (78.9%), soft tissue signs (68.4%), and diplopia (58.4%). Corticosteroids were used as first-line therapy in 20.6% of patients. Among those who achieved either CR or partial response (PR), prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: Stabilization of disease without recurrence was clinically achieved overall in 202 patients (96.7%). At the completion of RT, 176 patients (84.2%) reported a symptomatic improvement of pretreatment symptoms. CR of GO symptoms was achieved using multiple treatment modalities, including RT by 93 patients (44.5%), of which 32 patients received RT only. Corticosteroids were discontinued in 97.8% of patients who received them as initial therapy. Surgical intervention following radiotherapy was required for 144 (68.9%) of all patients. Fourteen patients received orbital reirradiation for persistent or recurrent symptoms. Five of these achieved a CR, and the other nine achieved disease stabilization but retained persistent ocular symptoms. Long-term side effects of RT included dry eyes (12%). Of the prognostic factors we investigated, only gender predicted CR, which was less common in men (33.9%) than in women (49.7%) p = 0.0471. Conclusions: Orbital radiation for GO is an established treatment modality for patients. Orbital reirradiation is beneficial for patients who do not respond to initial RT or experience symptom recurrence without an

  9. Diosgenin relieves goiter via the inhibition of thyrocyte proliferation in a mouse model of Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hu; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Hai-qing; Wang, Fu-rong; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhang, Feng-xia; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of diosgenin (Dio), a naturally occurring steroid saponin, on goiter formation in a mouse model of Graves' disease (GD) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were injected with adenovirus expressing the A subunit of thyrotropin receptor to induce GD. The mice were treated with Dio (20, 100 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 12 or 24 d. The serum levels of TT4 and TRAb were examined using radioimmunoassay and electrochemiluminescence. The size and morphology of thyroid glands were examined. Thyrocyte proliferation was determined using BrdU incorporation assay. The expression of proliferation-associated proteins IGF-1, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and PCNA in thyroids was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Results: The GD mice showed significantly high serum levels of TRAb and TT4 compared to the normal mice. Treatment of the GD mice with Dio for 24 d dose-dependently reduced the TT4 level and thyroid size, but did not affect the abnormal level of TRAb. Furthermore, Dio treatment dose-dependently reversed the morphological changes and reduced excessive thyrocyte proliferation in thyroids of the GD mice. Dio treatment also dose-dependently reduced the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and PCNA in thyroids of the GD mice. Conclusion: Dio relieves goiter in a mouse model of GD through the inhibition of thyrocyte proliferation. The mechanisms involve the suppression of IGF-1, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and PCNA expression. PMID:24241350

  10. Impaired immune regulation after radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease and the protective effect of Methimazole.

    PubMed

    Côté-Bigras, Sarah; Tran, Viet; Turcotte, Sylvie; Rola-Pleszczynski, Marek; Verreault, Jean; Rottembourg, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Both therapies for Graves' disease (GD), radioactive iodine (RAI) and antithyroid drugs (ATD), were reported to have specific immune effects. We aimed at investigating the effects of RAI therapy on cellular subsets involved in immune regulation. We conducted a thirty day follow-up prospective cohort study of adult patients. Patients eligible for RAI therapy at our centre were approached. Twenty seven patients with GD were recruited, among whom 11 were treated with ATD. Twenty-two healthy subjects (HS) were also studied. Over time, frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg) and of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT), along with Treg cell-mediated suppression and underlying mechanisms, were monitored in the peripheral blood. Variance in frequency of Treg and iNKT after RAI therapy was higher in GD patients than in HS over time (p < 0.0001). Reduced Treg suppressive function was observed after RAI therapy in GD patients (p = 0.002). ATD medication prior to RAI dampened these outcomes: less variation of Treg frequency (p = 0.0394), a trend toward less impaired Treg function, and prevention of reduced levels of suppressive cytokines (p < 0.05). Shortly after RAI therapy, alterations in immunoregulatory cells in patients with GD were observed and partially prevented by an ATD pretreatment. Worsening of autoimmunity after RAI was explained in previous studies by enhanced immune activity. This study adds new highlights on immune regulation deficiencies after therapeutic interventions in thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:26701678

  11. Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy: Muscle and Fat Involvement in relation to Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Bakri, Moug; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Thomsen, Carsten; Toft, Peter Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We wanted to investigate the relative significance of fat and muscle enlargement in the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods. Preoperative coronal CT scans of 13 patients with and without DON who subsequently underwent orbital decompression were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients imaged for unilateral orbital fractures served as controls. Results. The retrobulbar muscle volume was 2.1 ± 0.5 cm(3) (mean ± SD) in controls, 4.3 ± 1.5 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 4.7 ± 1.7 cm(3) in GO with DON. The retrobulbar fat volume was 5.4 ± 1.6 cm(3) in controls, 8.7 ± 8.0 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 9.4 ± 3.1 cm(3) in GO with DON. The muscle and fat volumes were higher in patients with GO than in controls (P < 0.001), but the volumes in orbits with and without DON were not significantly different. The volume of the optic nerve were similar in the 3 groups. The number of apical, coronal 2 mm thick slices with no fat was 2.9 ± 0.9 in normal orbits, it was 4.1 ± 1.0 in GO orbits without DON and 5.3 ± 0.8 in GO orbits with DON (P = 0.007). Conclusion. Apical muscle enlargement may be more important than orbital fat enlargement in the development of DON. However, the fact that apical crowding and muscle enlargement also occur in orbits without DON suggests that other factors also play a role in the development of DON. PMID:25101183

  12. Turf wars: authority and responsibility for the investigation of mass graves.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark; Sterenberg, Jon

    2005-07-16

    Mass graves are complex products of large-scale crimes. Such scenes pose four conceptual challenges to investigators and forensic experts: the individual victim, the crime, the setting, and the statistical. Exhumation and post-mortem examination of mortal remains with associated personal and forensic evidence require integrated management of core forensic personnel including investigators, archaeologists, anthropologists, odontologists and pathologists, among whom there is overlapping expertise. The key to avoiding competition and ill-will among experts is to recognize that all such experts should be enabled to make known how their expertise matches with the temporal and spatial boundaries of victim, crime and setting. In turn, they should be apprised of where they fit into the overall judicial process and their limits within the investigation. Consequently, each expert requires access to the factual background of the case, to the site and its contents throughout the investigation. Each forensic team member has a responsibility to influence the investigation--throughout its course when possible--to make findings within their areas of expertise, and to make these available to the rest of the team so as to contribute most meaningfully to the aims of the investigation, both forensic and humanitarian. The on-site crime scene manager has an overarching role to enable integrated access to the complete scene and its contents by each forensic expert team member. In other words, the forensic scientist is given access and the ability to influence the investigation while control of evidence from the site as to identity and criminal activity are maintained by the crime scene manager. This contribution is directed at both the crime scene manager and each forensic expert; it describes the essential spatial and temporal parameters of an expert's opinion so as to encourage cooperation, and discourage conflict, within the forensic team. PMID:15939156

  13. Gene Map of the HLA Region, Graves' Disease and Hashimoto Thyroiditis, and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sasazuki, Takehiko; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Morishima, Satoko; Morishima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genomic region spanning about 4 Mb is the most gene dense and the polymorphic stretches in the human genome. A total of the 269 loci were identified, including 145 protein coding genes mostly important for immunity and 50 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Biological function of these ncRNAs remains unknown, becoming hot spot in the studies of HLA-associated diseases. The genomic diversity analysis in the HLA region facilitated by next-generation sequencing will pave the way to molecular understanding of linkage disequilibrium structure, population diversity, histocompatibility in transplantation, and associations with autoimmune diseases. The 4-digit DNA genotyping of HLA for six HLA loci, HLA-A through DP, in the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) identified six susceptible and three resistant HLA alleles. Their epistatic interactions in controlling the development of these diseases are shown. Four susceptible and one resistant HLA alleles are shared by GD and HT. Two HLA alleles associated with GD or HT control the titers of autoantibodies to thyroid antigens. All these observations led us to propose a new model for the development of GD and HT. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donor (UR-HSCT) provides a natural experiment to elucidate the role of allogenic HLA molecules in immune response. Large cohort studies using HLA allele and clinical outcome data have elucidated that (1) HLA locus, allele, and haplotype mismatches between donor and patient, (2) specific amino acid substitution at specific positions of HLA molecules, and (3) ethnic background are all responsible for the immunological events related to UR-HSCT including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect, and graft failure. PMID:26791860

  14. Dissecting the Genetic Susceptibility to Graves' Disease in a Cohort of Patients of Italian Origin.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Angela; Menconi, Francesca; Greenberg, David; Concepcion, Erlinda; Leo, Marenza; Rocchi, Roberto; Marinó, Michele; Keddache, Mehdi; Tomer, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune oligogenic disorder with a strong hereditary component. Several GD susceptibility genes have been identified and confirmed during the last two decades. However, there are very few studies that evaluated susceptibility genes for GD in specific geographic subsets. Previously, we mapped a new locus on chromosome 3q that was unique to GD families of Italian origin. In the present study, we used association analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) at the 3q locus in a cohort of GD patients of Italian origin in order to prioritize the best candidates among the known genes in this locus to choose the one(s) best supported by the association. DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay analyzing 690 SNP in the linked 3q locus covering all 124 linkage disequilibrium blocks in this locus. Candidate non-HLA (human-leukocyte-antigen) genes previously reported to be associated with GD and/or other autoimmune disorders were analyzed separately. Three SNPs in the 3q locus showed a nominal association (p < 0.05): rs13097181, rs763313, and rs6792646. Albeit these could not be further validated by multiple comparison correction, we were prioritizing candidate genes at a locus already known to harbor a GD-related gene, not hypothesis testing. Moreover, we found significant associations with the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene, and the thyroglobulin (TG) gene. In conclusion, we identified three SNPs on chromosome 3q that may map a new GD susceptibility gene in this region which is unique to the Italian population. Furthermore, we confirmed that the TSHR, the CTLA-4, and the TG genes are associated with GD in Italians. Our findings highlight the influence of ethnicity and geographic variations on the genetic susceptibility to GD. PMID:27014188

  15. Thyroglobulin Autoantibodies Are Associated with Refractoriness to Antithyroid Drug Treatment for Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Masahito; Ogata, Hidetada

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recurrence rate associated with antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment for Graves' disease (GD) is high compared with that for radioiodine therapy or surgery. It is important to identify patients in whom remission is unlikely, so that they are not given treatment that is destined to fail. The objective of this study was thus to evaluate factors influencing the prognosis of GD patients treated with ATDs. Patients One hundred and sixty-one patients were divided into two groups: 100 patients who could not discontinue ATDs for eight years or more (refractory group) and 61 patients who achieved remission within eight years after starting ATD treatment (nonrefractory group). The groups were compared in terms of age, thyroid function and thyroid-related autoantibodies at diagnosis, and the durations to the recovery of thyroid function and thyroid-related autoantibodies. Results The baseline levels of free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAbs) were high, and the age at diagnosis and the baseline level of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAbs) were low in the refractory group compared with those in the nonrefractory group. The durations to the recovery of TSH, free T4, TRAb and TSAb levels were longer in the refractory group than in the nonrefractory group. No significant difference was observed with regard to thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Conclusion We compared the clinical features of these two groups in order to identify factors influencing the prognosis of GD patients treated with ATDs. A low baseline level of TgAbs is associated with the refractoriness of GD to ATD treatment. PMID:27301499

  16. Thyroid sialyltransferase mRNA level and activity are increased in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kiljański, Jacek; Ambroziak, Michał; Pachucki, Janusz; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Wiechno, Wieslaw; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Górnicka, Barbara; Bogdańska, Magdalena; Nauman, Janusz; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew

    2005-07-01

    Sialylation of cell components is an important immunomodulating mechanism affecting cell response to hormones and adhesion molecules. To study alterations in sialic acid metabolism in Graves' disease (GD) we measured the following parameters in various human thyroid tissues: lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA) content, ganglioside profile, total sialyltransferase activity, and the two major sialyltransferase mRNAs for sialyltransferase-1 (ST6Gal I) and for sialyltransferase-4A (ST3Gal I). Fragments of toxic thyroid nodules (TN), nontoxic thyroid nodules (NN) and nontumorous tissue from patients with nodular goiter or thyroid cancer were used as a control (C). The LBSA content and sialyltransferase activity were the highest in the GD group (164 +/- 4.44 versus 120 +/- 2.00 nmoL/g, p = 0.005 and 1625 +/- 283.5 versus 324 +/- 54.2 cpm/mg of protein, p < 0.005 compared to control group C). Ganglioside profile in the GD group was similar to that in control tissues. Sialyltransferase- 1 mRNA and sialyltransferase-4A mRNA levels were significantly higher in the GD group than in the control group (12.52 +/- 6.90 versus 2.54 +/- 1.24 arbitrary units, p < 0.005 and 2,49 +/- 1.16 versus 1.23 +/- 0.46 arbitrary units, p < 0.05, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the increased sialyltransferase-1 mRNA level and the TSH-receptor antibody titer determined by the TRAK test. These results indicate that sialyltransferases expression and activity are increased in GD. Exact mechanism of this upregulation remains unknown, though one of possible explanations is the activation of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. PMID:16053379

  17. Exploring primary care activities in ACT teams.

    PubMed

    Vanderlip, Erik R; Williams, Nancy A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Katon, Wayne

    2014-05-01

    People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients. PMID:24337472

  18. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  19. ACTS data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-08-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  20. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  1. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  2. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  3. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  4. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  5. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  6. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  7. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  8. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  9. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  10. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  11. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  12. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  13. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  14. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  16. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  17. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  18. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  19. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  20. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  1. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  2. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  6. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  7. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  8. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA. PMID:27311136

  9. 75 FR 67145 - Sunshine Act: Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act: Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, November 24, 2010. PLACE: Offices...: Hearing open to the Public at 2 p.m. PURPOSE: Public Hearing in conjunction with each meeting of OPIC's... the Corporation. pROCEDURES: Individuals wishing to address the hearing orally must provide...

  10. Research and the Freedom of Information Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roberta A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the research issues raised in several Federal cases involving the Freedom of Information Act. Outlines implications for the possible abrogation of researchers' property rights to their data and the potential breach of the confidential researcher-subject relationship. (Author/APM)

  11. Forgetting ACT UP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    When ACT UP is remembered as the pinnacle of postmodern activism, other forms and forums of activism that were taking place during that time--practices that were linked, related, just modern, in dialogue or even opposition to ACT UP's "confrontational activism"--are forgotten. In its time, ACT UP was embedded in New York City, and a larger world,…

  12. Bidirectional TSH and IGF-1 Receptor Cross Talk Mediates Stimulation of Hyaluronan Secretion by Graves' Disease Immunoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Christine C.; Neumann, Susanne; Place, Robert F.; Marcus-Samuels, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is no pathogenetically linked medical therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Lack of animal models and conflicting in vitro studies have hindered the development of such therapy. Recent reports propose that Graves' Igs bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs) on cells in orbital fat, stimulating hyaluronan (HA) secretion, a component of GO. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate potential cross talk between TSHRs and IGF-1Rs in the pathogenesis of GO using a sensitive HA assay. Design/Setting/Participants: Orbital fibroblasts from GO patients were collected in an academic clinical practice and cultured in a research laboratory. Cells were treated with TSH, IGF-1, and a monoclonal Graves' Ig M22. Main Outcome Measures: HA was measured by a modified ELISA. Results: Simultaneous activation by TSH and IGF-1 synergistically increased HA secretion from 320 ± 52 for TSH and 430 ± 65 μg/mL for IGF-1 alone, to 1300 ± 95 μg/mL. IGF-1 shifted the TSH EC50 19-fold to higher potency. The dose response to M22 was biphasic. An IGF-1R antagonist inhibited the higher potency phase but had no effect on the lower potency phase. M22 did not cause IGF-1R autophosphorylation. A TSHR antagonist abolished both phases of M22-stimulated HA secretion. Conclusions: M22 stimulation of HA secretion by GO fibroblasts/preadipocytes involves cross talk between TSHR and IGF-1R. This cross talk relies on TSHR activation rather than direct activation of IGF-1R and leads to synergistic stimulation of HA secretion. These data propose a model for GO pathogenesis that explains previous contradictory results and argues for TSHR as the primary therapeutic target for GO. PMID:25485727

  13. Kinetic analyses of changes in serum TSH receptor antibody values after total thyroidectomy in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Waka; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Mitsuru; Kudo, Takumi; Tamai, Hidekazu; Nishihara, Eijun; Kihara, Minoru; Miya, Akihiro; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-29

    We often recommend total thyroidectomy for patients with Graves' disease who wish to have a child in the near future in order to prevent fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, especially if the patients' serum thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) values are high. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in serum TRAb values using a quantitative third-generation assay after total thyroidectomy and the half-lives of serum TRAb values to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the safe TRAb value for mothers. We retrospectively examined the records of 45 Graves' disease patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and had high serum TRAb values. We also evaluated factors that prolonged the postoperative reduction of serum TRAb values. The serum TRAb values decreased rapidly in most of the patients, especially within the early postoperative (3-month) period. The presence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.004), and serum thyroglobulin values > 0.5 ng/mL at postoperative 12 months (p=0.039) were significantly associated with prolonged half-lives of the serum TRAb values. The median TRAb value half-life was 93.5 days in the patients without GO or smoking, 162.5 days in the patients with GO or smoking, and 357.4 days in the patients with both GO and smoking. Our findings indicate that using the half-life of patients' serum TRAb values determined by this third-generation assay would be effective to evaluate the reduction of serum TRAb values after total thyroidectomy and to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the maternal safe value. PMID:26632172

  14. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they will be needed. What is the cost of these vaccines? I’m not sure if ... Act (ACA) requires insurance companies to cover the cost of all recommended vaccines, which include those for ...

  15. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Cara M.

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language arts, and science by the completion of the 2013--2014 school year. The high school participating in this study received substandard test scores on both the 2009 state graduation test and the science portion of the ACT test. The research question included understanding how students perceive the use of games in addressing their science literacy needs. The data from the student journals, field notes, and transcribed class discussions were analyzed using a 6 step method that included coding the data into main themes. The triangulated data were used to both gain insight into student perspective and inform game development. Constructivist theories formed the conceptual framework of the study. The findings of the study suggested that games may prove a valuable tool in science literacy attainment. The study indicated that games were perceived by the students to be effective tools in meeting their learning needs. Implications for positive social change included providing students, educators, and administrators with game resources that can be used to meet the science learning needs of struggling students, thereby improving science scores on high stakes tests.

  16. From dust to dust: ethical and practical issues involved in the location, exhumation, and identification of bodies from mass graves.

    PubMed

    Williams, Erin D; Crews, John D

    2003-06-01

    There are many potential purposes served by the investigation of human remains: criminal fact-finding, archaeological exploration, forensic research, and others. This paper focuses on the identification of remains from mass graves to find missing persons. The primary goal of such efforts is to honor the memory of the dead by bringing closure to living family members, thus supporting the human rights of both the living and the deceased. Cultures, customs, political, and interpersonal specifics will vary, but that singular goal should remain the central guiding principle. This article presents ethical and practical issues resulting from efforts to locate, exhume, and identify the remains of mass fatalities. PMID:12808715

  17. Life-Threatening Hypercalcemia due to Graves' Disease and Concomitant Adrenal Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Haliloglu, Ozlem Asmaz; Senel, Tugba Elif; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with the complaints of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. She had a history of bilateral surrenalectomy due to Cushing's syndrome. On examination she had tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension. Laboratory examinations revealed hypercalcemia and suppressed parathyroid hormone levels. She also had thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. The investigations to rule out a malignancy were negative. With steroid, zoledronic acid, and antithyroid drug treatment her symptoms were resolved and calcium level was normalized. This case highlights the importance of recognizing thyrotoxicosis and concomitant adrenal failure as a possible cause of severe hypercalcemia. PMID:25878906

  18. Methylprednisolone Pulse Treatment of Graves' Ophthalmopathy Is Not Associated with Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Sofie; Nygaard, Birte; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease in the orbital region. The first-line medical treatment is glucocorticoids. An important potential side effect of glucocorticoid treatment is suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with impairment of endogenous cortisol production, implicating symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, especially in the period after cessation of therapy with possible risks in cases of intercurrent illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis function before and after methylprednisolone pulse treatment of GO. Study Design HPA axis function was evaluated by measurements of plasma ACTH and an ACTH stimulation test with plasma cortisol measurements at 0 and 30 min after an intravenous bolus of synthetic ACTH (Synacthen® 250 µg). This was done in 12 patients with GO before and at cessation of methylprednisolone pulse treatment (500 mg i.v. per week for 6 weeks followed by 250 mg i.v. per week for an additional 6 weeks). Results All patients included fulfilled the criteria of intact HPA axis function before and at cessation of methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Data are given as medians (with ranges). Before glucocorticoid treatment basal plasma cortisol was 290 nM (196-579) and 786 nM (612-1,050) after ACTH stimulation. At cessation of therapy the corresponding values were 309 nM (88-718) and 852 nM (524-1,011), respectively. Thus, all patients passed a 30-min stimulated plasma cortisol of 500 nM. Before treatment plasma ACTH was 4.2 pmol/l (4-16) and at cessation of therapy the corresponding value was 4.8 pmol/l (2-9; p = 0.27). Conclusion Transient suppression of the HPA axis with secondary adrenocortical insufficiency does not seem to be a common phenomenon after intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy for GO. Therefore, routine precautions are not necessary. However, our results do not exclude that transient secondary adrenocortical insufficiency might occur occasionally. PMID

  19. Risk Factors For Developing Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Among Individuals with Graves Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Childers, David; Gupta, Shivani; Talwar, Nidhi; Nan, Bin; Lee, Brian J.; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Context Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common and debilitating manifestation of Graves disease (GD). Presently little is known about factors that may increase the risk of developing TAO among patients with GD. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the development of TAO among individuals who are newly-diagnosed with GD. Design, Setting, Patients In this longitudinal cohort study, all beneficiaries age ≥ 18 years with newly-diagnosed GD who were continuously enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network and who had ≥1 visit to an eye care provider from 2001–2009 were identified. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) billing codes were used to identify those who developed manifestations of TAO. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the hazard of developing TAO among persons who were newly-diagnosed with GD, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, systemic medical conditions, thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and medical and surgical interventions for management of hyperthyroidism. Main Outcome Measure Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Of 8,404 patients with GD who met the inclusion criteria, 740 (8.8%) developed TAO (mean follow-up, 374 days since initial GD diagnosis). After adjustment for potential confounders, surgical thyroidectomy, alone or in combination with medical therapy, was associated with a 74%-decreased hazard for TAO (adjusted HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.12–0.51]), compared with radioactive iodine therapy alone. Statin use (for ≥60 days in the past year, vs. <60 days or nonuse) was associated with a 40%-decreased hazard (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.37–0.93]). No significant association was found for use of non-statin cholesterol-lowering medications or COX-2 inhibitors and development of TAO. Conclusion and Relevance If prospective studies can confirm our finding that thyroidectomy and statin exposure are associated with

  20. Persistent increase in bone turnover in Graves' patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kumeda, Y; Inaba, M; Tahara, H; Kurioka, Y; Ishikawa, T; Morii, H; Nishizawa, Y

    2000-11-01

    Hyperthyroid patients exhibit accelerated bone loss by increased bone turnover, and normalization of thyroid function is associated with a significant attenuation of increased bone turnover, followed by an increase in bone mineral density. However, of patients with Graves' disease (GD) maintained on antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment, some exhibit persistent suppression of TSH long after normalization of their serum free T3 (FT3) and free T4 (FT4) levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether bone metabolism is still enhanced in TSH-suppressed premenopausal GD patients with normal FT3 and FT4 levels after ATD therapy (n = 19) compared with that in TSH-normal premenopausal GD patients (n = 30), and to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH receptor antibody (TRAb), an indicator of disease activity of GD, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism. No difference was found between the two groups in serum Ca, phosphorus, or intact PTH, or in urinary Ca excretion. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), bone formation markers, and urinary excretions of pyridinoline (U-PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (U-DPD), which are bone resorption markers, were significantly higher in the TSH-suppression group than in the TSH-normal group (B-ALP, P < 0.05; U-PYD, P < 0.001; U-DPD, P < 0.001). For the group of all GD patients enrolled in this study, TSH, but neither FT3 nor FT4, exhibited a significant negative correlation with B-ALP (r = -0.300; P < 0.05), U-PYD (r = -0.389; P < 0.05), and U-DPD (r = -0.446; P < 0.05), whereas TRAb exhibited a highly positive and significant correlation with B-ALP (r = 0.566; P < 0.0001), U-PYD (r = 0.491; P < 0.001), and U-DPD (r = 0.549; P < 0.0001). Even in GD patients with normal TSH, serum TRAb was positively correlated with B-ALP (r = 0.638; P < 0.001), U-PYD (r = 0.638; P < 0.001), and U-DPD (r = 0.641; P < 0.001). In conclusion, it is important to achieve normal TSH levels during ATD therapy to normalize bone turnover. TRAb was

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 polymorphism and relapse of Graves' hyperthyroidism after antithyroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Liu, Rue-Tsuan; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Wang, Shan-Tair; Hu, Ya-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Jung; Chen, Ming-Hong; Chen, I-Ya; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2004-01-01

    We studied the A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 49 in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 gene in 148 Chinese Graves' disease (GD) patients and 171 controls. Our primary aim was to test for the association of this SNP with the relapse of the hyperthyroidism after antithyroid withdrawal. Our secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between GD patients and controls according to the SNP genotypes. All GD patients were divided into the following three groups according to the time of relapse after drug discontinuation: group 1, early relapse within 9 months; group 2, relapse between 10 and 36 months; and group 3, relapse 3 or more years after discontinuation of treatment. There was a significant difference of genotype frequencies (P < 0.001) and allele frequencies (P < 0.001) among the three groups of patients. The frequency of the G/G genotype decreased from 79% to 64% and 39% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compared with controls, a strong association (P < 0.001) of G allele was found for group 1, and moderate significance (P = 0.04) was found for group 2, but no association (P = 0.33) was found for group 3. At the end of treatment, the percentage of patients with persistent TSH-receptor antibody was statistically different (A/A, 9.0%; A/G, 20.8%; G/G, 45.5%; P = 0.004). Using 3 yr as the cutoff point for multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the G/G genotype (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1 compared with A/G plus A/A; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.1), larger goiter size at the end of treatment, and positive TSH-receptor antibody at the end of treatment were independent risk factors of recurrence. We conclude that the A/G polymorphism of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 gene affects the progress of GD. The G/G genotype is associated with poor outcome. PMID:14715845

  2. Impact of smoking on the course of Graves' disease after withdrawal of antithyroid drugs.

    PubMed

    Quadbeck, B; Roggenbuck, U; Janssen, O E; Hahn, S; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    2006-09-01

    Cigarette smoking has been reported to alter relapse rate in patients with Graves' disease (GD). However, the predictive effect of smoking in GD patients after withdrawal of antithyroid drug treatment (ATDT) is still controversial. A prospective multicenter trial has previously identified smoking as an independent risk factor for relapse. Based on this study, the present paper gives a more detailed analysis of the impact of smoking on the long-term course of GD after ATDT withdrawal. To this end, 86 smokers and 177 non-smokers were followed during two years after ATDT cessation. At the end of ATDT (visit 1) and four weeks later (visit 2) smokers had significant higher TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels than non-smokers (10.0 IU/L+/-1.6; mean+/-SEM vs. 6.4 IU/L+/-0.9; 11.0 IU/L+/-1.8 vs. 6.8 IU/L+/-0.8, p < 0.01, respectively). During follow-up, Kaplan Meier analysis showed a significantly higher relapse rate in smokers than non-smokers. A subset of GD patients with TRAb levels >10 IU/L had the highest risk to develop relapse during follow-up. Among them, smokers more often relapsed than non-smokers irrespective of TRAb levels, p < 0.01. Thus, in smokers with TRAb levels > or =10 IU/L the predictive values of a positive and negative test for relapse was 68% and 73%, respectively (specificity 95%). In conclusion, we identified two effects by which smoking alters the course of GD. First, smoking is implicated to elevate TRAb levels and therefore increase the risk for relapse during follow-up. Second, smoking is an independent risk factor to worsen the clinical course of both, GD patients with low and high immunological risk to experience relapse after a successful outcome of ATDT. Thus, our data suggest that smoking has modifying immunological consequences and an adverse impact on the course of GD after withdrawal of ATDT. Therefore, patients should be encouraged to stop smoking. PMID:17039420

  3. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee thereof. (2) Acting as an officer of a primary meeting or caucus, addressing, making motions... letter or article, signed or unsigned, soliciting votes in favor of or in opposition to any...

  4. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee thereof. (2) Acting as an officer of a primary meeting or caucus, addressing, making motions... letter or article, signed or unsigned, soliciting votes in favor of or in opposition to any...

  5. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employee thereof. (2) Acting as an officer of a primary meeting or caucus, addressing, making motions... letter or article, signed or unsigned, soliciting votes in favor of or in opposition to any...

  6. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  7. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  8. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  9. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  10. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  11. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  12. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  13. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  14. 75 FR 76893 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 69 FR 14002. HAVA anticipated that states, territories and the... provide for compliance with the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE Act) and address...

  15. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... addressed to Joshua Bundick, Manager, Poker Flat Research Range EIS, NASA Goddard Space Flight...

  16. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  17. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  18. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  19. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  20. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  1. Climate change in China and China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, D.; Huang, J.; Luo, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Since the first assessment report (FAR) of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm) and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  2. Noble gases and halogens in Graves Nunataks 06129: The complex thermal history of a felsic asteroid crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claydon, Jennifer L.; Crowther, Sarah A.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Gilmour, Jamie D.

    2015-06-01

    The meteorite Graves Nunataks 06128/06129 is a rare example of felsic asteroidal crust. Knowledge of its history can help shed light on the evolution processes of planetesimals. The noble gases can be used to constrain both the chronology of meteorites and the processes that result in movements of volatile elements on asteroidal bodies. We have examined the I-Xe and Ar-Ar systems of the plagioclase-rich achondrite, Graves Nunataks 06129 by high-resolution laser step-heating of irradiated samples. Iodine and 129Xe∗ are both present but are released at different temperatures and do not show a correlation, therefore the I-Xe system in GRA 06129 has no chronological significance. We propose that radiogenic 129Xe∗ was lost from primary phases and parentless 129Xe∗ was later introduced into the rock by interaction with a fluid sourced from a reservoir that evolved with a high I/Xe ratio. This could have been the same halogen-rich fluid that induced the conversion of merrillite and pyroxene into chlorapatite. Inherited 40Ar (i.e. not generated by in situ decay of 40K) is also present in one of three fragments studied here and may have been introduced at the same time as parentless 129Xe∗.

  3. Isotopic composition and identification of the origins of individuals buried in a Neolithic collective grave at Bronocice (southern Poland).

    PubMed

    Szostek, K; Haduch, E; Stepańczak, B; Kruk, J; Szczepanek, A; Pawlyta, J; Głąb, H; Milisauskas, S

    2014-04-01

    The oxygen present in a human organism comes from numerous sources, but the major factor that causes variation in the isotopic composition of this element in a tissue is available drinking water. The isotopic ratio of oxygen in an organism's tissue, including that found in bones and teeth, reflects the isotopic oxygen composition typical for the area where a given individual developed and lived. Of particular interest with regard to this issue were a series of skeletons from the multiple grave discovered at the Funnel Beaker-Baden settlement at Bronocice (southern Poland). The question therefore arose whether the specimens buried in this grave were part of the local community. The oxygen isotope level was established using apatite isolated from bones or teeth. A femur and root dentine samples taken from permanent teeth were subjected to oxygen isotope analysis. The oxygen isotope level of the site was established on the basis of local water precipitation and measurements taken from the oxygen isotope concentration in apatite samples isolated from the bones of animals co-occurring with the studied human group. It has been found that the oxygen isotope levels in the bones and dentine of almost all the analysed specimens from the excavated site at Bronocice were within the established range for the area's environment, providing evidence for their local origin. Thus, it can be assumed that the analysed group inhabiting the macrosettlement at Bronocice during the Funnel Beaker phase of the Baden culture was most probably of local origin. PMID:24304615

  4. [ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC, CYTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGIC RESEARCHES RESULTS OF PATIENTS WITH GRAVES' DISEASE (TOXIC GOITER) DEPENDING ON DISEASE DURATION].

    PubMed

    Tronco, N D; Shlyahtych, S L; Buldygina, Yu V; Berezhna, I Y; Antoniv, V R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of research is to arrange the results of ultrasonic and cytological researches during long-term drug treatment (more than 1 year) of patients with Graves' disease. From 2008 to 2013 the detailed examination of 220 patients was carried out in Kyiv City Centre for Endocrine Surgery which operates on the basis of the 3d Clinical Hospital. There were established three kinds of echographic patterns which pointed out the ultrasonic changes of the thyroid gland tissue, occurred during the drug treatment. Among 63 (28.6%) patients with long-term drug treatment the development of space-occupying lesions, occurred due to long duration of disease with long-term usage of tyreostatics, was recorded. After the surgical treatment the extracted thyroid gland tissue was subjected to histological study. The papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland was verified in 4 (6,3 %) of 63 patients with space-occupying lesions. The ultrasonic research of thyroid gland in combination with aspiration puncture biopsy and cytological research are the highly informative methods of examination of patients with Graves' disease which allow to objectify the organ structural condition while the disease duration. PMID:26827451

  5. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p < 0.05); 93% of the glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity. PMID:26603660

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B.

    1994-02-01

    Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Methimazole, but not betamethasone, prevents 131I treatment-induced rises in thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies in hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gamstedt, A.; Wadman, B.; Karlsson, A.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of methimazole or betamethasone therapy on the TSH receptor antibody response to radioiodine therapy were compared in a prospective randomized study of 60 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. The patients were followed for 1 yr after treatment with 131I. Twenty-three patients received 131I alone, 17 were treated with methimazole for 2 months before and 3 months after 131I therapy, and 20 patients were treated with betamethasone for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after 131I therapy. 131I induced a transient rise in the mean serum level of TSH receptor autoantibodies, measured as TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), but in patients receiving methimazole treatment, no such rise occurred. In the betamethasone-treated patients, TBII increased similarly to that in patients treated with 131I alone. In addition, in patients given betamethasone, there was an early decrease in total serum immunoglobulin G, which persisted throughout the follow-up period. In the other 2 groups, no changes in total immunoglobulin G were found. The results demonstrate that in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, TBII production is influenced by therapy. Methimazole abolished the 131I-induced increase in TBII, whereas betamethasone did not have such an inhibitory effect.

  8. Origin of primary PGM assemblage in сhromitite from a mantle tectonite at Harold's Grave (Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Lord, Richard A.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present textural and mineral chemistry data for a PGM inclusion assemblage and whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of chromitite from Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a dunite pod in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC), Scotland. The study utilized a number of analytical techniques, including acid digestion and isotope dilution (ID) ICP-MS, hydroseparation and electron microprobe analysis. The chromitite contains a pronounced enrichment of refractory PGE (IPGE: Os, Ir and Ru) over less refractory PGE (PPGE: Rh, Pt and Pd), typical of mantle hosted `ophiolitic' chromitites. A `primary' magmatic PGM assemblage is represented by euhedrally shaped (up to 60 μm in size) single and composite inclusions in chromite. Polyphase PGM grains are dominated by laurite and osmian iridium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (Can Mineral 40: 1705-1716, 2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200-1250 °C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07.

  9. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    PubMed

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:25369363

  10. Technetium uptake predicts remission and relapse in Grave's disease patients on antithyroid drugs for at least 1 year in South Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Neha; Praveen, V. P.; Bhavani, Nisha; Menon, Arun S.; Menon, Usha; Abraham, Nithya; Kumar, Harish; JayKumar, R. V.; Nair, Vasantha; Sundaram, Shanmugha; Sundaram, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Context: Most of the information on remission related factors in Grave's disease are derived from Western literature. It is likely that there may be additional prognostic factors and differences in the postdrug treatment course of Grave's disease in India. Aim: To study factors which predict remission/relapse in Grave's disease patients from South India. Also to establish if technetium (Tc) uptake has a role in predicting remission. Subjects and Methods: Records of 174 patients with clinical, biochemical, and scintigraphic criteria consistent with Grave's disease, seen in our Institution between January 2006 and 2014 were analyzed. Patient factors, drug-related factors, Tc-99m uptake and other clinical factors were compared between the remission and nonremission groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests were used when appropriate to compare the groups. Results: Fifty-seven (32.7%) patients attained remission after at least 1 year of thionamide therapy. Of these, 11 (19.2%) patients relapsed within 1 year. Age, gender, goiter, and presence of extrathyroidal manifestations were not associated with remission. Higher values of Tc uptake were positively associated with remission (P- 0.02). Time to achievement of normal thyroid function and composite dose: Time scores were significantly associated with remission (P - 0.05 and P - 0.01, respectively). Patients with lower FT4 at presentation had a higher chance of remission (P - 0.01). The relapse rates were lower than previously reported in the literature. A higher Tc uptake was found to be significantly associated with relapse also (P - 0.009). Conclusion: The prognostic factors associated with remission in Graves's disease in this South Indian study are not the same as that reported in Western literature. Tc scintigraphy may have an additional role in identifying people who are likely to undergo remission and thus predict the outcome of Grave's disease. PMID:27042408

  11. Increased microRNA-155 and decreased microRNA-146a may promote ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaijun; Du, Yi; Jiang, Ben-Li; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the orbit, characterized by inflammation and proliferation of the orbital tissue caused by CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts. Despite recent substantial findings regarding its cellular and molecular foundations, the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy remains unclear. Accumulating data suggest that microRNAs play important roles in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and proliferation. Specifically, microRNA-155 (miR-155) can promote autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development. In contrast to miR-155, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) can inhibit the immune response by suppressing T cell activation. Furthermore, miR-155 and miR-146a are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and many other life processes. Thus, miR-155 and miR-146a, with opposite impacts on inflammatory responses carried out by T lymphocytes, appear to have multiple targets in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Our previous work showed that the expression of miR-146a was significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Graves' ophthalmopathy patients compared with normal subjects. Accordingly, we proposed that the expression of miR-155 increased and the expression of miR-146a decreased in the target cells (CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts), thus promoting ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. The proposed hypothesis warrants further investigation of the function of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which may shed new light on the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy and lead to new strategies for its management. PMID:24743332

  12. 76 FR 42737 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Security Number, date of birth, citizenship, home address, personal phone/cell numbers, employing entity... (12) Privacy Act systems of records notices on December 28, 2007 (72 FR 73887); fourteen (14) Privacy Act systems of records notices on April 2, 2010 (75 FR 16853) and now adds six (6) systems of...

  13. 77 FR 38888 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... December 31, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  14. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service..., the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries may...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  15. 75 FR 82146 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\5/8\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES... interest penalty. 31 U.S.C. 3902(a). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92...

  16. 76 FR 82350 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 2 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  17. 77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  18. 75 FR 37881 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... December 31, 2010, the prompt payment interest rate is 3\\1/8\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  19. Effects of Prostaglandin F2α on Adipocyte Biology Relevant to Graves' Orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Draman, Mohd Shazli; Grennan-Jones, Fiona; Zhang, Lei; Taylor, Peter N; Tun, Tommy Kyaw; McDermott, John; Moriarty, Paul; Morris, Daniel; Lane, Carol; Sreenan, Seamus; Dayan, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Graves' orbitopathy (GO), increased proliferation, excess adipogenesis, and hyaluronan overproduction produce GO exophthalmos. Enophthalmos occurs in some glaucoma patients treated with Bimatoprost (prostaglandin F2α, PGF2α) eye drops. We hypothesized that enophthalmos is secondary to reductions in orbital tissue proliferation, adipogenesis, and/or increased lipolysis. We aimed to determine which of these is affected by PGF2α by using the 3T3-L1 murine preadipocyte cell line and primary human orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from GO patients (n=5) and non-GO (n=5). Methods: 3T3-L1 cells and orbital OFs were cultured alone or with PGF2α (all experiments used 10−8 to 10−6 M) and counted on days 1/2/3 or 5, respectively; cell cycle analysis (flow cytometry) was applied. Adipogenesis (in the presence/absence of PGF2α) was evaluated (day 7 or 15 for 3T3-L1 and primary cells, respectively) morphologically by Oil Red O staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurement of adipogenesis markers (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lipoprotein lipase, respectively). For lipolysis, in vitro–differentiated 3T3-L1 or mature orbital adipocytes were incubated with norepinephrine and PGF2α and free glycerol was assayed. Appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The population doubling time of 3T3-L1 was 27.3±1.4 hours—significantly increased by dimethyl sulfoxide 0.02% to 44.6±4.8 hours (p=0.007) and further significantly increased (p=0.049 compared with dimethyl sulfoxide) by 10−8 M PGF2α to 93.6±19.0 hours, indicating reduced proliferation, which was caused by prolongation of G2/M. GO OFs proliferated significantly more rapidly than non-GO (population doubling time 5.36±0.34 or 6.63±0.35 days, respectively, p=0.035), but the proliferation of both was significantly reduced (dose dependent from 10−8 M) by PGF2α, again with prolongation of G2/M. Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was minimally affected by PGF2α when assessed

  20. Could the eucrite Graves Nunataks 98098 be Vesta's equivalent to Lunar KREEP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafian, A. R.; Marschall, H.; Nielsen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Basaltic eucrites, members of the HED achondrite clan, are thought to derive from the asteroid 4-Vesta [1]. Most eucrites show little compositional and petrographic variability, thus anomalous eucrite could provide key insights into differentiation processes that operated on Vesta. The eucrite Graves Nunataks (GRA) 98098 is an unbrecciated eucrite with cross cutting white tabular veins consisting of mainly equigranular tridymite and euhedral plagioclase with some pyroxene [2]. In addition, GRA has the second highest modal (volume) abundance of apatite in a eucrite studied thus far. The apatite is associated with the veins [2]. The GRA bulk rock composition is enriched in incompatible elements with concentrations ca. 3-5 times higher than in most basaltic eucrites [3]. Additionally, GRA has 10-20 times more Cl than any other analyzed eucritic apatite [2]. Here we measured the trace-element concentrations of plagioclase and pyroxene by laser ablation ICP-MS and the D/H ratio of the apatites by SIMS. In the domains of GRA cut by veins, the trace elements in plagioclase and pyroxene show an up to 15x enrichment in incompatible elements compared to other basaltic eucrites [4]. Here we report the first D/H measurement of any magmatic material from Vesta. The D/H of apatite in GRA is relatively light compared to vSMOW. Based on the high abundance of incompatible elements in GRA and the high Cl content found in apatites, Sarafian et al. [2] suggested that GRA could be akin to Lunar KREEP (lunar rocks enriched in K, REEs and P). With the additional evidence of enriched incompatible elements in plagioclase and pyroxene and the similarity in D/H compared to KREEP, it is likely that GRA was infiltrated by a late-stage melt enriched in incompatible elements, similar to Lunar KREEP. Further study is needed to determine if this late-stage melt formed in a similar manner as KREEP. 1. Consolmango, G.J. and M.J. Drake, Composition and evolution of the eucrite parent body: Evidence

  1. 75 FR 2117 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... address, work and cell phone numbers, employee type, office/unit name, home and work e-mail address...,'' dated February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996, 61 FR 6427). Dated: January 8, 2010. Mitchell S. Bryman... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force,...

  2. 77 FR 4798 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...; home and work addresses; home and work email addresses; phone numbers (home, office, cell, and fax... February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996, 61 FR 6427). Dated: January 26, 2012. Aaron Siegel, Alternate OSD... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD....

  3. 75 FR 77872 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... family data, home address, home address history, home telephone number(s), personal cell phone number(s...,'' as referenced under this Notice by publication in the Federal Register on April 5, 2006 (71 FR 17234... COMMISSION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission (FCC, Commission, or...

  4. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  5. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  6. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  7. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  8. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the continuing information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C....

  9. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  10. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  11. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  12. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  13. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  14. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  15. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  16. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  17. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  18. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  19. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  20. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  1. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  2. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  3. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  4. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  5. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  6. EMAIL -- E-mail address searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Mellor, G. R.

    One of the most common activities on networked computers is the sending and receiving of personal electronic mail (email). Starlink nodes are connected to the worldwide Internet network. This document describes how to find email addresses to communicate with other astronomers and astronomy groups in the UK and the rest of the world.

  7. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  8. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  9. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  10. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  11. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  12. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  13. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  14. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  15. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  16. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  17. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  18. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  19. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features characterizing each one of the probes' visual signals were extracted from images acquired with the three different excitation and emission channels of the imaging instrument. With multivariate regression, the additive contribution from each one of the different building blocks of the bioimaging probes towards each measured, cell-associated image-based feature was calculated. In this manner, variations in the chemical features of the molecules were associated with the resulting staining patterns, facilitating quantitative, objective analysis of chemical address tags. Hierarchical clustering and paired image-cheminformatics analysis revealed key structure-property relationships amongst many building blocks of the fluorescent molecules. The results point to different chemical modifications of the bioimaging probes that can exert similar (or different) effects on the probes' visual signals. Inspection of the clustered structures suggests intramolecular charge migration or partial charge distribution as potential mechanistic determinants of chemical address tag behavior. PMID:20104576

  20. Comprehensive Planning To Address Homelessness. City Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawisza, Kris

    This packet contains documents that provide information about the planning and implementation of a comprehensive plan to address homelessness in cities throughout the U.S. Information on the following components of a comprehensive strategy are included: (1) "Task Forces"; (2) "Assessment Studies"; (3) "Emergency Services"; (4) "Transitional…