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Sample records for address health concerns

  1. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  2. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  3. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  4. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics. PMID:11561998

  5. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  6. Hispanic Women's Expectations of Campus-Based Health Clinics Addressing Sexual Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the number of Hispanic women attending postsecondary institutions has significantly increased in the past decade, knowledge about their use of campus health services to address sexuality-related issues remains low. Increased information about this population is crucial given that sexual health indicators have shown Hispanic women in…

  7. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    PubMed

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data.

  8. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health. PMID:25774374

  9. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  10. Responding to rural health needs through community participation: addressing the concerns of children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Vivienne; Ervin, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    A small rural health service undertook a major needs analysis in 2008 to identify gaps in service delivery and duplication of services. This exercise was intended to inform strategic direction but the result was consumer and community consultation and outcomes that far exceeded everyone's expectations. Organisations often pay lip service to the concept of community participation and consultation and the importance of consumer involvement. Turning this rhetoric into action is challenging and requires dedicated staff, organisational support and momentum for it to occur. The project described resulted in targeted, purposeful action regarding community engagement, and the findings and outcomes are reflective of this. The unexpected findings required an organisational shift, which was embraced by the health service and resulted in collaborative partnerships with consumers and organisations that are proving beneficial to the entire community and outlying areas. Few organisations would demonstrate the willingness to accommodate such change, or undertake a needs analysis that is chiefly community driven. PMID:21645466

  11. Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

  12. How Schools Address Students' Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Concerns and Problems: Lessons from Student Assistance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Tarasevich, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Conversations with school superintendents, board members, principals, teachers, counselors, and nurses about their students' social and emotional health show how actively they are working to help students confront difficult issues. Topping the list of issues are drug and alcohol use and abuse, depression, and violence among students. Equally…

  13. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  14. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  15. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  16. Writing Centre Tutoring Sessions: Addressing Students' Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Roger; Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Koo, Swit Ling

    2016-01-01

    The guiding principle behind university writing centres is to focus on the process of writing rather than the finished product, prioritising higher order concerns related to organisation and argumentation of texts rather than lower order concerns of grammar and punctuation. Using survey-based data, this paper examines students' concerns regarding…

  17. A history of the working group to address Los Alamos community health concerns - A case study of community involvement and risk communication

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Otway; Jon Johnson

    2000-01-01

    In May 1991, at a Department of Energy (DOE) public hearing at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a local artist claimed there had been a recent brain tumor cluster in a small Los Alamos neighborhood. He suggested the cause was radiation from past operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from the Laboratory's extensive environmental monitoring program gave no reason to believe this charge to be true but also could not prove it false. These allegations, reported in the local and regional media, alarmed the community and revealed an unsuspected lack of trust in the Laboratory. Having no immediate and definitive response, the Laboratory offered to collaborate with the community to address this concern. The Los Alamos community accepted this offer and a joint Community-Laboratory Working Group met for the first time 29 days later. The working group set as its primary goal the search for possible carcinogens in the local environment. Meanwhile, the DOE announced its intention to fund the New Mexico Department of Health to perform a separate and independent epidemiological study of all Los Alamos cancer rates. In early 1994, after commissioning 17 environmental studies and meeting 34 times, the working group decided that the public health concerns had been resolved to the satisfaction of the community and voted to disband. This paper tells the story of the artist and the working group, and how the media covered their story. It summarizes the environmental studies directed by the working group and briefly reviews the main findings of the epidemiology study. An epilogue records the present-day recollections of some of the key players in this environmental drama.

  18. Addressing Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martie; Ngxola, Nonyameko

    2009-01-01

    Evolution was introduced into the senior secondary school Life Sciences curriculum in South Africa for the first time in 2008. Research in other countries shows that evolution is an extremely controversial topic to teach, raising serious concerns for teachers. Curriculum change theory dealing with "stages of concern" suggests that teachers…

  19. Aluminum in Vaccines: Addressing Parents' Concerns.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    With myriad frightening stories on the Internet about vaccines, parents are frequently presenting to the pediatrician with questions about the safety of vaccine ingredients, and pediatricians need to be ready to listen to families with a kind ear. Pediatricians must also feel prepared to offer thoughtful, knowledgeable advice, appreciating the parent's concerns and educating them about the irrefutable benefits as well as the potential risks of vaccination. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e231-e233.]. PMID:27403668

  20. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Jason M.; Kraus, Courtney R.; Daley, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations. PMID:26252770

  1. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Jason M; Kraus, Courtney R; Daley, Matthew F

    2015-08-01

    The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  2. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  3. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  4. Study downplays health concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-13

    A government-funded study has concluded that reformulated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) does not increase short-term health risks when compared with gasoline that does not contain the additive. The study, performed by the Health Effects Institute (Cambridge, MA), compared data from dozens of animal, human, and epidemiological studies of health effects linked to oxygenates, including MTBE and ethanol, but did not find enough evidence to warrant an immediate reduction in oxygenate use. However, the study did recommend that additional research be conducted on possible health consequences associated with the gasoline additives, including neurotoxic effects, if oxygenates continue to be used long term. Oxygenates have been used in gasoline since 1992, when EPA mandated that several municipalities use MTBE or other oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and meet Clean Air Act requirements. Shortly after the program began, residents in areas where the oxygenates were used complained of nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The institute says the study--funded by EPA and the Centers for Disease Control--will be used for a broader review of gasoline oxygenates by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  5. UNDERGRADUATE NURSING EDUCATION TO ADDRESS PATIENTS’ CONCERNS ABOUT SEXUAL HEALTH: THE PERCEIVED LEARNING NEEDS OF SENIOR TRADITIONAL FOUR-YEAR AND TWO-YEAR RECURRENT EDUCATION (RN-BSN) UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENTS IN TAIWAN

    PubMed Central

    TSAI, LI-YA; HUANG, CHENG-YI; SHIH, FEN-FEN; LI, CHI-RONG; LAI, TE-JEN

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to identify learning needs among traditional four-year and two-year recurrent education (RN-BSN) undergraduate nursing students in Taiwan with regard to patients’ concerns about sexual health. A 24-item instrument (Learning Needs for Addressing Patients’ Sexual Health Concerns) was used to collect data. Compared to RN-BSN undergraduate nursing students, traditional four-year undergraduate nursing students had more learning needs in the aspects of sexuality in health and illness (2.19 ± 0.66 vs. 1.80 ± 0.89, P = 0.005) and approaches to sexual health care (2.03 ± 0.72 vs. 1.76 ± 0.86, P = 0.033). After adjustment for other variables by the backward selection approach, those with experience in assessing patient’s sexual functioning had fewer learning needs in sexuality in health and illness (β = –0.375, P = 0.001), communication about patient’s intimate relationships (β = –0.242, P = 0.031), and approaches to sexual health care (β = –0.288, P = 0.013); those who agreed that sexual health care was a nursing role also expressed greater needs to learn about these 3 aspects (all P < 0.01). Content related to sexuality in health and illness and approaches to sexual health care should be strengthened in the traditional undergraduate nursing curriculum in order to support sexual health related competence, build a positive attitude regarding sexual health care as a nursing role, and strengthen the experience of assessing patient’s sexual functioning. A different, simplified program may be more suitable for those with clinical experience. PMID:25741036

  6. Health Update: Health Concerns for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses job-related health problems, such as infectious diseases and job stress, that are of concern to child caregivers in child care settings. Ways that these problems can be alleviated and/or medically treated are also discussed. (BB)

  7. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  8. Ask Dr. Sue: Center Directors Express These Health Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    A physician addresses three health concerns of child care center directors. She provides information about the increasing number of children with asthma problems, the exclusion of ill children from child care settings, and the increasing concern about lead poisoning. (GLR)

  9. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  10. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  11. States Address Concerns about Concussions in Youth Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreck, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) reviewed legislation in the 50 states to see how state leaders are responding to concerns about concussions in youth sports. This report reviews state responses to concussion concerns, and provides examples of provisions put in place by California, Connecticut, and Texas. Three emerging innovations are…

  12. Immunization controversy: understanding and addressing public misconceptions and concerns.

    PubMed

    Blackford, J K

    2001-02-01

    School nurses often meet with parents who are reluctant to immunize their children. This reluctance is based on widely publicized stories about vaccine safety. Illnesses that are preventable by vaccines have become almost nonexistent, and consequently, vaccine safety concerns have increased in prominence. Often a negative report about the risk of a particular vaccine is released by the media and on the Internet before scientific evidence has been obtained. To adequately respond to parental concerns, school nurses should be aware of the historical impact of vaccine safety issues and the vaccine-related fears that are prevalent at the present time. Nurses also need to be provided with scientifically accurate information so that risk-benefit concerns regarding vaccine safety can be effectively communicated to parents. In this way, school nurses can play an important role in ensuring that the student population and the community are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  13. Addressing the Concerns of Conservatoire Students about School Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Janet

    2005-01-01

    While most of the students who graduate each year from the Royal College of Music (RCM) in London build performance-based portfolio careers that include some teaching, very few of them enter secondary school class music teaching. This article describes how young musicians' concerns about the career of secondary class music teacher develop as they…

  14. Addressing Concerns and Taking on the Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Mintz, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors begin by addressing some of the questions raised about the Values Statement. They then focus on next steps, first briefly summarizing a few excellent suggestions made by the authors of the reaction papers and then zeroing in on the tension-wrought issue of when values regarding sexual orientation and religion…

  15. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  16. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  17. 45 CFR 1184.8 - How can I address concerns regarding my request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I address concerns regarding my request... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1184.8 How can I address concerns regarding my request? (a) FOIA Public..., MD 20740-6001, Email: ogis@nara.gov, Phone: (301) 837-1996, Fax: (301) 837-0348. This information...

  18. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  19. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  20. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  1. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  2. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  3. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Benjamin J.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  4. Disease manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic Canada: using epidemiology to address community concerns

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Girgis, Safwat; Bailey, Robert; Morse, John; Fedorak, Richard N; Geary, Janis; Fagan-Garcia, Katharine; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2014-01-01

    findings demonstrate that local concern about health risks from H pylori is warranted and provide an example of how epidemiological research can address health priorities identified by communities. PMID:24401722

  5. Addressing concerns of pregnant and lactating women after the 2005 hurricanes: the OTIS response.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Dorothy; Lavigne, Sharon Voyer; Chambers, Christina; Wolfe, Lori; Chipman, Hope; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2008-01-01

    Natural disasters are devastating for anyone affected, but pregnant and breastfeeding women often have specific concerns about the effects of certain exposures (such as infections, chemicals, medications, and stress) on their fetus or breastfed child. For this reason, the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) and the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered to provide information for women and healthcare professionals about the effects of exposures on pregnancy and breastfeeding after the hurricanes of 2005. This service expanded on OTIS's existing telephone counseling and fact sheets. Through this project, fact sheets were created to address specific potential concerns regarding exposures after the hurricanes. The OTIS national toll-free telephone number also was modified to accommodate questions regarding hurricane-related exposures, and several strategies were used to publicize this number as a resource for obtaining hurricane-related exposure information related to pregnancy and breastfeeding. This article describes OTIS's response after the 2005 hurricanes, the challenges encountered in implementing the response, and lessons learned that might be useful to improve the response to the unique needs of this special population after any disaster or public health emergency.

  6. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  7. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  8. Commitment and concern in the health service.

    PubMed

    Weir, R D

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general review of the use of local health services resources, a specific enquiry was mounted to examine the recurring complaint of a lack of identity or sense of belonging made by staff working in the largest district of the Grampian Health Board. The investigation pointed to clearly identifiable sources of confusion and concern: (a) a need to identify with and feel committed to the health service; (b) a sense of purpose and direction; (c) satisfaction with the conditions of service; (d) an understanding of an individual's role and its relationship to others'. It is relatively easy to list the problems, such as friction between occupational groups, lack of commitment, uncertainty over duties and authority, reluctance to delegate and resistance to, or even outright rejection of, decisions apparently at variance with professional advice. In addition to these internal stresses the health service is perpetually beset by two other external problems, namely what it is expected to achieve and the finance allowed to attain its goals. The various groups within the service are in no way agreed on roles and responsibilities, Without agreement goals cannot be defined. Without goals, use of resources cannot be rationalized. Without a demonstrably fair distribution of resources, neither the public nor health service staff will feel confident or committed. Somewhere this cycle must be broken.

  9. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27196990

  11. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  12. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  13. A Latina/o Campus Community's Readiness to Address Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…

  14. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers' concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of

  15. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-08-31

    In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers' concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of

  16. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers’ concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of

  17. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  18. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Camara Phyllis; Jones, Clara Yvonne; Perry, Geraldine S; Barclay, Gillian; Jones, Camille Arnel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a "Cliff Analogy" illustrating three dimensions of health intervention to help people who are falling off of the cliff of good health: providing health services, addressing the social determinants of health, and addressing the social determinants of equity. In the terms of the analogy, health services include an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, a net or trampoline halfway down, and a fence at the top of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of health involves the deliberate movement of the population away from the edge of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of equity acknowledges that the cliff is three-dimensional and involves interventions on the structures, policies, practices, norms, and values that differentially distribute resources and risks along the cliff face. The authors affirm that we need to address both the social determinants of health, including poverty, and the social determinants of equity, including racism, if we are to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities.

  19. Health and development: some concerns about South Africa's health policy.

    PubMed

    Head, J

    1996-09-01

    This critique of South Africa's health policy opens by noting that the World Health Organization's definition of health as "a state of complete physical mental and social well-being" recognizes that health is synonymous with development. Specific areas of concern are then identified as 1) the consequences for health and development of South Africa's emphasis on reducing the budget deficit, 2) the implications of maintaining a private health sector, and 3) the absence of health policy implementation planning. The analysis opens with a look at Mozambique's experience in setting up a health service after independence (between 1976 and 1980). Next, the unique features of South Africa's transition from apartheid to democracy are identified as the rapid migration of people to industrial centers for work, the continuing residence of the powerful European population, and an international context that limits opportunities to promote growth through social democratic policies. The implications of these factors to the health policy are that social inequalities will continue to exist because the health policy fails to delineate how health services will be provided to large urban areas and maintains a two-tier system. It is critical to nationalize the public sector and to involve health workers in the reform process.

  20. Occupational health concerns in the welding industry.

    PubMed

    Korczynski, R E

    2000-12-01

    The Workplace Safety and Health Branch initiated a proactive study in the welding industry in Manitoba. Eight welding companies participated in this study. Health concerns raised by welders were welders' flash, sore/red/teary eyes, headaches, nosebleeds, and a black mucous discharge from their nasal membrane. Most welders expressed concern regarding excessive smoke levels in the workplace and inadequate ventilation. Types of welding identified were MIG mild steel, MIG stainless steel, and TIG aluminum. Monitoring involved an assessment of noise levels, fume composition, and carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations. Metal analyses were according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300. Noise dosimeters used were the Quest model 100 and Micro 14 & 15. Carbon monoxide was monitored using the Gastech Model 4700 and ozone using the AID Portable Ozone Meter Model 560. In Manitoba, a hearing conservation program is required when the equivalent sound exposure level (normalized Lex 8-hr) exceeds 80 dBA-weighted. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-time weighted average (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for iron is 5.0 mg/m3, manganese is 0.2 mg/m3, carbon monoxide is 25 ppm, and ozone is 0.05 ppm (heavy work), 0.08 ppm (moderate work), and 0.1 ppm (light work). Welders' personal exposures to manganese ranged from 0.01-4.93 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 0.5; GM = 0.2; SD +/- 0.9; GSD +/- 3.2) and to iron ranged from 0.04-16.29 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 3.0; GM = 1.4; SD +/- 3.5; GSD +/- 2.5). Noise exposures ranged from 79-98 dBA (N = 44; AM = 88.9; GM = 88.8; SD +/- 4.2; GSD +/- 1.0). Carbon monoxide levels were less than 5.0 ppm (at source) and ozone levels varied from 0.4-0.6 ppm (at source). Ventilation upgrades in the workplace were required in most welding shops. Only 7 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. A hearing conservation program and hearing protection were required at all monitored workplaces.

  1. Health and fracking: should the medical profession be concerned?

    PubMed

    Mash, Rachel; Minnaar, Jolynn; Mash, Bob

    2014-02-26

    The use of natural gas that is obtained from high-volume hydraulic fracturing (fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes use hundreds of chemicals as well as silica sand. Additional elements are either released from or formed in the shale during drilling. These substances can enter the environment in various ways: through failures in the well casing; via alternative underground pathways; as wastewater, spills and leaks on the wellpad; through transportation accidents; and as air pollution. Although many of these chemicals and elements have known adverse health effects, there is little evidence available on the health impacts of fracking. These health concerns have not yet been fully addressed in policy making, and the authors recommend that the voice of health professionals should be part of the public debate on fracking and that a full health impact assessment be required before companies are given the go-ahead to drill. 

  2. Health and fracking: should the medical profession be concerned?

    PubMed

    Mash, Rachel; Minnaar, Jolynn; Mash, Bob

    2014-05-01

    The use of natural gas that is obtained from high-volume hydraulic fracturing (fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes use hundreds of chemicals as well as silica sand. Additional elements are either released from or formed in the shale during drilling. These substances can enter the environment in various ways: through failures in the well casing; via alternative underground pathways; as wastewater, spills and leaks on the wellpad; through transportation accidents; and as air pollution. Although many of these chemicals and elements have known adverse health effects, there is little evidence available on the health impacts of fracking. These health concerns have not yet been fully addressed in policy making, and the authors recommend that the voice of health professionals should be part of the public debate on fracking and that a full health impact assessment be required before companies are given the go-ahead to drill.  PMID:25212197

  3. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  4. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  5. Addressing Health Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I.-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008–2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran’s I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25514144

  6. Addressing health disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I -Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-12-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008–2012.However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database.The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD.

  7. Addressing health disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-12-11

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008-2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD.

  8. The case for addressing explosive weapons: conflict, violence and health.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian; Moyes, Richard; Lang, Iain

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, states and non-governmental organizations have expressed concern about the humanitarian consequences of the category of technologies labelled 'explosive weapons', particularly in relation to their use in populated areas. This article seeks to outline the magnitude of these consequences as well as what can be done to reduce harms. In particular, it makes a case for how health approaches could help prevent the harms associated with this category of weapons. Attention is given to the types of evidence and argument that might be required to characterize explosive weapons. An overarching aim is to consider how alternative ways of understanding weapons and violence can create new opportunities for addressing harms from conflict.

  9. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  10. Addressing the emergence of pediatric vaccination concerns: recommendations from a Canadian policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Barakat, Meredith; Mills, Edward; Ritvo, Paul; Boon, Heather; Vohra, Sunita; Jadad, Alejandro R; McGeer, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of pediatric vaccination, individuals have expressed concerns about both its risks and benefits. These concerns have once again resurfaced among some segments of the population and could potentially undermine national vaccination programs. The views of the public, however, must be considered and respected in the formulation of vaccination policy. We have conducted an analysis of the pediatric vaccination "debate" in the Canadian context. We believe that there is common ground between those who support pediatric vaccination and those who are concerned about these programs. Based on our findings, we believe that the goal of public health authorities should be to maintain trust in vaccines by continuing to meet certain reciprocal responsibilities. To do so, we recommend the following: 1) increased investment in adverse event reporting systems; 2) request for proposals for consideration of a no-fault compensation program; 3) developing pre-emptive strategies to deal with potential vaccine risks; 4) further examination of mechanisms to improve communication between physicians and parents concerned about vaccination. All of these approaches would require additional investment in pediatric vaccination. However, such an investment is easy to justify given the benefits offered by pediatric vaccination and the ramifications of failing to maintain confidence in vaccination programs or missing a vaccine-related adverse event.

  11. 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take…

  12. Addressing Safety in Schools: CDC's Division of Adolescent & School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH) is to prevent the most serious health risks among children, adolescents, and young adults. Its goal is to prevent unintentional injuries and violence by enabling the nation's schools to address safety through coordinated school health programs. It attempts to achieve this goal…

  13. Child health: a legitimate business concern.

    PubMed

    Major, Debra A; Cardenas, Rebekah A; Allard, Carolyn B

    2004-10-01

    This article reviews evidence substantiating the relationship between child health and business outcomes and evaluates literature regarding organizational interventions that benefit child health and reduce associated costs. The review focuses on 4 family-friendly initiatives, including prenatal programs, lactation programs, sick child care, and flexible working arrangements, and considers 4 business outcomes, specifically health care costs, face time, productive time, and employer attractiveness. Limitations of previous research are discussed, and preventive and reactive models of the relationship between child health and business outcomes are developed as guides for future research.

  14. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addressing environmental concerns? 224.102 Section 224.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  15. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  16. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Houssain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care. PMID:19721944

  17. Male sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phong, Vu Hong

    2008-06-01

    Male sexual health concerns are often construed in the medical literature as linked only to genital and reproductive difficulties and malfunctions. However, in reality, male sexual health concerns encompass a broader range of issues and should not be so narrowly conceived. This paper explores men's perceptions of sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, a rural town in northwestern Vietnam. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Findings suggest that men's sexual health concerns are strongly related to worries about economic problems, excessive drinking, men's beliefs about how their bodies work and the hegemonic notion that a man should be responsible for his family's economic well-being.

  18. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  19. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means.

  20. Narratives and Images Used by Public Communication Campaigns Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one’s home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother’s education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  1. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-01

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

  2. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-31

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  3. Listeriosis during Pregnancy: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Teresa; Silva, Joana; Maia, Rui L.; Teixeira, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Listeria was first described in 1926 by Murray, Webb, and Swann, who discovered it while investigating an epidemic infection among laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs. The role of Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen was definitively recognized during the 1980s. This recognition was the consequence of a number of epidemic human outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated foods, in Canada, in the USA and in Europe. Listeriosis is especially severe in immunocompromised individuals such as pregnant women. The disease has a low incidence of infection, although this is undeniably increasing, with a high fatality rate amongst those infected. In pregnant women listeriosis may cause abortion, fetal death, or neonatal morbidity in the form of septicemia and meningitis. Improved education concerning the disease, its transmission, and prevention measures for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women has been identified as a pressing need. PMID:24191199

  4. Senior military officers' educational concerns, motivators and barriers for healthful eating and regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Lori D; Anderson, Jennifer E; Auld, Garry W

    2005-10-01

    The increasing trend of overweight in the military, the high cost of health care associated with overweight, and the failure to meet some Healthy People 2000 objectives related to diet identify the need for more appropriate nutrition and fitness education for military personnel. The purpose of this study was to assess senior military officers' concerns on various health topics, educational preferences for nutrition and health topics, eating habits, and barriers and motivators for eating healthfully and exercising regularly. The survey was completed by 52 resident students at the U.S. Army War College. Fitness, weight, and blood cholesterol were top health concerns, and respondents wanted to know more about eating healthfully on the run. The primary barrier to eating healthfully and exercising regularly was lack of time, whereas health and appearance were top motivators. Health interventions for this population should include their topics of concern and should address perceived barriers and motivators.

  5. Addressing the unique safety and design concerns for operating tower-based scientific field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific field campaigns often require specialized technical infrastructure for data collection. NASA's LBA- ECO Science Team needed a network of towers, up to 65 meters in height, to be constructed in the Amazon forest to serve as platforms for instrumentation used to estimate carbon dioxide and trace gas fluxes between the forest and the atmosphere. The design, construction, and operation of these scientific towers represented unique challenges to the construction crews, the logistics support staff, and the scientists due to operational requirements beyond tower site norms. These included selection of safe sites at remote locations within a dense forest; building towers without damaging the natural environment; locating diesel generators so that exhaust would not contaminate the measurement area; performing maintenance on continuously energized towers so as not to interrupt data collection; training inexperienced climbers needing safe access to towers; and addressing unique safety concerns (e.g. venomous animal response, chainsaw safety, off road driving). To meet the challenges of the complex field site, a comprehensive safety and site operation model was designed to ensure that NASA field safety standards were met, even under extreme conditions in the remote forests of the Amazon. The model includes all phases of field site safety and operation, including site design, construction, operational practices and policies, and personnel safety training. This operational model was employed over eight years, supporting a team of nearly 400 scientists, making several thousand site visits, without loss of life or major injury. The presentation will explore these concerns and present a model for comprehensive safety plans for NASA field missions.

  6. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Barish, R J

    1990-08-01

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business "frequent flyers" may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved.

  7. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Barish, R.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business frequent flyers may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved.

  8. Addressing Community Concerns about Lead Contamination in Soil: Insights for Site Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, M.E.

    2008-07-01

    Health risks associated with contaminated sites are a key driver for cleanup decisions and determinations about alternate land use of areas released to the public, particularly in heavily populated metropolitan areas. To guide risk management and future use decisions at contaminated sites, insights can be gained from community-based research. These evaluations can also help ensure that assessments and decisions developed for urban sites consider input received from community members. In order to evaluate the potential risk due to consumption of plants home-grown in lead-contaminated soil, a pilot study was conducted over a period of two summers in a Chicago, IL neighborhood. This survey included analyses of lead concentrations in a convenience sampling of edible fruits, vegetables, and herbs and also examined how the sample preparation method affected the lead concentrations detected in plant materials. A pattern of lead transfer from soil through the root to the stem and leaves of garden crops was found. This pattern is a concern particularly for plants in which the roots, stems, stalks, or leaves are consumed. Analyses of fruiting vegetables indicated that concentrations were below the limit of detection. Depending on the soil lead level and specific plant, the contamination found in some leafy vegetables and herbs may exceed the body's daily excretion rate and could contribute to the total body burden of lead, especially in children. Finally, washing edible portions did not necessarily eliminate the risk, indicating that the lead was located both on and in the plant tissue. This research was conducted in coordination with health experts from the community, and local citizens were involved in discussions on the research and implications for their health protection measures. In certain residential locations, identifying and understanding the potential source of lead contamination provides information for the community such that simple measures can be applied for

  9. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  10. Increasing the capacity of health sciences to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Reznik, Vivian M

    2009-09-01

    In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities. This paper describes the activities employed by the center and summarizes the outcomes of these two initiatives. Ninety-five percent (18 of 19) URM junior faculty completed the faculty development program, and 83.3% (15 of 18) of the completers are advancing in their academic careers at University of California San Diego (UCSD) and are teaching, working with populations at risk and/or conducting research in health disparities. EXPORT awarded 7 investigators a total of $429186 to conduct pilot research, and 71.4% (5/7) have now obtained $4.7 million in independent extramural funding. The San Diego EXPORT Center has increased the research capacity, strengthened the infrastructure for health disparities research, and created a cohort of successful URM junior faculty who are advancing in their academic careers. These investigators are already changing the climate at UCSD by their leadership activities, research focus, peer-networking, and mentoring of students.

  11. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.

  12. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  13. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  14. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them?

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain. PMID:27621530

  15. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world. PMID:26860758

  16. Supporting Children with Mental Health Concerns in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma; Altomare, Alyssa A.

    2013-01-01

    There are a growing number of children who begin to develop mental concerns during the school-age years. As such, it is important that schools recognize and understand mental health issues and are actively engaged in supporting these students. This article provides a review of mental health in schools, highlighting the importance of school-health…

  17. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections. PMID:10535438

  18. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections.

  19. Community and occupational health concerns in pork production: a review.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    Public concerns relative to adverse consequences of large-scale livestock production have been increasingly voiced since the late 1960s. Numerous regional, national, and international conferences have been held on the subject since 1994. This paper provides a review of the literature on the community and occupational health concerns of large-scale livestock production with a focus on pork production. The industry has recognized the concerns of the public, and the national and state pork producer groups are including these issues as an important component of their research and policy priorities. One reason large-scale livestock production has raised concern is that a significant component of the industry has separated from traditional family farming and has developed like other industries in management, structure, and concentration. The magnitude of the problem cited by environmental groups has often been criticized by the pork production industry for lack of science-based evidence to document environmental concerns. In addition to general environmental concerns, occupational health of workers has become more relevant because many operations now are employing more than 10 employees, which brings many operations in the United States under the scrutiny of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In this paper, the scientific literature is reviewed relative to the science basis of occupational and environmental impacts on community and worker health. Further, recommendations are made to help promote sustainability of the livestock industry within the context of maintaining good stewardship of our environmental and human capital. PMID:20154166

  20. Addressing health disparities: the role of an African American health ministry committee.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sandra; Harris, Gertrude

    2011-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 identified the need to address health disparities among African Americans, Asians, American Indians, Hispanics, Alaskan American, and Pacific Islanders. These are groups disproportionately affected by cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV infection, and AIDSs. Despite the growing body of research on health disparities and effective interventions, there is a great need to learn more about culturally appropriate interventions. Social work professional values and ethics require that service delivery be culturally competent and effective. Social workers can collaborate with community based health promotion services, exploring new ways to ensure that health disparities can be addressed in institutions to which African Americans belong. This article presents findings of an African American health ministry committee's health promotion initiatives and probed the viability of a health ministry committee' role in addressing health disparities through education. The promising role of the Black church in addressing health disparities is explored.

  1. Addressing South African Pre-Service Teachers' Sentiments, Attitudes and Concerns Regarding Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Marietjie; Swart, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article recounts the findings of a study that investigated pre-service teachers' attitudes and concerns regarding inclusive education and their degree of comfort when interacting with people with disabilities after completing courses on inclusive education. One hundred and eighty pre-service teachers from one higher education institution in…

  2. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  3. Sex education for local tourism/hospitality employees: addressing a local health need.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need.

  4. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  5. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  6. The Medicalization of Sleeplessness: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Thomas R.; Zimmer, Catherine R.

    2011-01-01

    Sleeplessness, a universal condition with diverse causes, may be increasingly diagnosed and treated (or medicalized) as insomnia. We examined the trend in sleeplessness complaints, diagnoses, and prescriptions of sedative hypnotics in physician office visits from 1993 to 2007. Consistent with the medicalization hypothesis, sleeplessness complaints and insomnia diagnoses increased over time and were far outpaced by prescriptions for sedative hypnotics. Insomnia may be a public health concern, but potential overtreatment with marginally effective, expensive medications with nontrivial side effects raises definite population health concerns. PMID:21680913

  7. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. PMID:24834850

  8. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  9. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230

  10. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels.

  11. An esthetic concern leads the way to improved oral health.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    In order to make appropriate treatment decisions, clinicians must consider a patient's needs in total. As such, a systematic risk assessment is essential for developing a treatment plan that will both satisfy the patient's esthetic concerns and lower his or her risk for future problems. In this case, the patient's immediate concern was his smile, but he was unaware of the need for additional treatment, which included addressing occlusal dysfunction, extracting hopeless teeth and replacing them with an implant-retained prosthesis, and placement of indirect porcelain restorations. A comprehensive interdisciplinary approach between the clinician, implant surgeon, and laboratory was crucial for a successful outcome.

  12. Addressing bioterrorism concerns: options for investigating the mechanism of action of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C D; Griffiths, G D

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is of concern to military and civilian populations as a bioterrorism threat agent. It is a highly potent toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and is stable in storage and under aerosolisation; it is able to produce prolonged highly incapacitating illness at very low-inhaled doses and death at elevated doses. Concerns regarding SEB are compounded by the lack of effective medical countermeasures for mass treatment of affected populations. This article considers the mechanism of action of SEB, the availability of appropriate experimental models for evaluating the efficacy of candidate medical countermeasures with particular reference to the need to realistically model SEB responses in man and the availability of candidate countermeasures (with an emphasis on commercial off-the-shelf options). The proposed in vitro approaches would be in keeping with Dstl’s commitment to reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models in biomedical research, particularly in relation to identifying valid alternatives to the use of nonhuman primates in experimental studies.

  13. Engineering Hematopoietic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy: Strategies to Address Safety and Toxicity Concerns.

    PubMed

    Resetca, Diana; Neschadim, Anton; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    Advances in cancer immunotherapies utilizing engineered hematopoietic cells have recently generated significant clinical successes. Of great promise are immunotherapies based on chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T (CAR-T) cells that are targeted toward malignant cells expressing defined tumor-associated antigens. CAR-T cells harness the effector function of the adaptive arm of the immune system and redirect it against cancer cells, overcoming the major challenges of immunotherapy, such as breaking tolerance to self-antigens and beating cancer immune system-evasion mechanisms. In early clinical trials, CAR-T cell-based therapies achieved complete and durable responses in a significant proportion of patients. Despite clinical successes and given the side effect profiles of immunotherapies based on engineered cells, potential concerns with the safety and toxicity of various therapeutic modalities remain. We discuss the concerns associated with the safety and stability of the gene delivery vehicles for cell engineering and with toxicities due to off-target and on-target, off-tumor effector functions of the engineered cells. We then overview the various strategies aimed at improving the safety of and resolving toxicities associated with cell-based immunotherapies. Integrating failsafe switches based on different suicide gene therapy systems into engineered cells engenders promising strategies toward ensuring the safety of cancer immunotherapies in the clinic. PMID:27488725

  14. Understanding and Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Rucker, Toni D.

    2000-01-01

    Racial disparities in medical care should be understood within the context of racial inequities in societal institutions. Systematic discrimination is not the aberrant behavior of a few but is often supported by institutional policies and unconscious bias based on negative stereotypes. Effectively addressing disparities in the quality of care requires improved data systems, increased regulatory vigilance, and new initiatives to appropriately train medical professionals and recruit more providers from disadvantaged minority backgrounds. Identifying and implementing effective strategies to eliminate racial inequities in health status and medical care should be made a national priority. PMID:11481746

  15. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  16. Safety and Health Concerns in Academic and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Dorothy M.

    The library is a relatively safe work place, but no place is completely free from hazards. This paper examines the major health and safety concerns of staff and patrons of academic and public libraries, based on a literature review of approximately 60 articles. According to this literature, general safety hazards are not considered a major problem…

  17. Addressing the Concerns Surrounding Continuous Deep Sedation in Singapore and Southeast Asia: A Palliative Care Approach.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha

    2015-09-01

    The application of continuous deep sedation (CDS) in the treatment of intractable suffering at the end of life continues to be tied to a number of concerns that have negated its use in palliative care. Part of the resistance towards use of this treatment option of last resort has been the continued association of CDS with physician-associated suicide and/or euthanasia (PAS/E), which is compounded by a lack clinical guidelines and a failure to cite this treatment under the aegis of a palliative care approach. I argue that reinstituting a palliative care-inspired approach that includes a holistic review of the patient's situation and the engagement of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) guided by clearly defined practice requirements that have been lacking amongst many prevailing guidelines will overcome prevailing objections to this practice and allow for the legitimization of this process.

  18. Addressing the Concerns Surrounding Continuous Deep Sedation in Singapore and Southeast Asia: A Palliative Care Approach.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha

    2015-09-01

    The application of continuous deep sedation (CDS) in the treatment of intractable suffering at the end of life continues to be tied to a number of concerns that have negated its use in palliative care. Part of the resistance towards use of this treatment option of last resort has been the continued association of CDS with physician-associated suicide and/or euthanasia (PAS/E), which is compounded by a lack clinical guidelines and a failure to cite this treatment under the aegis of a palliative care approach. I argue that reinstituting a palliative care-inspired approach that includes a holistic review of the patient's situation and the engagement of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) guided by clearly defined practice requirements that have been lacking amongst many prevailing guidelines will overcome prevailing objections to this practice and allow for the legitimization of this process. PMID:26173777

  19. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  20. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. PMID:27084546

  1. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  2. Clinical strategies to address patients' concerns in osteoporosis management with bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Cole, Raymond E

    2011-03-01

    extended-interval bisphosphonates, recent safety concerns with bisphosphonates, and lastly, suggests strategies for improving bisphosphonate adherence and patient outcomes.

  3. Mental health and addiction workforce development: federal leadership is needed to address the growing crisis.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Stuart, Gail W; Morris, John; Flaherty, Michael T; Paris, Manuel; Goplerud, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The mental health and addiction workforce has long been plagued by shortages, high turnover, a lack of diversity, and concerns about its effectiveness. This article presents a framework to guide workforce policy and practice, emphasizing the need to train other health care providers as well as individuals in recovery to address behavioral health needs; strengthen recruitment, retention, and training of specialist behavioral health providers; and improve the financial and technical assistance infrastructure to better support and sustain the workforce. The pressing challenge is to scale up existing plans and strategies and to implement them in ways that have a meaningful impact on the size and effectiveness of the workforce. The aging and increasing diversity of the US population, combined with the expanded access to services that will be created by health reform, make it imperative to take immediate action.

  4. Facilitators, Challenges, and Collaborative Activities in Faith and Health Partnerships to Address Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Hall, Sarah M.; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith--health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured…

  5. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  6. Clustering of excess health concerns for electromagnetic fields among health personnel: A quantitative and qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Gerakopoulou, Patricia; Matsoukis, Ioannis L; Giagkou, Nick; Dessypris, Nick; Cassimos, Dimitrios C; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2015-08-01

    Clustering patterns, among health-care personnel, of excessive concerns pertaining to perceived electromagnetic field-related health impacts, as contrasted to those from other environmental factors, were explored. Knowledge/excessive concerns of 722 health-care personnel were assessed using a 22-item structured questionnaire along with a double-phase qualitative study comprising semistructured interviews and focus groups. Over 75 percent of the participants had high perceived knowledge, whereas accuracy was limited to <20 percent and correctness to 8 percent. An "excessive concern" group was clearly distinguished from a "relaxed attitude" one. Clustering of excessive concerns may derive from personal beliefs, suggesting a risk governance issue for health education policies.

  7. Facilitators, challenges, and collaborative activities in faith and health partnerships to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Hall, Sarah M; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-10-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith-health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and coded by two members of the evaluation team to identify themes. Major facilitators to faith-health collaborative work were passion and commitment, importance of FBOs in communities, favorable political climate, support from community and faith leaders, diversity of teams, and mutual trust and respect. Barriers unique to faith and health collaboration included discomfort with FBOs, distrust of either health agencies or FBOs, diversity within faith communities, different agendas, separation of church and state, and the lack of a common language. Findings suggest that faith-health partnerships face unique challenges but are capable of aligning resources to address health disparities.

  8. Cell phones and health concerns: impact of knowledge and voluntary precautionary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The article explores how voluntary precautionary recommendations for cell phone usage influence people's health concerns and behavior. An experimental study using a sample of Swiss citizens (N=408) was conducted. Three different versions of a newly developed booklet, which focused on common misconceptions in regard to mobile communication, and an existing booklet were tested. The experimental design addressed questions of the potential effects of knowledge, precautionary recommendations, and sender identity on health concerns and transfer of the proposed recommendations. Participants' perceptions were measured three times: immediately before and after reading the booklet, and two weeks later. The reading of the booklets increased participants' knowledge considerably and led to perceptual changes. In regard to cell phones, health concerns increased after the reading and stayed at a higher level even after two weeks. The negative perception of base stations, in contrast, tended to decrease. Neither the identity of the sender nor the omission of precautionary recommendations had significant effects on health concerns. Provision of specific recommendations enhanced readers' behavioral changes. Confrontation with information per se, and not precautionary recommendations, influenced the public's health concerns. These changes should not prevent the provision of precautionary recommendations because, in the face of scientific uncertainty, these are the only means through which to enable users to make informed decisions.

  9. Nutrition knowledge and concerns of health and physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Walberg, J L

    1988-07-01

    The results indicated that most (80%) of the teachers were fairly knowledgeable about the nutrition needs of athletes. However, while many teachers agreed that carbohydrates and fats were the main sources of muscular energy, 35% indicated that protein was the primary source of energy for muscular activity. Also, 12% agreed that the consumption of salt tablets during athletic events prevents muscle cramps. The results suggest nutrition education for HPE teachers is needed. Information provided to HPE teachers should address their three main nutrition concerns, which are a balanced diet for athletes, weight control, and fluid replacement.

  10. Privacy Concerns and Disclosure Behavior in a Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Kelly E.; Burnham, Kaylee E.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    Health care practitioners need complete and accurate information to provide quality care to their patients. However, health information is considered to be highly private. Patients may have concerns about disclosing such information, especially if asked to provide this information using technology. The goal of this study was to investigate how participants’ experience with a technology affect their level of disclosure in a health setting. Specifically, we were interested in understanding how the use of a health database system influences the disclosure of private health information. We asked 12 younger and 12 older adults to interact with a computerized health data entry system and then to rate the completeness and accuracy of their intended disclosures. Results indicate that, for the most part, participants would provide complete and accurate information using such a system. Younger adults were less likely than older adults to intend to disclose sensitive information, suggesting that additional information gathering may be appropriate for younger adults. The importance of providing a reason for the request of each piece of health information is discussed in relation to the setting where information is gathered. PMID:25349550

  11. Addressing Family Smoking in Child Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nicole; Hipple, Bethany; Friebely, Joan; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss strategies for integrating evidence-based tobacco use screening, cessation assistance, and referral to outside services into visits with families in outpatient child health care settings. Methods Presentation of counseling scenarios used in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) training video and commentary. Results Demonstrated strategies include: eliciting information about interest and readiness to quit smoking, respectfully setting an agenda to discuss smoking, tailoring advice and education to the specific circumstances, keeping the dialogue open, prescribing cessation medication, helping the smoker set an action plan for cessation, enrolling the smoker in free telephone counseling through the state quitline, and working with family members to establish a completely smoke-free home and car. Video demonstrations of these techniques are available at www.ceasetobacco.org. Conclusion Child health care clinicians have a unique opportunity to address family smoking and can be most effective by adapting evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling strategies for visits in the pediatric setting. PMID:20448841

  12. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce.

  13. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  14. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Collins, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation’s population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation’s health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity’s impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  15. Coordinated Public Health Initiatives to Address Violence Against Women and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health

  16. Coordinated public health initiatives to address violence against women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Mary Ann; James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health care

  17. Refocusing health care systems to address both individual care and population health.

    PubMed

    Green, L W

    1994-04-01

    Population health depends on a qualitatively different set of investigative methods, decision-making procedures, and assignment of responsibility for action than those applied in the health care systems of Canada today. The focus shifts from a major preoccupation with acute and curative medicine to a greater concern with disease prevention and health promotion, from health outcomes as ends in themselves to quality of life concerns defined not just by the individual but also by the community. To achieve this refocusing, the health care system must decentralize the decision-making processes from provincial to regional and community levels, reorient the medical schools and hospitals from their increasingly global orientation to a greater role in the promotion of health in their own communities, and engage a broader range of disciplines and non-medical groups in partnerships and coalitions for health research and action.

  18. Sexual Health Concerns Among Cancer Survivors: Testing a Novel Information-Need Measure Among Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Sheila A; Foley, Sallie M; Wittmann, Daniela; Jagielski, Christina H; Dunn, Rodney L; Clark, Patricia M; Griggs, Jennifer J; Peterson, Catherine; Leonard, Marcia; An, Lawrence C; Wei, John T; Montie, James E; Janz, Nancy K

    2016-09-01

    While it is recognized that cancer treatment can contribute to problems in sexual function, much less is currently known about the specific sexual health concerns and information needs of cancer survivors. This study tested a new instrument to measure cancer survivors' sexual health concerns and needs for sexual information after cancer treatment. The Information on Sexual Health: Your Needs after Cancer (InSYNC), developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts, is a novel 12-item questionnaire to measure sexual health concerns and information needs of cancer survivors. We tested the measure with a sample of breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 114 cancer survivors (58 breast, 56 prostate) was enrolled. Results of the InSYNC questionnaire showed high levels of sexual concern among cancer survivors. Areas of concern differed by cancer type. Prostate cancer survivors were most concerned about being able to satisfy their partners (57 %) while breast cancer survivors were most concerned with changes in how their bodies worked sexually (46 %). Approximately 35 % of all cancer survivors wanted more information about sexual health. Sexual health concerns and unmet information needs are common among breast and prostate cancer survivors, varying in some aspects by type of cancer. Routine screening for sexual health concerns should be included in comprehensive cancer survivorship care to appropriately address health care needs. The InSYNC questionnaire is one tool that may help clinicians identify concerns facing their patients.

  19. The Question Concerning Narration of Self in Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Botin, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Narration is central, even crucial, when it comes to embracing the whole individual, continuity of care, and responsible (ethical) handling of the technological construction of the self that takes place in health informatics. This paper will deal with the role of narratives in the construction of health informatics platforms and how different voices should have space for speech on these platforms. Theoretically the paper takes an outset in the actant model for narratives by the French-Lithuanian theorist of linguistics and literature A.-J. Greimas and post-phenomenological readings of human-technology interactions. The main assumption is that certain interactions and voices are absent from the construction of health informatics platforms, because regarded as outside the text of computational and medical practice and expertise. This has implications for what concerns meaning and understanding regarding both the actual users (physicians and medical staff) and excluded users (patients and citizens). PMID:26262544

  20. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Methods Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. Results The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. Conclusions The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks. PMID:21658256

  1. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shehla; Bigdeli, Maryam; Aleem, Noureen; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. Methods An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder’s Roundtable. Findings A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. Conclusion Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda. PMID:23717442

  2. Do State Mental Health Plans Address the New Freedom Commission's Goals for Children's Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Sara R.; Roberts, Michael C.; Beals, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The latest initiative to address mental health needs of the nation, including those of children and youth, is the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (NFC). The NFC formulated a benchmark of six goals and related recommendations toward which the U.S. should strive, including the recommendation that each state develop a…

  3. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.; Huguley, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. Images Figure 2 PMID:1495114

  4. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. PMID:1495114

  5. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future.

  6. Free-living amoebae: Health concerns in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are the most likely protozoa implicated in health concerns of the indoor environment. These amoebae can be the source of allergic reactions, eye infections or, on rare occasions, encephalitis. While too large to be effectively aerosolized, free- living amoebae can support the multiplication of pathogens such as Legionella which are easily aerosolized and infectious via the pulmonary route. Traditional detection methods for free-living amoebae are laborious and time consuming. Newer techniques for rapidly detecting and quantitating free-living amoebae such as monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, gene probes, and laser optics have or could be employed. 25 refs.

  7. Credit concerns in the health care industry: real and perceived.

    PubMed

    Doyle, P A

    1986-01-01

    The challenge for State Bond Authorities in 1986 and beyond is to provide health care facilities with access to the capital markets, at the lowest cost and most favorable terms, while preserving the maximum flexibility for future growth. This will most certainly include taxable debt, blended rates (interest rates between tax-exempt and taxable rates), cross guarantees, system financings, and perhaps public offerings and venture capital for certain projects. Credit concerns, real and perceived, will play an integral part in meeting the challenge.

  8. Answering Public Health Concerns Over Japanese Nuclear Disaster | ORAU

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Leeanna; Vasconez, Rachel

    2012-03-08

    When the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant became crippled following Japan's March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, some U.S. citizens became concerned about whether radiation would disperse across the Pacific Ocean. As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prepared to assist in the U.S. response effort, ORAU provided the CDC with onsite, staff support at its Joint Information Center. ORAU also had a lead role in the development and execution of the CDC's first-ever Bridging the Gaps: Public Health and Radiation Emergency Preparedness conference, which took place 10 days after the earthquake and served as a forum for discussing the current state of radiation emergency preparedness.

  9. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps.

  10. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases. PMID:20195435

  11. The Buffalo Model: Shifting the Focus of Clinical Licensure Exams in Dentistry to Address Ethical Concerns Regarding Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Gambacorta, Joseph E; Glick, Michael; Anker, Ashley E; Shampaine, Guy S

    2016-06-01

    Most jurisdictions grant dental licensure to graduating students following successful completion of a clinical exam. Testing agencies, which are independent of dental schools, nevertheless conduct their exams at school facilities. Patient participation in these exams raises ethical concerns regarding such issues as unlicensed providers' performing irreversible procedures with minimal supervision and graduates' limited accessibility to provide follow-up treatment. To address these concerns, a collaborative effort between University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine faculty and testing agency personnel was launched. The aims of this article are to describe the development and implementation of the resulting Buffalo Model, to highlight ethical advantages in its application, and to identify areas of improvement to be addressed in future iterations. With the Buffalo Model, modifications were made to the traditional exam format in order to integrate the exam into the school curriculum, enabling candidates to take it at various points during their fourth year. In addition, after calibration of school faculty members, 98.5% of cases verified by faculty were accepted by the Commission on Dental Competency Assessments for use in the exam. In two cases, restorative treatment completed during the exam did not meet the school's competency standard. This new approach ameliorates ethical concerns associated with clinical licensure exams because treatment is provided only to patients of record within a sequenced treatment plan and timely and appropriate treatment is provided to all patients. The results of this first year of implementation also suggest that calibrated faculty members will not show bias in the selection of lesions or competency evaluations of candidates.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of local health department activities to address mental health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Klassen, Ann C; Kolker, Jennifer; Buehler, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mental health has been recognized as a public health priority for nearly a century. Little is known, however, about what local health departments (LHDs) do to address the mental health needs of the populations they serve. Using data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments - a nationally representative survey of LHDs in the United States (N=505) - we characterized LHDs' engagement in eight mental health activities, factors associated with engagement, and estimated the proportion of the U.S. population residing in jurisdictions where these activities were performed. We used Handler's framework of the measurement of public health systems to select variables and examined associations between LHD characteristics and engagement in mental health activities using bivariate analyses and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. Assessing gaps in access to mental healthcare services (39.3%) and implementing strategies to improve access to mental healthcare services (32.8%) were the most common mental health activities performed. LHDs that provided mental healthcare services were significantly more likely to perform population-based mental illness prevention activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.1; 95% CI: 5.1, 10.0) and engage in policy/advocacy activities to address mental health (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.7, 5.6). Our study suggests that many LHDs are engaged in activities to address mental health, ranging from healthcare services to population-based interventions, and that LHDs that provide healthcare services are more likely than others to perform mental health activities. These findings have implications as LHDs reconsider their roles in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and LHD accreditation. PMID:26582210

  13. Prevalence and correlates of local health department activities to address mental health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Klassen, Ann C; Kolker, Jennifer; Buehler, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mental health has been recognized as a public health priority for nearly a century. Little is known, however, about what local health departments (LHDs) do to address the mental health needs of the populations they serve. Using data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments - a nationally representative survey of LHDs in the United States (N=505) - we characterized LHDs' engagement in eight mental health activities, factors associated with engagement, and estimated the proportion of the U.S. population residing in jurisdictions where these activities were performed. We used Handler's framework of the measurement of public health systems to select variables and examined associations between LHD characteristics and engagement in mental health activities using bivariate analyses and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. Assessing gaps in access to mental healthcare services (39.3%) and implementing strategies to improve access to mental healthcare services (32.8%) were the most common mental health activities performed. LHDs that provided mental healthcare services were significantly more likely to perform population-based mental illness prevention activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.1; 95% CI: 5.1, 10.0) and engage in policy/advocacy activities to address mental health (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.7, 5.6). Our study suggests that many LHDs are engaged in activities to address mental health, ranging from healthcare services to population-based interventions, and that LHDs that provide healthcare services are more likely than others to perform mental health activities. These findings have implications as LHDs reconsider their roles in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and LHD accreditation.

  14. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  15. Public health's promise for the future: 1989 Presidential address

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, I.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Public health's promise for the future is inextricably related to efforts which maximize human potential and which realize the world's interdependence. Public health challenges are not only constant and complex but frequently surrounded by political activities. In this environment, the public health enterprise has been enhanced by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences' report on The Future of Public Health and the assessment framework it provides. Risk reduction through preventive and health promotion activities is the primary focus of public health, but facilitation is often dependent upon society's understanding and willingness-to-pay for such services. The effectiveness of public health is related to an ability to coordinate public and private efforts at national, state, and local levels. Also in this environment, public health is empowered through its multidisciplinary approach. However, epidemiology provides a unifying framework for the collective public health effort. Based on the use of epidemiology, public health is empowered to make the argument for a national health program and to support the concept of health as a determinant of life options. Public health's promise for the future can be fulfilled by continuing to increase its scientific base for decision-making, by self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting social justice and by promoting firm partnerships with the public.

  16. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... other interested parties assessing quality of health information or planning changes in how health plan... services (e.g., risks and benefits of the service, explanation of screening results); (b) health problems/concerns (e.g., information on how to stay healthy or prevent illness); (c) treatment choices,...

  17. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  18. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  19. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  20. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care. PMID:26911654

  1. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  2. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  3. Health concerns and management of select veterinary drug residues.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Ronald E; Dedonder, Keith; Kissell, Lindsey; Mzyk, Danielle; Marmulak, Tara; Smith, Geof; Tell, Lisa; Gehring, Ronette; Davis, Jennifer; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to review the potential adverse health effects in humans if exposed to residues of selected veterinary drugs used in food-producing animals. Our other objectives are to briefly inform the reader of why many of these drugs are or were approved for use in livestock production and how drug residues can be mitigated for these drugs. The selected drugs include several antimicrobials, beta agonists, and phenylbutazone. The antimicrobials continue to be of regulatory concern not only because of their acute adverse effects but also because their use as growth promoters have been linked to antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, nitroimidazoles and arsenicals are no longer approved for use in food animals in most jurisdictions. In recent years, the risk assessment and risk management of beta agonists, have been the focus of national and international agencies and this manuscript attempts to review the pharmacology of these drugs and regulatory challenges. Several of the drugs selected for this review can cause noncancer effects (e.g., penicillins) and others are potential carcinogens (e.g., nitroimidazoles). This review also focuses on how regulatory and independent organizations manage the risk of these veterinary drugs based on data from human health risk assessments.

  4. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston John

    2010-12-01

    Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products. As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians.

  5. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

  6. Addressing Parental Mental Health Within Interventions for Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary C.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Untreated parent mental health problems have deleterious effects upon the family, yet caregivers are unlikely to receive services for their emotional health. We conducted a review of treatments and services for children and adolescents that also offered services to parents. Methods Child treatment and service studies were included in the present study if they analyzed parent symptoms or diagnoses over time, and the intervention contained a parent component. Results Of 200 studies reviewed, 20 contained a component for the parent and assessed the parent’s emotional health at multiple time points. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly studied parental mental health problem; most parent components consisted of behavioral strategies in service of the child’s psychological health. Conclusion Major shifts in health care policy affecting mental health services provide an opportunity to create integrated and coordinated health and behavioral health systems. Attention must be given to ensure that the workforce of providers, the administrative structures, and the reimbursement strategies are strengthened and connected to serve the needs of parents/caregivers and children in order to enhance family outcomes. PMID:26527857

  7. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  8. Ideological and organizational components of differing public health strategies for addressing the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Brassolotto, Julia; Baldeo, Navindra

    2015-12-01

    Despite a history of conceptual contributions to reducing health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health (SDH), Canadian governmental authorities have struggled to put these concepts into action. Ontario's-Canada's most populous province-public health scene shows a similar pattern. In statements and reports, governmental ministries, professional associations and local public health units (PHUs) recognize the importance of these issues, yet there has been varying implementation of these concepts into public health activity. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the key features responsible for differences in SDH-related activities among local PHUs. We interviewed Medical Officers of Health (MOH) and key staff members from nine local PHUs in Ontario varying in SDH activity as to their understandings of the SDH, public health's role in addressing the SDH, and their units' SDH-related activities. We also reviewed their unit's documents and their organizational structures in relation to acting on the SDH. Three clusters of PHUs are identified based on their SDH-related activities: service-delivery-oriented; intersectoral and community-based; and public policy/public education-focused. The two key factors that differentiate PHUs are specific ideological commitments held by MOHs and staff and the organizational structures established to carry out SDH-related activities. The ideological commitments and the organizational structures of the most active PHUs showed congruence with frameworks adopted by national jurisdictions known for addressing health inequalities. These include a structural analysis of the SDH and a centralized organizational structure that coordinates SDH-related activities.

  9. Wind vs. Biofuels: Addressing Climate, Health and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Mark Jacobson

    2007-01-29

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  10. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2007-01-29

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  11. Addressing Parental Mental Health within Interventions for Children: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acri, Mary C.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Untreated parent mental health problems have deleterious effects upon the family, yet caregivers are unlikely to receive services for their emotional health. We conducted a review of treatments and services for children and adolescents that also offered services to parents. Methods: Child treatment and service studies were included in the…

  12. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  13. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    PubMed

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  14. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    PubMed

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  15. A Health Connection. Helping Physical Educators Address Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Janz, Kathleen F.

    1985-01-01

    In response to concern about the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, several departments of the University of Iowa collaborated to design and implement an inservice training program for dance and physical educators, coaches and athletic trainers. The rationale, planning, program content, and implications of the eating disorders project are…

  16. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  17. Jails as important but constrained venues for addressing women's health.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cummins, A Gaye; Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Carvajal, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Women in US jails have many social and health risks that merit attention from public health agencies. This article: (1) reviews national and local data on this population for indicators of social disadvantage and of several health risks/conditions (substance abuse, risky sex, and mental illness), (2) describes the impact of federal mandatory sentencing for drug violations and recent developments in states on the numbers of incarcerated women, (3) outlines the similarities and differences between jails and prisons, focusing on characteristics of jails that facilitate and constrain intervention and evaluation activities, and (4) adds lessons learned in six years of experience in county and state jails in Texas. PMID:12802121

  18. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  19. Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric PAHs in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno

    2014-12-01

    Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of PAHs. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of PAH levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 PAHs studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.

  20. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    PubMed

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains.

  1. Parent Concern and Enrollment in Intervention Services for Young Children with Developmental Delays: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer; Kirby, Russell S.; Gorski, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to address underenrollment and late entry to early intervention by identifying factors associated with parental concern and services for developmental delays. The authors analyzed responses from 27,566 parents of children from birth to age 5 from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to quantify and to identify factors…

  2. Mental health concerns of gay and bisexual men seeking mental health services.

    PubMed

    Berg, Michael B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    Little data exist about the mental health needs of gay and bisexual men. This is due to limitations of existing studies such as small and nonrepresentative samples, failure to assess sexual orientation, and concerns about stigmatization, possibly causing sexual minority individuals to be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation to researchers. Fenway Community Health is a large urban health center that serves the LGBT community. The large number of gay and bisexual men who present for mental health treatment allows for a unique opportunity to gain insight into mental health, prevention, and intervention needs for this group. The current study is a review of the mental health information from all of the gay and bisexual men who reported that they were HIV-negative during their mental health intake over a six-month period at Fenway Community Health (January to June 2000; N = 92). The most frequent presenting problems were depression, anxiety, and relationship issues. Additionally, presenting problems included current or past abuse, substance abuse, finance and employment, recent loss, and family issues. The most frequent diagnoses were depression, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorders. These findings support the notion that presenting problems and mental health concerns among gay and bisexual men are similar to those frequently reported by individuals in other mental health facilities, however, specific psychosocial stressors are unique to this population. PMID:18825866

  3. 42 CFR 457.805 - State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans. 457.805 Section 457.805 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  4. Health Education: Addressing the Asian-American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Annann; Hong, Luoluo

    This paper examines the health status of Asian Americans. In introductory sections, the paper looks at: patterns of Asian immigration, myths surrounding Asian Americans as a "model minority," such as the false notion that Asian Americans as a group are always academic and economic achievers despite their minority status; institutional, cultural,…

  5. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  6. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  7. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  8. Sex and gender matter in health research: addressing health inequities in health research reporting.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Gray, Kimberly; Whynacht, Ardath

    2015-01-01

    Attention to the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' is increasingly being recognized as contributing to better science through an augmented understanding of how these factors impact on health inequities and related health outcomes. However, the ongoing lack of conceptual clarity in how sex and gender constructs are used in both the design and reporting of health research studies remains problematic. Conceptual clarity among members of the health research community is central to ensuring the appropriate use of these concepts in a manner that can advance our understanding of the sex- and gender-based health implications of our research findings. During the past twenty-five years much progress has been made in reducing both sex and gender disparities in clinical research and, to a significant albeit lesser extent, in basic science research. Why, then, does there remain a lack of uptake of sex- and gender-specific reporting of health research findings in many health research journals? This question, we argue, has significant health equity implications across all pillars of health research, from biomedical and clinical research, through to health systems and population health.

  9. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894

  10. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  11. Manganese--a public health concern: its relevance for occupational health and safety policy and regulation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hermanus, M A

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about the effects of low-level manganese exposures on human health arise at a time when South Africa finds itself in competition with newcomers to the market economy, China and the CIS. This case study illustrates how decisions about occupational health and safety and the environment are influenced by incompleteness of scientific knowledge, competing interests, differences over what is fair or just, and the compartmentalization of public policy. In addition, an assessment is made of the ability of the occupational health and safety system in South Africa in its current form to address the challenges posed by manganese-related issues. The importance of tracking developments abroad, strengthening participatory processes, developing national policy, linking economic policy and OHS policy, and establishing appropriate trade agreements is stressed.

  12. Addressing racial inequities in health care: civil rights monitoring and report cards.

    PubMed

    Smith, D B

    1998-02-01

    Large racial inequities in health care use continue to be reported, raising concerns about discrimination. Historically, the health system, with its professionally dominated, autonomous, voluntary organizational structure, has presented special challenges to civil rights efforts. De jure racial segregation in the United States gave way to a period of aggressive litigation and enforcement from 1954 until 1968 and then to the current period of relative inactivity. A combination of factors--declining federal resources and organizational capacity to address more subtle forms of discriminatory practices in health care settings, increasingly restrictive interpretations by the courts, and the lack of any systematic mechanisms for the statistical monitoring of providers--offers little assurance that discrimination does not continue to play a role in accounting for discrepancies in use. The current rapid transformation of health care into integrated delivery systems driven by risk-based financing presents both new opportunities and new threats. Adequate regulation, markets, and management for such systems impose new requirements for comparative systematic statistical assessment of performance. My conclusion illustrates ways that current "report card" approaches to monitoring performance of such systems could be used to monitor, correct, and build trust in equitable treatment.

  13. The challenge of effectively addressing tobacco control within a health promoting NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J; Sengupta, S; Cleary, H

    2001-12-15

    As part of its participation in the international network of health promoting hospitals (HPH), South Tyneside Health Care NHS Trust has initiated a series of sub-projects that are informed by the contemporary evidence-base and the principles of the HPH programme. This paper concerns the first of these sub-projects, whose aim is to establish an equitable and effective Trust-wide system to address smoking in South Tyneside. The ambition is to build a framework for, and foster a culture within which, individuals will be treated considerately, whilst managing "unhealthy" behaviour in such a way as to have a long-term positive impact within the organisation and the surrounding community. This paper will briefly outline the key activities underway, and the manner in which it is hoped this approach to undertaking a HPH sub-project will contribute to sustainable local health improvement, while also supporting the Trust's broader transformation into a truly health promoting organisation. PMID:11755769

  14. SHAPING A NEW GENERATION OF HISPANIC CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHERS ADDRESSING MINORITY HEALTH AND HEALTH DISPARITIES

    PubMed Central

    Estape, Estela S.; Segarra, Barbara; Baez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Diaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities. PMID:22263296

  15. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of the Namibian health service

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Willy; Awases, Magda

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper addresses an important practical challenge to staff management. In 2000 the United Nations committed themselves to the ambitious targets embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Only five years later, it was clear that poor countries were not on track to achieve them. It was also clear that achieving the three out of the eight MDGs that concern health would only be possible if the appropriate human resources (HR) were in place. Methods We use a case study based on semi-structured interview data to explore the steps that Namibia, a country facing severe health problems that include an alarmingly high AIDS infection rate, has taken to manage its health workers. Results In the fifteen years since independence, Namibia has patiently built up a relatively good strategic framework for health policy in the context of government policy as a whole, including strong training arrangements at every level of health staffing, and it has brought HIV/AIDS under the strategic umbrella through its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS. Its major weakness is that it has not kept pace with the rise in HIV/AIDS and TB infection: the community counselling service, still at the pilot stage at the time of this study, was the only specific response. That has created a tension between building long-term capacity in a strategic context and responding to the short-term demands of the AIDS and TB crisis, which in turn affects the ability of HR to contribute to improving health outcomes. Conclusion It is suggested that countries like Namibia need a new paradigm for staffing their health services. Building on the existing strategic framework, it should target the training of 'mid-level cadres'. Higher-level cadres should take on the role of supporting and monitoring the mid-level cadres. To do that, they will need management training and a performance management framework for staff support and monitoring. PMID:17224048

  16. Addressing poor nutrition to promote heart health: Moving upstream

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Kim D

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating – it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action. PMID:20847988

  17. Addressing poor nutrition to promote heart health: moving upstream.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating - it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action.

  18. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Kelly, Janet J.; Friborg, Jeppe; Soininen, Leena; Wong, Kai O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer. PMID:26765259

  19. Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste: An Emerging Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Huo, Xia; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electronic waste (e-waste) has been an emerging environmental health issue in both developed and developing countries, but its current management practice may result in unintended developmental neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations. To provide updated information about the scope of the issue, presence of known and suspected neurotoxicants, toxicologic mechanisms, and current data gaps, we conducted this literature review. Data sources We reviewed original articles and review papers in PubMed and Web of Science regarding e-waste toxicants and their potential developmental neurotoxicity. We also searched published reports of intergovernmental and governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations on e-waste production and management practice. Data extraction We focused on the potential exposure to e-waste toxicants in vulnerable populations—that is, pregnant women and developing children—and neurodevelopmental outcomes. In addition, we summarize experimental evidence of developmental neurotoxicity and mechanisms. Data synthesis In developing countries where most informal and primitive e-waste recycling occurs, environmental exposure to lead, cadmium, chromium, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prevalent at high concentrations in pregnant women and young children. Developmental neurotoxicity is a serious concern in these regions, but human studies of adverse effects and potential mechanisms are scarce. The unprecedented mixture of exposure to heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants warrants further studies and necessitates effective pollution control measures. Conclusions Pregnant women and young children living close to informal e-waste recycling sites are at risk of possible perturbations of fetus and child neurodevelopment. PMID:21081302

  20. The drugs stop here: a public health framework to address the drug shortage crisis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sharona

    2012-01-01

    Drug shortages are emerging as a major public health threat. Grave concern has been expressed by the medical community and government officials, and the crisis has been highlighted in recent media stories. Nevertheless, little has been written to date in the legal literature about the drug shortage crisis, and this timely article begins to fill this gap. It provides a thorough analysis of the origins and implications of the drug shortage problem and formulates a multi-layered approach to addressing it. The article argues that drug shortages result from a combination of market failures and regulatory constraints. It proposes a blend of legislative, regulatory, and private-sector interventions that should deter undesirable conduct on the part of manufacturers and provide appropriate incentives to combat the drug shortage phenomenon.

  1. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-10-15

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.

  2. Addressing mental health needs of infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, L C

    1999-04-01

    Work with infants and young children is a subspecialty of child psychiatry. Special areas of expertise and clinical skills are required for work in this area and even traditional areas of clinical skills--evaluating mental and developmental competency, collaborations with other professionals, synthesizing information for parents--have an added valence when applied to work with very young children. Furthermore, in the last three decades, there has been a remarkable increase in knowledge about the first years of life. Most recently, understanding about early brain development and the complex interactions among biology, environment, and experience in shaping early development has highlighted the critical nature of psychological interventions in the first years of life. Providing mental health services for very young children requires a multidisciplinary approach, and the field has evolved simultaneously in the disciplines of child psychiatry, pediatrics, psychology, social work, neurology, early childhood education, and nursing. With that range of theoretic and professional background, the resulting evaluative approaches and services are also quite diverse. The agenda for the next decade of work is to bring together these multiple viewpoints around critical areas for the development of the field, including improved diagnostic nosology, a better understanding of the number of young children needing services, pathways for accessing those services, and more explicit descriptions of the important features of a mental health intervention for very young children and their families. PMID:10202586

  3. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  4. Imprisonment and women’s health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance. Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women’s human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children. National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity. PMID:21897490

  5. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  6. Improving Access to Essential Medicines: How Health Concerns can be Prioritised in the Global Governance System

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Devi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the politics of access to essential medicines and identifies ‘space’ in the current system where health concerns can be strengthened relative to trade. This issue is addressed from a global governance perspective focusing on the main actors who can have the greatest impact. These include developing country coalitions and citizens in developed countries though participation in civil society organisations. These actors have combined forces to tackle this issue successfully, resulting in the 2001 Doha Declaration on Public Health. The collaboration has been so powerful due to the assistance of the media as well as the decision to compromise with pharmaceutical companies and their host countries. To improve access to essential medicines, six C's are needed: coalitions, civil society, citizenship, compromise, communication and collaboration. PMID:19461853

  7. Major concerns regarding lung injury and related health conditions caused by the use of humidifier disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A total of 221 patients were evaluated to be humidifier disinfectant associated with lung injury (HDLI) through two rounds of programs through April 2015. The humidifier disinfectant (HD) brands most often associated with HDLI were found to be Oxy (n=151, 68 %) and Cefu (n=26, 17 %). Polyhexamethylene guanidine used for disinfectant for four types of HD brands including Oxy was found to be associated with the highest number of HDLI cases (n=188). Further programs are operating to identify various health effects including lung injury which may be associated with the use of HD. Not only national agencies, but also pertinent environmental health societies should cooperate in the necessary investigations so that this tragedy can be properly addressed and future incidents concerning chemicals and chemical-containing products can be prevented. PMID:27431912

  8. In silico approaches to explore toxicity end points: issues and concerns for estimating human health effects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Edwin J; Contrera, Joseph F

    2007-02-01

    The European Chemicals Bureau and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development are currently compiling a sanctioned list of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) risk assessment models and data sets to predict the physiological properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and human health effects of new and existing chemicals in commerce in the European Union. This action implements the technical requirements of the European Commission's Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals legislation. The goal is to identify a battery of QSARs that can furnish rapid, reliable and cost-effective decision support information for regulatory decisions that can substitute for results from animal studies. This report discusses issues and concerns that need to be addressed when selecting QSARs to predict human health effect end points. PMID:17269899

  9. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  10. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data. PMID:25954370

  11. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps.

    PubMed

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  12. Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gouthro, Trina Johnena

    2009-11-01

    Negative and stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental health nursing discredit the valuable contributions of mental health nurses, but more importantly, these beliefs discredit the needs of people who access mental health care. The stigma associated with mental health nursing, however, has received little attention in the literature. In this article, the author explores the stigma associated with mental health nursing from a critical lens. Recommendations are proposed to address the stigma associated with mental health nursing and mental illness, concurrently, within nursing education.

  13. Collective efficacy and the regulatory framing of health messages: influences on concern for body image.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Young, Elizabeth A; Magee, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    A collective efficacy scale is presented and used in 2 experiments that tested the effects of collective efficacy and regulatory framing on concern for body image. In Study 1 (N = 73), participants viewed online video messages from a health campaign that varied in their regulatory frame (promotion vs. prevention), after which they expressed the likelihood that they would discuss it with someone else. In Study 2, participants (N = 307) viewed either a regulatory-framed message or no message, after which they expressed their concern for the issue and their behavioral intentions. Study 2 also introduced moderating variables and addressed potential alternate explanations. Overall, participants who were higher in collective efficacy indicated greater concern for the issue of body image and expressed a greater likelihood to discuss the issue. The messages' regulatory frame also moderated the effect of collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was a stronger predictor in the prevention condition than in the promotion condition, presumably because the promotion frame was more effective in increasing participants' concern and intentions regardless of their sense of collective efficacy. PMID:24377398

  14. Prospective care of elderly patients in family practice. Part 3: Prevalence of unrecognized treatable health concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, W. I.; Browne, G.; Roberts, J.; Jamieson, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of recognized and unrecognized health concerns and risks in an elderly population. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey. SETTING: Institutional primary care practice in a small southern Ontario city. PATIENTS: Volunteer sample of all patients older than 65 years (N = 1385) who were registered with the practice; were not demented, unstable, or residing in institutions at the time of contact; consented to participate; and completed a questionnaire (n = 674). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health concerns and health risks, including compliance with periodic health examinations; patient-generated concerns; and medical, lifestyle, and psychosocial issues. RESULTS: Most (92%) patients had at least one health concern or risk; 83% of these had one or more unreported or unrecognized health concerns or risks. The proportion with at least one concern or risk did not differ by sex or by age group. Many but not all complied with periodic health examinations. Loneliness was a meaningful psychosocial problem. Many patients had unreported medical concerns; the proportion rose slightly with age. Seniors with more concerns visited more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Although most seniors had health concerns or risks, on average, each patient had only one or two concerns. These concerns are not concentrated in any particular area. Although non-attenders have fewer concerns, many have risk factors for diseases likely to progress without preventive measures, such as influenza vaccine and screening procedures for hypertension and breast, cervical, and prostate cancer. PMID:8829580

  15. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  16. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  17. The Role of Health Education in Addressing Uncertainty about Health and Cell Phone Use--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Dundulis, William P., Jr.; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haseeb, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Although the fundamental principles of health education remain unchanged, the practice of health education continues to evolve in response to the rapidly changing lifestyles and technological advances. Emerging health risks are often associated with these lifestyle changes. The purpose of this article is to address the role of health educators…

  18. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  19. Local Health Departments’ Activities to Address Health Disparities and Inequities: Are We Moving in the Right Direction?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Sheahan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health disparities are among the critical public health challenges. Objectives: To analyze the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) perform activities for addressing health disparities, changes in proportion of LHDs’ performing those activities since 2005, and factors associated with variation in such engagement. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs Survey to perform Logistic Regression of activities LHDs performed to address health disparities. Results: About 20 percent of LHDs did not perform any activity to address health disparities. Significant decreases occurred since 2005 in the proportion of LHDs that performed health disparity reduction/elimination activities for four activities. LHD characteristics significantly associated (p≤0.05) with the increased likelihood of performing activities to address health disparities were: recent completion of community health assessment, community health improvement plan and agency wide strategic plan. Other significant positive impacts on such activities included per capita expenditures, local governance, having one or more local boards of health, larger population size and metropolitan status of the LHD jurisdiction. Conclusions: Reduced infrastructural capacity of LHDs has resulted in fewer LHDs addressing health disparities in their jurisdictions. LHD characteristics associated with higher performance of activities for health disparity reduction identified by this research have important policy implications. PMID:26703693

  20. Presidential address 1996: “Dear ministers of health....”

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bryce R.

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Association of General Surgeons, representing community and academic general surgeons throughout Canada, is concerned about the widespread effects of health care restructuring on clinical care, education and research. The general surgeon remains one of the critical members of the health care team and should have an adequate voice in ongoing discussions regarding health care reform. PMID:9126122

  1. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  2. Climate change and health: Why should India be concerned?

    PubMed

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-04-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows that climate change presents growing threats to public health security - from extreme weather-related disasters to wider spread of such vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue. The impacts of climate on human health will not be evenly distributed around the world. The Third Assessment Report (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-2001) concluded that vulnerability to climate change is a function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Developing country populations, particularly in small island states, arid and high mountain zones, and in densely populated coastal areas are considered to be particularly vulnerable. India is a large developing country, with the Great Himalayas, the world's third largest ice mass in the north, 7500 km long, and densely populated coast line in the south. Nearly 700 million of her over one billion population living in rural areas directly depends on climate-sensitive sectors (agriculture, forests, and fisheries) and natural resources (such as water, biodiversity, mangroves, coastal zones, grasslands) for their subsistence and livelihoods. Heat wave, floods (land and coastal), and draughts occur commonly. Malaria, malnutrition, and diarrhea are major public health problems. Any further increase, as projected in weather-related disasters and related health effects, may cripple the already inadequate public health infrastructure in the country. Hence, there is an urgent need to respond to the situation. Response options to protect health from effects of climate change include mitigation as well as adaptation. Both can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change.

  3. Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals: a public health concern on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam; Wong, Hui San; Turnidge, John; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J

    2014-05-01

    Clinical infections attributed to carbapenemase-producing bacteria are a pressing public health concern owing to limited therapeutic options and linked antimicrobial resistance. In recent years, studies have reported the emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their public health impact. This has been closely followed by the global dissemination of highly resistant and virulent zooanthroponotic extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) ST131 clones. It has also been hypothesized that companion animals may act as a reservoir for Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens in the community. Two recent reports have documented the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals. This phenomenon is of great concern because of the close contact between humans and their pets, and the potential for cross-species transmission. This scenario suggests a role for multifaceted control of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant infections in companion animals. This short article addresses this issue and identifies steps that could facilitate this process.

  4. Children's Mental Health as a Primary Care and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the serious crisis in mental health care for children in the United States, this article proposes as a priority for psychology a comprehensive approach that treats mental health as a primary issue in child health and welfare. Consistent with the principles of a system of care and applying epidemiological, risk-development, and intervention-research findings, this approach emphasizes 4 components: easy access to effective professional clinical services for children exhibiting disorders; further development and application of sound prevention principles for high-risk youths; support for and access to short-term intervention in primary care settings; and greater recognition and promotion of mental health issues in common developmental settings and other influential systems. Integral to this approach is the need to implement these components simultaneously and to incorporate family-focused, culturally competent, evidence-based, and developmentally appropriate services. This comprehensive, simultaneous, and integrated approach is needed to achieve real progress in children's mental health in this country. PMID:16173893

  5. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. Aim The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. Results The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. Conclusion PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for. PMID:27134901

  6. Obesity Epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Denise R.T.W.; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called “Ley de Obesidad.” In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but still not a comprehensive law. National policies relating to decisions regarding obesity are discussed in this paper. Trends in decisions issued in higher courts of Argentina (Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation—CSJN) and Brazil (Supreme Court of Justice—STF), in the last 15 years, seek to clarify the approach of each country and court's resolutions. Marked differences were found in their positions. Finally, legal and health solutions to this obesity epidemic are proposed. PMID:25076669

  7. Obesity epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Alberto K; Rocha, Denise R T W; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S

    2014-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called "Ley de Obesidad." In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but still not a comprehensive law. National policies relating to decisions regarding obesity are discussed in this paper. Trends in decisions issued in higher courts of Argentina (Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation--CSJN) and Brazil (Supreme Court of Justice--STF), in the last 15 years, seek to clarify the approach of each country and court's resolutions. Marked differences were found in their positions. Finally, legal and health solutions to this obesity epidemic are proposed. PMID:25076669

  8. Self-identified health concerns of two homeless groups.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, D

    1991-04-01

    A number of conclusions can be drawn from the themes derived from the interview data. First, even though the most basic physical needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter were being met, a recurring theme from the responses of the homeless was the need for interaction with a caring person. The feeling that no one cares, a lack of self-worth, and a sense of limited control over their lives may lead to depression, hopelessness, and finally illness. The extent and effectiveness of health-seeking behaviors among this group are limited because of decreased trust, decreased motivation for self-care, and isolation from social and health care systems. Second, if health needs are to be met, services must be provided in sites where they can be accessed by the homeless. For transients, health care services may be provided most effectively through the shelters. For the SRO residents, these services could be provided through a combination of clinics in hotel lobbies and visits to rooms. Third, developing trust with the homeless includes meeting their self-perceived basic needs. What may seem like nonnursing activities, such as fixing a meal, may be important in establishing rapport with SRO residents. If a nurse assists a homeless person to meet survival needs, that person may be more willing to deal with health issues. Fourth, the population is highly heterogeneous. Each subgroup has its own identity. Most SRO residents do not want to be identified with street people, even through a portion of them move between street life and SRO life. Health care professionals need to recognize these differences, accept the life-style of each subgroup, and respect each homeless person as a unique individual. Finally, caring is the primary element necessary in providing nursing services to the homeless. Awareness and understanding of the homeless way of life will increase nurses' effectiveness in working with this ever growing population. PMID:2048311

  9. Use of Ifa as a Means of Addressing Mental Health Concerns among African American Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojelade, Ifetayo I.; McCray, Kenja; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

    2011-01-01

    African Americans underuse counseling services because of factors such as cultural mistrust, stigma, and culturally incongruent treatment interventions. As a result, this population relies on informal healing networks. The foundations of these networks have been outlined within the professional literature. However, limited attention has been given…

  10. The Method of Shared Concern as an Intervention Technique to Address Bullying in Schools: An Overview and Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines and appraises the method of shared concern as developed by Anatol Pikas and applied as a technique for resolving bully-victim problems in schools. It includes a description of how the method can be applied in schools, and critically examines some objections that have been raised to its use. These objections are shown to be…

  11. Policy Framework for Addressing Personal Security Issues Concerning Women and Girls. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document presents a policy framework for improving the personal security of women and girls. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Policy Background" (the concept of personal security, the societal context of women's personal security, consequences of violence for women and girls, long-term policy concern, and building an integrated…

  12. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Address Public Health Disparities: An Analysis of the SPHPS

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A.; Bell, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities. PMID:23569644

  13. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Address Public Health Disparities: An Analysis of the SPHPS.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A; Bell, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities.

  14. Israel's National Health Insurance Law: expectations and concerns.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, D

    1995-10-01

    An historical overview of the Israeli health care system is followed by detailed discussion of recent reforms mandated by the government to control rising yearly expenditures. The author examines the advantages and disadvantages of the reforms, concluding that they are only a first step toward long-term success.

  15. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  16. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Marczylo, Emma L.; Jacobs, Miriam N.; Gant, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection. PMID:27278298

  17. POPULATION MONITORING FOR ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH CONCERNS USING BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Exposure to environmental toxic substances is a significant cause of human health problems. In the modern world, exposure to small amount of these substances, either natural or man-made, is often unavoidable. The critical question to ask is, at what concentrations...

  18. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  19. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  20. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  1. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  2. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  3. [Health policy and legislation concerning traditional indigenous medicine in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Page, J T

    1995-01-01

    Various Mexican federal and state government agencies dealing with indigenous affairs are trying to establish control over traditional medicine and by recognizing it achieve cost decreases for health care directed towards Indian groups, bolstering it as a first-care level. The result is that the community absorbs the costs of medical care, leading to a reduction in the number of patients seeking government-run health care services. Traditional indigenous healers and their organizations consider the law a two-edged sword. On the one hand it provides them with legal measures for their protection, but on the other, they perceive it as a dangerous threat to their culture and practices. This has led them to seek legal advice, training, and active participation in the drafting process for such legislation. The result of this project is that they have been able to learn about the law, discuss their demands, and work out a proposal which is included in this document.

  4. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  5. Cannabis Smoking in 2015: A Concern for Lung Health?

    PubMed

    Biehl, Jason R; Burnham, Ellen L

    2015-09-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  6. Cannabis Smoking in 2015: A Concern for Lung Health?

    PubMed

    Biehl, Jason R; Burnham, Ellen L

    2015-09-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation.

  7. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  8. Teaching and addressing health disparities through the family medicine social and community context of care project.

    PubMed

    White, Jordan; Heney, Jessica; Esquibel, Angela Y; Dimock, Camia; Goldman, Roberta; Anthony, David

    2014-09-01

    By training future physicians to care for patients with backgrounds different from their own, medical schools can help reduce health disparities. To address the need for education in this area, the leaders of the Family Medicine Clerkship at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University developed the Social and Community Context of Care project, required of all medical students rotating through this clerkship. Students develop a hypothetical intervention addressing a health issue seen at their preceptor site, and are assessed on their grasp of the social and contextual issues affecting that health issue in their particular community. Some interventions are actualized in later clerkships or independent study projects; one example, a health class for pregnant and parenting teens at Central Falls High School, is described here. If made a routine part of medical education, projects such as these may help medical students address the health disparities they will encounter in future practice.

  9. Malnutrition in Mali: a major concern for child health.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article presents summary findings on child health from the 1995-96 Demographic and Health Survey in Mali. Mali had a very high proportion of children that were wasted. Feeding practices and food shortages account for the malnutrition. 23% of children aged under 3 years were wasted, or were too thin for their height. Wasting is a result of nutritional deficits and/or acute illness, especially diarrhea. Wasting occurs among children of all socioeconomic levels. 12% of infants aged under 4 months were exclusively breast-fed. Mali mothers introduce other liquids at very early ages. Early feeding increases a child's exposure to infectious agents, which may lead to diseases such as diarrhea. The World Health Organization recommends that children be breast-fed exclusively for the first 4 months of life and that solid foods be introduced at 6 months. In Mali, almost 40% of infants aged 7-9 months still had not received solid foods. At 12-13 months, 15% of infants were still not receiving solid foods. Child mortality had improved and stood at 238 deaths/1000, a decline of 30% since 1987. Infant mortality had declined to 123 deaths/1000, a decline of 22%. Although child mortality had improved, the number of malnourished children had increased. An estimated 57% of deaths among children was related to malnutrition. Malnutrition-related child mortality was 136 deaths/1000. Fertility decline was small. Fertility was 6.7 children/woman in 1996. High fertility is attributed to early marriage and early childbearing, limited contraceptive use, and short birth intervals. 50% of women aged under 16 years were married or sexually active. 49% of women aged 15-19 years in rural areas had experienced a pregnancy. 5% of women in a union used modern contraception. 26% of births followed short birth intervals.

  10. Confidentiality concerns with mapping survey data in reproductive health research.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Jill E; Fetters, Tamara L

    2007-12-01

    The increasing availability of georeferenced datasets creates new opportunities to perform spatial analysis of social science and public health survey data, but also raises ethical issues regarding the potential for unintended violation of the confidentiality of respondents. This article examines these ethical challenges by reflecting on the experience of a study mapping the facilities that provide abortion-related services in Cambodia. The technique of masking is examined as a potential method for preventing reidentification of respondents in georeferenced surveys. Broader solutions are offered for ways to balance the potentially conflicting goals of spatial analysis and protection of confidentiality.

  11. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Maria; Bisoffi, Federico; Navaza, Barbara; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities. Methods We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012—March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain). We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants’ insights. Findings The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations’ health. Conclusion Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers’ emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants

  12. The Relationship between Radon Knowledge, Concern and Behavior, and Health Values, Health Locus of Control and Preventive Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Cassondra Jeanne

    1991-01-01

    A survey returned by 300 homeowners (50 percent) in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations found that, although 64 percent were concerned, only 7 percent tested their homes. Findings indicate the need for more education about radon and its health effects. (JOW)

  13. [Diabetes mellitus: from clinical knowledge to public health concern].

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. It remains associated with a high risk of severe complications, essentially micro- and macro-vascular complications. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-secreting B cells and therefore requires an intensive optimised exogenous insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease whose expression is favoured by inadequate lifestyle, leading to obesity. It combines a relative insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance, the latter being associated with various other cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment consists of lifestyle modifications first, then the prescription of various glucose-lowering oral drugs and finally, when requested, insulin therapy. A multi-risk intervention is mandatory to improve the cardiovascular prognosis. The prevention of diabetes and its complications is a major public health objective.

  14. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Pollution and Neurodevelopment: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  16. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  17. Everyone Swims: A Community Partnership and Policy Approach to Address Health Disparities in Drowning and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempski, Sarah; Liu, Lenna; Grow, H. Mollie; Pomietto, Maureen; Chung, Celeste; Shumann, Amy; Bennett, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Well-known disparities exist in rates of obesity and drowning, two public health priorities. Addressing these disparities by increasing access to safe swimming and water recreation may yield benefits for both obesity and injury prevention. "Everyone Swims," a community partnership, brought community health clinics and water recreation…

  18. Strategies for Addressing Asthma within a Coordinated School Health Program, with Updated Resources. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication offers concrete suggestions for schools working to improve the health and school attendance of students with asthma. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified six strategies for schools and districts to consider when addressing asthma within a coordinated school health program. The six strategies detailed…

  19. Recommendations for the School Health Nurse in Addressing HIV/AIDS with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uris, Patricia

    The school is a defined setting where health issues can be addressed. School nurses providing health care to adolescents who are infected or affected by HIV/AIDS need strong policies and good training to make their efforts effective. the goal of these recommendations is to strengthen adolescent HIV programs in schools and to improve standards of…

  20. Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in Hispanic Communities. National Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mike; Heroux, Janet

    Many members of the Hispanic community are separated from the larger community by language barriers and different cultures and belief systems. These factors can affect Hispanic Americans' ability to seek and gain access to the health care system. The Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in the Hispanic Community, known as…

  1. Considering organizational factors in addressing health care disparities: two case examples.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Yonas, Michael; Mason, Mondi; Havens, Betsy E

    2010-05-01

    Policy makers and practitioners have yet to successfully understand and eliminate persistent racial differences in health care quality. Interventions to address these racial health care disparities have largely focused on increasing cultural awareness and sensitivity, promoting culturally competent care, and increasing providers' adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Although these strategies have improved some proximal factors associated with service provision, they have not had a strong impact on racial health care disparities. Interventions to date have had limited impact on racial differences in health care quality, in part, because they have not adequately considered or addressed organizational and institutional factors. In this article, we describe an emerging intervention strategy to reduce health care disparities called dismantling (undoing) racism and how it has been adapted to a rural public health department and an urban medical system. These examples illustrate the importance of adapting interventions to the organizational and institutional context and have important implications for practitioners and policy makers.

  2. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities.

  3. Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Carlon, Leanne

    2015-09-01

    Changing settings to be more supportive of health and healthy choices is an optimum way to improve population health and health equity. This article uses the World Health Organisation's (1998) (WHO Health Promotion Glossary. WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW) definition of settings approaches to health promotion as those focused on modifying settings' structure and nature. A rapid literature review was undertaken in the period June-August 2014, combining a systematically conducted search of two major databases with targeted searches. The review focused on identifying what works in settings approaches to address the social determinants of health inequities, using Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity. This depicts the social determinants of health inequities as three layers of influence, and entry points for action to promote health equity. The evidence review identified work in 12 settings (cities; communities and neighbourhoods; educational; healthcare; online; faith-based; sports; workplaces; prisons; and nightlife, green and temporary settings), and work at the socioeconomic, political and cultural context layer of the Fair Foundations framework (governance, legislation, regulation and policy). It located a relatively small amount of evidence that settings themselves are being changed in ways which address the social determinants of health inequities. Rather, many initiatives focus on individual behaviour change within settings. There is considerable potential for health promotion professionals to focus settings work more upstream and so replace or integrate individual approaches with those addressing daily living conditions and higher level structures, and a significant need for programmes to be evaluated for differential equity impacts and published to provide a more solid evidence base. PMID:26420808

  4. Making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1985-10-01

    The implementation of the Integrated FP/MCH/Parasite Control project by JOICFP in 1984 was envisioned to strengthen international cooperation, promote international exchange of knowledge and expand approaches in the practice of family planning. 2 municipalities in China were selected as pilot project areas. The objectives set in the 3-year plan of the integrated project are: to publicize the advantages of family planning and improve people's knowledge and practice of family planning; to stengthen technical guidance on family planning and control the growth and improve the quality of the population; to improve maternal and child care; and to reduce the infection rate of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Steering committees on the integrated project at the municipal, county, township and village levels were set up in the pilot areas; the significance of the project has been communicated through film and slide presentations. Training courses for the administrative workers and technicians have been held. As a result of the family planning education activities, the contraceptive rates in the 2 pilot areas remained stable at 85%. Neonatal mortality was reduced significantly. Parasite control has benefitted 52,546 people in the pilot areas. An improvement was noted in environmental hygiene, the proper disposal of waste and the provision of safe drinking water. Further improvement can be achieved by intensifying public health education in the project areas, improving working systems and accomplishing all the tasks that the integrated project has set forth.

  5. Potential health concerns of dietary phosphorus: cancer, obesity, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John J B

    2013-10-01

    Adult Americans typically consume on average 1400 mg, or more, of phosphorus (P) daily in meals, which almost doubles the recommended dietary allowance. After a meal phosphorus is rapidly absorbed at a high efficiency and hormonal mechanisms act swiftly to maintain the serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration within fairly narrow limits. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) reduce serum phosphate during postprandial periods through homeostatic actions on the kidney. However, it is speculated that exposure of cells to a brief high-serum Pi concentration may signal alterations in cell functions that lead to deleterious effects. Elevation of serum FGF-23 or PTH may also be harmful to specific cell types. Examples of possible adverse health effects include cancer, obesity, and hypertension. Here I review potential mechanisms through which high-P intake may contribute to cell metabolic abnormalities and the development of chronic disease; high-dietary phosphorus, especially from foods processed with phosphate salts, may be associated with these chronic diseases. Further investigation is needed to establish the significance of high-phosphate diets within a large segment of the U.S. population with normal renal function.

  6. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  7. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. PMID:27052792

  8. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  9. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  10. Fipronil: environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Tingle, Colin C D; Rother, Joachim A; Dewhurst, Charles F; Lauer, Sasha; King, William J

    2003-01-01

    Madagascar, where two endemic species of lizard and an endemic mammal decline in abundance because of their food chain link to termites. Fipronil is highly toxic to bees (LD50 = 0.004 microgram/bee), lizards [LD50 for Acanthodactylus dumerili (Lacertidae) is 30 micrograms a.i./g bw], and gallinaceous birds (LD50 = 11.3 mg/kg for Northern bobwhite quail), but shows low toxicity to waterfowl (LD50 > 2150 mg/kg for mallard duck). It is moderately toxic to laboratory mammals by oral exposure (LD50 = 97 mg/kg for rats; LD50 = 91 mg/kg for mice). Technical fipronil is in toxicity categories II and III, depending on route of administration, and is classed as a nonsensitizer. There are indications of carcinogenic action in rats at 300 ppm, but it is not carcinogenic to female mice at doses of 30 ppm. The acute toxicity of fipronil varies widely even in animals within the same taxonomic groups. Thus, toxicological findings from results on standard test animals are not necessarily applicable to animals in the wild. Testing on local species seems particularly important in determining the suitability of fipronil-based products for registration in different countries or habitats and the potential associated risk to nontarget wildlife. Risk assessment predictions have shown that some fipronil formulations present a risk to endangered bird, fish, and aquatic and marine invertebrates. Great care should thus be taken in using these formulations where they may impact any of these endangered wildlife groups. Work in Madagascar has highlighted field evidence of this risk. The dose levels at which fipronil produces thyroid cancer in rats are very high and are unlikely to occur under normal conditions of use. There is also dispute as to whether this is relevant to human health risk. However, as fipronil is a relatively new insecticide that has not been in use for long enough to evaluate the risk it may pose to human health, from data on human exposure to the product, a precautionary approach may

  11. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health to address sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) social determinants of health discussion underscores the need for health equity and social justice. Yet sexual orientation was not addressed within the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health final report Closing the Gap in a Generation. This omission of sexual orientation as a social determinant of health stands in stark contrast with a body of evidence that demonstrates that sexual minorities are disproportionately affected by health problems associated with stigma and discrimination, such as mental health disorders. I propose strategies to integrate sexual orientation into the WHO's social determinants of health dialogue. Recognizing sexual orientation as a social determinant of health is an important first step toward health equity for sexual minorities.

  12. The politics of knowledge: implications for understanding and addressing mental health and illness.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily K

    2014-03-01

    While knowledge represents a valuable commodity, not all forms of knowledge are afforded equal status. The politics of knowledge, which entails the privileging of particular ways of knowing through linkages between the producers of knowledge and other bearers of authority or influence, represents a powerful force driving knowledge development. Within the health research and practice community, biomedical knowledge (i.e. knowledge pertaining to the biological factors influencing health) has been afforded a privileged position, shaping the health research and practice community's view of health, illness and appropriate intervention. The aim of this study is to spark critical reflection and dialogue surrounding the ways in which the politics of knowledge have constrained progress in addressing mental health and illness, one of today's leading public health issues. I argue that the hegemony of biological knowledge represents an ethical issue as it limits the breadth of knowledge available to support practitioners to 'do good' in terms of addressing mental illness. Given the power and influence inherent within the nursing community, I propose that nurses ought to engage in critical reflection and action in an effort to better situate the health research and practice community to effectively address the mental health of populations.

  13. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  14. Role of the nurse in addressing the health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Benny

    Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health such as clean air, sufficient food, safe drinking water and secure shelter, and may be considered a threat to health. Healthcare professionals have been called to take action on carbon reduction. Action depends on various factors such as personal commitment to environmental issues and professionals' understanding of climate change, and action may occur at individual, organisational, community, national and international levels. As public health is a core component of the nurse's role, this article discusses the health effects of climate change and suggests ways to address these effects.

  15. Addressing sexuality-related needs in practice: perspectives of maternal/child and women's health nurses.

    PubMed

    Propst, M G; Phillips, B R; Andrew, M E

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative, descriptive survey was conducted using Waterhouse's instrument, Survey of Sexuality-Related Nursing Practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal/child and women's health nurses address sexuality in their practice and to assess the influence of select variables on that practice. A sample of maternal/child and women's health registered nurses (n = 130) was systematically selected from the 1995 Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' (AWHONN) District VII mailing list. Findings reveal incongruities in maternal/child and women's health nurses' perspectives and the incorporation of sexuality-related nursing interventions into practice.

  16. The men's health forum: an initiative to address health disparities in the community.

    PubMed

    Grant, Cathy G; Davis, Jenna L; Rivers, Brian M; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Antolino, Prado; Harris, Erika; Green, B Lee

    2012-08-01

    Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender disparities in health and access to and use of health care services currently exist. Health professionals are continually striving to reduce and eliminate health disparities within their own community. One such effort in the area of Tampa Bay, Florida was the creation of the African American Men's Health Forum, currently referred to as the Men's Health Forum. The African American Men's Health Forum was the result of the community's desire to reduce the gap in health outcomes for African American men. Later, it was recognized that the gap in health outcomes impacts other communities; therefore, it was broadened to include all men considered medically underserved (those who are uninsured, underinsured, or without a regular health care provider). The Men's Health Forum empowers men with the resources, knowledge, and information to effectively manage their health by providing health education and screenings to the community. This article provides an explanation of the key components that have contributed to the success of the Men's Health Forum, including challenges and lessons learned. It is intended that this information be replicated in other communities in an effort to eliminate health disparities. PMID:22105601

  17. Moving Upstream: How Interventions that Address the Social Determinants of Health can Improve Health and Reduce Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Costa, Manuela V.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable scientific and policy interest in reducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare and health status. Currently, much of the policy focus around reducing health disparities has been geared towards improving access, coverage, quality and the intensity of healthcare. However, health is more a function of lifestyles linked to living and working conditions than of healthcare. Accordingly, effective efforts to improve health and reduce gaps in health need to pay greater attention to addressing the social determinants of health within and outside of the healthcare system. This paper highlights research evidence documenting that tackling the social determinants of health can lead to reductions in health disparities. It focuses both on interventions within the healthcare system that address some of the social determinants of health, as well as, interventions in upstream factors such as housing, neighborhood conditions and increased socioeconomic status that can lead to improvements in health. The studies reviewed highlight the importance of systematic evaluation of social and economic policies that might have health consequences and the need for policy makers, healthcare providers, and leaders across multiple sectors of society to apply currently available knowledge to improve the underlying conditions that impact the health of populations. PMID:18843244

  18. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  19. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists. PMID:18994667

  20. The role of private foundations in addressing health care workforce needs.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2013-12-01

    There is an increased awareness among policy makers, providers, and educators that the size, composition, geographic distribution, and skill mix of the health care workforce is of great importance in determining the likelihood of success in achieving our societal goals for health care reform. As academic and governmental institutions work to address these pressing questions, private foundations can and should play an important role in supporting the design, execution, and evaluation of innovative educational programs that will address these needs. Foundations also can and should play a role in generating information that will better inform health care workforce policies and in convening thought leaders to make recommendations that will advance the field of workforce studies.The author details current efforts by the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation and other private foundations to address health care workforce needs. Foundations can play important roles as catalysts for change in our educational processes, and they can serve as important links between education and health care delivery systems. Partnerships among foundations and between private foundations and federal agencies can be powerful forces in helping to better align the skills of future health professionals with changing patient demographics and a changing health care system.

  1. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  2. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton L; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology.

  3. Health Care Insurance, Financial Concerns, and Delays to Hospital Presentation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Smolderen, Kim G.; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Tang, Fengming; Ross, Joseph S.; Ting, Henry H.; Alexander, Karen P.; Rathore, Saif S.; Chan, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Context Little is known about how health insurance status affects decisions to seek care during emergency medical conditions like acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective To examine the association between lack of health insurance and financial concerns about accessing care among those with health insurance, and the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation (prehospital delays) during AMI. Design, Setting and Patients Multicenter, prospective registry of 3721 AMI patients enrolled between April, 2005 and December, 2008 from 24 U.S. hospitals. Health insurance status was categorized as uninsured, insured with financial concerns about accessing care, and insured without financial concerns. Insurance information was determined from medical records while financial concerns among those with health insurance were determined from structured interviews. Main Outcome Measure Prehospital delay times (≤2 hours, >2 to 6 hours, >6 hours), adjusted for demographic, clinical, social and psychological factors using hierarchical ordinal regression models. Results Of 3,721 patients, 738 (19.8%) were uninsured, and 689 (18.5%) were insured with financial concerns, and 2294 (61.7%) were insured without financial concerns. Uninsured and insured patients with financial concerns were more likely to delay seeking care during AMI, with prehospital delays >6 hours among 48.6% of uninsured patients, 44.6% of insured patients with financial concerns, and 39.3% of insured patients without financial concerns, as compared with prehospital delays of <2 hours among 27.5%, 33.5%, and 36.6% of those who were uninsured, insured with financial concerns, and insured without financial concerns, respectively (P <.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, both insurance with financial concerns and lack of insurance were associated with prehospital delays: insurance without financial concerns (reference); insurance with financial concerns, adjusted odds ratio [OR)], 1.21; 95% confidence

  4. Electronic Health Record-Related Safety Concerns: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Electronic Health Record Users

    PubMed Central

    Pajunen, Tuuli; Saranto, Kaija; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be taken very seriously, particularly in operating rooms, procedure units, emergency departments, and intensive care units/critical care units. Health care organizations should use proactive and systematic assessments of EHR risks before harmful events occur. An EHR training program should be compulsory for all EHR users in order to address EHR safety concerns resulting from the failure to use HIT appropriately. PMID:27154599

  5. Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern

    MedlinePlus

    Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern Energy drinks are flavored beverages containing high amounts of caffeine and typically other additives, such as ...

  6. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  7. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  8. School Nurses' Descriptions of Concerns Arising during Pupils' Health Check-Ups: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Holopainen, Arja; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concerns and modes of action of Finnish school nurses during pupils' health check-ups. Methods: Focus group interviews with 17 school nurses were performed in 2011 and again in 2013. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results: School nurses' concerns were mostly associated with the psychosocial…

  9. Oral health during pregnancy and early childhood: barriers to care and how to address them.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dana

    2010-09-01

    This brief supplements recommendations developed by the California Dental Association Foundation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists that recommended practice guidelines during the perinatal period. This brief addresses the importance and safety of oral health care during pregnancy and outlines some of the multiple system-level barriers that make it difficult for many women to access oral health services, as well as offers specific strategies for mitigating these barriers.

  10. Are health-based payments a feasible tool for addressing risk segmentation?

    PubMed

    Rogal, D L; Gauthier, A K

    1998-01-01

    As they attempt to increase health insurance coverage and improve the efficiency of the market, researchers, policymakers, and health plan representatives have been addressing the issue of risk segmentation. Many risk assessment tools and risk-adjusted payment methodologies have been developed and demonstrated for a variety of populations and payers experiencing various market constraints. The evidence shows that risk-adjusted payments are feasible for most populations receiving acute care, while technical obstacles, political issues, and some research gaps remain.

  11. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives.

  12. School-Based Health Clinics: An Emerging Approach to Improving Adolescent Health and Addressing Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report discusses the ongoing movement to provide health care and health information to adolescents through school-based clinics and other programs. The report begins with an overview of programs, focusing on: the unique health needs of adolescents; the growth in the number of school-based clinics; goals and objectives of the special programs;…

  13. Workplace characteristics associated with health and comfort concerns in three office buildings in Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Nelson, C.J.; Dunteman, G.

    1991-01-01

    Nearly 4000 employees of a Federal Agency in Washington, DC were surveyed in March of 1989 to determine their health symptoms, comfort concerns, and reports of odor during the previous year. Their personal characteristics and perceptions of workplace conditions were also determined. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that the workplace variable affecting the largest number of health symptoms and comfort/odor concerns was dust. Perceptions of hot stuffy air and the odor of paint, carpet cleaning, and other chemicals were also associated with a number of health symptoms. Other workplace variables associated with comfort and odor concerns included glare, noise, and nearby water leaks. In most cases, individual air handling units could not be associated with health symptoms. Areas with new carpet reported higher frequency of throat problems. It was concluded that improved maintenance, better recirculation and filtration of air, and glare screens were desirable to improve employee health and productivity.

  14. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care.

  15. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care. PMID:26105059

  16. A Tailored Approach to Identifying and Addressing College Students' Online Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background: College students may fail to practice information literacy skills because they are unaware of their skill level or are not concerned with the risks. Purpose: In order to develop an effective message that motivates college students to learn online health information literacy skills, a better understanding of perceptions about such…

  17. Addressing Mental Health Needs in Our Schools: Supporting the Role of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Traci P.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors are a well-positioned resource to reach the significant number of children and adolescents with mental health problems. In this special school counseling issue of "The Professional Counselor," some articles focus on systemic, top-down advocacy efforts as the point of intervention for addressing child and adolescent…

  18. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  19. Partnering with Communities to Address the Mental Health Needs of Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Farmer, Mary Sue; Shue, Valorie M.; Blevins, Dean; Sullivan, Greer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many veterans who face mental illness and live in rural areas never obtain the mental health care they need. To address these needs, it is important to reach out to community stakeholders who are likely to have frequent interactions with veterans, particularly those returning from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Methods:…

  20. Recommendations and Strategies for Addressing Comprehensive Health Issues on Two-Year College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; And Others

    The Two-Year College Development Center invited representatives from two-year colleges throughout New York to attend a two-day meeting to address comprehensive health issues, particularly pertaining to the transmission and prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as other infectious and chronic diseases. The attending…

  1. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  2. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  3. Policy interventions to address child health disparities: moving beyond health insurance.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet

    2009-11-01

    A full accounting of the excess burden of poor health in childhood must include any continuing loss of productivity over the life course. Including these costs results in a much higher estimate of the burden than focusing only on medical costs and other shorter-run costs to parents (such as lost work time). Policies designed to reduce this burden must go beyond increasing eligibility for health insurance, because disparities exist not only in access to health insurance but also in take-up of insurance, access to care, and the incidence of health conditions. We need to create a comprehensive safety net for young children that includes automatic eligibility for basic health coverage under Medicaid unless parents opt out by enrolling children in a private program; health and nutrition services for pregnant women and infants; quality preschool; and home visiting for infants and children at risk. Such a program is feasible and would be relatively inexpensive.

  4. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  5. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals.

  6. [Sex differences concerning the habit patterns and health among intravenous heroin addicts in Oslo].

    PubMed

    Bretteville-Jensen, A L

    2000-01-20

    The issue addressed below concerns sex differences in consumption patterns and ways of financing the drug habit among intravenous heroin users. The findings are linked to recorded differences in various health indicators. The article is based on data collected through 1,840 interviews with heroin abusers who contacted the "Needle-Exchange Bus" in Oslo during the years 1993-97. Analysis indicates the existence of substantial differences between women and men along a number of variables. Women report injecting more frequently than men and using on average more heroin per injection. Women also finance their drug habit differently, as more than half of them report some income from prostitution. The finding may seem paradoxical as women also appear to have a lower risk of dying from an overdose/poisoning and a lower risk of contracting hepatitis A and B than male injecting misusers. The risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, on the other hand, appears to be greater among female injectors.

  7. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  8. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. PMID:24074015

  9. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  10. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  11. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  12. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  13. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  14. Adolescent Use of Electronic Cigarettes: An Emergent Health Concern for Pediatric Nurses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Molly; Pennington, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show an increasing trend of electronic cigarette usage among adolescents. Despite common misconceptions, electronic cigarette use does not reduce cigarette use among adolescents and can potentially increase cigarette dependence via nicotine addiction and modeling of smoking behaviors. Pediatric nurses and health care providers should be aware of the popularity and safety concerns of electronic cigarettes so that they can properly provide education regarding the possible negative health effects of adolescent electronic cigarette use, raise awareness of this public health concern, and impact policies in their communities.

  15. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  16. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  17. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  18. Rethinking prevention in primary care: applying the chronic care model to address health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hung, Dorothy Y; Rundall, Thomas G; Tallia, Alfred F; Cohen, Deborah J; Halpin, Helen Ann; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a framework for preventing health risk behaviors such as tobacco use, risky drinking, unhealthy dietary patterns, and physical inactivity. Data were obtained from primary care practices participating in a national health promotion initiative sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Practices owned by a hospital health system and exhibiting a culture of quality improvement were more likely to offer recommended services such as health risk assessment, behavioral counseling, and referral to community-based programs. Practices that had a multispecialty physician staff and staff dieticians, decision support in the form of point-of-care reminders and clinical staff meetings, and clinical information systems such as electronic medical records were also more likely to offer recommended services. Adaptation of the CCM for preventive purposes may offer a useful framework for addressing important health risk behaviors.

  19. Addressing maternal and child health in post-conflict Afghanistan: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Rai, R K; Alagarajan, M

    2013-09-01

    Afghanistan's maternal and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. The country faces challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015 which can be attributed to multiple causes related to accessibility, affordability and availability of health-care services. This report addresses the challenges in strengthening maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, as well discussing the areas to be prioritized. In order to ensure sound maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, policy-makers must prioritize monitoring and surveillance systems, integrating maternal and child health care with rights-based family planning methods, building human resources, offering incentives (such as the provision of a conditional cash transfer to women) and promoting action-oriented, community-based interventions. On a wider scale, the focus must be to improve the health infrastructure, organizing international collaboration and expanding sources of funding. PMID:24313047

  20. Multilevel Interventions To Address Health Disparities Show Promise In Improving Population Health.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra; Thompson, Beti; Ammerman, Alice S; Ortega, Alexander N; Marsteller, Jill; Richardson, DeJuran

    2016-08-01

    Multilevel interventions are those that affect at least two levels of influence-for example, the patient and the health care provider. They can be experimental designs or natural experiments caused by changes in policy, such as the implementation of the Affordable Care Act or local policies. Measuring the effects of multilevel interventions is challenging, because they allow for interaction among levels, and the impact of each intervention must be assessed and translated into practice. We discuss how two projects from the National Institutes of Health's Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities used multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities. The interventions, which focused on the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine and community-level dietary change, had mixed results. The design and implementation of multilevel interventions are facilitated by input from the community, and more advanced methods and measures are needed to evaluate the impact of the various levels and components of such interventions. PMID:27503968

  1. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right. PMID:22136318

  2. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  3. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings.

  4. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions.

  5. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions. PMID:25194110

  6. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  7. Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rachel L J; Glover, Crystal M; Cené, Crystal W; Glik, Deborah C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Williams, David R

    2016-08-01

    The opportunities for healthy choices in homes, neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces can have decisive impacts on health. We review scientific evidence from promising interventions focused on the social determinants of health and discuss how such interventions can improve population health and reduce health disparities. We found sufficient evidence of successful outcomes to support disparity-reducing policy interventions targeted at education and early childhood; urban planning and community development; housing; income enhancements and supplements; and employment. Cost-effectiveness evaluations show that these interventions lead to long-term societal savings, but the interventions require more routine attention to cost considerations. We discuss challenges to implementation, including the need for long-term financing to scale up effective interventions for implementation at the local, state, and national levels.

  8. The “Long Tail” and Public Health: New Thinking for Addressing Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Hovmand, Peter; Pfeiffer, Debbie J.; Fairchild, Maggie; Rath, Suchitra; Golla, Balaji; Casey, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing approach to improving population health focuses on shifting population means through a few targeted and universal interventions. The success of this approach for eliminating health disparities depends on an assumption about the distribution of demand for such interventions. We explored whether long tail thinking from business might yield greater progress in eliminating disparities. We examined 2011 to 2013 data from 513 state and local health agency representatives in 47 states who used an online system to create 4351 small media and client reminder products promoting colorectal cancer screening. Products in the long tail were more likely to target minority groups with higher rates of colorectal cancer and lower rates of screening than Whites. Long tail thinking could help improve the public's health and eliminate disparities. PMID:25322308

  9. Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rachel L J; Glover, Crystal M; Cené, Crystal W; Glik, Deborah C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Williams, David R

    2016-08-01

    The opportunities for healthy choices in homes, neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces can have decisive impacts on health. We review scientific evidence from promising interventions focused on the social determinants of health and discuss how such interventions can improve population health and reduce health disparities. We found sufficient evidence of successful outcomes to support disparity-reducing policy interventions targeted at education and early childhood; urban planning and community development; housing; income enhancements and supplements; and employment. Cost-effectiveness evaluations show that these interventions lead to long-term societal savings, but the interventions require more routine attention to cost considerations. We discuss challenges to implementation, including the need for long-term financing to scale up effective interventions for implementation at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:27503966

  10. Discourses and polarities concerning health promotion in the Brazilian health system.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Kind; Ferreira-Neto, João Leite

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents theoretical reflections on health promotion in the Brazilian public health context. Some characteristics and problems of the international debate are highlighted, but our focus is the position of health promotion as it is discussed in the Brazilian health system. We follow the foucauldian perspective of biopower and resistence to discuss the selected texts and documents related to health promotion that were considered relevant for the purpose of this investigation. Health promotion is discussed as a field of discourses, practices, knowledge production and power. We concentrate our analysis on the debate proposed by collective health researchers on the repercussions of the Lalonde Report in the international Health Promotion Charts, and on the connexion between health promotion and the Brazilian health system. The discussion demonstrates that health promotion work requires constant attention and significant effort from managers, technicians, and health system users, and that each step forward reveals new challenges and calls for new actions.

  11. Radio frequency identification (RFID) in health care: privacy and security concerns limiting adoption.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P

    2014-03-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been implemented in a wide variety of industries. Health care is no exception. This article explores implementations and limitations of RFID in several health care domains: authentication, medication safety, patient tracking, and blood transfusion medicine. Each domain has seen increasing utilization of unique applications of RFID technology. Given the importance of protecting patient and data privacy, potential privacy and security concerns in each domain are discussed. Such concerns, some of which are inherent to existing RFID hardware and software technology, may limit ubiquitous adoption. In addition, an apparent lack of security standards within the RFID domain and specifically health care may also hinder the growth and utility of RFID within health care for the foreseeable future. Safeguarding the privacy of patient data may be the most important obstacle to overcome to allow the health care industry to take advantage of the numerous benefits RFID technology affords.

  12. [Shifting of emphasis in the world health sector strategy; from political concerns to economic ones].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu

    2003-11-01

    Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All".

  13. A participatory assessment of environmental health concerns in an Ojibwa community.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Baumann, Linda C; Will, James A

    2002-01-01

    This research employed a participatory approach to explore environmental health (EH) concerns among Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Ojibwa Indians in Sawyer County, Wisconsin. The project was grounded in a broad ecological conceptualization of EH and in principles of health promotion and community participation. Community participation was accomplished through a steering committee that consisted of the primary author and LCO College faculty and community members. The selected assessment methodology was a self-administered survey mailed to LCO members in Sawyer County. Concern for environmental issues was high in this tribal community, especially for future generations. Concern was higher among older members and tribal members living on rather than off the reservation. Local environmental issues of concern were motorized water vehicles, effects from global warming, aging septic systems on waterways, unsafe driving, and contaminated lakes/streams. The LCO community can use survey results to inform further data needs and program development. PMID:11841682

  14. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT.

    PubMed

    McCauley, M P; Ramanadhan, S; Viswanath, K

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in 'Milltown', the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders' views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many 'grassroots' sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders' views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities.

  15. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  16. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT.

    PubMed

    McCauley, M P; Ramanadhan, S; Viswanath, K

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in 'Milltown', the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders' views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many 'grassroots' sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders' views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. PMID:26471919

  17. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  18. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  19. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  20. Addressing the migration of health professionals: the role of working conditions and educational placements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the global health-worker shortage, which could undermine the Millennium Development Goal to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. The current situation suggests that long-term solutions to shortages can only be found by addressing the problem from a global perspective; that is, to eliminate shortages through substantial investments in training and retaining health workers in developed and developing countries, and not through policies that do not work towards solving this underlying problem, such as ones that restrict migration. PMID:19922691

  1. Culturally-Tailored Education Programs to Address Health Literacy Deficits and Pervasive Health Disparities among Hispanics in Rural Shelbyville, Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Irma N; Ramos, Kenneth S; Boerner, Aisa; He, Qiang; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of culturally-tailored education on health knowledge among Hispanic residents of rural, Shelbyville, KY. Design The program identified specific pathways to address health literacy deficits and disparities identified through a community-wide health assessment completed in 2010. Results A total of 43 Hispanic males who shared deficiencies in community-wide health infrastructure were enrolled in the program. The curriculum included an introductory session followed by five, subject-specific, sessions offered on a weekly basis from February to April 2011. Pre/post-test assessments showed marked improvement in knowledge base for all participants after each session, most notably related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The group reconvened in January 2012 for follow-up instruction on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global assessment of knowledge retention over a nine-month period. Comparisons of pre/post testing in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global health-related knowledge showed significant gains for all parameters. Conclusions Health education programs that embrace perceptions of the community of their own health, and that integrate knowledge into culturally-sensitive education, significantly improved health knowledge among Hispanic residents in rural Kentucky. Such gains may translate into sustainable improvements in health literacy and help reduce health disparities. PMID:25401044

  2. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  3. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  4. Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Granberry, Phillip J; Torres, María Idalí; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Rustan, Sarah; Colón, Melissa; Fontes, Mayara; Cruz, Ivettte

    2016-03-01

    Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26896113

  5. Farm-Related Concerns and Mental Health Status Among Norwegian Farmers.

    PubMed

    Logstein, Brit

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural sector in Norway has undergone structural changes over the past 50 years. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of concerns about farm economy, work time, and mental complaints among Norwegian farmers. In a sample of single principal owner-operators (n = 2,676), we calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for concerns about the farm economy, concerns for insufficient time to complete work, and high symptom load of mental complaints. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the associations between farm characteristics, concerns, and mental health. Farmers had a high probability for an increased symptom load of mental complaints. The level of farm income was more strongly associated with economic concerns and mental health concerns when a major part of total household income resulted from farming. The high workload required in farming combined with off-farm supplemental employment was additionally associated with higher levels of time concerns and mental complaints. Norwegian farmers have a relatively high workload both in farming and in off-farm work but are able to make sustainable plans for their individual workload needs. The high individual workload in both these arenas poses a challenge, but was not associated with a greater probability for a high symptom load of mental complaints. PMID:27420178

  6. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized.

  7. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  8. The need for evidence-based health policy to address health care variations.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Medicare policy making now deals mostly with price-setting issues. However, as Warren Buffet has noted: "Price is what you pay. Value is what you get." Victor Fuchs's studies raise fundamental issues for a value-oriented Medicare program. Florida offers one of many regional patterns of Medicare mortality that are not yet adequately explained. Valued-oriented, evidence-based Medicare policies would target opportunities to improve population health and would foster greater use of evidence-based medicine.

  9. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope

  10. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  11. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined. PMID:19042536

  12. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet

  13. Addressing the social determinants of health through the Alameda County, California, place matters policy initiative.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Katherine; Desautels, Alexandra; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-11-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices.

  14. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health through the Alameda County, California, Place Matters Policy Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schaff, Katherine; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices. PMID:24179279

  15. Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-pacific.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Caleb; Rao, Mala; Reid, Paaparangi; Surjadi, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world's population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic, social and environmental challenges. Tackling health inequities is a political imperative that requires leadership, political courage, social action, a sound evidence base and progressive public policy. PMID:23070757

  16. California Veterans Receive Inadequate Treatment to Address their Mental Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-01-01

    Data from the 2011 to 2013 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were pooled to estimate prevalence of mental health need (serious psychological distress and impairment in one or more life domains), minimally adequate treatment (having four or more visits with a health professional in the past 12 months and use of prescription medication for mental health problems in the past 12 months), and suicide ideation among veterans living in California. Numbers and percentages were weighted to the CA population using a large sample size (N=6,952), and for comparison purposes, veterans and nonveterans were standardized to the age and gender distribution of veterans in the sample. Although differences in mental health need were similar between veterans and nonveterans after adjustment, over three-quarters of veterans did not receive minimally adequate treatment needed to address their mental health needs. Suicide ideation was significantly higher among veterans than nonveterans. Male veterans at all ages were more vulnerable to thinking about suicide compared to their nonveteran counterparts. PMID:27570802

  17. Translating Life Course Theory to clinical practice to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Solomon, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In "Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework," Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the "whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;" (2) longitudinal approach with "greater emphasis on early ("upstream") determinants of health"; and (3) need for integration and "developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong "pipelines" for healthy development". This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed.

  18. Social relationships and health: the meaning of social "connectedness" and how it relates to health concerns for rural Scottish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hendry, L B; Reid, M

    2000-12-01

    Adolescence has been posited as an important period for the onset of mental health problems and for the need to adapt successfully to many psychosocial changes. The assumption has been made that social belonging is both a health-related goal and an antidote for other sorts of emotional crises, but there is little research on how normal adolescents themselves view connections between social relationships and their physical and mental health. This qualitative study examines how social connectedness represents both a content and process variable in northern Scottish young people's discussion of their health concerns, that is, it was both a source of distress and implicated as a helpful or harmful factor in relation to other health concerns. Analyses revealed both the potency of all of these concerns and participants' belief that skills acquired now could affect their future life goals and health. Suggestions are given for building new approaches for conceptualizing rural young people's health problems and helping them cope with the social contexts involved within and around them.

  19. Aliens in the promised land? Keynote address for the 1986 National Gathering of the United Church of Christ's Coalition for Lesbian/Gay Concerns.

    PubMed

    Comstock, G D

    The following article is a condensed version of the keynote address given at the 1986 National Gathering of the Lesbian/Gay Coalition of the United Church of Christ (UCC). Problems encountered by lesbians and gay men in organized religion, especially within the liberal tradition, are identified by a method of inquiry developed by Christian educator John Westerhoff for assessing egalitarianism within institutions. The story of Queen Vashti from the Book of Esther in Hebrew scripture, and the emerging tradition of coming-out experiences by lesbians and gay men; provide the norm and model for declaring independence from denominations that neglect the concerns of lesbians and gay men and for constructing religious alternatives.

  20. Dose-Response Issues Concerning the Relations between Regular Physical Activity and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-01-01

    This paper categorizes the many benefits of physical activity, offering information concerning the type of dose necessary to get that benefit. In 2000, Health Canada and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with other agencies, sponsored a symposium to determine whether there was a dose-response relationship between…

  1. Perceptions of Mental Health Concerns for Secondary Students with Disabilities during Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppen, Marcus; Sinclair, James; Hirano, Kara; Lindstrom, Lauren; Unruh, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    This study reports results from a national survey of education and community professionals regarding secondary level students with disabilities who were experiencing mental health concerns. A total of 648 professionals from 49 states completed the on-line survey. Respondents reported that almost half (48%) of their students with disabilities were…

  2. Children's Concerns about Their Parents' Health and Well-Being: Researching with ChildLine Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Jackson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on collaborative research conducted with ChildLine Scotland, a free, confidential, telephone counselling service, using their database. We focussed on children's calls about parental health and well-being and how this affected their own lives. Children's concerns emerged within multi-layered calls in which they discussed…

  3. Walking out of One Culture into Another: Health Concerns of Early Adolescent Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kim L.; McQuiston, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is considered a critical life transition that can lead to heightened vulnerability. Acculturation takes on increased importance during this period. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between acculturation and perceived health concerns of early adolescent Latinos in rural North Carolina. A qualitative descriptive…

  4. To What Extent Are School Drop-In Clinics Meeting Pupils' Self-Identified Health Concerns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, C. M.; Morgan, D. L.; Tripp, J. H.; Davies, C.; Sykes, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This paper explores young peoples' health concerns and their knowledge and views of school nurse drop-in clinics (drop-ins) held in their schools. Design: Cross section survey of adolescents using questionnaires delivered in schools to 10 per cent of the population, and school drop-in monitoring data from the Primary Care Trust (PCT).…

  5. Personality Traits and Psychological Health Concerns: The Search for Psychology Student Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…

  6. Attitudes of Parents and Health Promoters in Greece Concerning Sex Education of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Akrita, Ioanna; Papaharitou, Stamatis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes and views of Greek parents concerning the provision of sex education to adolescents, as well as the opinion and the involvement of school health promoters in sex education. A questionnaire containing 20 items was constructed and administered to 93 parents of adolescents who participated in parents'…

  7. Addressing Health Disparities via Coordination of Care and Interprofessional Education: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Oral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stefanie; More, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons are a diverse group, but they share a common need for competent, accessible health care, dispensed without intolerance and with an understanding of their unique health needs. Dental practitioners need to understanding that LGBT persons have distinctive health (and oral health) needs. This article reviews the literature on oral and overall health of LGBT persons in the United States, and discusses ways in which dentists can improve the health care they provide to this vulnerable population, including how interprofessional education and collaborative practice may help to reduce oral health disparities within this group.

  8. Addressing Health Disparities via Coordination of Care and Interprofessional Education: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Oral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stefanie; More, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons are a diverse group, but they share a common need for competent, accessible health care, dispensed without intolerance and with an understanding of their unique health needs. Dental practitioners need to understanding that LGBT persons have distinctive health (and oral health) needs. This article reviews the literature on oral and overall health of LGBT persons in the United States, and discusses ways in which dentists can improve the health care they provide to this vulnerable population, including how interprofessional education and collaborative practice may help to reduce oral health disparities within this group. PMID:27671960

  9. Addressing Hearing Health Care Disparities among Older Adults in a US-Mexico Border Community

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Maia; Marrone, Nicole; Sanchez, Daisey Thalia; Sander, Alicia; Navarro, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Colina, Sonia; Harris, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a U.S.–Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with community health workers (CHWs) from a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n = 20) and focus groups with their family/friends (n = 27) and with members of the community-at-large (n = 47). The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n = 12). Individuals experienced depression, sadness, and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socioeconomic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. CHWs can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics. PMID:27574602

  10. Building Capacity in a Rural North Carolina Community to Address Prostate Health Using a Lay Health Advisor Model.

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Hunter, Jaimie C; White, Brandolyn S; Richmond, Alan N

    2016-05-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a critical concern for African Americans in North Carolina (NC), and innovative strategies are needed to help rural African American men maximize their prostate health. Engaging the community in research affords opportunities to build capacity for teaching and raising awareness. Approach and Strategies A community steering committee of academicians, community partners, religious leaders, and other stakeholders modified a curriculum on prostate health and screening to include interactive knowledge- and skill-building activities. This curriculum was then used to train 15 African American lay health advisors, dubbed Prostate Cancer Ambassadors, in a rural NC community. Over the 2-day training, Ambassadors achieved statistically significant improvements in knowledge of prostate health and maintained confidence in teaching. The Ambassadors, in turn, used their personal networks to share their knowledge with over 1,000 individuals in their community. Finally, the Ambassadors became researchers, implementing a prostate health survey in local churches. Discussion and Conclusions It is feasible to use community engagement models for raising awareness of prostate health in NC African American communities. Mobilizing community coalitions to develop curricula ensures that the curricula meet the communities' needs, and training lay health advisors to deliver curricula helps secure community buy-in for the information.

  11. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  12. Road-traffic injuries: confronting disparities to address a global-health problem.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hijar, Martha; Norton, Robyn

    2006-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the present and projected global burden of road-traffic injuries is disproportionately borne by countries that can least afford to meet the health service, economic, and societal challenges posed. Although the evidence base on which these estimates are made remains somewhat precarious in view of the limited data systems in most low-income and middle-income countries (as per the classification on the World Bank website), these projections highlight the essential need to address road-traffic injuries as a public-health priority. Most well-evaluated effective interventions do not directly focus on efforts to protect vulnerable road users, such as motorcyclists and pedestrians. Yet, these groups comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low-income and middle-income countries, and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Appropriately responding to these disparities in available evidence and prevention efforts is necessary if we are to comprehensively address this global-health dilemma. PMID:16679167

  13. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development.

  14. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development. PMID:25355235

  15. Asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in South African schoolchildren: Implications for addressing chronic health conditions through a school health service.

    PubMed

    Shung-King, Maylene; Zühlke, Liesel; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-08-01

    When new evidence comes to light, it compels us to contemplate the implications of such evidence for health policy and practice. This article examines recent research evidence on the prevalence of asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in South Africa and considers the implications for the Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP). RHD is still a major burden of disease in developing countries, and elimination of this preventable condition ranks high among World Heart Federation goals. If left untreated, it becomes a chronic health condition that individuals have to cope with into their adult lives. The ISHP regards the health needs of children with chronic health conditions, which include conditions such as RHD, as a key service component. However, the chronic health component of the ISHP is still poorly developed and can benefit from good evidence to guide implementation. A recent study to ascertain the prevalence of RHD in asymptomatic schoolchildren through mass screening affords an opportunity to reflect on whether, and how, asymptomatic chronic health conditions in schoolchildren could be addressed, and what the implications would be if this were done through a school-based programme such as the ISHP. PMID:27499395

  16. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  17. Rumination and self-defining memories in the context of health concerns.

    PubMed

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Bryant, Richard A; Cohn, Richard J; Wakefield, Claire E

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with health anxiety report experiencing a strong sense of vulnerability to illness. Such beliefs may be driven by the biased recollection of past illness-related events. However, little research has explored the role of memory in health anxiety. In other disorders, rumination has also been identified as a process that leads individuals to recall memories dominated by the content of their concerns. This study examined the proposition that rumination might impact the content of "self-defining" autobiographical memories among 60 college students with varying health anxiety (35% with clinical-level health anxiety). Participants were randomised to experiential/ruminative self-focus conditions, and then they completed the Self-Defining Memory Task. Responses were coded for valence and illness-relatedness. Results indicated that rumination led participants to retrieve more illness-related self-defining memories, while higher health anxiety scores were associated with more negative, but not more illness-focused memories. Ruminative thinking appears to activate health concerns, and may play a role in maintaining ongoing health anxiety.

  18. Epidemiology of health concerns among collegiate student musicians participating in marching band.

    PubMed

    Hatheway, Melissa; Chesky, Kris

    2013-12-01

    Participation in marching band requires intense physical and mental requirements, altered and potentially elevated biomechanical demands related to performing musical instruments while marching, routine exposures to elevated noise levels and at times hazardous weather conditions, and time commitments for practice and travel. Unfortunately, there are no known epidemiologic studies that systematically examine the perception of health-related consequences among college students participating in a collegiate marching band. There are no known studies that attempt to understand if the perceived consequences of marching band are different for students majoring in music compared to non-music major students. In response to this deficiency, this study collected and characterized occupational health patterns and concerns associated with participation in a collegiate marching band. Members of a large collegiate marching band (n=246/310, 76%) responded to a 70-item epidemiologic survey. Results reveal patterns of health concerns and how they differ when compared across music majors vs non-music majors and instrument groups.

  19. Psychological motives versus health concerns: predicting smoking attitudes and promoting antismoking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively associated with these outcomes (although concern for long-term consequences was not). In the 2nd study, smokers responded more defensively to ad messages arguing against psychological rewards from smoking than to health-consequence messages, and actually had more positive attitudes toward their own smoking behavior after viewing the antirewards ads. In contrast, nonsmokers responded more favorably to ads arguing against the psychological rewards of smoking than to ads highlighting health consequences, and also strengthened their antismoking attitudes after exposure to the ads that downplayed psychological rewards. Implications for antismoking campaigns are discussed. PMID:19204853

  20. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  1. How scholarly nursing literature addresses health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constance

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review conceptual/theoretical and review/agenda setting nursing literature on the health care of racial/ethnic minority men [specifically African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian/Pacific Islander men] in one of the four targeted areas of health disparities. CINAHL and MEDLINE computer databases were searched from 1983 to the present using a combination of manual and computer-based methods to identify the nursing literature that included any racial/ethnic men in the sample and addressed at least one of the four areas of health disparities targeted by Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that affect adults: heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), diabetes mellitus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS. This review provides an overview of health disparities experienced by racial/ethnic minority men in the targeted areas and of the types of conceptual and agenda-setting articles published in scholarly nursing literature in those targeted areas.

  2. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  3. Barriers to addressing the social determinants of health: insights from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Curry-Stevens, Ann; Bryant, Toba

    2008-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health, implementation of public policies in support of the social determinants of health has been woefully inadequate. The continuing presence of income, housing, and food insecurity has led to Canada being the subject of a series of rebukes from the United Nations for failing to address child and family poverty, discrimination against women and Aboriginal groups, and most recently the crisis of homelessness and housing insecurity. In this article we consider some of the reasons why this might be the case. These include the epistemological dominance of positivist approaches to the health sciences, the ideology of individualism prevalent in North America, and the increasing influence on public policy of the marketplace. Various models of public policy provide pathways by which these barriers can be surmounted. Considering that the International Commission on the Social Determinants of Health will soon be releasing its findings and recommendations, such an analysis seems especially timely for understanding both the Canadian scene and developments in other nations.

  4. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  5. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.

    PubMed

    Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

    2013-12-01

    China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ∼90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to

  6. Cancer surveillance and information: balancing public health with privacy and confidentiality concerns (United States).

    PubMed

    Deapen, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Rapid advances in informatics and communication technologies are greatly expanding the capacity for information capture and transportation. While these tools can be used for great good, they also offer new opportunities for those who seek to obtain and use information for improper purposes. While issues related to identity theft for financial gain garner the most attention, protection of privacy in public health endeavors such as cancer surveillance is also a significant concern. Some efforts to protect health-related information have had unintended consequences detrimental to health research and public health practice. Achieving a proper balance between measures to protect privacy and the ability to guard and improve public health requires careful consideration and development of appropriate policies, regulations and use of technology.

  7. Guidance for exposure design of human studies addressing health risk evaluations of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Niels; Schuderer, Jürgen; Christ, Andreas; Futter, Peter; Ebert, Sven

    2004-10-01

    Conflicting results have recently emerged from human provocation studies that addressed the possible health hazards of radio frequency (RF) field exposure from mobile phones. Different findings may have resulted from exposures that are poorly defined and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines to facilitate the development of exposure systems for human volunteer studies which lead to reproducible results and which provide maximum relevance with respect to the assessment of the safety of mobile technology. The most important exposure parameters are discussed such as the signal, field distribution, and field strength, as well as the minimum requirements for the setup and dosimetry. PMID:15376239

  8. Guidance for exposure design of human studies addressing health risk evaluations of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Niels; Schuderer, Jürgen; Christ, Andreas; Futter, Peter; Ebert, Sven

    2004-10-01

    Conflicting results have recently emerged from human provocation studies that addressed the possible health hazards of radio frequency (RF) field exposure from mobile phones. Different findings may have resulted from exposures that are poorly defined and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines to facilitate the development of exposure systems for human volunteer studies which lead to reproducible results and which provide maximum relevance with respect to the assessment of the safety of mobile technology. The most important exposure parameters are discussed such as the signal, field distribution, and field strength, as well as the minimum requirements for the setup and dosimetry.

  9. Addressing indigenous health workforce inequities: A literature review exploring 'best' practice for recruitment into tertiary health programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Addressing the underrepresentation of indigenous health professionals is recognised internationally as being integral to overcoming indigenous health inequities. This literature review aims to identify 'best practice' for recruitment of indigenous secondary school students into tertiary health programmes with particular relevance to recruitment of Māori within a New Zealand context. Methodology/methods A Kaupapa Māori Research (KMR) methodological approach was utilised to review literature and categorise content via: country; population group; health profession ffocus; research methods; evidence of effectiveness; and discussion of barriers. Recruitment activities are described within five broad contexts associated with the recruitment pipeline: Early Exposure, Transitioning, Retention/Completion, Professional Workforce Development, and Across the total pipeline. Results A total of 70 articles were included. There is a lack of published literature specific to Māori recruitment and a limited, but growing, body of literature focused on other indigenous and underrepresented minority populations. The literature is primarily descriptive in nature with few articles providing evidence of effectiveness. However, the literature clearly frames recruitment activity as occurring across a pipeline that extends from secondary through to tertiary education contexts and in some instances vocational (post-graduate) training. Early exposure activities encourage students to achieve success in appropriate school subjects, address deficiencies in careers advice and offer tertiary enrichment opportunities. Support for students to transition into and within health professional programmes is required including bridging/foundation programmes, admission policies/quotas and institutional mission statements demonstrating a commitment to achieving equity. Retention/completion support includes academic and pastoral interventions and institutional changes to ensure safer

  10. The impact of marital status on epilepsy-related health concerns.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John O; Charyton, Christine; McAuley, James W; Shneker, Bassel F

    2011-08-01

    Social support from marriage has been linked with better health outcomes. Persons with epilepsy (PWE) are significantly less likely to be married than persons without epilepsy. No previous studies have examined the impact of marriage on epilepsy-related health concerns. Outpatient PWE (n=267) were asked to identify their top five concerns on the Epilepsy Foundation Concerns Index. After controlling for clinical factors (seizure frequency, age of epilepsy diagnosis and disability status) PWE who were married were significantly less likely to report "Fear of being injured during a seizure" Odds Ratio (OR) 0.33, "Holding down a job" OR 0.29, "Getting the work or education you want" OR 0.29, "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.21 and "Lack of people's understanding of epilepsy" OR 0.27. Once we controlled for both clinical factors and demographic factors only one concern "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.24 remained significant. Our findings support several theories examining the health benefits of marriage related to selection, protection and economic resources. PWE are particularly prone to economic disparities due to lower educational attainment and unemployment. Earlier intervention especially for those with childhood onset epilepsy may help mitigate these disparities and their impact on social relationships and marriage.

  11. What can Pakistan do to address maternal and child health over the next decade?

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Hafeez, Assad

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan faces huge challenges in meeting its international obligations and agreed Millennium Development Goal targets for reducing maternal and child mortality. While there have been reductions in maternal and under-5 child mortality, overall rates are barely above secular trends and neonatal mortality has not reduced much. Progress in addressing basic determinants, such as poverty, undernutrition, safe water, and sound sanitary conditions as well as female education, is unsatisfactory and, not surprisingly, population growth hampers economic growth and development across the country. The devolution of health to the provinces has created challenges as well as opportunities for action. This paper presents a range of actions needed for change within the health and social sectors, including primary care, social determinants, strategies to reach the unreached, and accountability. PMID:26792061

  12. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  14. Analytical decision-making model for addressing the needs of allied health students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sharby, Nancy; Roush, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to (1) review the literature on students with disabilities (SWD) in higher education with a particular focus on allied health and related professions, and (2) propose an analytical decision-making model for assessing students' needs and providing reasonable accommodations in allied health education. Increasing numbers of SWD are entering higher education, but the rate of success for these students is lower than the rate for their nondisabled peers. A multitude of factors impact SWD, including the direct effects of the disabilities on learning and performing essential functions, academic and clinical faculty knowledge of the impact of disability in educational settings and their experience implementing accommodations, and the impact of legislation and institutional policies on service delivery. While all of these are important, the most critical issues appear to be academic and clinical faculty knowledge about how to address disability-related challenges in the educational environment and the support of SWD by those faculty. The proposed analytical decision-making model will assist allied health faculty in assessing students' needs and providing reasonable accommodations. This, in turn, will enable allied health faculty to support SWD to meet essential components while upholding academic integrity and meeting the requirements of the law. PMID:19361024

  15. Addressing the Health of Formerly Imprisoned Persons in a Distressed Neighborhood Through a Community Collaborative Board

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Vivian C.; Jemal, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study evaluating the structure and dynamic process of a Community Collaborative Board that had the goal of creating an evidence-based substance abuse/health intervention for previously incarcerated individuals. Meeting agendas, attendance, minutes, video recording of meetings, and in-depth interviews with 13 Community Collaborative Board members were used to conduct an independent process evaluation. Open coding identified quotes exemplifying specific themes and/or patterns across answers related to the desired domain. Several themes were identified regarding membership engagement, retention, and power distribution. Results showed member retention was due to strong personal commitment to the targeted problem. Analysis also revealed an unequal power distribution based on participants' background. Nevertheless, the development of an innovative, community-based health intervention manual was accomplished. Aspects of the process, such as incentives, subcommittees, and trainings, enhanced the Board's ability to integrate the community and scientific knowledge to accomplish its research agenda. Community-based participatory research was a useful framework in enhancing quality and efficiency in the development of an innovative, substance abuse/health intervention manual for distressed communities. Overall, this article sheds light on a process that illustrates the integration of community-based and scientific knowledge to address the health, economic, and societal marginalization of low-income, minority communities. PMID:26055460

  16. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic.

  17. Addressing the Health of Formerly Imprisoned Persons in a Distressed Neighborhood Through a Community Collaborative Board.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vivian C; Jemal, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    This article provides a case study evaluating the structure and dynamic process of a Community Collaborative Board that had the goal of creating an evidence-based substance abuse/health intervention for previously incarcerated individuals. Meeting agendas, attendance, minutes, video recording of meetings, and in-depth interviews with 13 Community Collaborative Board members were used to conduct an independent process evaluation. Open coding identified quotes exemplifying specific themes and/or patterns across answers related to the desired domain. Several themes were identified regarding membership engagement, retention, and power distribution. Results showed member retention was due to strong personal commitment to the targeted problem. Analysis also revealed an unequal power distribution based on participants' background. Nevertheless, the development of an innovative, community-based health intervention manual was accomplished. Aspects of the process, such as incentives, subcommittees, and trainings, enhanced the Board's ability to integrate the community and scientific knowledge to accomplish its research agenda. Community-based participatory research was a useful framework in enhancing quality and efficiency in the development of an innovative, substance abuse/health intervention manual for distressed communities. Overall, this article sheds light on a process that illustrates the integration of community-based and scientific knowledge to address the health, economic, and societal marginalization of low-income, minority communities.

  18. Addressing the Health of Formerly Imprisoned Persons in a Distressed Neighborhood Through a Community Collaborative Board.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vivian C; Jemal, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    This article provides a case study evaluating the structure and dynamic process of a Community Collaborative Board that had the goal of creating an evidence-based substance abuse/health intervention for previously incarcerated individuals. Meeting agendas, attendance, minutes, video recording of meetings, and in-depth interviews with 13 Community Collaborative Board members were used to conduct an independent process evaluation. Open coding identified quotes exemplifying specific themes and/or patterns across answers related to the desired domain. Several themes were identified regarding membership engagement, retention, and power distribution. Results showed member retention was due to strong personal commitment to the targeted problem. Analysis also revealed an unequal power distribution based on participants' background. Nevertheless, the development of an innovative, community-based health intervention manual was accomplished. Aspects of the process, such as incentives, subcommittees, and trainings, enhanced the Board's ability to integrate the community and scientific knowledge to accomplish its research agenda. Community-based participatory research was a useful framework in enhancing quality and efficiency in the development of an innovative, substance abuse/health intervention manual for distressed communities. Overall, this article sheds light on a process that illustrates the integration of community-based and scientific knowledge to address the health, economic, and societal marginalization of low-income, minority communities. PMID:26055460

  19. Occupational safety and health in The Gambia. Developing concern for worker health.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Bobb, Maram; Marquez, Shannon P

    2003-02-01

    It is important for the occupational health nursing community to develop an international interest in worker health in countries with limited resources. The collaboration between The Gambia and the University of Iowa discussed in this article can be replicated in other settings and need not be limited to academic institutions. Corporate sponsorship and inclusion of workplace safety criteria in business contracts provide incentives for fostering change in developing countries. PMID:12655982

  20. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  1. Understanding the Differences Between Oncology Patients and Oncology Health Professionals Concerning Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated whether spirituality/religiosity (S/R) plays an important role in the lives of cancer patients and in the work of health professionals who provide care for these patients. The correlations between spiritual quality of life (QOL) and the other QOL domain scores of patients and health professionals were also assessed. Moreover, QOL domain scores were compared between patients and health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 1050 participants (525 oncology patients and 525 health professionals) were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization quality of life spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB). To compare the groups with respect to the instruments’ domains, a quantile regression and an analysis of covariance model were used. The WHOQOL-Bref and WHOQOL-SRPB domains were correlated by performing Pearson and partial correlation tests. It was demonstrated that 94.1% of patients considered it important that health professionals addressed their spiritual beliefs, and 99.2% of patients relied on S/R to face cancer. Approximately, 99.6% of the patients reported that S/R support is necessary during cancer treatment; 98.3% of health professionals agreed that spiritual and religious support was necessary for oncology patients. Positive correlations between spiritual QOL and the other QOL domains were observed. When compared among themselves, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of spiritual QOL. In conclusion, S/R was an important construct in the minds of cancer patients and health professionals. Both groups often use S/R resources in their daily lives, which seems to positively affect their perceptions of QOL. Further studies are needed to determine how health professionals effectively address S/R during oncology practice. PMID:26632743

  2. A Road Map to Address the Social Determinants of Health Through Community Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Henize, Adrienne W; Beck, Andrew F; Klein, Melissa D; Adams, Monica; Kahn, Robert S

    2015-10-01

    Economic, environmental, and psychosocial needs are common and wide-ranging among families cared for in primary care settings. Still, pediatric care delivery models are not set up to systematically address these fundamental risks to health. We offer a roadmap to help structure primary care approaches to these needs through the development of comprehensive and effective collaborations between the primary care setting and community partners. We use Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a well-recognized conceptual model to organize, prioritize, and determine appropriate interventions that can be adapted to both small and large practices. Specifically, collaborations with community organizations expert in addressing issues commonly encountered in primary care centers can be designed and executed in a phased manner: (1) build the case for action through a family-centered risk assessment, (2) organize and prioritize risks and interventions, (3) develop and sustain interventions, and (4) operationalize interventions in the clinical setting. This phased approach to collaboration also includes shared vision, codeveloped plans for implementation and evaluation, resource alignment, joint reflection and adaptation, and shared decisions regarding next steps. Training, electronic health record integration, refinement by using quality improvement methods, and innovative use of clinical space are important components that may be useful in a variety of clinical settings. Successful examples highlight how clinical-community partnerships can help to systematically address a hierarchy of needs for children and families. Pediatricians and community partners can collaborate to improve the well-being of at-risk children by leveraging their respective strengths and shared vision for healthy families.

  3. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water. PMID:27505988

  4. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water.

  5. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M

    2001-01-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  6. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M

    2001-04-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  7. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology

    PubMed Central

    Or, Calvin K.L.; Valdez, Rupa S.; Casper, Gail R.; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention. PMID:19713630

  8. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: cause for concern & call for action.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, Singh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2014-08-01

    The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition), tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types) specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal) coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  9. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, Singh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2014-01-01

    The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition), tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types) specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal) coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries. PMID:25297351

  10. Antibiotic resistance as a major public health concern: epidemiology and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Veronica; Odone, Anna; Veronesi, Licia; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is mainly sustained by the improper use of antibiotics and has become a global public health concern both in the field of human and animal health. Italy has the highest prevalence of AMR among European countries, in particular carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, which reached 34.3% in 2013. Multidrug-resistant microorganisms' infections are associated with increased risk of complications, higher hospitalization rates, increased healthcare costs, loss of productivity and increased mortality. This paper summarizes the most recent epidemiological data regarding the spread of antibiotic resistance in Italy, consumption and economic impact, outlining the need for timely action and integrated approaches in all countries.

  11. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  12. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  13. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained. PMID:24581065

  14. Counseling on Early Childhood Concerns: Sleep Issues, Thumb-Sucking, Picky Eating, School Readiness, and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Arwa; Nasir, Laeth

    2015-08-15

    Family physicians are often a source of information and advice on early childhood concerns regarding sleep, thumb-sucking/pacifier use, picky eating, school readiness, and oral health. Evidence indicates that family variables are important in the genesis of sleep difficulties, and that traditional behavioral methods are not as effective as previously thought. Attention to family psychosocial well-being, especially maternal functioning, is important in addressing childhood sleep difficulties. Thumb-sucking and pacifier use may be associated with negative consequences if they persist, and referral is recommended after four years of age if appropriate behavioral interventions are ineffective. Picky eating is heavily influenced by environmental factors, and food neophobia is a normal stage of development. The main approaches to childhood eating problems include social modeling of normal eating behaviors, repeated exposures to new foods, and positive mealtime experiences. School readiness focuses on supporting the psychosocial variables that are associated with school success. Reading with the child enhances literacy skills. Quality early childhood education programs are also effective in enhancing school success. Delaying school entry is not beneficial and may be detrimental. School readiness includes the schools' role in supporting the learning needs of all children regardless of their abilities and skills. Oral health is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to overall health. Oral health should be incorporated into well-child visits beginning at the eruption of the first tooth. PMID:26280232

  15. Counseling on Early Childhood Concerns: Sleep Issues, Thumb-Sucking, Picky Eating, School Readiness, and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Arwa; Nasir, Laeth

    2015-08-15

    Family physicians are often a source of information and advice on early childhood concerns regarding sleep, thumb-sucking/pacifier use, picky eating, school readiness, and oral health. Evidence indicates that family variables are important in the genesis of sleep difficulties, and that traditional behavioral methods are not as effective as previously thought. Attention to family psychosocial well-being, especially maternal functioning, is important in addressing childhood sleep difficulties. Thumb-sucking and pacifier use may be associated with negative consequences if they persist, and referral is recommended after four years of age if appropriate behavioral interventions are ineffective. Picky eating is heavily influenced by environmental factors, and food neophobia is a normal stage of development. The main approaches to childhood eating problems include social modeling of normal eating behaviors, repeated exposures to new foods, and positive mealtime experiences. School readiness focuses on supporting the psychosocial variables that are associated with school success. Reading with the child enhances literacy skills. Quality early childhood education programs are also effective in enhancing school success. Delaying school entry is not beneficial and may be detrimental. School readiness includes the schools' role in supporting the learning needs of all children regardless of their abilities and skills. Oral health is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to overall health. Oral health should be incorporated into well-child visits beginning at the eruption of the first tooth.

  16. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  17. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  18. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  19. Addressing healthy aging populations in developing countries: unlocking the opportunity of eHealth and mHealth.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan; Miranda, J Jaime; Cheyne, Natalie E

    2014-01-01

    Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting how the ageing population access healthcare; this could be due to varying reasons such as geographical barriers, limited financial support and poor literacy. New information and communication technology, such as eHealth have the potential to improve access to healthcare, information exchange and improving public and personalised medicine for elderly groups. In this article we will first frame the context of information and communication technologies in light of an aging landscape. We will also discuss the problems related to implementing the needed infrastructure for uptake of new technology, with particular emphasis on developing countries. In so doing, we highlight areas where newer technologies can serve as promising tools or vehicles to address health and healthcare-related gaps and needs of elderly people living in resource-constrained settings.

  20. Determinants of Performance of Health Systems Concerning Maternal and Child Health: A Global Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J.; Arredondo López, Abel Armando

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. Methods A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Results Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year): higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4) vs Quartile 1(Q1) = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73), sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25), % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52), % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52) and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7). Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89) had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29), out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56). For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio), % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61), birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15), and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Conclusions Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results. PMID

  1. New directions in African bioethics: ways of including public health concerns in the bioethics agenda.

    PubMed

    Azetsop, Jacquineau

    2011-04-01

    Research ethics is the most developed aspect of bioethics in Africa. Most African countries have set up Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to provide guidelines for research and to comply with international norms. However, bioethics has not been responsive to local needs and values in the rest of the continent. A new direction is needed in African bioethics. This new direction promotes the development of a locally-grounded bioethics, shaped by a dynamic understanding of local cultures and informed by structural and institutional problems that impact the public's health, as well as cognisant of the salient contribution of social sciences and social epidemiology which can bring a lasting impact on African local communities. In today's post-Structural Adjustment Africa, where healthcare has been liberalized and its cost increased, a bioethics agenda that focuses essentially on disease management and clinical work remains blind in the face of a structural marginalization of the masses of poor. Instead, the multidimensional public health crisis, with which most African countries are confronted, calls for a bioethics agenda that focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on health promotion and advocacy. Such an approach to bioethics reckons with the macro-determinants of health and well-being and places clinical and research ethics in the broader context of population's health. The same approach underscores the need to become political, not only by addressing health policymaking processes and procedures, but also by becoming an advocacy forum that includes other constituencies equipped with the potentialities to impact the population's health.

  2. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744 PMID:24583270

  3. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  4. Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Karen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Addei, Sheila; Kalage, Rose; Maredza, Mandy; Sankoh, Osman; Bangha, Martin; Kahn, Kathleen; Becher, Heiko; Haafkens, Joke; Kinsman, John

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH), and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. Objective As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries – Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa – as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. Methods SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. Results SDH-relevant training is available, but 1) the number of places available for students is limited; 2) the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3) insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the

  5. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8th, 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26512362

  6. Public health concerns for neighbors of large-scale swine production operations.

    PubMed

    Thu, K M

    2002-05-01

    This article provides a review and critical synthesis of research related to public health concerns for neighbors exposed to emissions from large-scale swine production operations. The rapid industrialization of pork production in the 1990s produced a generation of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) of a size previously unseen in the U.S. Recent research and results from federally sponsored scientific symposia consistently indicate that neighbors of large-scale swine CAFOs can experience health problems at significantly higher rates than controlled comparison populations. Symptoms experienced by swine CAFO neighbors are generally oriented toward irritation of the respiratory tract and are consistent with the types of symptoms among interior confinement workers thathave been well documented in the occupational health literature. However, additional exposure assessment research is required to elucidate the relationship of reported symptoms among swine CAFO neighbors and CAFO emissions. PMID:12046804

  7. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    PubMed

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  8. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents. PMID:23421046

  9. From Cancer to Diarrhea: The Moving Target of Public Concern about Environmental Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public concern about the environment can be unpredictable because it is influenced by numerous factors. Environmental health issues often emerge as important because the public is worried about their health especially when it comes to cancer. Public fear of cancer from environmental exposures is reinforced by many of the US regulations that set pollutant limits based on reducing the risk of cancers rather than other health outcomes. While fear of cancer will never dissipate, recent foodborne outbreaks are contributing to raising public awareness of the health effects from microbes. This paper adds to the dialogue about the challenges of enhancing public understanding of environmental health issues. Internal factors, such as worry, that contribute to public outrage are sometimes more important than external factors such as the media. In addition, relying on the media to inform the public about imminent public health risks may be an ineffective approach to enhancing understanding. In the end, scientists and risk communicators are forced to compete with politicians who are often very effective at manipulating public understanding of risk. PMID:22174587

  10. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  11. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  12. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  13. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  14. An addressable conducting network for autonomic structural health management of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kosuke; Park, Jong Se; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The electrical resistance change method (ERCM) has long been an area of interest as an in-service health monitoring system. To apply the ERCM to existing structures, a new concept, the addressable conducting network (ACN), is proposed for autonomic structural health management of graphite/polymer composites. The ACN consists of two sets of conducting lines normal to each other, where one set resides on the top surface of the laminate and the other on the bottom surface. Damage can be detected by monitoring the resistance change 'through the laminate thickness' between two lines. By using a thermally mendable polymer as the matrix, the same conducting lines can be used to supply the electric current needed for resistive heating, thereby allowing the detected damage to be healed. As shown experimentally, the electrical resistance change method using an ACN distinguishes between laminates made of properly and improperly cured prepreg as well as revealing damage generated during three-point bending tests. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the feasibility of the ACN and indicated that the damage can be easily located from the spatial distribution of resistance changes and that the damaged area can be locally heated by supplying a large amount of current to selected conducting lines.

  15. Paraprofessional Home Visitors' Perspectives on Addressing Poor Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…

  16. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23) and focus group discussions (n=7) were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies), staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism), overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills

  17. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J.; Bates, David W.; Glenn Cohen, I.; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G. J.; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M.; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Context: The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Objectives: Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. Methods: To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. Findings: The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and Ethics) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility.Ethics: Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate

  18. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  19. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  20. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators

  1. A best-worst scaling survey of adolescents' level of concern for health and non-health consequences of smoking.

    PubMed

    Marti, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    This paper uses best-worst scaling, a choice-based survey method, to assess adolescents' level of concern for various adverse consequences of tobacco use. In addition to health risks cited most often (i.e., lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases), the study also focuses on less frequently mentioned health implications (e.g., effects on teeth, appearance, skin, weight and sexual dysfunction) and other adverse effects that are unrelated to health, such as cost, addiction, or manipulation by the tobacco industry. The relative importance of 15 items was assessed in a sample of 376 adolescents (ages 14-19 years) in Western Switzerland. The resulting data provide rich information on the relative importance of the items considered and even allow for the assessment of individual-level preference scales. The results indicate that apart from lung cancer that is consistently rated as being of most concern, less-mentioned health risks such as reduced physical capacity and sexual dysfunction are of significant importance. Subgroup analyses and results from a random parameter approach highlight substantial heterogeneity in preferences that should be exploited in future prevention messages. PMID:22503838

  2. The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys

    PubMed Central

    Krill, Patrick R.; Johnson, Ryan; Albert, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Rates of substance use and other mental health concerns among attorneys are relatively unknown, despite the potential for harm that attorney impairment poses to the struggling individuals themselves, and to our communities, government, economy, and society. This study measured the prevalence of these concerns among licensed attorneys, their utilization of treatment services, and what barriers existed between them and the services they may need. Methods: A sample of 12,825 licensed, employed attorneys completed surveys, assessing alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Results: Substantial rates of behavioral health problems were found, with 20.6% screening positive for hazardous, harmful, and potentially alcohol-dependent drinking. Men had a higher proportion of positive screens, and also younger participants and those working in the field for a shorter duration (P < 0.001). Age group predicted Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores; respondents 30 years of age or younger were more likely to have a higher score than their older peers (P < 0.001). Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among attorneys were significant, with 28%, 19%, and 23% experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. Conclusions: Attorneys experience problematic drinking that is hazardous, harmful, or otherwise consistent with alcohol use disorders at a higher rate than other professional populations. Mental health distress is also significant. These data underscore the need for greater resources for lawyer assistance programs, and also the expansion of available attorney-specific prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:26825268

  3. Toileting concerns, parenting stress, and behavior problems in children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Roberts, Kathryn M; Saylor, Conway F; Fussell, Jill J

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between toileting concerns, behavior problems, and parenting stress in parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Participants included parents of 99 males and 71 females aged 4 to 12 years with neural tube defects (NTD), developmental-behavioral disabilities (DBD), or history of perinatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Parents completed the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Parents expressing toileting concerns on the CBCL reported significantly more personal distress and more externalizing problems versus those with continent children. Variation within subsamples suggested that expectations based on nature of disability may be a factor in parent adjustment. Direct assessment and intervention of toileting issues should be a high priority in secondary stress prevention with CSHCN and their families.

  4. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  5. Addressing the physical health of people with serious mental illness: A potential solution for an enduring problem.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Stanton, Robert

    2016-03-01

    People with serious mental illness face significant inequalities in physical health care. As a result, the risk of cardiometabolic disorders and premature mortality is far greater than that observed in the general population. Contributiung to this disparity, is the lack of routine physical health screening by mental health clinicians. One possible solution is the implimentation of a physical health nurse consultant, whose role is to monitor and coordinate the physical health care of people with serious mental illness. Current evidence supports the implimentation of such a role, and a failure to address the widening gaps in physical health care will only serve to increase the disparities faced by people with serious mental illness.

  6. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery.

  7. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery. PMID:23871435

  8. Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ravid, N L; Annunziato, R A; Ambrose, M A; Chuang, K; Mullarkey, C; Sicherer, S H; Shemesh, E; Cox, A L

    2012-02-01

    As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL and distress are affected compared with other illnesses, assessment of distress and QoL in parents compared with children, concerns about food allergy-related bullying, and the necessity for evidence-based interventions. Suggestions are offered for how to improve QoL and reduce distress on the way to better coping with food allergy.

  9. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadar, Haji; Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  10. Addressing Student Mental Health Needs by Providing Direct and Indirect Services and Building Alliances in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…

  11. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  12. Appealing to altruism: an alternative strategy to address the health workforce crisis in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Goodman, Catherine; English, Mike; Mullei, Kethi; Pagaiya, Nonglak; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Erasmus, Ermin; Hanson, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of health workers is a major concern. Policy initiatives emphasize financial incentives, despite mixed evidence of their effectiveness. Qualitative studies suggest that nurses especially may be more driven by altruistic motivations, but quantitative research has overlooked such values. This paper adds to the literature through characterizing the nature and determinants of nurses’ altruism, based on a cross-country quantitative study. Methods An experimental ‘dictator game’ was undertaken with 1064 final year nursing students in Kenya, South Africa and Thailand between April 2007 and July 2008. This presents participants with a real financial endowment to split between themselves and another student, a patient or a poor person. Giving a greater share of this financial endowment to the other person is interpreted as reflecting greater altruism. Results Nursing students gave over 30% of their initial endowment to others (compared with 10% in similar experiments undertaken in other samples). Respondents in all three countries showed greater generosity to patients and the poor than to fellow students. Conclusions Consideration needs to be given to how to appeal to altruistic values as an alternative strategy to encourage nurses to enter the profession and remain, such as designing recruitment strategies to increase recruitment of altruistic individuals who are more likely to remain in the profession. PMID:22915772

  13. Military Medical Students' Awareness and Practice Concerning Occupational Health and Safety.

    PubMed

    Babayigit, Mustafa Alparslan; Ilhan, Mustafa Necmi; Oysul, Fahrettin Guven

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the awareness and practices of military medical students concerning occupational health and safety. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire composed of 20 open- and closed-ended questions was administered to medical students of the Gulhane Military Medical Faculty (n = 754). The response rate of the questionnaire was 82.4% (n = 622/754). The mean age of the participants was 21.5 ± 1.84 years, and the majority of participants were male (94.1%). A substantial number of participants (41.1%) described their level of awareness and practice as "low/very low," although 95.0% and 76.7% of them had never acquired any occupational disease or had any work accidents, respectively. In total, 28.1% of all students had at least one vaccination, and 5th- and 6th-year students were 92 times and 63 times more likely to have been vaccinated than 1st-year students, respectively (odds ratio = 92.66, 95% confidence interval = 26.70-321.59; odds ratio = 63.01, 95% confidence interval = 17.96-221.01). The knowledge and practice level of medical students concerning occupational health and safety appeared to be increasing by the grades of medical faculty, however students expressed themselves as insufficient about their knowledge and practice level. PMID:27612358

  14. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  15. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of "xylene toxicity", "xylene toxic health effects", "environmental volatile organic compounds", "human exposure to xylene", "xylene poisoning in laboratory workers", "effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons", "neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons", and "toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals". According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene etc.) especially in petroleum and

  16. Direct to consumer testing in reproductive contexts--should health professionals be concerned?

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Direct to consumer genetic testing offered via the Internet has been available for over a decade. Initially most tests of this type were offered without the input of the consumer's own health professional. Ethical and practical concerns have been a raised over the use of such tests: these include fulfilling the requirement for informed consent, utility of results for health care management and the potential burden placed upon health services by people who have taken tests.These tests now have an application in reproductive healthcare. The advent of non-invasive prenatal testing has facilitated the genetic testing of the fetus using only a maternal blood sample. However, companies offering such tests, for example for aneuploidy, appear to be doing so based on a referral from the mother's health professional. Preconception or prenatal carrier testing for a range of autosomal recessive conditions can be purchased without the input of a health professional who knows the prospective parents. However, unless the appropriate mutations for the specific population are included in the test, results may create false reassurance. Paternity testing without the consent of the putative father is also available via the Internet, as are tests to ascertain the sex of the fetus, which may be used to select children of a specific gender.Direct-to-consumer tests may support prospective parents to identify genetic risk to their future children, however, it is important that they are aware of the possible limitations, as well as advantages, of these tests. National regulation may not prove effective in ensuring the safety of all individuals involved, therefore international pressure to ensure companies conform to Codes of Practice may be needed, especially in relation to tests that could influence reproductive decisions. However, health professionals have a duty to ensure they are sufficiently knowledgeable to enable them to guide patients appropriately.

  17. Direct to consumer testing in reproductive contexts--should health professionals be concerned?

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Direct to consumer genetic testing offered via the Internet has been available for over a decade. Initially most tests of this type were offered without the input of the consumer's own health professional. Ethical and practical concerns have been a raised over the use of such tests: these include fulfilling the requirement for informed consent, utility of results for health care management and the potential burden placed upon health services by people who have taken tests.These tests now have an application in reproductive healthcare. The advent of non-invasive prenatal testing has facilitated the genetic testing of the fetus using only a maternal blood sample. However, companies offering such tests, for example for aneuploidy, appear to be doing so based on a referral from the mother's health professional. Preconception or prenatal carrier testing for a range of autosomal recessive conditions can be purchased without the input of a health professional who knows the prospective parents. However, unless the appropriate mutations for the specific population are included in the test, results may create false reassurance. Paternity testing without the consent of the putative father is also available via the Internet, as are tests to ascertain the sex of the fetus, which may be used to select children of a specific gender.Direct-to-consumer tests may support prospective parents to identify genetic risk to their future children, however, it is important that they are aware of the possible limitations, as well as advantages, of these tests. National regulation may not prove effective in ensuring the safety of all individuals involved, therefore international pressure to ensure companies conform to Codes of Practice may be needed, especially in relation to tests that could influence reproductive decisions. However, health professionals have a duty to ensure they are sufficiently knowledgeable to enable them to guide patients appropriately. PMID:26085310

  18. Building nursing research capacity to address health disparities: engaging minority baccalaureate and master's students.

    PubMed

    Goeppinger, Jean; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Wanda; Campbell, Lenora; Roland, E Joyce

    2009-01-01

    In order to decrease health disparities, nursing needs to promote opportunities for minority nursing students to incorporate the conduct, as well as the utilization, of research into their professional careers. This article describes a model program to facilitate minority research career development, the Research Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program (REAP). REAP was developed and implemented by a federally funded partnership between 2 historically Black universities and a research-intensive university. Fifty-five (N = 55) baccalaureate and master's nursing students and 35 faculty members from the 3 schools participated in an intensive research mentorship program guided by learner-centered pedagogical approaches that culminated in the public presentation of students' research projects at a scientific poster session. Student, faculty, and institutional achievements, as well as challenges, were identified and addressed as the partnership evolved. Recognizing and building upon the strengths of both minority-serving and research-intensive institutions allowed the development of an exemplar program. While process measures provided many indicators of success, long-term evaluation of research career-related outcomes are needed. PMID:19447236

  19. A multi-tiered approach to addressing the mental health issues surrounding obesity in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Bazyk, Susan; Winne, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    Obesity in children and youth is a major public health concern known to have a significant impact on physical and mental health. Although traditional approaches to obesity have emphasized diet and exercise at the individual level, broader attention to the mental health consequences of obesity is crucial. Individuals who are obese live in a world where they are often less accepted resulting in social exclusion and discrimination. A public health multi-tiered approach to obesity focusing on mental health promotion, prevention, and individualized intervention is presented.

  20. A Conceptual Framework to Address Stress-Associated Human Health Effects of Ecosystem Services Degraded by Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic stress leads to a variety of mental and physiological disorders, and stress effects are the primary concern after traumatic injury and exposure to infectious diseases or toxic agents from disaster events. We developed a conceptual model to address the question of whether...

  1. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  2. Addressing the human resource for health crisis in Tanzania: the lost in transition syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirili, Nathanael; Kiwara, Angwara; Nyongole, Obadia; Frumence, Gasto; Semakafu, Avemaria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-04-01

    delay (for first appointment), difficulty working environment, limited carrier opportunities and concern for job security. The failure to enforce mandatory registration for internship and failure to absorb all produced MDs and DDS results to loss of a substantial number of these graduates during the graduation-internship-appointment period. To solve this problem, it is recommended to establish better human resource for health management system.

  3. Priorities and realities: addressing the rich-poor gaps in health status and service access in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor. PMID:22067727

  4. Activating people to address their health care needs: learning from people with lived experience of chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2014-08-01

    One of the primary goals of health care reform is improving the quality and reducing the costs of care for people with co-morbid mental health and physical health conditions. One strategy is to integrate primary and behavioral health care through care coordination and patient activation. This qualitative study using community based participatory research methods informs the development of integrated care by presenting the perspectives of those with lived experience of chronic illnesses and homelessness. Themes presented include the internal and external barriers to addressing health needs and the key role of peer support in overcoming these barriers.

  5. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N. Kamel; Brewer, Ann C.; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of ‘apps as a medical device’ and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of ‘apps as a medical device’. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers’ general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. ‘Happtique Health App Certification Program’ (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many “similar” quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web

  6. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Brewer, Ann C; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of 'apps as a medical device' and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of 'apps as a medical device'. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers' general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. 'Happtique Health App Certification Program' (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many "similar" quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web, when people

  7. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  8. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  9. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  10. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Children and Youth: A Role for SOPHE Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school,…

  11. The health reform monitoring survey: addressing data gaps to provide timely insights into the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Long, Sharon K; Kenney, Genevieve M; Zuckerman, Stephen; Goin, Dana E; Wissoker, Douglas; Blavin, Fredric; Blumberg, Linda J; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Holahan, John; Hempstead, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Health Reform Monitoring Survey (HRMS) was launched in 2013 as a mechanism to obtain timely information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA) during the period before federal government survey data for 2013 and 2014 will be available. Based on a nationally representative, probability-based Internet panel, the HRMS provides quarterly data for approximately 7,400 nonelderly adults and 2,400 children on insurance coverage, access to health care, and health care affordability, along with special topics of relevance to current policy and program issues in each quarter. For example, HRMS data from summer 2013 show that more than 60 percent of those targeted by the health insurance exchanges struggle with understanding key health insurance concepts. This raises concerns about some people's ability to evaluate trade-offs when choosing health insurance plans. Assisting people as they attempt to enroll in health coverage will require targeted education efforts and staff to support those with low health insurance literacy.

  12. Crosstalk: public cafés as places for knowledge translation concerning health care research.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power. PMID:24992638

  13. [Behaviour concerning smoking among the patients making use of advice in women health centres].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Szymański, Przemysław; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    The level of knowledge in the society about the harmful influence of smoking is increasing systematically. But there are still many people ignoring the warnings and prohibitions concerning smoking. The results of the research show that it is highly worrying that there are people for whom smoking is incredibly dangerous, e.g. children, youth, women, especially pregnant women. The aim of the work was to establish the percentage of smoking women among the patients of the women health centre, with the special focus on pregnant women. There were 120 women encompassed in this study in the health centre in Opoczno and 120 women using a similar health centre in Lodz between the 1st and the 15th March 2007, using a auditoria survey questionnaire. The collected data was worked out statistically. In the group of 240 tested people, 87 admitted to smoking, which is 36.3% of the respondents. Among the 185 women who were not pregnant, but were smoking, there were 75 (40.5%) and in the group of 55 pregnant women, there were 12 who smoked (f=0.22). Over 22% of the smoking women smoked over 10 cigarettes a day. From among 87 of the surveyed, 35.6% claimed they smoked everywhere they wanted. Majority of the respondents that is 52.9% lived with at least one other smoking person. Over 70% of them would like to quit smoking. Almost 48% stated their doctor has never talked with them about the influence of smoking on their health and almost 42% stated that no nurse or midwife has ever talked to them about this subject. Frequency of smoking among the tested people who were using the women health centre was high. Especially worrying was the percentage of the smoking pregnant women--every fifth of them smoked. PMID:18409321

  14. [Behaviour concerning smoking among the patients making use of advice in women health centres].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Szymański, Przemysław; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    The level of knowledge in the society about the harmful influence of smoking is increasing systematically. But there are still many people ignoring the warnings and prohibitions concerning smoking. The results of the research show that it is highly worrying that there are people for whom smoking is incredibly dangerous, e.g. children, youth, women, especially pregnant women. The aim of the work was to establish the percentage of smoking women among the patients of the women health centre, with the special focus on pregnant women. There were 120 women encompassed in this study in the health centre in Opoczno and 120 women using a similar health centre in Lodz between the 1st and the 15th March 2007, using a auditoria survey questionnaire. The collected data was worked out statistically. In the group of 240 tested people, 87 admitted to smoking, which is 36.3% of the respondents. Among the 185 women who were not pregnant, but were smoking, there were 75 (40.5%) and in the group of 55 pregnant women, there were 12 who smoked (f=0.22). Over 22% of the smoking women smoked over 10 cigarettes a day. From among 87 of the surveyed, 35.6% claimed they smoked everywhere they wanted. Majority of the respondents that is 52.9% lived with at least one other smoking person. Over 70% of them would like to quit smoking. Almost 48% stated their doctor has never talked with them about the influence of smoking on their health and almost 42% stated that no nurse or midwife has ever talked to them about this subject. Frequency of smoking among the tested people who were using the women health centre was high. Especially worrying was the percentage of the smoking pregnant women--every fifth of them smoked.

  15. Crosstalk: public cafés as places for knowledge translation concerning health care research.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power.

  16. International recruitment of health workers: British lessons for Europe? Emerging concerns and future research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Mariona; Meardi, Guglielmo; Martín-Artiles, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Immigration as a solution to staff and skill shortages in the health system is increasingly on the agenda in the European Union. This article highlights the related social and policy dilemmas by comparing a new destination country with an old destination country: Spain and the United Kingdom. After describing the challenges met by the United Kingdom, we ask how well-prepared Spain is to face the same issues. In particular, attention is paid to the occupational mobility of health workers after entry and to how immigration as a staffing solution poses new political and social challenges. Through a review of background information regarding the immigration of health workers in the two countries and the preliminary analysis of 15 exploratory interviews, we aim to identify the primary trends and key concerns for future analysis. Although our interviews only allow us to draw tentative conclusions, they do highlight emerging issues to be explored in the near future. Our conclusions show that many of the problems traditionally encountered in the United Kingdom are now emerging in Spain, suggesting scope for further collaboration among government, employers, and other stakeholders across the European Union. PMID:25813503

  17. International recruitment of health workers: British lessons for Europe? Emerging concerns and future research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Mariona; Meardi, Guglielmo; Martín-Artiles, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Immigration as a solution to staff and skill shortages in the health system is increasingly on the agenda in the European Union. This article highlights the related social and policy dilemmas by comparing a new destination country with an old destination country: Spain and the United Kingdom. After describing the challenges met by the United Kingdom, we ask how well-prepared Spain is to face the same issues. In particular, attention is paid to the occupational mobility of health workers after entry and to how immigration as a staffing solution poses new political and social challenges. Through a review of background information regarding the immigration of health workers in the two countries and the preliminary analysis of 15 exploratory interviews, we aim to identify the primary trends and key concerns for future analysis. Although our interviews only allow us to draw tentative conclusions, they do highlight emerging issues to be explored in the near future. Our conclusions show that many of the problems traditionally encountered in the United Kingdom are now emerging in Spain, suggesting scope for further collaboration among government, employers, and other stakeholders across the European Union.

  18. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  19. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Katyal, Anuradha; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Renton, Adrian; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Background Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE), in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education. Methods We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design. Findings Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups. Conclusion During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the

  20. Costs of medicines and health care: a concern for Australian women across the ages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from Australia and other countries suggests that some individuals struggle to meet the costs of their health care, including medicines, despite the presence of Government subsidies for low-income earners. The aim of our study was to elucidate women’s experiences with the day to day expenses that relate to medicines and their health care. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) conducts regular surveys of women in three age cohorts (born 1973–78, 1946–51, and 1921–26). Our data were obtained from free text comments included in surveys 1 to 5 for each cohort. All comments were scanned for mentions of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours around the costs of medicines and health care. Relevant comments were coded by category and themes identified. Results Over 150,000 responses were received to the surveys, and 42,305 (27%) of these responses included free-text comments; 379 were relevant to medicines and health care costs (from 319 individuals). Three broad themes were identified: costs of medicines (33% of relevant comments), doctor visits (49%), and complementary medicines (13%). Age-specific issues with medicine costs included contraceptive medicines (1973–78 cohort), hormone replacement therapy (1946–51 cohort) and osteoporosis medications (1921–26 cohort). Concerns about doctor visits mostly related to reduced (or no) access to bulk-billed medical services, where there are no out-of-pocket costs to the patient, and costs of specialist services. Some women in the 1973–78 and 1946–51 cohorts reported ‘too much income’ to qualify for government health benefits, but not enough to pay for visits to the doctor. In some cases, care and medicines were avoided because of the costs. Personal feelings of embarrassment over financial positions and judgments about bulk-billing practices (‘good ones don’t bulk-bill’) were barriers to service use, as were travel expenses for rural women. Conclusions For

  1. Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ravid, N L; Annunziato, R A; Ambrose, M A; Chuang, K; Mullarkey, C; Sicherer, S H; Shemesh, E; Cox, A L

    2012-02-01

    As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL and distress are affected compared with other illnesses, assessment of distress and QoL in parents compared with children, concerns about food allergy-related bullying, and the necessity for evidence-based interventions. Suggestions are offered for how to improve QoL and reduce distress on the way to better coping with food allergy. PMID:22244234

  2. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Bartram, Jamie; Wade, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low- and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. PMID:27689546

  3. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  4. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shendell, Derek G.; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries. PMID:27382374

  5. An evaluation of EU legislation concerning risk assessment and preventive measures in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Naumanen, Paula; Hirvonen, Maria L

    2012-09-01

    The European Council Directive 89/391/EC of 12 June 1989 is concerned with the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the occupational safety and health. For example, it deals with risk assessment and preventive measures. The Finnish legislation enacts the risk assessment and prevention measures in a similar way as the EU Directive 89/391/EC. The aim of this study was to examine: 1) the implementation of risk assessment process as a part of OSH management, and 2) the effectiveness of the OSH legislation concerned with risk assessment. The quantitative method involved an online questionnaire. The respondents were employers (N = 1478), workers (N = 1416) and occupational care (OHC) professionals' units (N = 469). Three quarters of the employer respondents and two thirds of the workers and OHC service providers felt that the EU legislative provisions have promoted the engagement of the management. According to the study, improvement is needed in ensuring the cooperation between employers and workers. The combined variables of Risk Assessment Process revealed positive impacts both on Cooperation and Management Measures and on the Concrete Preventive Measures among the employers and the workers. The combined variables of Use of Documents of Risk Assessments highlighted positive impacts on both the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessments in Planning and Management and on the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessment in Cooperation and Technology.

  6. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good. PMID:16580984

  7. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.

  8. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries. PMID:27382374

  9. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of “xylene toxicity”, “xylene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “human exposure to xylene”, “xylene poisoning in laboratory workers”, “effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons”, “neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons”, and “toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals”. According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene

  10. Body vigilance in nonclinical and anxiety disorder samples: structure, correlates, and prediction of health concerns.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Deacon, Brett J; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Valentiner, David P

    2007-12-01

    The Body Vigilance Scale (BVS) is a measure developed to assess one's conscious attendance to internal cues. The present report investigated the structure, correlates, and predictive utility of the BVS in nonclinical (N=442) and anxiety (N=135) disorder samples. The findings of Study 1 suggest that the BVS is 1-dimensional in a nonclinical sample, and Study 2 replicated the factor structure of the BVS in an anxiety disorder sample. Correlations between the BVS and related (i.e., anxiety sensitivity) and unrelated (i.e., social anxiety) variables were consistent with predictions in both studies. Study 2 also showed that body vigilance is primarily elevated in patients with panic disorder relative to other anxiety disorders. Relative elevations in body vigilance were also observed for patients with hypochondriasis and generalized anxiety disorder. The BVS also demonstrated a specific association with medical utilization and health-related safety-seeking behaviors after controlling for related variables in nonclinical and anxiety disorder samples. The implications of our findings for the nature and measurement of body vigilance as a predictor of health concerns in anxiety disorders are considered.

  11. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance: Origin, Diagnosis, Treatment and Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Juan; Yang, Hai-Fei; Ye, Ying; Li, Jia-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the origin, diagnosis, treatment and public health concern of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria. Data Sources: We searched database for studies published in English. The database of PubMed from 2007 to 2015 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term “NDM and Acinetobacter or Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.” Study Selection: We collected data including the relevant articles on international transmission, testing methods and treatment strategies of NDM-positive bacteria. Worldwide NDM cases were reviewed based on 22 case reports. Results: The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM-1 occurred in India, in 2008. Since then, 13 blaNDM variants have been reported. The rise of NDM is not only due to its high rate of genetic transfer among unrelated bacterial species, but also to human factors such as travel, sanitation and food production and preparation. With limited treatment options, scientists try to improve available therapies and create new ones. Conclusions: In order to slow down the spread of these NDM-positive bacteria, a series of measures must be implemented. The creation and transmission of blaNDM are potentially global health issues, which are not issues for one country or one medical community, but for global priorities in general and for individual wound care practitioners specifically. PMID:26168840

  12. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  13. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  14. Addressing health disparities in highly specialized minority populations: case study of Mexican Mennonite farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Treaster, Cyndi; Hawley, Suzanne R; Paschal, Angelia M; Molgaard, Craig A; St Romain, Theresa

    2006-04-01

    The Kansas Statewide Farmworker Health Program (KSFHP) has developed a unique set of culturally competent health interventions in response to the pressing public health needs of the state's underserved farmworker population. Key among these are its health education and translation efforts on behalf of the fast-growing Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite farmworker population. Linguistic, religious, and cultural values have created unique and complex health disparities and barriers to care that can be broken down only through innovative approaches. KSFHP first conducted a health needs assessment survey of the farmworker population in 2003, which indicated prenatal care practices as a significant health disparity, especially among the Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite population. In response, KSFHP successfully lobbied the state health department to implement a new standard of health behavior data collection that includes primary language data as a method of delineating population subgroups, making Kansas one of the first two states in the country to collect this information. KSFHP also developed culturally competent Low German-language recordings on health topics such as prenatal care in accordance with the information delivery needs of the Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite farmworker population. Currently, a pilot program is in progress that offers additional outreach, health education, and interpretation, among other services. The work of the KSFHP has significant implications for further research into health disparities, specialized minority populations, and culturally competent data collection methods.

  15. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  16. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  17. Online anonymous discussion between service users and health professionals to ascertain stakeholder concerns in using e-health services in mental health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ray B; Ashurst, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of e-health in mental health services requires that we are aware of stakeholders' concerns. We ascertained the views of mental health professionals and mental health service users through the (1) development of 12 topics based on the research literature, (2) presentation to 31 participants (19 mental health professionals and 12 mental health service users) and discussion in three 1-week programmes, (3) thematic analysis of transcripts, and (4) comparison with the literature to identify areas requiring attention in e-health implementation. This method of engaging mental health service users and mental health professionals was effective. We identified areas that (1) should be the first to implement (e.g. discussion forums, email, and Skype), (2) where further education and engagement are necessary before e-health methods could be used (e.g. unsupported computerised cognitive behavioural therapy, computer-patient interviewing, and patient access to online medical records), and (3) for further research (e.g. the impact of bad online experiences).

  18. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  19. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  20. How Can the eCampus Be Organized and Run To Address Traditional Concerns, but Maintain an Innovative Approach to Providing Educational Access? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #3. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Joyce

    This paper discusses the findings of St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question: "How can the eCampus be organized and run to address traditional faculty concerns, but maintain an innovative approach to providing educational access?" In order to evaluate this question, a list was compiled of faculty issues identified by…