Science.gov

Sample records for address important biological

  1. Importing biological materials.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P

    2001-05-01

    This overview discusses critical issues regarding importing of restricted biological materials along with criteria for handling these materials. Guidelines for importing non-restricted biological materials are also covered. Recommendations are given for packaging biological materials for export, and finally, the necessary steps for obtaining an import permit application are outlined. PMID:18429071

  2. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  3. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  4. [Important issues of biological safety].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  5. [Important issues of biological safety].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  6. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  7. Importance of Addressing Sexuality in Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated Certified Rehabilitation Counselors' (CRCs) beliefs about the importance of addressing sexuality issues during rehabilitation. A modified version of the Family Life Sex Education Goals Questionnaire (FLSEGQ) was completed by 199 CRCs to determine which issues CRCs believe are most important to address. Six sexuality-related…

  8. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  9. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data.

  10. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  11. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo. PMID:20672079

  12. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtov, K. V.; Petunin, A. I.; Burov, A. E.; Puzyr, A. P.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody-antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo.

  13. Biology: An Important Agricultural Engineering Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the field of bioengineering with particular emphasis on agricultural engineering, and presents the results of a survey of schools that combine biology and engineering in their curricula. (JR)

  14. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  15. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  16. The Importance of Biological Databases in Biological Discovery.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Andreas D; Bateman, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Biological databases play a central role in bioinformatics. They offer scientists the opportunity to access a wide variety of biologically relevant data, including the genomic sequences of an increasingly broad range of organisms. This unit provides a brief overview of major sequence databases and portals, such as GenBank, the UCSC Genome Browser, and Ensembl. Model organism databases, including WormBase, The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), and those made available through the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource, are also covered. Non-sequence-centric databases, such as Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Protein Data Bank (PDB), MetaCyc, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), are also discussed. PMID:26094768

  17. MICA polymorphism: biology and importance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A gene (MICA) encodes a membrane-bound protein acting as a ligand to stimulate an activating receptor, NKG2D, expressed on the surface of essentially all human natural killer (NK), γδ T and CD8(+) αβ T cells. MICA protein is absent from most cells but can be induced by infections and oncogenic transformation and is frequently expressed in epithelial tumors. Upon binding to MICA, NKG2D activates cytolytic responses of NK and γδ T cells against infected and tumor cells expressing MICA. Therefore, membrane-bound MICA acts as a signal during the early immune response against infection or spontaneously arising tumors. On the other hand, human tumor cells spontaneously release a soluble form of MICA, causing the downregulation of NKG2D and in turn severe impairment of the antitumor immune response of NK and CD8(+) T cells. This is considered to promote tumor immune evasion and also to compromise host resistance to infections. MICA is the most polymorphic non-classical class I gene. A possible association of MICA polymorphism with genetic predisposition to different cancer types has been investigated in candidate gene-based studies. Two genome-wide association studies have identified loci in MICA that influence susceptibility to cervical neoplasia and hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. Given the current level of interest in the field of MICA gene, we discuss the genetics and biology of the MICA gene and the role of its polymorphism in cancer. Gaps in our understanding and future research needs are also discussed.

  18. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  19. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of chromenes: biological and chemical importance.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Renukadevi

    2015-01-01

    Chromenes constitute chemically important class of heterocyclic compounds having diverse biological and chemical importance. Development of environmentally benign, efficient and economical methods for the synthesis of chromenes remains a significant challenge in synthetic chemistry. The synthesis of chromenes, therefore, has attracted enormous attention from medicinal and organic chemists. Researchers have embraced the concepts of microwave (high speed) synthesis to produce biologically and chemically important chromenes in a time sensitive manner. This review will summarize the recent biological applications such as anticancer, antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and insecticidal activity of new chromenes prepared via microwave irradiation. The development of new methodologies for the synthesis of chromenes including green chemistry processes has also been discussed.

  1. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nugala, Babitha; Kumar, BB Santosh; Sahitya, S; Krishna, P Mohana

    2012-01-01

    An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry. PMID:22368328

  2. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  3. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-03-31

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  4. Model calculations of nuclear data for biologically-important elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Reffo, G.; Young, P.G.

    1994-05-01

    We describe calculations of neutron-induced reactions on carbon and oxygen for incident energies up to 70 MeV, the relevant clinical energy in radiation neutron therapy. Our calculations using the FKK-GNASH, GNASH, and ALICE codes are compared with experimental measurements, and their usefulness for modeling reactions on biologically-important elements is assessed.

  5. Infrared Structural Biology: Detect Functionally Important Structural Motions of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua

    Proteins are dynamic. Lack of dynamic structures of proteins hampers our understanding of protein functions. Infrared structural biology (IRSB) is an emerging technology. There are several advantages of IRSB for mechanistic studies of proteins: (1) its excellent dynamic range (detecting structural motions from picoseconds to >= seconds); (2) its high structural sensitivity (detect tiny but functionally important structural motions such as proton transfer and changes in hydrogen bonding interaction); (3) its ability to detect different structural motions simultaneously. Successful development of infrared structural biology demands not only new experimental techniques (from infrared technologies to chemical synthesis and cell biology), but also new data processing (how to translate infrared signals into quantitative structural information of proteins). These topics will be discussed as well as examples of how to use IRSB to study structure-function relationship of proteins. This work was supported by NSF DBI1338097 and OCAST HR10-078.

  6. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  7. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision

    PubMed Central

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences. PMID:22773951

  8. Interconversion of biologically important carboxylic acids by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interconversion of a group of biologically important polycarboxylic acids (acetic, fumaric, malic, malonic, succinic, citric, isocitric, tricarballylic) under gamma-ray or ultraviolet radiation was investigated. The formation of high molecular weight compounds was observed in all cases. Succinic acid was formed in almost all radiolysis experiments. Citric, malonic, and succinic acids appeared to be relatively insensitive to radiation. Interconversion of the polycarboxylic acids studied may have occurred under the effect of radiation in the prebiotic earth.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-hydroxyoxindoles: an update.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Xing, Hui; Yu, De-Quan; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Oxindole scaffolds are prevalent in natural products and have been recognized as privileged substructures in new drug discovery. Several oxindole-containing compounds have advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of different diseases. Among these compounds, enantioenriched 3-hydroxyoxindole scaffolds also exist in natural products and have proven to possess promising biological activities. A large number of catalytic asymmetric strategies toward the construction of 3-hydroxyoxindoles based on transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis have been reported in the last decades. Additionally, 3-hydroxyoxindoles as versatile precursors have also been used in the total synthesis of natural products and for constructing structurally novel scaffolds. In this review, we aim to provide an overview about the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-substituted 3-hydroxyoxindoles and 3-hydroxyoxindole-based further transformations. PMID:27340490

  10. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-hydroxyoxindoles: an update

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oxindole scaffolds are prevalent in natural products and have been recognized as privileged substructures in new drug discovery. Several oxindole-containing compounds have advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of different diseases. Among these compounds, enantioenriched 3-hydroxyoxindole scaffolds also exist in natural products and have proven to possess promising biological activities. A large number of catalytic asymmetric strategies toward the construction of 3-hydroxyoxindoles based on transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis have been reported in the last decades. Additionally, 3-hydroxyoxindoles as versatile precursors have also been used in the total synthesis of natural products and for constructing structurally novel scaffolds. In this review, we aim to provide an overview about the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-substituted 3-hydroxyoxindoles and 3-hydroxyoxindole-based further transformations. PMID:27340490

  11. Observations of large biologically important interstellar and cometary molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony John

    There has been much interest in recent years in astronomical searches for large biologically-important molecules which possess known millimeter wavelength transitions. Biologically-important species include amino acids, possible precursors to amino acids, and other biologically interesting molecules. This thesis continued the search for large biomolecules towards hot molecular cores (HMCs) associated with ultracompact (HC) HII regions and comets. First, we followed up the detection of acetic acid (CH3COOH) towards Sgr B2(N-LMH) by performing a survey of transitions with large line strengths toward several hot core regions. There has been great interest in searching a variety of star forming regions for interstellar acetic acid because it shares common structural elements with glycine (NH2CH2 COOH), the simplest amino acid, and because it is an isomer to both methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO). In our survey we detected two new sources of acetic acid and placed constraints on the detectability of acetic acid elsewhere with current generation radio telescopes. Second, in order to study the physical conditions that lead to the formation of large biomolecules toward HMCs, we observed the hot core regions W51 e1 and e2 using the symmetric top species methyl cyanide (CH3CN). Symmetric tops have properties that make them ideal probes of hot molecular cores. Thus, we obtained better measurements of the physical conditions present in these regions and a better understanding of the chemistry that forms large molecular species. Third, using multiply degenerate transitions in both the 3 mm and 1 mm wavelength regions, we conducted the most extensive survey for the elusive biomolecule urea [(NH2)2CO] toward the high mass hot molecular core sources, Sgr B2(N-LMH) and W51 e2. As a result, our spectral line data support the first detection of interstellar urea toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). Finally, we discuss the observational results of an extensive survey for

  12. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  13. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

  14. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Jouhet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts. PMID:24348497

  15. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  16. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  17. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  18. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  19. First impressions in complementary practice: the importance of environment, dress and address to the therapeutic relationship.

    PubMed

    Turner, Roger Newman; Leach, Janine; Robinson, David

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore patients' views of the importance of environmental and social factors within a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice. A cross-sectional patient survey was conducted in 37 CAM practices across nine geographical areas of the UK using a structured questionnaire. The 219 responders (response rate 59%) were 65% female. The most common treatment modalities were osteopathy and acupuncture. Patients rated telephone manner, practitioner appearance and explanatory literature as very important factors in shaping first impressions and influencing their confidence in the complementary practice. Patients' preferences for practitioner dress code were highly variable. Overall 65% preferred a white coat to casual dress. A multivariate analysis revealed that this preference was statistically significantly greater in two geographical regions and in patients over 70 years old. It was not influenced by gender or treatment modality. Further research is recommended in order to understand how the complex verbal and non-verbal communication implicit in the CAM setting may affect the therapeutic relationship.

  20. Addressing the Impact of Foster Care on Biological Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Maha N.; Harp, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study explores from a dual perspective the impact of the fostering process on biological children in the home. Ten foster parents and their biological children were interviewed separately. The impact of foster care on the psychological, educational, and social well-being of biological children and their relationship with parents and siblings…

  1. The Age of the Earth & Its Importance to Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Biology textbooks tend to assert the correctness of evolutionary concepts but mention very little of the evidence that supports them. This gives the impression that evolutionary theory is poorly supported, which discourages acceptance of the theory. A case in point is the age of the Earth. Biology textbooks usually mention that the planet is…

  2. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to raise awareness of the critical importance of chronic early absence, synthesize available data on the scope of the challenge, and share emerging insights about how schools and communities can use chronic early absence to identify and address challenges affecting the social, educational and physical well-being of children and…

  3. Important biological activities induced by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venom.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Farsky, Sandra H P; Takehara, Harumi Ando; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2005-02-01

    The accidents caused by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms are frequent and represent a public health problem in some regions of Venezuela. Most accidents occur in the fishing communities and tourists. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema, and necrosis. Due to the lack of efficient therapy it may take weeks, or even months for complete recovery of the victims. The investigations presented here were undertaken to assess the eletrophoretical profile and principal biological properties of the T. maculosa venom. Venom obtained from fresh captured specimens of this fish was tested in vitro or in animal models for a better characterization of its toxic activities. In contrast to other fish venoms, T. maculosa venom showed relative low LD50. The injection of venom in the footpad of mice reproduced a local inflammatory lesion similar to that described in humans. Significant increase of the nociceptive and edematogenic responses was observed followed within 48 h by necrosis. Pronounced alterations on microvascular hemodynamics were visualized after venom application. These alterations were represented by fibrin depots and thrombus formation followed by complete venular stasis and transient arteriolar contraction. T. maculosa venom is devoid of phospholipase A2 activity, but the venom showed proteolytic and myotoxic activities. SDS-Page analysis of the crude venom showed important bands: one band located above 97 M(w), one band between 68 and 97 M(w), one major band between 29 and 43 M(w) and the last one located below 18.4 M(w) Then, the results presented here support that T. maculosa venom present a mixture of bioactive toxins involved in a local inflammatory lesion. PMID:15626364

  4. Developmental biology teaching - the importance of a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, John F

    2015-01-01

    The huge growth in knowledge in many areas of biological sciences over the past few decades has created a major dilemma for those of us in higher education, for not only must we adequately and efficiently convey these new facts and concepts to our students, we must also ensure that they understand and appreciate them. The field of developmental biology has witnessed such a massive growth in knowledge since the mid-1980s, driven mainly by advances in cell and molecular biology, and the development of new imaging techniques and tools. Ensuring that students fully appreciate the four-dimensional nature of embryonic development and morphogenesis is a particular issue, and one that I argue can only be properly learned via direct exposure to embryos via laboratory practicals. PMID:26167273

  5. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  6. Seed traits and genes important for translational biology--highlights from recent discoveries.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Martin, Ruth C; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Seeds provide food, feed, fiber and fuel. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural crops. In this review, seed traits and genes that are potentially important for agricultural applications are discussed. Over the long period of crop domestication, seed traits have been modified through intentional or unintentional selections. While most selections have led to seed traits favorable for agricultural consumption, such as larger seeds with higher nutritional value than the wild type, other manipulations in modern breeding sometimes led to negative traits, such as vivipary, precocious germination on the maternal plant or reduced seed vigor, as a side effect during the improvement of other characteristics. Greater effort is needed to overcome these problems that have emerged as a consequence of crop improvement. Seed biology researchers have characterized the function of many genes in the last decade, including those associated with seed domestication, which may be useful in addressing critical issues in modern agriculture, such as the prevention of vivipary and seed shattering or the enhancement of yields. Recent discoveries in seed biology research are highlighted in this review, with an emphasis on their potential for translational biology.

  7. Importing the homology concept from biology into developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Moore, David S

    2013-01-01

    To help introduce the idea of homology into developmental psychology, this article presents some of the concepts, distinctions, and guidelines biologists and philosophers of biology have devised to study homology. Some unresolved issues related to this idea are considered as well. Because homology reflects continuity across time, developmental scientists should find this concept to be useful in the study of psychological/behavioral development, just as biologists have found it essential in the study of the evolution and development of morphological and other characteristics.

  8. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Gurr, Geoff M.; You, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles. PMID:26793225

  9. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints.

    PubMed

    Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular - particularly DNA-related - techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to 'who eats whom' questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now - in turn - are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles.

  10. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    PubMed Central

    La Barre, Stéphane; Potin, Philippe; Leblanc, Catherine; Delage, Ludovic

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology. PMID:20479964

  11. Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kenian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiaqian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation and leads to protein diversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalent in metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern is dynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types, including embryonic stem cells. These observations suggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cell biology. Since embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to all types of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of future cell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, most of the studies focused on the expression of a core set of transcription factors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem cell differentiation was not clear. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed the profiling of dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that are responsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and provided novel insights in a number of studies. In this review, we discuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells. An emerging picture from these findings is that AS is integrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks and together they control pluripotency maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25621101

  12. The importance of rheumatology biologic registries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Maria; da Silveira de Carvalho, Hellen M; Ventura Ríos, Lucio; Goycochea Robles, Maria V; Casado, Gustavo C

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint articular pain and disability. Although there is scarcity of data available on the incidence and prevalence of RA in Latin America, there is a growing recognition of this disease where chronic diseases are on the rise and infectious disease on the decline. RA is a substantial burden to patients, society, and the healthcare system. The heterogeneity identified within RA presents an opportunity for personalized medicine, especially in regions with such demographic diversity as that of Latin America. To understand the long-term effects of treatment for RA especially on safety, registries have been established, a number of which have been created in Latin America. Despite their weaknesses (e.g., lack of controls and randomization), registries have provided additional and complementary information on the use of biologics in clinical practice in Latin America and other regions. Although certain challenges remain in the implementation and maintenance of registries, they continue to provide real-life data to clinical practice contributing to improved patient care.

  13. Biological importance and applications of squalene and squalane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Karadeniz, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Squalene is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon with a formula of C₃₀H₅₀. Squalene can be found in certain fish oils, especially shark liver oil, in high amounts and some vegetable oils in relatively smaller amounts. Human sebum also contains 13% squalene as one of its major constituents. Squalane is a saturated derivative of squalene and also found in these sources. Interest in squalene has been raised after its characterization in shark liver oil which is used as a traditional medicine for decades. Several studies exhibited results that prove certain bioactivities for squalene and squalane. Up to date, anticancer, antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, skin hydrating, and emollient activities of these substances have been reported both in animal models and in vitro environments. According to promising results from recent studies, squalene and squalane are considered important substances in practical and clinical uses with a huge potential in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinita; Agarwal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:25383216

  15. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, C Richard; Nussear, K E; Esque, T C; Dean-Bradley, K; Tracy, C R; Defalco, L A; Castle, K T; Zimmerman, L C; Espinoza, R E; Barber, A M

    2006-12-01

    Many of the threats to the persistence of populations of sensitive species have physiological or pathological mechanisms, and those mechanisms are best understood through the inherently integrative discipline of physiological ecology. The desert tortoise was listed under the Endangered Species Act largely due to a newly recognized upper respiratory disease thought to cause mortality in individuals and severe declines in populations. Numerous hypotheses about the threats to the persistence of desert tortoise populations involve acquisition of nutrients, and its connection to stress and disease. The nutritional wisdom hypothesis posits that animals should forage not for particular food items, but instead, for particular nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus used in building bones. The optimal foraging hypothesis suggests that, in circumstances of resource abundance, tortoises should forage as dietary specialists as a means of maximizing intake of resources. The optimal digestion hypothesis suggests that tortoises should process ingesta in ways that regulate assimilation rate. Finally, the cost-of-switching hypothesis suggests that herbivores, like the desert tortoise, should avoid switching food types to avoid negatively affecting the microbe community responsible for fermenting plants into energy and nutrients. Combining hypotheses into a resource acquisition theory leads to novel predictions that are generally supported by data presented here. Testing hypotheses, and synthesizing test results into a theory, provides a robust scientific alternative to the popular use of untested hypotheses and unanalyzed data to assert the needs of species. The scientific approach should focus on hypotheses concerning anthropogenic modifications of the environment that impact physiological processes ultimately important to population phenomena. We show how measurements of such impacts as nutrient starvation, can cause physiological stress, and that the endocrine mechanisms

  16. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, C.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Dean-Bradley, K.; DeFalco, L.A.; Castle, K.T.; Zimmerman, L.C.; Espinoza, R.E.; Barber, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the threats to the persistence of populations of sensitive species have physiological or pathological mechanisms, and those mechanisms are best understood through the inherently integrative discipline of physiological ecology. The desert tortoise was listed under the Endangered Species Act largely due to a newly recognized upper respiratory disease thought to cause mortality in individuals and severe declines in populations. Numerous hypotheses about the threats to the persistence of desert tortoise populations involve acquisition of nutrients, and its connection to stress and disease. The nutritional wisdom hypothesis posits that animals should forage not for particular food items, but instead, for particular nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus used in building bones. The optimal foraging hypothesis suggests that, in circumstances of resource abundance, tortoises should forage as dietary specialists as a means of maximizing intake of resources. The optimal digestion hypothesis suggests that tortoises should process ingesta in ways that regulate assimilation rate. Finally, the cost-of-switching hypothesis suggests that herbivores, like the desert tortoise, should avoid switching food types to avoid negatively affecting the microbe community responsible for fermenting plants into energy and nutrients. Combining hypotheses into a resource acquisition theory leads to novel predictions that are generally supported by data presented here. Testing hypotheses, and synthesizing test results into a theory, provides a robust scientific alternative to the popular use of untested hypotheses and unanalyzed data to assert the needs of species. The scientific approach should focus on hypotheses concerning anthropogenic modifications of the environment that impact physiological processes ultimately important to population phenomena. We show how measurements of such impacts as nutrient starvation, can cause physiological stress, and that the endocrine mechanisms

  17. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network: An Effective Infrastructure for Addressing Important Issues in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a rapidly evolving field with active preclinical and clinical development of new strategies for patient assessment, graft selection and manipulation, and pre- and post-transplantation drug and cell therapy. New strategies require evaluation in definitive clinical trials; however, HCT trials face unique challenges, including the relatively small number of transplantations performed at any single center, the diverse indications for HCT requiring dissimilar approaches, the complex nature of the intervention itself, the risk of multiple complications in the immediate post-transplantation period, and the risk of important, though infrequent, late effects. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) was established by the US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute to meet these challenges. In its 15 years as a network, the BMT CTN has proven to be a successful infrastructure for planning, implementing, and completing such trials and for providing definitive answers to questions leading to improvements in the understanding and practice of HCT. It has opened 37 trials, about one-half phase 2 and one-half phase 3, enrolled more than 8000 patients, and published 57 papers addressing important issues in the treatment of patients with life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. This review describes the network's accomplishments, key components of its success, lessons learned over the past 15 years, and challenges for the future.

  18. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  19. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  20. Enhancing psychosocial outcomes for young adult childhood CNS cancer survivors: importance of addressing vocational identity and community integration.

    PubMed

    Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W K

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years (mean=22, SD=3.62), with a mean age at diagnosis of 8.8 years. Four standardized instruments were used to assess the individual's affect, satisfaction with life, vocational identity, and self-perceived level of community integration. Pearson correlation analyses were carried out to examine the relationships between the satisfaction with life and positive and negative affect, vocational identify, and community integration. A hierarchical linear regression was then performed to determine how well these variables predict satisfaction with life among CNS cancer survivors. Significant positive correlations were found between life satisfaction and positive affect (r=0.423, P<0.01), as well as life satisfaction and community integration (r=-505, P<0.001). A positive correlation between life satisfaction and vocational identity was only marginally significant (r=0.312, P<0.05). Regression results indicate that the model explained 29% of the variance with community integration making a unique contribution. The largest contribution of this study is that the findings provide initial evidence that addressing vocational identity and community integration may be important constructs in improving young adult CNS survivors' overall levels of satisfaction with life. These constructs have not been typically addressed in psychosocial cancer treatment programs.

  1. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  2. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  3. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  4. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  5. Adoptive Parents, Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura; Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary legal and scholarly debates emphasize the importance of biological parents for children's well-being. Scholarship in this vein often relies on stepparent families even though adoptive families provide an ideal opportunity to explore the role of biology in family life. In this study, we compare two-adoptive-parent families with other…

  6. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  7. Identification of Important Nodes in Directed Biological Networks: A Network Motif Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Lü, Jinhu; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-01-01

    Identification of important nodes in complex networks has attracted an increasing attention over the last decade. Various measures have been proposed to characterize the importance of nodes in complex networks, such as the degree, betweenness and PageRank. Different measures consider different aspects of complex networks. Although there are numerous results reported on undirected complex networks, few results have been reported on directed biological networks. Based on network motifs and principal component analysis (PCA), this paper aims at introducing a new measure to characterize node importance in directed biological networks. Investigations on five real-world biological networks indicate that the proposed method can robustly identify actually important nodes in different networks, such as finding command interneurons, global regulators and non-hub but evolutionary conserved actually important nodes in biological networks. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for the five networks indicate remarkable prediction accuracy of the proposed measure. The proposed index provides an alternative complex network metric. Potential implications of the related investigations include identifying network control and regulation targets, biological networks modeling and analysis, as well as networked medicine. PMID:25170616

  8. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. Argument-Driven Inquiry to Promote the Understanding of Important Concepts & Practices in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Victor; Gleim, Leeanne

    2009-01-01

    Inquiry is an integral part of the teaching and learning of science. However, many science teachers are unsure of how to promote and support inquiry in the classroom or how to design lessons that engage students in inquiry in a way that improves students' understanding of important concepts and practices in biology. In this article, the authors…

  11. Invasion Biology on Your Campus: Investigating the Red Imported Fire Ant in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forys, Elizabeth A.; Kelly, William B.; Ward, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity on invasion biology to improve students' cognitive skills as well as manual skills. Requires students to develop hypotheses in which a common invasive species will succeed. Focuses on the red imported fire ant in the Southeastern United States, which is a non-native invasive species. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  12. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  13. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  14. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  15. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  16. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  17. The Importance of the Biological Impact of Exposure to the Concept of the Exposome

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Kristine K.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Balshaw, David M.; Cui, Yuxia; Fallin, Margaret Daniele; Smith, Martyn T.; Spira, Avrum; Sumner, Susan; Miller, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term “exposome” was originally coined in 2005 and defined as the totality of exposures throughout the lifetime. The exposome provides an excellent scientific framework for studying human health and disease. Recently, it has been suggested that how exposures affect our biology and how our bodies respond to such exposures should be part of the exposome. Objectives: The authors describe the biological impact of the exposome and outline many of the targets and processes that can be assessed as part of a comprehensive analysis of the exposome. Discussion: The processes that occur downstream from the initial interactions with exogenous and endogenous compounds determine the biological impact of exposures. If the effects are not considered in the same context as the exposures, it will be difficult to determine cause and effect. The exposome and biology are interactive—changes in biology due to the environment change one’s vulnerability to subsequent exposures. Additionally, highly resilient individuals are able to withstand environmental exposures with minimal effects to their health. We expect that the vast majority of exposures are transient, and chemicals underlying exposures that occurred weeks, months, or years ago are long gone from the body. However, these past chemical exposures often leave molecular fingerprints that may be able to provide information on these past exposures. Conclusions: Through linking exposures to specific biological responses, exposome research could serve to improve understanding of the mechanistic connections between exposures and health to help mitigate adverse health outcomes across the lifespan. Citation: Dennis KK, Auerbach SS, Balshaw DM, Cui Y, Fallin MD, Smith MT, Spira A, Sumner S, Miller GW. 2016. The importance of the biological impact of exposure to the concept of the exposome. Environ Health Perspect 124:1504–1510; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP140 PMID:27258438

  18. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces. PMID:27503887

  19. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    Karp, Peter D; Berger, Bonnie; Kovats, Diane; Lengauer, Thomas; Linial, Michal; Sabeti, Pardis; Hide, Winston; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) 2016, Orlando, Florida).

  20. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers’ global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces. PMID:27503887

  1. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces.

  2. 42 CFR 71.54 - Import regulations for infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... threat to public health and safety as listed in 42 CFR 73.3 and 73.4. Vector. Any animals (vertebrate or... issued under this part is not required for an item if: (1) It is a biological agent listed in 42 CFR Part 73 as a select agent and its importation has been authorized in accordance with 42 CFR 73.16 or 9...

  3. 42 CFR 71.54 - Import regulations for infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... threat to public health and safety as listed in 42 CFR 73.3 and 73.4. Vector. Any animals (vertebrate or... issued under this part is not required for an item if: (1) It is a biological agent listed in 42 CFR Part 73 as a select agent and its importation has been authorized in accordance with 42 CFR 73.16 or 9...

  4. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  5. Seeing the forest for the trees: the limitations of phylogenies in comparative biology. (American Society of Naturalists Address).

    PubMed

    Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-06-01

    The past 30 years have seen a revolution in comparative biology. Before that time, systematics was not at the forefront of the biological sciences, and few scientists considered phylogenetic relationships when investigating evolutionary questions. By contrast, systematic biology is now one of the most vigorous disciplines in biology, and the use of phylogenies not only is requisite in macroevolutionary studies but also has been applied to a wide range of topics and fields that no one could possibly have envisioned 30 years ago. My message is simple: phylogenies are fundamental to comparative biology, but they are not the be-all and end-all. Phylogenies are powerful tools for understanding the past, but like any tool, they have their limitations. In addition, phylogenies are much more informative about pattern than they are about process. The best way to fully understand the past-both pattern and process-is to integrate phylogenies with other types of historical data as well as with direct studies of evolutionary process.

  6. Parasitoid nutritional ecology in a community context: the importance of honeydew and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Tena, Alejandro; Wäckers, Felix L; Heimpel, George E; Urbaneja, Alberto; Pekas, Apostolos

    2016-04-01

    One focus of conservation biological control studies has been to improve the nutritional state and fitness of parasitoids by adding nectar and artificial sugars to agroecosystems. This approach has largely overlooked the presence of honeydew, which is likely the primary carbohydrate source available to parasitoids in many agroecosystems. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that parasitoids often utilize this sugar source and there is evidence that honeydew can indirectly impact the population dynamics of herbivores through its nutritional value for parasitoids. The consumption of honeydew by parasitoids can shape direct and indirect interactions with other arthropods. The strength of these effects will depend on: first, parasitoid biology, second, the presence of other sugar sources (mainly nectar), third, the quality and quantity of the honeydew, and fourth, the presence and competitive strength of other honeydew consumers such as ants. The combination of these four factors is expected to result in distinct scenarios that should be analyzed for each agroecosystem. This analysis can reveal opportunities to increase the biocontrol services provided by parasitoids. Moreover, honeydew can be a resource-rich habitat for insect pathogens; or contain plant secondary chemicals sequestered by hemipterans or systemic insecticides toxic for the parasitoid. Their presence and effect on parasitoid fitness will need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27436654

  7. The importance of scientific evaluation of biological evidence--data from eight years of case review.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Heather Miller

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the National Research Council published a report stating that the addition of more science and technology into the field of forensic science in the United States would be of great benefit to the judicial system. As a starting point to address this NRC report, one needs to make an assessment of the system. One factor that is continuously requested is an estimate of an error rate. In any given scientific area of forensics that is difficult to quantitate except by external review and audits. After eight years of requested defense review of cases with biological and DNA evidence, most cases appear to be scientifically sound in test methods and procedures. However, there were some cases where errors in the forensic science process did occur. This article takes information compiled from those eight years of defense review and summarizes the cases where errors have been discovered and discusses the scientific implications of these errors. The scope of this article is limited to crime scene collection and forensic science laboratory testing of biological materials for body fluid identification and DNA individualization to a source. The greatest value of defense review comes from (a) providing effective balance and independent oversight to the judicial process and (b) collecting data into a format that can be useful as a guide in training programs.

  8. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges with a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented…

  9. The biological importance of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin backup systems in bivalves during peroxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Delapedra, Gabriel; Arl, Miriam; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-10-01

    Organic peroxide elimination in eukaryotes essentially depends on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes, which are supported by their respective electron donors, glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx). This system depends on the ancillary enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to maintain GSH and Trx in their reduced state. This study discusses the biological importance of GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx during cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) exposure in brown mussel Perna perna. ZnCl2 or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenze (CDNB) was used to decrease GR and TrxR activities in gills, as already reported with mammals and bivalves. ZnCl2 exposure lowered GR activity (28%), impaired the in vivo CHP decomposition and decreased the survival rates under CHP exposure. CDNB decreased GR (54%) and TrxR (73%) activities and induced glutathione depletion (99%), promoting diminished peroxide elimination and survival rates at a greater extent than ZnCl2. CDNB also increased the susceptibility of hemocytes to CHP toxicity. Despite being toxic and causing mortality at longer exposures, short (2 h) exposure to CHP promoted an up regulation of GSH (50 and 100 μM CHP) and protein-thiol (100 μM CHP) levels, which was blocked by ZnCl2 or CDNB pre-exposure. Results highlight the biological importance of GSH, GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx activities, contributing to organic peroxides elimination and mussel survival under oxidative challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates, albeit indirectly, the biological importance of GPx/GR/GSH and Prx/TrxR/Trx systems on in vivo organic peroxide elimination in bivalves.

  10. Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  11. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  12. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen’s d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen’s d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen’s d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. PMID:26194205

  13. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations.

  14. [The importance of model organisms to study cilia and flagella biology].

    PubMed

    Vincensini, Laetitia; Blisnick, Thierry; Bastin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 proteins, can be either immotile or motile. They are involved in a myriad of biological processes, including sensing (non-motile cilia) and/or cell motility or movement of extracellular fluids (motile cilia). The ever-expanding list of human diseases linked to defective cilia illustrates the functional importance of cilia and flagella. These ciliopathies are characterised by an impressive diversity of symptoms and an often complex genetic etiology. A precise knowledge of cilia and flagella biology is thus critical to better understand these pathologies. However, multi-ciliated cells are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate, and a primary cilium is assembled only when the cell exits from the cell cycle. In this context the use of model organisms, that relies on the high degree of structural but also of molecular conservation of these organelles across evolution, is instrumental to decipher the many facets of cilia and flagella biology. In this review, we highlight the specific strengths of the main model organisms to investigate the molecular composition, mode of assembly, sensing and motility mechanisms and functions of cilia and flagella. Pioneering studies carried out in the green alga Chlamydomonas established the link between cilia and several genetic diseases. Moreover, multicellular organisms such as mouse, zebrafish, Xenopus, C. elegans or Drosophila, and protists like Paramecium, Tetrahymena and Trypanosoma or Leishmania each bring specific advantages to the study of cilium biology. For example, the function of genes involved in primary ciliary dyskinesia (due to defects in ciliary motility) can be efficiently assessed in trypanosomes.

  15. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  16. Toxicological importance of human biomonitoring of metallic and metalloid elements in different biological samples.

    PubMed

    Gil, F; Hernández, A F

    2015-06-01

    Human biomonitoring has become an important tool for the assessment of internal doses of metallic and metalloid elements. These elements are of great significance because of their toxic properties and wide distribution in environmental compartments. Although blood and urine are the most used and accepted matrices for human biomonitoring, other non-conventional samples (saliva, placenta, meconium, hair, nails, teeth, breast milk) may have practical advantages and would provide additional information on health risk. Nevertheless, the analysis of these compounds in biological matrices other than blood and urine has not yet been accepted as a useful tool for biomonitoring. The validation of analytical procedures is absolutely necessary for a proper implementation of non-conventional samples in biomonitoring programs. However, the lack of reliable and useful analytical methodologies to assess exposure to metallic elements, and the potential interference of external contamination and variation in biological features of non-conventional samples are important limitations for setting health-based reference values. The influence of potential confounding factors on metallic concentration should always be considered. More research is needed to ascertain whether or not non-conventional matrices offer definitive advantages over the traditional samples and to broaden the available database for establishing worldwide accepted reference values in non-exposed populations.

  17. Student perceptions: Importance of and satisfaction with aspects of an online biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Sheila R.

    Research of student satisfaction with various facets of an online biology course, as well as the perceived importance of these aspects, was conducted during the summer and fall 2004 semesters within a course, History of Biology, at a university in the southeastern United States. This research is based on the theory of transactional distance, which involves dialogue between the teacher and student, the physical environments of both the student and teacher, and the emotional environments of each. Student ratings of importance and satisfaction regarding aspects of convenience, grade earned/knowledge learned, emotional health, communication, and student support were collected toward the end of each semester, via the online course, using the researcher-designed Student Perceptions Survey. Statistics with repeated measures ANOVA, using an alpha of 0.05, determined differences between importance and satisfaction ratings for each of these aspects. Students perceived grade earned/knowledge learned to be the most important aspect of learning online, although it is not an aspect unique to online courses. All of the aspects included in the study were found to be at least somewhat important. Convenience was the aspect with which students were most satisfied, with students at least somewhat satisfied with the other aspects. Although convenience is an inherent strength of the online course format, instructors should be aware of how important it is to design requirements of the online class to help students acquire knowledge while allowing them to do so at their own pace. Well-structured content, prompt feedback, encouragement of quality student-instructor communication, and student support are all parts of a positive online course experience. The Student Perceptions Survey, created specifically for this research, can have substantial value both in the creation of new online courses and in the evaluation of pre-existing courses. It can provide important information that can be

  18. Biologically relevant 3D tumor arrays: treatment response and the importance of stromal partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Imran; Celli, Jonathan P.; Xu, Feng; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Muzikansky, Alona; Elrington, Stefan A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Demirci, Utkan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-02-01

    The development and translational potential of therapeutic strategies for cancer is limited, in part, by a lack of biological models that capture important aspects of tumor growth and treatment response. It is also becoming increasingly evident that no single treatment will be curative for this complex disease. Rationally-designed combination regimens that impact multiple targets provide the best hope of significantly improving clinical outcomes for cancer patients. Rapidly identifying treatments that cooperatively enhance treatment efficacy from the vast library of candidate interventions is not feasible, however, with current systems. There is a vital, unmet need to create cell-based research platforms that more accurately mimic the complex biology of human tumors than monolayer cultures, while providing the ability to screen therapeutic combinations more rapidly than animal models. We have developed a highly reproducible in vitro three-dimensional (3D) tumor model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer (OvCa), which in conjunction with quantitative image analysis routines to batch-process large datasets, serves as a high throughput reporter to screen rationally-designed combination regimens. We use this system to assess mechanism-based combination regimens with photodynamic therapy (PDT), which sensitizes OvCa to chemo and biologic agents, and has shown promise in clinic trials. We show that PDT synergistically enhances carboplatin efficacy in a sequence dependent manner. In printed heterocellular cultures we demonstrate that proximity of fibroblasts enhances 3D tumor growth and investigate co-cultures with endothelial cells. The principles described here could inform the design and evaluation of mechanism-based therapeutic options for a broad spectrum of metastatic solid tumors.

  19. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  20. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  1. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution. PMID:27688704

  2. Importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation in the evaluation of biological experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclei of cells within the bodies of astronauts traveling on extended missions outside the geomagnetosphere will experience single traversals of particles with high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) (e.g., one iron ion per one hundred years, on average) superimposed on a background of tracks with low LET (approximately one proton every two to three days, and one helium ion per month). In addition, some cell populations within the body will be proliferating, thus possibly providing increasing numbers of cells with 'initiated' targets for subsequent radiation hits. These temporal characteristics are not generally reproduced in laboratory experimental protocols. Implications of the differences in the temporal patterns of radiation delivery between conventionally designed radiation biology experiments and the pattern to be experienced in space are examined and the importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation are pointed out in the context of radiation risk assessment on long mission in space.

  3. Importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation in the evaluation of biological experimental results.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B

    1994-01-01

    The nuclei of cells within the bodies of astronauts traveling on extended missions outside the geomagnetosphere will experience single traversals of particles with high LET (e.g., one iron ion per one hundred years, on average) superimposed on a background of tracks with low LET (approximately one proton every two to three days, and one helium ion per month). In addition, some cell populations within the body will be proliferating, thus possibly providing increasing numbers of cells with "initiated" targets for subsequent radiation hits. These temporal characteristics are not generally reproduced in laboratory experimental protocols. Implications of the differences in the temporal patterns of radiation delivery between conventionally designed radiation biology experiments and the pattern to be experienced in space are examined and the importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation are pointed out in the context of radiation risk assessment on long missions in space. PMID:11538040

  4. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution. PMID:27688704

  5. Mutarotation in biologically important pure L-fucose and its enantiomer.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, P; Cecotka, A; Adrjanowicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2013-09-18

    The sugar specific mutarotation reaction in biologically important L-fucose and its enantiomer in the pure, anhydrous, supercooled liquid state has been studied. Kinetics measurements in the temperature range 313-328 K at ambient pressure have been performed by means of dielectric spectroscopy, a method widely used for studying the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. The kinetic curves have been obtained by tracking the equilibration process in sugar melted and quenched to the desired temperature. Thereafter, an activation energy equal to Ea = 140 kJ mol(-1) for D-fucose and Ea = 123 kJ mol(-1) for L-fucose has been derived from the Arrhenius fit of temperature dependent rate constants. It was also shown that the kinetics curves at the lowest temperatures studied have sigmoidal shape, which was connected to the high concentration of furanosidic forms.

  6. Mutarotation in biologically important pure L-fucose and its enantiomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, P.; Cecotka, A.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Kaminski, K.; Paluch, M.

    2013-09-01

    The sugar specific mutarotation reaction in biologically important L-fucose and its enantiomer in the pure, anhydrous, supercooled liquid state has been studied. Kinetics measurements in the temperature range 313-328 K at ambient pressure have been performed by means of dielectric spectroscopy, a method widely used for studying the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. The kinetic curves have been obtained by tracking the equilibration process in sugar melted and quenched to the desired temperature. Thereafter, an activation energy equal to Ea = 140 kJ mol-1 for D-fucose and Ea = 123 kJ mol-1 for L-fucose has been derived from the Arrhenius fit of temperature dependent rate constants. It was also shown that the kinetics curves at the lowest temperatures studied have sigmoidal shape, which was connected to the high concentration of furanosidic forms.

  7. Naked-eye detection of biologically important anions by a new chromogenic azo-azomethine sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian, Khatereh; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2014-12-01

    A new chromogenic azo-azomethine sensor, containing active phenolic sites, has been designed and synthesized via condensation reaction of N,N,N‧,N‧-tetrakis(2-aminoethyl)-2,2-dimethyl propane-1,3-diamine with 1-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-4-nitrobenzene. The anion recognition ability of the synthesized receptor was evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR technique. The anion recognition studies exhibited that the receptor acts as a sensor for biologically important anions such as F-, AcO- and H2PO4- over other anions. The binding stoichiometry between sensor and anions was found to be 1:2. 1H NMR experiment revealed that sensor recognizes anions via H-bonds and subsequent deprotonation to elicit a vivid color change. Interestingly, the sensory system not only let for the naked eye detection without any spectroscopic instrumentation but also helped to discriminate between anions.

  8. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  9. Transport of biologically important nutrients by wind in an eroding cold desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Benner, Shawn G.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion following fire is an important landscape process that can result in the redistribution of ecologically important soil resources. In this study we evaluated the potential for a fire patch in a desert shrubland to serve as a source of biologically important nutrients to the adjacent, downwind, unburned ecosystem. We analyzed nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al) in wind-transported sediments, and soils from burned and adjacent unburned surfaces, collected during the first to second growing seasons after a wildfire that burned in 2007 in Idaho, USA in sagebrush steppe; a type of cold desert shrubland. We also evaluated the timing of potential wind erosion events and weather conditions that might have contributed to nutrient availability in downwind shrubland. Findings indicated that post-fire wind erosion resulted in an important, but transient, addition of nutrients on the downwind shrubland. Aeolian sediments from the burned area were enriched relative to both the up- and down-wind soil and indicated the potential for a fertilization effect through the deposition of the nutrient-enriched sediment during the first, but not second, summer after wildfire. Weather conditions that could have produced nutrient transport events might have provided increased soil moisture necessary to make nutrients accessible for plants in the desert environment. Wind transport of nutrients following fire is likely important in the sagebrush steppe as it could contribute to pulses of resource availability that might, for example, affect plant species differently depending on their phenology, and nutrient- and water-use requirements.

  10. Integration of biological ion channels onto optically addressable micro-fluidic electrode arrays for single molecule characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Bachand, George David; Keller, David J.; Patrick, Elizabeth L.; Marshall, Jason A.; Ortiz, Theodore P.; Meyer, Lauren A.; Davis, Ryan W.; Brozik, James A.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter

    2004-12-01

    The challenge of modeling the organization and function of biological membranes on a solid support has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily driven by potential applications in biosensor design. Affinity-based biosensors show great promise for extremely sensitive detection of BW agents and toxins. Receptor molecules have been successfully incorporated into phospholipid bilayers supported on sensing platforms. However, a collective body of data detailing a mechanistic understanding of membrane processes involved in receptor-substrate interactions and the competition between localized perturbations and delocalized responses resulting in reorganization of transmembrane protein structure, has yet to be produced. This report describes a systematic procedure to develop detailed correlation between (recognition-induced) protein restructuring and function of a ligand gated ion channel by combining single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and single channel current recordings. This document is divided into three sections: (1) reported are the thermodynamics and diffusion properties of gramicidin using single molecule fluorescence imaging and (2) preliminary work on the 5HT{sub 3} serotonin receptor. Thirdly, we describe the design and fabrication of a miniaturized platform using the concepts of these two technologies (spectroscopic and single channel electrochemical techniques) for single molecule analysis, with a longer term goal of using the physical and electronic changes caused by a specific molecular recognition event as a transduction pathway in affinity based biosensors for biotoxin detection.

  11. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Sobradillo, Patricia; Celli, Bartolomé

    2011-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels. However, its diagnosis, assessment, and therapeutic management are based almost exclusively on the severity of airflow limitation. A better understanding of the multiple dimensions of COPD and its relationship to other diseases is very relevant and of high current interest. Recent theoretical (scale-free networks), technological (high-throughput technology, biocomputing), and analytical improvements (systems biology) provide tools capable of addressing the complexity of COPD. The information obtained from the integrated use of those techniques will be eventually incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review summarizes our current knowledge in this area and offers an insight into the elements needed to progress toward an integrated, multilevel view of COPD based on the novel scientific strategy of systems biology and its potential clinical derivative, P4 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participatory).

  12. Important geological and biological impacts of natural hydrocarbon seeps: Northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, H.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Large volumes of siliciclastic sediments, input especially during periods of lowered sea level, and compensating salt tectonics have produced a continental slope that is arguably the most complex in today's oceans. Faults associated with deformation of salt and shale provide the primary migration routes for hydrocarbon gases, crude oil, brines, and formation fluids to the modern sea floor. Since the mid 1980s, it has become increasingly clearer that this process has an extremely important impact on the geomorphology, sedimentology, and biology of the modern continental slope. Hydrocarbon source, flux rate, and water depth are important determinants of sea-floor response. Under rapid flux conditions mud volcanoes (to 1 km wide and 50 m high) result, and hydrate hills (rich with authigenic carbonates), carbonate lithoherms, and isolated communities of chemosymbiotic organisms with associated hardgrounds represent much slower flux responses. In numerous moderate- to low-flux cases, cold seep products function to support islands of productivity for communities of chemosymbiotic organisms that contribute both directly (shell material) and through chemical byproducts to the production of massive volumes of calcium-magnesium carbonate in the form of hardgrounds, stacked slabs, and discrete moundlike buildups (commonly >20m). Seep-related carbonates of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope, as well those formed through degassing of accretionary prisms along active margins, are now thought to create hardgrounds and discrete buildups that are excellent analogs for many problematic carbonate buildups in ancient deep-water siliciclastic rocks.

  13. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noé U.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making. PMID:24466287

  14. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  15. Marine biological diversity: Some important issues, opportunities and critical research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Cheryl Ann; Carlton, James T.

    1995-07-01

    Marine biological diversity is changing, dramatically in some cases, and most recent changes are due to broad-scale human activities. Knowledge of "biodiversity" — the variety of genomes (the genetic material specifying all characteristics and functions within an organism), species and ecosystems — is the foundation for understanding and predicting how human and natural effects can change the ocean's ecosystems. Evaluating the scale and ultimate consequences to life in the sea of a plethora of anthropogenic effects is difficult, however, because there is inadequate knowledge of both the patterns of and the processes that control marine biodiversity. Recognizing change and evaluating its consequences require sufficient knowledge of present and historical natural patterns of biodiversity, and sufficient understanding of how and why these patterns vary in space and time. Data on biodiversity patterns and their causes are sorely lacking for most marine ecosystems. Adequate understanding of what creates and maintains diversity must be the scientific underpinning for policy decisions regarding pollutant and waste disposal, habitat alteration, fisheries management and the preservation of threatened or endangered species. The inability, at this time, to provide such information to policy makers may have important implications for the conservation of marine life [Norse, 1993].

  16. Why the long face? The importance of vertical image structure for biological "barcodes" underlying face recognition.

    PubMed

    Spence, Morgan L; Storrs, Katherine R; Arnold, Derek H

    2014-07-29

    Humans are experts at face recognition. The mechanisms underlying this complex capacity are not fully understood. Recently, it has been proposed that face recognition is supported by a coarse-scale analysis of visual information contained in horizontal bands of contrast distributed along the vertical image axis-a biological facial "barcode" (Dakin & Watt, 2009). A critical prediction of the facial barcode hypothesis is that the distribution of image contrast along the vertical axis will be more important for face recognition than image distributions along the horizontal axis. Using a novel paradigm involving dynamic image distortions, a series of experiments are presented examining famous face recognition impairments from selectively disrupting image distributions along the vertical or horizontal image axes. Results show that disrupting the image distribution along the vertical image axis is more disruptive for recognition than matched distortions along the horizontal axis. Consistent with the facial barcode hypothesis, these results suggest that human face recognition relies disproportionately on appropriately scaled distributions of image contrast along the vertical image axis.

  17. Mechanism and stereoselectivity of biologically important oxygenation reactions of the 7-dehydrocholesterol radical.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Ramanan; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2013-07-19

    The mechanism of free radical oxygenation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), one of the biologically important sterols, is investigated by using density functional theory. The energetic origin of the product distribution and the stereoelectronic factors involved in various mechanistic pathways are delineated. The addition of triplet molecular oxygen to two types of conjugatively stabilized radicals, generated by the removal of the reactive allylic hydrogens from C9 or C14 positions, respectively denoted as H9 and H14 pathways, is studied. The distortion-interaction analysis of the C-O bond formation transition states suggests that the energetic preference toward the α prochiral face stems from reduced skeletal distortions of the cholesterol backbone as compared to that in the corresponding β prochiral face. This insight derived through a detailed quantitative analysis of the stereocontrolling transition states suggests that the commonly found interpretations solely based on steric interactions between the incoming oxygen and the protruding angular methyl groups (C10, C13 methyls) in the β face calls for adequate refinement. The relative energies of the transition states for molecular oxygen addition to C9, C5, and C14 (where spin densities are higher) and the ensuing products thereof are in agreement with the experimentally reported distribution of oxygenated 7-DHCs.

  18. Interactions between parasitism and biological responses in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Importance in ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Meyer, Antoinette; Molloy, Daniel P; Giambérini, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Given that virtually all organisms are hosts for parasites, the investigation of the combined effects of contamination and parasitism is important in the framework of aquatic bioindication procedures. To assess the impact of such multistresses at the host cellular level, we sampled parasitized zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations from two sites in northeast France that presented different levels of contamination. Experimental groups were formed based on parasite species and host gender and tested by histochemistry and automated image analysis for biological responses, such as structural changes of the lysosomal system and neutral lipid accumulation. Infected organisms displayed smaller and more numerous lysosomes compared with uninfected congeners, and infection further elevated the effect of the chemical contamination on this biomarker. In contrast, co-infection of females with selected parasites did produce inverse results, i.e. a more developed lysosomal system and neutral lipid depletion. Our data, therefore, suggest that parasitism in zebra mussels represents a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies and must be taken into account in environmental risk assessment studies.

  19. Maize proteomics: an insight into the biology of an important cereal crop.

    PubMed

    Pechanova, Olga; Takáč, Tomáš; Samaj, Jozef; Pechan, Tibor

    2013-02-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most grown cereal crop in the world (839 million tons in 2012). According to its agro-economical importance, maize has received tremendous attention from research communities of academic, state, and industry origin. In this manuscript, we aspire to provide readers with the first comprehensive review of proteomics studies performed on maize within a 1987-2012 time period. The following topics are presented here: maize proteome profiling, developmental proteomics, response to abiotic and biotic stress, maize phosphoproteomics, tissue-specific wild-type versus mutant analyses, heterosis, seed viability, maize allergens, and safety assessment of genetically modified maize. Tissues, organelles, subcellular compartments, secretomes, methods, phenomena, and pertinent proteins were summarized and referenced in tables and figures to provide readers with expediently accessible information in the context of up-to-date achievements. This review illustrates maize proteomics as a firmly established research area with laboratories around the world diligently advancing our knowledge of diverse aspects of maize biology.

  20. Importance of Biological Loess Crusts for Loess Formation in Semi-Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirčev, Z.; Marković, S. B.; Stevens, T.; Smalley, I. J.; Hambach, U.; Obreht, I.; Lukić, T.; Vasiljević, Dj. A.

    2012-04-01

    The essential components for loess deposition are: material, atmospheric circulation and appropriate surface conditions for the trapping of aeolian material as well as the subsequent development of typical loess sedimentary structures. In spite of the world-wide distribution of loess deposits, knowledge of the processes of transformation from accumulated dust to mature loess sediment is still inadequate. Some recent studies highlight the potential importance of biologically crusted surfaces (BCS) in loess formation. BCS are highly specialized extremophile communities and generally play an important role in atmospheric dust trapping and erosion prevention. Our initial results indicate that cyanobacterial strains isolated from loess exhibit some specific morphological and ecophysiological characteristics that play a key role in loess formation, warranting adoption of the new term biological loess crusts (BLC). We suggest that loessification is heavily influenced by the metabolic activity of BLC microorganisms mainly through polysaccharides. The sticky polysaccharide glue on the topographic surface, exuded mostly by cyanobacteria, can trap silty particles suspended in a dusty atmosphere. This collection of airborne loess forming particles is part of the life strategy of crust organisms in so far as they provide the necessary minerals for further growth of the BLC, which in turn provides protection from desiccation during dry periods. Simultaneously, polysaccharides secreted by crust organisms bind particles inside the BLC zone, forming a cohesive crust that resists both wind and water erosion during dry periods. Metabolized particles, exuded metabolites and unused airborne particles become the uppermost loess sediment covered with BLC. During moist periods, accumulation of dust and loess forming particles is very active. During the dry phases, the BLC becomes very stable and develops a resistant surface preventing wind and water erosion. The drying period induces

  1. Constructing molecular complexity and diversity: total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Hale, Christopher R H; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A

    2012-08-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules--natural and designed--of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products--the organic molecules of nature--is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature's molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years.

  2. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  3. Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: Importance to arid-lands restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Davidson, D.W.; Phillips, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is a global problem, costly to national economies and human societies. Restoration of biological soil crusts (BSCs) may have an important role to play in the reversal of desertification due to their ability to decrease erosion and enhance soil fertility. To determine if there is evidence that lower fertility may hinder BSC recolonization, we investigated the hypothesis that BSC abundance is driven by soil nutrient concentrations. At a regional scale (north and central Colorado Plateau, USA), moss and lichen cover and richness are correlated with a complex water-nutrient availability gradient and have approximately six-fold higher cover and approximately two-fold higher species richness on sandy soils than on shale-derived soils. At a microscale, mosses and lichens are overrepresented in microhabitats under the north sides of shrub canopies, where water and nutrients are more available. At two spatial scales, and at the individual species and community levels, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that distributions of BSC organisms are determined largely by soil fertility. The micronutrients Mn and Zn figured prominently and consistently in the various analyses, strongly suggesting that these elements are previously unstudied limiting factors in BSC development. Structural-equation modeling of our data is most consistent with the hypothesis of causal relationships between the availability of micronutrients and the abundance of the two major nitrogen (N) fixers of BSCs. Specifically, higher Mn availability may determine greater Collema tenax abundance, and both Mn and Zn may limit Collema coccophorum; alternative causal hypotheses were less consistent with the data. We propose experimental trials of micronutrient addition to promote the restoration of BSC function on disturbed lands. Arid lands, where BSCs are most prevalent, cover ???40% of the terrestrial surface of the earth; thus the information gathered in this study is potentially useful

  4. The biological and clinical importance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jun; Sun, Bin; Qian, Haihua; Yin, Zhengfeng

    2015-02-01

    Movement of tumor cells from a primary tumor to a nonadjacent or distant site is a contiguous and complex process. Among the multiple natural cellular programs that promote initiation and progression of tumor metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may play a key role in the ultimate generation of a metastatic foci. Acquisition of the EMT phenotype by tumor cells not only increases their migration and invasion potentials, thereby facilitating their ability to infiltrate blood vessels and to produce circulating tumor cells (CTCs), but also promotes survival of CTCs in the bloodstream and their ability to extravasate out of the circulatory system and invade proximal tissues. In organs distal to the primary tumor, the phenotypic switching mechanism of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) enables CTCs to grow and colonize, enhancing the likelihood of establishing metastasis. In addition, CTCs that have undergone EMT attain increased resistance to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. CTCs with the EMT phenotype have become recognized as an active source of metastases, and targeting EMT/MET processes during the individual steps of tumor metastasis represents a promising new approach for alleviating cancer metastasis and recurrence. In this article, we focus on the biological and clinical importance of EMT and/or MET in CTCs during the individual steps of tumor metastasis, summarizing the recent findings of the regulatory roles played by EMT and/or MET in the generation, survival, and recolonization of CTCs and discussing the EMT-targeting strategies developed for tumor diagnosis as well as their potential for management of metastatic malignant diseases.

  5. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered. The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  6. NON-BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS MAY BE AN IMPORTANT MECHANISM FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of non-biological transformation of chlorinated solvents was not considered in the U.S. EPA Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water. This deficiency became very apparent when U.S. EPA conducted a beta test of the Pro...

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  8. Environmental quality and preservation; bedrock beneath reefs; the importance of geology in understanding biological decline in a modern reef ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, Barbara H.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental Quality and Preservation-Bedrock Beneath Reefs: the Importance of Geology in Understanding Biological Decline in a Modern Ecosystem' is a four-page and one-plate full-color discussion of the geologic framework and evolutionary history of the coral reef ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys.

  9. Asymmetric chemoenzymatic synthesis of miconazole and econazole enantiomers. The importance of chirality in their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mangas-Sánchez, Juan; Busto, Eduardo; Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Malpartida, Francisco; Gotor, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    A simple and novel chemoenzymatic route has been applied for the first time in the synthesis of miconazole and econazole single enantiomers. Lipases and oxidoreductases have been tested in stereoselective processes; the best results were attained with oxidoreductases for the introduction of chirality in an adequate intermediate. The behaviors of a series of ketones and racemic alcohols in bioreductions and acetylation procedures, respectively, have been investigated; the best results were found with alcohol dehydrogenases A and T, which allowed the production of (R)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol in enantiopure form under very mild reaction conditions. Final chemical modifications have been performed in order to isolate the target fungicides miconazole and econazole both as racemates and as single enantiomers. Biological evaluation of the racemates and single enantiomers has shown remarkable differences against the growth of several microorganisms; while (R)-miconazole seemed to account for most of the biological activity of racemic miconazole on all the strains tested, both enantiomers of econazole showed considerable biological activities. In this manner, (R)-econazole showed higher values against Candida krusei , while higher values were observed for (S)-econazole against Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus niger.

  10. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that…

  11. [Proposal from space radiation biologists. Importance of Centrifuge Facility in the study of biological effect by space radiation].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Ohnishi, T

    2001-10-01

    In microgravity, astronauts were constantly exposed to space radiation containing various kinds of radiation with a low-dose rate during long-term stays in space. It is very difficult to define the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation under microgravity. In order to understand correct the RBE of space radiation, therefore, utilization of Centrifuge Facility is desired as a control experiment at orbit for removing other factors such as microgravity except space radiation. Here, we summarized the importance of Centrifuge Facility in the study of biological effect of space radiation. PMID:11997596

  12. Trace element analytical speciation in biological systems: importance, challenges and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    1998-02-01

    Speciation of trace elements is a relatively new field and it was in toxicology that the relationship between the chemical form of a metal and its harmful effects was first recognized. The present need for chemical speciation information in biochemistry bioinorganic and clinical chemistry is documented in an attempt to justify the present demand for innovative chemical speciation strategies and analytical technologies. The challenge and complexity of speciation is stressed and three different categories of analytical speciation of increasing analytical difficulty are proposed. Analytical strategies developed so far to try to tackle speciation problems (computational approaches, direct species-specific and hybrid techniques) are reviewed and critically assessed for biological materials. It is indisputable these days that in most cases of real-life analytical speciation we have to resort to the development and use of hybrid techniques combining an adequate separation technique for the species physical separation and an element specific detector such as those based in atomic spectrometry. Examples of such strategies, as developed mainly in the author's laboratory and including chromatographic and non-chromatographic type hybrid strategies coupled to flame, plasma and electrothermal vaporization atomic detectors, are discussed in more detail. Finally, in light of the latest trends observed in this new field, the author attempts to cast a forward look into the foreseeable future of analytical speciation research in biological and biomedical sciences. The urgent plea for quality assurance in non-routine analysis and the concept of using complementary analytical techniques and definitive methods to attack the complexity of chemical speciation in biological systems are particularly highlighted.

  13. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  14. Biological and chemical study of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues with important antiparasitic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Urrutia, Christian A.; Olea-Azar, Claudio A.; Zapata, Gerald A.; Lapier, Michel; Mura, Francisco; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Arán, Vicente J.; López-Múñoz, Rodrigo A.; Maya, Juan D.

    A series of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues compounds (NID) with potential antiparasitic effects were studied using voltamperometric and spectroscopic techniques. Nitroanion radicals generated by cyclic voltammetry were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and their spectral lines were explained and analyzed using simulated spectra. In addition, we examined the interaction between radical species generated from nitroindazole derivatives and glutathione (GSH). Biological assays such as activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity against macrophages were carried out. Finally, spin trapping and molecular modeling studies were also done in order to elucidate the potentials action mechanisms involved in the trypanocidal activity.

  15. Biological and chemical study of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues with important antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Urrutia, Christian A; Olea-Azar, Claudio A; Zapata, Gerald A; Lapier, Michel; Mura, Francisco; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Arán, Vicente J; López-Múñoz, Rodrigo A; Maya, Juan D

    2012-09-01

    A series of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues compounds (NID) with potential antiparasitic effects were studied using voltamperometric and spectroscopic techniques. Nitroanion radicals generated by cyclic voltammetry were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and their spectral lines were explained and analyzed using simulated spectra. In addition, we examined the interaction between radical species generated from nitroindazole derivatives and glutathione (GSH). Biological assays such as activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity against macrophages were carried out. Finally, spin trapping and molecular modeling studies were also done in order to elucidate the potentials action mechanisms involved in the trypanocidal activity.

  16. Seed traits and genes important for translational biology – highlights from recent discoveries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds provide foods, feeds, and fuels. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural species. In this review, seed traits important for agriculture are discussed with an emphasis...

  17. Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, P

    1985-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product. PMID:3830700

  18. [Biological role of Interleukin 33 and its importance in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Czyzewska-Buczyńska, Agnieszka; Zuk, Natalia; Romanowska-Micherda, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokin family. It is expressed by various cells and tissues, mainly epithelial and endothelial cells. It is a cytokine with dual function. It may act both as a traditional cytokine and as intracellular nuclear factor, functioning as transcription regulator. Its biological effect via interaction with membrane-bound ST2 receptor and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) is associated with the induction of Th2-type immune response and IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis. IL-33 has a strong immunoregulatory properties. Depending on the type of activated cells, microenvironment, and costimulatory factors, IL-33 can act either as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine. Recent studies indicate various protective effect of IL-33/ST2 sygnaling in atherosclerosis, obesity, disorders in glucose homeostasis and in heart diseases. The paper presents current state of knowledge about the structure and biological function of IL-33 and its receptor ST2, with particular emphasis on its role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system.

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  20. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Huang, Wan; Ma, Li-Tian; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation. PMID:24739808

  1. Bioenergetic function in cardiovascular cells: the importance of the reserve capacity and its biological regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Jones, Steven P.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the cell to generate sufficient energy through oxidative phosphorylation and to maintain healthy pools of mitochondria are critical for survival and maintenance of normal biological function, especially during periods of increased oxidative stress. Mitochondria in most cardiovascular cells function at a basal level that only draws upon a small fraction of the total bioenergetic capability of the organelle; the apparent respiratory state of mitochondria in these cells is often close to state 4. The difference between the basal and maximal activity, equivalent to state 3, of the respiratory chain is called the reserve capacity. We hypothesize that the reserve capacity serves the increased energy demands for maintenance of organ function and cellular repair. However, the factors that determine the volume of the reserve capacity and its relevance to biology are not well understood. In this study, we first examined whether responses to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product found in atherosclerotic lesions and the diseased heart, differ between vascular smooth muscle cells, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. In both types of cardiomyocytes, oxygen consumption increased after HNE treatment, while oxygen consumption in smooth muscle cells decreased. The increase in oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes decreased the reserve capacity and shifted the apparent respiratory state closer to state 3. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes respiring on pyruvate alone had a fourfold higher reserve capacity than cells with glucose as the sole substrate, and these cells were more resistant to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 4-HNE. The integration of the concepts of reserve capacity and state-apparent are discussed along with the proposal of two potential models by which mitochondria respond to stress. PMID:21147079

  2. Applications of synchrotron μ-XRF to study the distribution of biologically important elements in different environmental matrices: a review.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-11-28

    Environmental matrices including soils, sediments, and living organisms are reservoirs of several essential as well as non-essential elements. Accurate qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and interaction of biologically significant elements is vital to understand the role of these elements in environmental and biological samples. Synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) allows in situ mapping of biologically important elements at nanometer to sub-micrometer scale with high sensitivity, negligible sample damage and enable tuning of the incident energy as desired. Beamlines in the synchrotron facilities are rapidly increasing their analytical versatility in terms of focusing optics, detector technologies, incident energy, and sample environment. Although extremely competitive, it is now feasible to find stations offering complimentary techniques like micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS) that will allow a more complete characterization of complex matrices. This review includes the most recent literature on the emerging applications and challenges of μ-SXRF in studying the distribution of biologically important elements and manufactured nanoparticles in soils, sediments, plants, and microbes. The advantages of using μ-SXRF and complimentary techniques in contrast to conventional techniques used for the respective studies are discussed.

  3. Sensing Red, White & Blue: Using Spores of the Sensitive Fern to Introduce Important Concepts in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, Helen G.; Kiss, John Z.

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, plants are very much in tune and in time with their immediate environment. The most important environmental cues for plants are light and gravity. In this article, the authors discuss the effects of light on plant development and use the spores of the sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis) in laboratory exercises to…

  4. Solubility of nano-zinc oxide in environmentally and biologically important matrices

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert B.; Ladner, David A.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Westerhoff, Paul; Ranville, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is leading to a greater probability for release of ENPs into the environment and exposure to organisms. In particular, zinc oxide (ZnO) is toxic, although it is unclear whether this toxicity is due to the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO), dissolution to Zn2+, or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to determine the relative solubilites of both commercially available and in-house synthesized ZnO in matrices used for environmental fate and transport or biological toxicity studies. Dissolution of ZnO was observed in nanopure water (7.18– 7.40 mg/L dissolved Zn, as measured by filtration) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) (~5 mg/L), but much more dissolution was observed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), where the dissolved Zn concentration exceeded 34 mg/L. Moderately hard water exhibited low zinc solubility, likely due to precipitation of a zinc carbonate solid phase. Precipitation of a zinc-containing solid phase in RPMI also appeared to limit zinc solubility. Equilibrium conditions with respect to ZnO solubility were not apparent in these matrices, even after more than 1,000 h of dissolution. These results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution and can result in limits on zinc solubility due to precipitation of less soluble solid phases. PMID:21994124

  5. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  6. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention. PMID:27070372

  7. Mercury in lagoons: An overview of the importance of the link between geochemistry and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faganeli, Jadran; Hines, Mark E.; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Giani, Michele

    2012-11-01

    Shallow-water lagoons, which are common features along coastlines, are important sites for elemental cycling in this environmentally-sensitive terrestrial-marine interface. Factors governing mercury (Hg) cycling in these lagoons are poorly characterized, but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, that are ultimately vectors of human exposure in lagoon environments. This article discusses the processes controlling the fate of Hg from various sources, including methylation of Hg, demethylation of methylmercury, and benthic fluxes of Hg species in three of the most thoroughly studied lagoons worldwide, namely Thau (France), Venice (Italy) and Marano and Grado (Italy). Although each lagoon system experiences differences in sources of Hg and details of how Hg is transformed and transported, Hg in each system is strongly affected by biogeochemical transformations of other elements, especially redox sensitive, microbially important elements such as sulphur, iron and manganese, and their interaction with organic matter. The shallow nature of lagoons and the rapid rates of microbially mediated organic matter decomposition result in seasonally dynamic processes that influence Hg bioavailability. Despite considerable work to date, the current understanding of Hg dynamics in lagoon ecosystems, through Hg distribution, MeHg production and degradation, and trophic transfer, is still limited and more research is needed to link all subparts into a general coherent picture.

  8. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  9. The importance of biological interactions for the vertical distribution of nematodes in a temperate ultra-dissipative sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Esteves, André M.; De Troch, Marleen; Vanreusel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study of the vertical distribution of nematode communities in an ultra-dissipative sandy beach on the North Sea coast at De Panne, Belgium showed species-specific vertical migrations occurred over a tidal cycle. During the period of submersion, smaller deposit feeders were dominant at the subsurface, whereas large nematodes (originally classified as predators) were concentrated at the surface. The interstitial water content showed a weak correlation to the observed patterns and biological interactions among nematodes, such as predation and competition, which were measured through stable isotopes, also explained the observed segregation. The predator Enoplolaimus litoralis and its potential prey species did not co-exist in the same part of the sediment, suggesting avoidance of predation by prey species. In addition, the different prey species inhabited different subsurface layers, which can be explained by avoidance of competition for food. Stable isotope signatures further showed that the two major biological components of sandy beaches (macrofauna and meiofauna, including some species assumed to be predators) partly depend on microphytobenthos, demonstrating the importance of in situ primary producers in the diet of the fauna from ultra-dissipative sandy beaches. However, meiofauna and macrofauna do not seem to compete for these food sources. The combined examination of environmental and biological factors revealed the additional importance of the latter in controlling the vertical distribution of nematodes in environments that were previously assumed to be mainly physically controlled.

  10. Synthesis of biologically important neutral amylo-β peptide by using improved Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthetic strategy.

    PubMed

    Selvam, R; Sudha, E; Rajkumar, P R; Subashchandran, K P

    2015-04-01

    The 10 amino acid sequence of the biologically important neutral amylo-β peptide has equally hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, which reduces the coupling efficiency during its synthesis and reduces the final yield of the peptide, and is therefore classified as a "difficult peptide sequence." The method presented here minimizes the synthetic problems by the introduction of improved Fmoc chemistry and effective hydroxybenzotriazole (HoBt), diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC)-coupling and activation strategies. In addition, we developed a PS-TPGD resin as a solid support for the synthesis of specific neutral peptides, which is still a challenge to peptide chemistry. The most essential biologically active neutral amylo-β peptide (KVKRIILARS) was successfully synthesized, and some synthetic modification was performed using the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) method for purity and yield improvement. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  11. Important Metabolic Pathways and Biological Processes Expressed by Chicken Cecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Ondrej; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Sebkova, Alena; Sisak, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in its host. However, how each microbiota member contributes to the behavior of the whole population is not known. In this study, we therefore determined protein expression in the cecal microbiota in chickens of selected ages and in 7-day-old chickens inoculated with different cecal extracts on the day of hatching. Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Mucispirillum, and Megamonas overgrew in the ceca of 7-day-old chickens inoculated with cecal extracts from donor hens. Firmicutes were characterized by ABC and phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters, extensive acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolism, and expression of l-fucose isomerase. Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Pseudoflavonifractor, Dorea, Blautia, and Subdoligranulum expressed spore proteins. Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Butyrivibrio, Megasphaera, Subdoligranulum, Oscillibacter, Anaerostipes, and Anaerotruncus) expressed enzymes required for butyrate production. Megamonas, Phascolarctobacterium, and Blautia (exceptions from the phylum Firmicutes) and all Bacteroidetes expressed enzymes for propionate production pathways. Representatives of Bacteroidetes also expressed xylose isomerase, enzymes required for polysaccharide degradation, and ExbBD, TonB, and outer membrane receptors likely to be involved in oligosaccharide transport. Based on our data, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, and Subdoligranulum might be optimal probiotic strains, since these represent spore-forming butyrate producers. However, certain care should be taken during microbiota transplantation because the microbiota may behave differently in the intestinal tract of a recipient depending on how well the existing communities are established. PMID:26712550

  12. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals.

  13. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe.

  14. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia B.

    1980-01-01

    Reflects on the impact of the broad values that motivated Mina Shaughnessy's work and life. Characterizes three of her beliefs--that teaching makes a difference, that the individual is important, and that literacy is power--and expands on their importance. (RL)

  15. Sensing of biologically important cations such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) using magnetic nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, V; Philip, John

    2013-04-01

    We report a simple approach to the ultrasensitive detection of biologically important metal ions using a magnetic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion used in our study was an oil-in-water emulsion droplet of average size ∼190 nm containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼10 nm. In a static magnetic field, the emulsion droplets self-assemble into a nanoarray with distinct interdroplet spacing. In the presence of cations in the solution, the nanofluid array shows a large blue shift in the diffracted Bragg peak and a visually perceivable color change due to changes in the electrical double layer upon the diffusion of cations. The colloidal force-distance measurements in the presence of cations show large variations at the onset of repulsion in the presence of cations. The sensor shows good selectivity to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) ions and offers a rapid response compared to conventional techniques. This approach can be useful for the recognition of biologically important cations. PMID:23477486

  16. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  17. Biology of frailty: Modulation of ageing genes and its importance to prevent age-associated loss of function.

    PubMed

    Viña, Jose; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco Jose; Pérez-Ros, Pilar; Martínez-Arnau, Francisco Miguel; Borras, Consuelo; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is associated with loss of functional reserve as well as with the prediction of adverse events in the old population. The traditional criteria of frailty are based on five physical determinations described in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We propose that biological and genetic markers of frailty should be used to increase the predictive capacity of the established clinical indeces. In recent times, research for biological markers of frailty has gained impetus. Finding a biological markers with diagnostic and prognostic capacity would be a major milestone to identify frailty risk, and also pre-frailty status. In the first section of the manuscript, we review the available biomarkers that help to monitor and prevent the evolution and the efficacy of interventions to delay the onset of frailty and to prevent its progression to incapacity. We also discuss the contribution of genetics to frailty. There are scientific bases that support that genetics influences frailty, although environmental factors probably will have the highest contribution. We review the known SNPs of the genes associated with frailty and classify them, taking into account the pathway in which they are involved. We also highlight the importance of longevity genes and their possible relation with frailty, citing centenarians who reach a very old age as an example of successful ageing. Finally, the reversibility of frailty is discussed. It can potentially be treated with nutritional or pharmacological interventions. However, physical exercise seems to be the most effective strategy to treat and prevent frailty. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to explaining the recommendations on the appropriate design of an exercise protocol to maximize its beneficial effects in a population of frail individuals.

  18. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. Electric fields induced in chicken eggs by 60-Hz magnetic fields and the dosimetric importance of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Chicken eggs are convenient models for observing the effects of inhomogeneities and variations, such as those found in biological membranes and in cellular conductivities, on the distribution of internal electric fields as induced by exposure to magnetic fields. The vitelline membrane separates the yolk, which has a conductivity of 0.26 S/m, from the white, which has a conductivity of 0.85 S/m. A miniaturized probe with 2.4-mm resolution was used to measure induced fields in eggs placed in a uniform, 1-mT magnetic field at 60 Hz. The E fields induced in eggs with homogenized contents agreed with expectations based on simple theory. Results were similar to intact eggs unless the probe moved the yolk off-center, which greatly perturbed the induced fields. A more reproducible arrangement, which consisted of saline-agar filled dishes with a hole cut for test samples, was developed to enhance definition of electrical parameters. With this test system, the vitelline membrane was found to be responsible for most of the perturbation of the induced field, because it electrically isolates the yolk from the surrounding white. From a theoretical viewpoint, this dosimetry for the macroscopic egg yolk is analogous to the interaction of fields with microscopic cells. These findings may have important implications for research on biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields, especially for studies of avian embryonic development.

  20. Importance of molecular cell biology investigations in human medicine in the story of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raška, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Ranged among laminopathies, Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome is a syndrome that involves premature aging, leading usually to death at the age between 10 to 14 years predominatly due to a myocardial infarction or a stroke. In the lecture I shall overview the importance of molecular cell biology investigations that led to the discovery of the basic mechanism standing behind this rare syndrome. The genetic basis in most cases is a mutation at the nucleotide position 1824 of the lamin A gene. At this position, cytosine is substituted for thymine so that a cryptic splice site within the precursor mRNA for lamin A is generated. This results in a production of abnormal lamin A, termed progerin, its presence in cells having a deleterious dominant effect. Depending on the cell type and tissue, progerin induces a pleiotropy of defects that vary in different tissues. The present endeavour how to challenge this terrible disease will be also mentioned. PMID:21217880

  1. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a great honour to have the opportunity to say a few words before starting this symposium. First of all, on behalf of all members of the Advanced Science Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, I would like to express our great pleasure in welcoming all of you and in hosting the Third International Symposium on Advanced Science Research. The Advanced Science Research Center was established in 1993. Since then one of the most important functions assigned to this centre has been to promote and initiate basic research activities in atomic energy and related fields, in collaboration with scientists throughout our country as well as abroad. In view of the rapidly advancing frontiers of science and technology, and the increasing importance of international collaboration, I strongly felt that our centre should play a leading role in promoting scientific activities in a worldwide form. This is not only a give-and-take information exchange with the outside world but also we intend to promote harmony between different scientific cultures through the establishment of new programmes at our centre. As one action for the global promotion of our research activities, we have decided to host a series of international symposia on advances in various topics in fields of our interest. This we call the ‘Advance series of symposia’. The first such symposium was held on the subject of ‘neutron scattering research’ and the second, held in November 2001, on ‘heavy element research’, with great success. The present symposium is the third of this series. The size and format of each symposium will be chosen flexibly considering the nature of its topic. However, in all cases, in addition to promoting exchange of expert insights, we would like to encourage particularly young scientists to present papers in each symposium on their new results from the frontiers of science and technology, and to help them to get an

  2. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  3. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  4. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  5. Importance of brain‑type fatty acid binding protein for cell-biological processes in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tölle, Angelika; Krause, Hans; Miller, Kurt; Jung, Klaus; Stephan, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development and progression are still not completely understood. The importance of fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) for the progression of carcinomas has been shown for several tumors. However, the importance of brain-type FABP (B‑FABP) in cell-biological processes in renal carcinoma cells is unknown. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to evaluate the role of B‑FABP in processes such as proliferation, migration and invasion. By using the approach of down- and up-regulation of B‑FABP in human kidney carcinoma cells Caki‑2 and Caki‑1, the potential participation of B‑FABP in proliferation, migration and invasion was demonstrated. B‑FABP was down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels following treatment of Caki‑2 cells with B‑FABP siRNA. Down-regulation of B‑FABP decreased cell proliferation and migration but did not affect invasion. The transfection of Caki‑1 cells with human B‑FABP cDNA generated an increment of B‑FABP mRNA but the protein was not detectable. Transfected Caki‑1 cells developed a faster proliferation compared to untreated cells. An effect on the process of invasion was not observed. Our data suggest that B‑FABP is involved in cell proliferation and migration of human renal carcinoma cells. The detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  7. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    PubMed

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  8. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    PubMed

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  9. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    PubMed Central

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  10. Importance of biologically active aurora-like ultraviolet emission: stochastic irradiation of Earth and Mars by flares and explosions.

    PubMed

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John; Wheeler, J Craig

    2004-10-01

    Habitable planets will be subject to intense sources of ionizing radiation and fast particles from a variety of sources--from the host star to distant explosions--on a variety of timescales. Monte Carlo calculations of high-energy irradiation suggest that the surfaces of terrestrial-like planets with thick atmospheres (column densities greater than about 100 g cm(-2)) are well protected from directly incident X-rays and gamma-rays, but we find that sizeable fractions of incident ionizing radiation from astrophysical sources can be redistributed to biologically and chemically important ultraviolet wavelengths, a significant fraction of which can reach the surface. This redistribution is mediated by secondary electrons, resulting from Compton scattering and X-ray photoabsorption, the energies of which are low enough to excite and ionize atmospheric molecules and atoms, resulting in a rich aurora-like spectrum. We calculate the fraction of energy redistributed into biologically and chemically important wavelength regions for spectra characteristic of stellar flares and supernovae using a Monte-Carlo transport code and then estimate the fraction of this energy that is transmitted from the atmospheric altitudes of redistribution to the surface for a few illustrative cases. For atmospheric models corresponding to the Archean Earth, we assume no significant ultraviolet absorbers, only Rayleigh scattering, and find that the fraction of incident ionizing radiation that is received at the surface in the form of redistributed ultraviolet in the biologically relevant 200-320 nm region (UV-C and UV-B bands) can be up to 4%. On the present-day Earth with its ultraviolet ozone shield, this fraction is found to be 0.2%. Both values are many orders of magnitude higher than the fraction of direct ionizing radiation reaching the surface. This result implies that planetary organisms will be subject to mutationally significant, if intermittent, fluences of UV-B and harder radiation

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of superoxide radical reactions with some biologically important compounds in aqueous solutions. Pulse radiolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revina, A. A.; Amiragova, M. I.; Volod'ko, V. V.; Vannikov, A. V.

    Microsecond pulse radiolysis of oxygenated aqueous solutions containing 0.02 mol dm -3 sodium formate and 2 mmol dm -3 phosphate buffer at pH 7 was used to generate superoxide anion radicals. The influence of some biologically important compounds upon the rate of O ⨪2 decay was monitored spectrophotometrically in the range of 245-300 nm. Hematoporphyrin (HP), hemin C (HC), catalase (Cat), cobalt sulfophthalocyanine (CoTSPc) were studied. Among the investigated compounds only Cat was found to show a high catalytic efficiency towards the self-decay of O ⨪2. A red shift of O ⨪2 absorption band and slowing down of its decay were observed to take place by adding HP or CoTSPc to the solutions containing formate ions in excess. This effect is associated with the formation of a transient superoxo-complex. An appearance of an intermediate species with absorption maxima at 350 nm and half-life of about 2s was observed to accompany the superoxo-complex of CoTSPc decay. In the aerated solution of HP the intensity of absorbance at 260 nm was found to be independent of the presence of formate ions.

  12. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  13. The Importance of Pupils' Interests and Out-of-School Experiences in Planning Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…

  14. Microsporidian and viral pathogens for the biological control of imported fire ants: can we walk the talk?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Invasive ants are among the most serious of arthropod invaders. These ants infest a wide range of habitats and impact biodiversity, agriculture, and human health. Self-sustaining biological control is one of the few hopes for permanent regional suppression of these established invasive ants. Fo...

  15. How Important Is the Assessment of Practical Work? An Opinion Piece on the New Biology A-Level from BERG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…

  16. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  17. The Most Important Concept of Transport and Circulatory Systems: Turkish Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aksu, Ozlem; Aktas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure with regard to "Blood". Qualitative research method has been used. The free word association test and the draw-write technique have been used in collection of data. The data obtained have been evaluated and divided into categories based on…

  18. Catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia as a putative way of their prebiotic emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Simonov, Alexander; Parmon, Valentin

    The modern `RNA-world' theory considering the primary life as a system of self-replicating informational and catalytic oligomers is the most widespread hypothesis of life's origin. At the same time an alternative major theory antithetic to the genetic one exists. It is based on the primary formation of important metabolites and building blocks of biopolymers and appearance of the primordial autocatalytic cycles in geochemical environment. [1]. Encouraged by this theory, we suggest the putative emergence pathways to biologically relevant metabolites from simple precursors: formaldehyde (FA) and ammonia, which are known to be present in the interstellar space [2]. Based on our earlier [3, 4] and novel findings as well as on the literature data [5, 6] the scheme of conjugate autocatalytic processes including photochemical condensation of FA yielding C-C bond and catalytic formation of pyruvaldehyde, pyruvic acid, sugars, aminoacids catalyzed by minerals (aluminum silicate, phoshates) and by aminoacids themselves is proposed. Acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycol-and glyceraldehydes (GA and GCA) were identified in this work as products of photolysis of FA aqueous solution with summary selectivity up to 20% and can serve as substrates for the synthesis of more complex organic compounds. In turn, alanine and pyruvic acid are formed during UV-irradiation of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate [6]. Pyruvaldehyde formation from GCA and FA in presence of amino acids was observed by A. Weber [5]. Finally, we revealed the catalytic activity of zeolite HZSM-5-17 in acid form towards formation of pyruvaldehyde from GA and GCA in presence of alanine with the yield about 5%. This observation indicates that the assumption of catalytic activity of silica-alumina towards the synthesis of metabolites could be realistic. Prebiotic synthesis of sugars from lower monosacharides, as we showed earlier, could take place over phosphate catalysts [4]. The substrates and the products

  19. Aza-Claisen rearrangement of 2-C-hydroxymethyl glycals as a versatile strategy towards synthesis of isofagomine and related biologically important azasugars.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y Suman; Kancharla, Pavan K; Roy, Rashmi; Vankar, Yashwant D

    2012-04-14

    Synthesis of isofagomine has been achieved by implementation of aza-Claisen rearrangement of 2-C-hydroxymethyl glycals as a key step. The above rearrangement has also been utilized in the synthesis of biologically important polyhydroxylated piperidine frameworks such as isogalactofagomine, ent-isogalactofagomine and their analogues and some other azasugars as glycosidase inhibitors.

  20. Insights on Antioxidant Assays for Biological Samples Based on the Reduction of Copper Complexes—The Importance of Analytical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sara S.; Magalhães, Luís M.; Tóth, Ildikó V.; Segundo, Marcela A.

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant capacity assays are recognized as instrumental to establish antioxidant status of biological samples, however the varying experimental conditions result in conclusions that may not be transposable to other settings. After selection of the complexing agent, reagent addition order, buffer type and concentration, copper reducing assays were adapted to a high-throughput scheme and validated using model biological antioxidant compounds of ascorbic acid, Trolox (a soluble analogue of vitamin E), uric acid and glutathione. A critical comparison was made based on real samples including NIST-909c human serum certified sample, and five study samples. The validated method provided linear range up to 100 µM Trolox, (limit of detection 2.3 µM; limit of quantification 7.7 µM) with recovery results above 85% and precision <5%. The validated developed method with an increased sensitivity is a sound choice for assessment of TAC in serum samples. PMID:24968275

  1. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo.

  2. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  3. SAR studies on hydropentalene derivatives--Important core units of biologically active tetramic acid macrolactams and ptychanolides.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Vanessa; Mannchen, Fabian; Krebs, Michael; Park, Natja; Krüger, Claudia; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    Structurally diverse bicyclo[3.3.0]octanes were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Both the antiproliferative activity and the results of phenotypic characterization varied with the substitution patterns. Two derivatives displayed high inhibitory (IC50 ≤3μM) activity against the L-929 cell line, but differed in their mode of action. A cluster analysis with impedance profiling data showed the two compounds in relationship to microtubule interfering compounds. In PtK2 cells treated with both derivatives a perturbing effect on the microtubular network was observed, whereas the actin cytoskeleton in incubated PtK2 cells was disturbed only by one compound. The effects on tubulin and actin polymerization could be confirmed by in vitro polymerization experiments.

  4. Species-Specific Thiol-Disulfide Equilibrium Constant: A Tool To Characterize Redox Transitions of Biological Importance.

    PubMed

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-08-13

    Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.

  5. Importance of tissue preparation methods in FTIR micro-spectroscopical analysis of biological tissues: 'traps for new users'.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Whelan, Donna R; Wood, Bayden R; Pearson, James T; Bambery, Keith R; Black, M Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) micro-spectroscopy is an emerging technique for the biochemical analysis of tissues and cellular materials. It provides objective information on the holistic biochemistry of a cell or tissue sample and has been applied in many areas of medical research. However, it has become apparent that how the tissue is handled prior to FTIR micro-spectroscopic imaging requires special consideration, particularly with regards to methods for preservation of the samples. We have performed FTIR micro-spectroscopy on rodent heart and liver tissue sections (two spectroscopically very different biological tissues) that were prepared by desiccation drying, ethanol substitution and formalin fixation and have compared the resulting spectra with that of fully hydrated freshly excised tissues. We have systematically examined the spectra for any biochemical changes to the native state of the tissue caused by the three methods of preparation and have detected changes in infrared (IR) absorption band intensities and peak positions. In particular, the position and profile of the amide I, key in assigning protein secondary structure, changes depending on preparation method and the lipid absorptions lose intensity drastically when these tissues are hydrated with ethanol. Indeed, we demonstrate that preserving samples through desiccation drying, ethanol substitution or formalin fixation significantly alters the biochemical information detected using spectroscopic methods when compared to spectra of fresh hydrated tissue. It is therefore imperative to consider tissue preparative effects when preparing, measuring, and analyzing samples using FTIR spectroscopy.

  6. Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Entelis, Nina; Martin, Robert P; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-06-15

    5S rRNA is an essential component of ribosomes of all living organisms, the only known exceptions being mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, animals, and some protists. An intriguing situation distinguishes mammalian cells: Although the mitochondrial genome contains no 5S rRNA genes, abundant import of the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA into mitochondria was reported. Neither the detailed mechanism of this pathway nor its rationale was clarified to date. In this study, we describe an elegant molecular conveyor composed of a previously identified human 5S rRNA import factor, rhodanese, and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18, thanks to which 5S rRNA molecules can be specifically withdrawn from the cytosolic pool and redirected to mitochondria, bypassing the classic nucleolar reimport pathway. Inside mitochondria, the cytosolic 5S rRNA is shown to be associated with mitochondrial ribosomes.

  7. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  8. [Basal cell carcinoma of the skin--biological behaviour of the tumor and a review of the most important molecular predictors of disease progression in pathological practice].

    PubMed

    Bartos, V; Adamicová, K; Kullová, M; Péc, M

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is currently the most frequent malignancy in human population. Basal cell carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with a variable clinical and morphological picture. Based on its biological behaviour, we generally differentiate between indolent (superficial and nodular) and aggressive type (infiltrative, micronodular, and metatypical) of basal cell carcinoma. Because of the different biological characteristics of these tumors, it is questionable whether they are a part of a continuous spectrum of carcinogenesis, starting with indolent and ending with aggressive forms, or they represent separate developmental lines. In the current clinical practice, there is an increasing demand for identification of tumors that are prognostically more adverse and their impact on the overall health status of patients is more serious. Recent advances in pathology and molecular medicine allow identification of various biomarkers from tumor tissue that are significantly involved in the mechanisms of malignant cell transformation. Detection of these biomarkers is of great importance in predicting further clinical behaviour of the cancer. The authors of the paper present basic information about biological behaviour of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and provide an overview of the most important biomarkers that influence the clinical outcome and disease progression and are detectable through a routine biopsy tissue examination. It is now necessary to search for novel histological and molecular parameters that, in the future, could have a prognostic value in diagnostic and therapeutic process of this disorder. PMID:21542271

  9. Biological Roles of the Podospora anserina Mitochondrial Lon Protease and the Importance of Its N-Domain

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Céline; Picard, Marguerite; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Sellem, Carole H.; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-Le; Contamine, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial protease, PaLon1, leads to lethality at high and low temperatures, indicating that PaLON1 plays a main role in protein quality control. Under normal physiological conditions, the PaLon1 deletion is viable but decreases life span. PaLon1 deletion also leads to defects in two steps during development, ascospore germination and sexual reproduction, which suggests that PaLON1 ensures important regulatory functions during fungal development. Mitochondrial Lon proteases are composed of a central ATPase domain flanked by a large non-catalytic N-domain and a C-terminal protease domain. We found that three mutations in the N-domain of PaLON1 affected fungal life cycle, PaLON1 protein expression and mitochondrial proteolytic activity, which reveals the functional importance of the N-domain of the mitochondrial Lon protease. All PaLon1 mutations affected the C-terminal part of the N-domain. Considering that the C-terminal part is predicted to have an α helical arrangement in which the number, length and position of the helices are conserved with the solved structure of its bacterial homologs, we propose that this all-helical structure participates in Lon substrate interaction. PMID:22693589

  10. Meta-ecosystems and biological energy transport from ocean to coast: the ecological importance of herring migration.

    PubMed

    Varpe, Oystein; Fiksen, Oyvind; Slotte, Aril

    2005-12-01

    Ecosystems are not closed, but receive resource subsidies from other ecosystems. Energy, material and organisms are moved between systems by physical vectors, but migrating animals also transport resources between systems. We report on large scale energy transport from ocean to coast by a migrating fish population, the Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring Clupea harengus. We observe a rapid body mass increase during parts of the annual, oceanic feeding migration and we use a bioenergetics model to quantify energy consumption. The model predicts strong seasonal variation in food consumption with a marked peak in late May to July. The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the most important prey and 23 x 10(6) tones (wet weight) of C. finmarchicus is consumed annually. The annual consumption-biomass ratio is 5.2. During the feeding migration 17% of consumed energy is converted to body mass. The biomass transported to the coast and left as reproductive output is estimated from gonad weight and is about 1.3 x 10(6) tones for the current population. This transport is to our knowledge the world's largest flux of energy caused by a single population. We demonstrate marked temporal variation in transport during the last century and discuss the effects of NSS herring in the ocean, as a major consumer, and at the coast, where eggs and larvae are important for coastal predators. In particular, we suggest that the rapid decline of lobster Homarus gammarus landings in Western Norway during the 1960s was related to the collapse of NSS herring. We also discuss spatial variation in energy transport caused by changed migration patterns. Both climate and fisheries probably triggered historical changes in the migration patterns of NSS herring. New migration routes emerge at the level of individuals, which in turn determines where resources are gathered and delivered, and therefore, how meta-ecosystems function. PMID:16195881

  11. Meta-ecosystems and biological energy transport from ocean to coast: the ecological importance of herring migration.

    PubMed

    Varpe, Oystein; Fiksen, Oyvind; Slotte, Aril

    2005-12-01

    Ecosystems are not closed, but receive resource subsidies from other ecosystems. Energy, material and organisms are moved between systems by physical vectors, but migrating animals also transport resources between systems. We report on large scale energy transport from ocean to coast by a migrating fish population, the Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring Clupea harengus. We observe a rapid body mass increase during parts of the annual, oceanic feeding migration and we use a bioenergetics model to quantify energy consumption. The model predicts strong seasonal variation in food consumption with a marked peak in late May to July. The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the most important prey and 23 x 10(6) tones (wet weight) of C. finmarchicus is consumed annually. The annual consumption-biomass ratio is 5.2. During the feeding migration 17% of consumed energy is converted to body mass. The biomass transported to the coast and left as reproductive output is estimated from gonad weight and is about 1.3 x 10(6) tones for the current population. This transport is to our knowledge the world's largest flux of energy caused by a single population. We demonstrate marked temporal variation in transport during the last century and discuss the effects of NSS herring in the ocean, as a major consumer, and at the coast, where eggs and larvae are important for coastal predators. In particular, we suggest that the rapid decline of lobster Homarus gammarus landings in Western Norway during the 1960s was related to the collapse of NSS herring. We also discuss spatial variation in energy transport caused by changed migration patterns. Both climate and fisheries probably triggered historical changes in the migration patterns of NSS herring. New migration routes emerge at the level of individuals, which in turn determines where resources are gathered and delivered, and therefore, how meta-ecosystems function.

  12. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  13. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  14. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum.

  15. The importance of biological oxidation of iron in the aerobic cells of the Wheal Jane pilot passive treatment system.

    PubMed

    Hall, G; Swash, P; Kotilainen, S

    2005-02-01

    The passive treatment system designed to treat the mine water discharge of the abandoned Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall consisted of a sequence of artificial wetland cells, an anaerobic cell and a final series of rock filters. Three systems were operated which differed only in the pre-treatment of the mine water before discharge to the aerobic wetland cells. The aerobic cells were designed to promote aerobic oxidation and precipitation of iron which could exceed a concentration of 100 mg/l in the raw mine water discharge. The largest investment of land area was to the artificial wetland cells and it was important to understand the processes of oxidation and precipitation of iron so that the performance of this aspect the pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) could be managed as efficiently as possible. The generally low pH of the influent mine water and inevitable trend of decreasing pH due to hydrolysis of Fe(III) meant that distinguishing between biotic and abiotic mechanisms was fundamental for further design planning of passive treatment systems. This paper describes these observations. PMID:15680627

  16. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  17. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  18. LacZ β-galactosidase: structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance.

    PubMed

    Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E

    2012-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ β-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize α-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the "missing" N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of β-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

  19. Effect of Erica sp. honey against microorganisms of clinical importance: study of the factors underlying this biological activity.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesus; Iglesias, Antonio; Rodrigues, Sandra; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2013-04-11

    This study aimed to determine the factors (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, sugars or H2O2) that contribute the most to the antimicrobial activity of heather honey samples against four yeasts and four bacteria with medical importance. To discard the effect of H2O2 in the antimicrobial activity, catalase was added. To evaluate the osmotic pressure's effect, artificial honey was also used. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined and Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to assess whether these correlated with antimicrobial activity. The amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 630.89 ± 5.21 GAE kg-1 to 718.92 ± 4.41 GAE kg-1, while the flavonoids varied between 450.72 ± 5.67 CAE kg-1 and 673.98 ± 4.33 CAE kg-1. For the bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the honey without catalase ranged from 1.01 ± 0.50% to 10.00 ± 4.72% and was between 2.00 ± 0.94% and 13.27 ± 5.23% for honey with catalase. Concerning the yeasts, the MICs was between 13.16 ± 4.08% and 20.00 ± 5.09% for honey without catalase and between 14.95 ± 4.16% and 25.67 ± 5.50% for honey with catalase. The elucidation of the antimicrobial factors and action mechanisms is essential for the correct use of honey in therapeutic applications.

  20. Chemical and biological reduction of Mn (III)-pyrophosphate complexes: Potential importance of dissolved Mn (III) as an environmental oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Joel E.; Luther, George W., III; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1995-03-01

    Dissolved Mn (III) is a strong oxidant which could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments, but little is known about this form of Mn. Mn(III) was shown to form a stable complex with pyrophosphate which is easily measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry. The Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complex was produced at concentrations of 5 μM to 10 mM Mn at neutral pH. Inorganic electron donors, Fe(II) and sulfide, abiotically reduced Mn(III)-pyrophosphate in seconds with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and near 1:2 reductant:Mn (III), respectively. Shewanella putrefaciens strain MR-1 catalyzed the reduction of Mn(III)-pyrophosphate with formate or lactate as electron donors. Reduction of Mn(III) catalyzed by MR-1 was inhibited under aerobic conditions but only slightly under anaerobic conditions upon addition of the alternate electron acceptor, nitrate. MR-1 catalyzed reduction was also inhibited by metabolic inhibitors including formaldehyde, tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2- n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), but not antimycin A. When formate or lactate served as electron donor for Mn(III) reduction, carbon oxidation to CO 2 was coupled to the respiration of Mn (III). Using the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the TCA-insoluble fraction of culture extracts, it was shown that Mn (III) reduction was coupled to protein synthesis in MR-1. These data indicate that Mn (III) complexes may be produced under conditions found in aquatic environments and that the reduction of Mn(III) can be coupled to the cycling of Fe, S, and C.

  1. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets. PMID:17299594

  2. Type I beta-turn conformation is important for biological activity of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues.

    PubMed

    Li, S Z; Lee, J H; Lee, W; Yoon, C J; Baik, J H; Lim, S K

    1999-10-01

    In order to define which structure of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analogues plays a critical role for ligand-receptor interaction and selectivity, we analysed receptor-binding and cAMP-generating activity in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably transfected with rMC3R and hMC4R, as well as the NMR structures of chemically synthesized alpha-MSH analogues. Compared with [Ahx4]alpha-MSH, the linear MTII designated as alpha-MSH-ND revealed a preference for the MC4R, whereas its IC50 and EC50 values were comparable to those of MTII reported previously. Truncation of Ahx4 and Asp5 of alpha-MSH-ND remarkably decreased the receptor-binding and cAMP-generating activity. Meanwhile, maximum cAMP-generating activity was observed at a higher concentration (10(-5) M) of alpha-MSH-ND(6-10), and MC4R preference was changed into MC3R preference. In contrast, [Gln6]alpha-MSH-ND(6-10) lost its cAMP-generating activity almost completely, even though it bound to both receptors. Whereas the solution conformation of alpha-MSH-ND revealed a stable type I beta-turn structure, [Gln6]alpha-MSH-ND(6-10) revealed a tight gamma-turn composed of Gln6-D-Phe7-Arg8. Replacement of the His6 residue of alpha-MSH-ND by Gln, Asn, Arg or Lys decreased not only the receptor binding, but also the cAMP-generating activity in both the MC3R and the MC4R. The structure of [Gln6]alpha-MSH-ND exhibited a stable type I' beta-turn comprising Asp5, Gln6, D-Phe7 and Arg8. [Lys6]alpha-MSH-ND showed a greatly reduced binding affinity and cAMP-generating activity with the loss of MC4R selectivity. In NMR studies, [Lys6]alpha-MSH-ND also demonstrated a gamma-turn conformation around Lys6-DPhe7-Arg8. From the above results, we conclude that a type I beta-turn conformation comprising the residues Asp5-His6-(D-Phe7)-Arg8 was important for receptor binding and activation, as well as the selectivity of MSH analogues.

  3. On the limitations of standard statistical modeling in biological systems: a full Bayesian approach for biology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime; Sanz, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important scientific challenges today is the quantitative and predictive understanding of biological function. Classical mathematical and computational approaches have been enormously successful in modeling inert matter, but they may be inadequate to address inherent features of biological systems. We address the conceptual and methodological obstacles that lie in the inverse problem in biological systems modeling. We introduce a full Bayesian approach (FBA), a theoretical framework to study biological function, in which probability distributions are conditional on biophysical information that physically resides in the biological system that is studied by the scientist.

  4. The Importance of Biological Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Terry Lawson

    1994-01-01

    Discusses one way to explore the concept of sustainable development with students by examining the loss of biodiversity. Presents information on the root causes of biodiversity loss and the links to an understanding of sustainable development. Contains a 20-question true-false biodiversity quiz with answer key. (LZ)

  5. The Importance of Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurse, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how science is done increases trust in science as it can be seen to be built on reliable data, rational argument and repeated testing. If science is taught as just an assemblage of facts without dealing with the process which gave rise to those facts, then why should pupils trust science more than fables or pseudoscience? Everyone…

  6. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  7. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-09-02

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need.

  8. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  9. Mechanisms and biological importance of photon-induced bystander responses: do they have an impact on low-dose radiation responses.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masanori; Maeda, Munetoshi

    2015-03-01

    Elucidating the biological effect of low linear energy transfer (LET), low-dose and/or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation is essential in ensuring radiation safety. Over the past two decades, non-targeted effects, which are not only a direct consequence of radiation-induced initial lesions produced in cellular DNA but also of intra- and inter-cellular communications involving both targeted and non-targeted cells, have been reported and are currently defining a new paradigm in radiation biology. These effects include radiation-induced adaptive response, low-dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, and radiation-induced bystander response (RIBR). RIBR is generally defined as a cellular response that is induced in non-irradiated cells that receive bystander signals from directly irradiated cells. RIBR could thus play an important biological role in low-dose irradiation conditions. However, this suggestion was mainly based on findings obtained using high-LET charged-particle radiations. The human population (especially the Japanese, who are exposed to lower doses of radon than the world average) is more frequently exposed to low-LET photons (X-rays or γ-rays) than to high-LET charged-particle radiation on a daily basis. There are currently a growing number of reports describing a distinguishing feature between photon-induced bystander response and high-LET RIBR. In particular, photon-induced bystander response is strongly influenced by irradiation dose, the irradiated region of the targeted cells, and p53 status. The present review focuses on the photon-induced bystander response, and discusses its impact on the low-dose radiation effect.

  10. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  11. 21 CFR 610.64 - Name and address of distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Name and address of distributor. 610.64 Section...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.64 Name and address of distributor. The name and address of the distributor of a product may appear on the label provided that the...

  12. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  13. The importance for the MDG4 and MDG5 of addressing reproductive health issues during the second decade of life: review and analysis from times series data of 51 African countries.

    PubMed

    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-06-01

    Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues are central to efforts for reducing childhood and maternal mortality embedded in MDG4 and MDG5. This paper reviews these issues in Africa and uses statistical methods for measuring changes to analyze recent and comparable time series data from 51 African countries. The contribution of adolescent fertility to total fertility and mortality remains quite high. Delayed marriage is occurring concomitantly with postponement of sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Six African countries are likely to achieve the MGD4 and five are likely to reach the target for the MDG5; the majority of sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of achieving these goals, not even by 2100 for many at current rates of change in progress indicators. Implementing ground-breaking nationally owned mortality-reduction schemes covering preconceptional and interconceptional periods and well-functioning comprehensive health-care system secured by sustained commitments and financial investments in health and social services are urgently needed, in order to repeal trends of further undoing successes achieved so far or slowing recent progress, thus hastening the pace of child and maternal mortality decline. PMID:22590890

  14. Evaluation of biological value and appraisal of polyphenols and glucosinolates from organic baby-leaf salads as antioxidants and antimicrobials against important human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Marques, Esperança; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-04-19

    The present investigation has been carried out to investigate the biological role of four different types of baby-leaf salads and to study their potential as natural sources of antioxidants and antimicrobials against several isolates from important human pathogenic bacteria. Four single types of salads (green lettuce, red lettuce, rucola and watercress) and two mixtures [(1) red lettuce+green lettuce; (2) green lettuce + red lettuce + watercress + rucola] were assayed. The HPLC analysis revealed interesting levels of polyphenols and glucosinolates. The results showed a significant variation (p < 0.05) of polyphenols and glucosinolates with plant material. Nine different types of polyphenols grouped in three major classes were found: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and dicaffeoyltartaric acid (phenolic acids); quercitin-3-O-rutinoside, quercitin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin (flavonoids); and cyanidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanins). Only three different glucosinolates were found: glucoraphanin; gluconasturtiin and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin. A positive correlation was detected between polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity. Red lettuce and mixture 1 were the baby-leaf salads with the highest antioxidant potential. As for the antimicrobial activity, the results showed a selective effect of chemicals against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were the bacteria most affected by the phytochemicals. Based on the results achieved baby-leaf salads represent an important source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial substances.

  15. The lumen-facing domain is important for the biological function and organelle-to-organelle movement of bZIP28 during ER stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Le; Lu, Sun-Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Shun-Fan; Sun, Ling; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-09-01

    The membrane-associated transcription factor, bZIP28, is relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and proteolytically released from the membrane mediated by two proteases, S1P and S2P, in response to ER stress in Arabidopsis. The activated N-terminal domain recruits nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) subunits in the nucleus to regulate ER stress downstream genes. Little is known about the functions of the bZIP28 C-terminal lumen-facing domain. Here, we provide novel insights into how the ER lumen-facing domain affects the biological function and organelle-to-organelle movement of bZIP28 in the ER stress response. First, we demonstrated the functional redundancy of bZIP28 and bZIP60 by generation and analysis of the bZIP28 and bZIP60 double mutant zip28zip60. Subsequent genetic complementation experiments in zip28zip60 background with deletions on bZIP28 lumen-facing domain highlighted the importance of lumen-facing domain for its in vivo function of bZIP28 in the ER stress response. The protein subcellular localization and Western blotting results further revealed that the bZIP28 lumen-facing domain contains ER retention signal which is important for the proteolytic activation of bZIP28. Thus, the bZIP28 lumen-facing C-terminus plays important roles in the ER-to-Golgi movement of bZIP28, which may contribute to the sensing of the ER stress.

  16. High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M; Alto, Barry W; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a "self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.

  17. High-throughput Multiplexed xMAP Luminex Array Panel for Detection of Twenty TWO Medically Important Mosquito-borne Arboviruses based on Innovations in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M.; Alto, Barry W.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a “single tube” setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a “self-avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an “artificially expanded genetic information system” (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex “liquid microarrays” are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6–10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito. PMID:25680538

  18. Selective observation of biologically important 15N-labeled metabolites in isolated rat brain and liver by 1H-detected multiple-quantum-coherence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Keiko; Ross, Brian D.; Parivar, Farhad

    Four cerebral metabolites of importance in neurotransmission, serotonin, L-tryptophan, L-glutamine, and N-acetyl- L-aspartate, and two hepatic urea-cycle intermediates, citrulline and urea, were found to be observable by 1H- 15N heteronuclear multiple-quantum-coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy in aqueous solution at physiological pH and temperature, through the protons spin-coupled to their indole, amide, or ureido nitrogen. Their 1H chemical shifts were well dispersed over a 5-10 ppm region while the 1J 15N- 1H values were 87-99 Hz. For [γ- 15N]glutamine, a 50- to 100-fold increase in sensitivity over direct 15N detection was achieved, in contrast to a 2-fold increase by the polarization-transfer method. In the isolated brain of portacaval-shunted rats, the amide protons of biologically 15N-enriched [γ- 15N]glutamine were observed in 2 min of acquisition, with suppression of proton signals from all other cerebral metabolites. In isolated liver of 15N-enriched control rats, [ 15NIurea protons were observed in 16 min. The HMQC method is likely to be effective for the in vivo study of cerebral and hepatic nitrogen metabolism.

  19. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  2. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  3. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  4. The importance of accurate convergence in addressing stereoscopic visual fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Christopher A.

    2015-03-01

    Visual fatigue (asthenopia) continues to be a problem in extended viewing of stereoscopic imagery. Poorly converged imagery may contribute to this problem. In 2013, the Author reported that in a study sample a surprisingly high number of 3D feature films released as stereoscopic Blu-rays contained obvious convergence errors.1 The placement of stereoscopic image convergence can be an "artistic" call, but upon close examination, the sampled films seemed to have simply missed their intended convergence location. This failure maybe because some stereoscopic editing tools do not have the necessary fidelity to enable a 3D editor to obtain a high degree of image alignment or set an exact point of convergence. Compounding this matter further is the fact that a large number of stereoscopic editors may not believe that pixel accurate alignment and convergence is necessary. The Author asserts that setting a pixel accurate point of convergence on an object at the start of any given stereoscopic scene will improve the viewer's ability to fuse the left and right images quickly. The premise is that stereoscopic performance (acuity) increases when an accurately converged object is available in the image for the viewer to fuse immediately. Furthermore, this increased viewer stereoscopic performance should reduce the amount of visual fatigue associated with longer-term viewing because less mental effort will be required to perceive the imagery. To test this concept, we developed special stereoscopic imagery to measure viewer visual performance with and without specific objects for convergence. The Company Team conducted a series of visual tests with 24 participants between 25 and 60 years of age. This paper reports the results of these tests.

  5. Jails as important but constrained venues for addressing women's health.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cummins, A Gaye; Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Carvajal, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Women in US jails have many social and health risks that merit attention from public health agencies. This article: (1) reviews national and local data on this population for indicators of social disadvantage and of several health risks/conditions (substance abuse, risky sex, and mental illness), (2) describes the impact of federal mandatory sentencing for drug violations and recent developments in states on the numbers of incarcerated women, (3) outlines the similarities and differences between jails and prisons, focusing on characteristics of jails that facilitate and constrain intervention and evaluation activities, and (4) adds lessons learned in six years of experience in county and state jails in Texas. PMID:12802121

  6. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  7. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  8. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  9. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  10. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145 1330 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunathaguru, V.; Umesh, T. K.

    2006-09-01

    A semi-empirical relation which can be used to determine the total attenuation cross sections of samples containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1332 keV has been derived based on the total attenuation cross sections of several sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The cross sections have been measured by performing transmission experiments in a narrow beam good geometry set-up by employing a high-resolution hyperpure germanium detector at seven energies of biological importance such as 145.4 keV, 279.2 keV, 514 keV, 661.6 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173.2 keV and 1332.1 keV. The semi-empirical relation can reproduce the experimental values within 1-2%. The total attenuation cross sections of five elements carbon, aluminium, titanium, copper and zirconium measured in the same experimental set-up at the energies mentioned above have been used in a new matrix method to evaluate the effective atomic numbers and the effective electron densities of samples such as cholesterol, fatty acids, sugars and amino acids containing H, C, N and O atoms from their effective atomic cross sections. The effective atomic cross sections are the total attenuation cross sections divided by the total number of atoms of all types in a particular sample. Further, a quantity called the effective atomic weight was defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a sample to the total number of atoms of all types in it. The variation of the effective atomic number was systematically studied with respect to the effective atomic weight and a new semi-empirical relation for Zeff has been evolved. It is felt that this relation can be very useful to determine the effective atomic number of any sample having H, C, N and O atoms in the energy range 145-1332 keV irrespective of its chemical structure.

  11. [Impact of biologically important anions on reactive oxygen species formation in water under the effect of non-ionizing physical agents].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Ivanov, V E; Karp, O É; Chernikov, A V; Belosludtsev, K N; Bobylev, A G; Astashev, M E; Gapeev, A B; Bruskov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The influence of biologically relevant anions (succinate, acetate, citrate, chloride, bicarbonate, hydroorthophosphate, dihydroorthophosphate, nitrite, nitrate) on the formation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in water was studied under the effect of non-ionizing radiation: heat, laser light with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, corresponding to the maximum absorption of molecular oxygen, and electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. It has been established that various anions may both inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species and increase it. Bicarbonate and sulfate anions included in the biological fluids' and medicinal mineral waters have significant, but opposite effects on reactive oxygen species production. Different molecular mechanisms of reactive oxygen species formation are considered under the action of the investigated physical factors involving these anions, which may influence the biological processes by signal-regulatory manner and provide a healing effect in physical therapy.

  12. Intermolecular CH···O/N H-bonds in the biologically important pairs of natural nucleobases: a thorough quantum-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Yurenko, Yevgen P; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to cast light on the physico-chemical nature and energetic of the non-conventional CH···O/N H-bonds in the biologically important natural nucleobase pairs using a comprehensive quantum-chemical approach. As a whole, the 36 biologically important pairs, involving canonical and rare tautomers of nucleobases, were studied by means of all available up-to-date state-of-the-art quantum-chemical techniques along with quantum theory "Atoms in molecules" (QTAIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis, Grunenberg's compliance constants theory, geometrical and vibrational analyses to identify the CH···O/N interactions, reveal their physico-chemical nature and estimate their strengths as well as contribution to the overall base-pairs stability. It was shown that all the 38 CH···O/N contacts (25 CH···O and 13 CH···N H-bonds) completely satisfy all classical geometrical, electron-topological, in particular Bader's and "two-molecule" Koch and Popelier's, and vibrational criteria of H-bonding. The positive values of Grunenberg's compliance constants prove that the CH···O/N contacts in nucleobase pairs are stabilizing interactions unlike electrostatic repulsion and anti-H-bonds. NBO analysis indicates the electron density transfer from the lone electron pair of the acceptor atom (O/N) to the antibonding orbital corresponding to the donor group σ(∗)(CH). Moreover, significant increase in the frequency of the out-of-plane deformation modes γ (CH) under the formation of the CH···O (by 17.2÷81.3/10.8÷84.7 cm(-1)) and CH···N (by 32.7÷85.9/9.0÷77.9 cm(-1)) H-bonds at the density functional theory (DFT)/second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of theory, respectively, and concomitant changes of their intensities can be considered as reliable indicators of H-bonding. The strengths of the CH···O/N interactions, evaluated by means of Espinosa-Molins-Lecomte formula, lie within the range 0.45÷3.89/0.62÷4.10 kcal/mol for the CH

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  14. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  15. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  16. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks--The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the…

  17. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of simplified analogues of (+)-discodermolide. Additional insights on the importance of the diene, the C7 hydroxyl, and the lactone.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Xian, Ming

    2005-11-10

    [structure: see text] The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of seven totally synthetic analogues of the antitumor agent (+)-discodermolide are reported. Saturation of the terminal diene system, alteration of the substituents on the lactone, and alkylation of the C7-hydroxyl group reveal significant structure-activity relationships.

  18. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  19. Addressing Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  20. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  1. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  2. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  3. Illuminating Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  4. Review of current chemoinformatic tools for modeling important aspects of CYPs-mediated drug metabolism. Integrating metabolism data with other biological profiles to enhance drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia Dias Soeiro

    2014-01-01

    The study of the metabolism of xenobiotics by the human body is an essential stage in the complex and expensive process of drug discovery, being one of the main causes of disapproval and/or withdrawal of drugs. Regarding this, enzymes known as cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play a very decisive role in the biotransformation of many chemicals. For this reason, the use of chemoinformatics to predict and /or analyze from different points of view CYPs-mediated drug metabolism, can help to reduce time and financial resources. This work is focused on the most remarkable advances in the last 5 years of the chemoinformatics tools towards the virtual analysis of CYPsmediated drug metabolism. First, a brief section is dedicated to the applicability of chemoinformatics in different areas associated with drug metabolism. Then, both the models for prediction of CYPs substrates and those allowing the assessment of sites of metabolism (SOM) are discussed. At the same time, the principal limitations of the current chemoinformatic tools are pointed out. Finally, and taking into account that metabolism is an essential step in the whole process of designing any drug, we introduce here as a case of study, the first multitasking model for quantitative-structure biological effect relationships (mtk-QSBER). The purpose of this model is to integrate different types of biological profiles such as ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) profiles and antistaphylococci activities. The mtk-QSBER model was created by employing a heterogeneous dataset of more than 66000 cases tested in 6510 different experimental conditions. The model displayed a total accuracy higher than 94%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to complement metabolism assays with other relevant biological data in order to speed up the discovery of efficacious antistaphylococci agents. PMID:24909424

  5. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  6. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  9. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established. PMID:17598524

  10. Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly

  11. Ligand-Binding Affinity at the Insulin Receptor Isoform-A and Subsequent IR-A Tyrosine Phosphorylation Kinetics are Important Determinants of Mitogenic Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Harinda; Forbes, Briony E.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A) arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signaling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration by activating some unique signaling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signaling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signaling (MAPK and Akt) and receptor internalization rates (related to mitogenic signaling). We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic [(His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51) IGF-I, qIGF-I] or metabolic (S597 peptide) biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signaling through the IR-A. The threefold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316, and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide, it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I. PMID:26217307

  12. Synthetic biology and the ethics of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Savulescu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biologists aim to generate biological organisms according to rational design principles. Their work may have many beneficial applications, but it also raises potentially serious ethical concerns. In this article, we consider what attention the discipline demands from bioethicists. We argue that the most important issue for ethicists to examine is the risk that knowledge from synthetic biology will be misused, for example, in biological terrorism or warfare. To adequately address this concern, bioethics will need to broaden its scope, contemplating not just the means by which scientific knowledge is produced, but also what kinds of knowledge should be sought and disseminated. PMID:20935316

  13. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  14. Soluble metals in the atmosphere and their biological implications. A study to identify important aerosol components by statistical analysis of PIXE data.

    PubMed

    Winchester, J W

    1990-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis has been applied to time series measurements of aerosol elemental composition from PIXE analysis of filter samples, and principal components have been resolved that represent distinct particle types in an external mixture in the atmosphere. In this study, it is argued that a combination of chemical and statistical analyses of the data may be more powerful in determining chemical species in atmospheric aerosols than studied that employ mainly direct chemical analysis of chemical species in unresolved mixtures of aerosol particle samples. Sulfur is generally associated with mineral dust elements. It is reasoned that the association may represent sulfuric acid coatings on particles that can lead to mineral dissolution and solubilization of significant amounts of aluminum, iron, and other metals. Upon wet or dry deposition to the surface, the fluxes of these metals in biologically-available form may be sufficient to affect primary productivity in the world ocean and cause ecological damage in lakes. As a consequence, the fluxes of biogenic trace gases to the atmosphere may be changed, possibly leading to changes in the tropospheric concentration of ozone. The inputs to lakes of soluble aluminum, which is toxic to fish, may be partly by deposition directly from the atmosphere, thus not limited to leaching of soils by acid deposition. Human inhalation of soluble aluminum and other solubilized mineral metals may account, in part, for the observed geographic pattern of deaths attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that show high rates in cities of the Western US and the southeast region, but low in most of the midwest and northeast.

  15. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  16. Research and development for health and environmental hazard problem definition study: fate and effects of five pesticides of military importance on secondary biological waste-water treatment plants. Final report, April-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Nelken, L.H.; Broome, M.G.; Lyman, W.J.; Scow, K.M.; Steber, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report reviews the literature pertaining to the fate and effects of five pesticides (Baygon, Chlordane, Diazinon, Dursban, and Malathion) introduced in dilute concentrations to secondary wastewater treatment plants. The review addresses the following subjects: the rates and products of biodegradation of the pesticides in both pure and mixed (from sources such as sewage, soils, ponds, etc.) microbial cultures; toxic or inhibitory levels of the pesticide which are disruptive to the ecology or operation of biological waste-water treatment plants; and chemical processes, such as hydrolysis, volatilization, and adsorption which reduce the concentrations of the pesticide in the effluent. Literature citations were obtained by a computerized search of twenty data bases, communication with pesticide manufacturers, government agencies, and university researchers. A manual search of Chemical Abstracts was conducted for Baygon and Chlordane. The report contains a detailed description of the experimental conditions and results of each article pertaining to the biodegradation and effects of each pesticide.

  17. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2006-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  18. ω-Amidase: an underappreciated, but important enzyme in L-glutamine and L-asparagine metabolism; relevance to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, tumor biology and hyperammonemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Shurubor, Yevgeniya I; Dorai, Thambi; Pinto, John T; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Denton, Travis T; Krasnikov, Boris F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, two major routes exist for the metabolic conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate. The most widely studied pathway involves the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to L-glutamate catalyzed by glutaminases, followed by the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by the action of an L-glutamate-linked aminotransferase or via the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. However, another major pathway exists in mammals for the conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate (the glutaminase II pathway) in which L-glutamine is first transaminated to α-ketoglutaramate (KGM) followed by hydrolysis of KGM to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia catalyzed by an amidase known as ω-amidase. In mammals, the glutaminase II pathway is present in both cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments and is most prominent in liver and kidney. Similarly, two routes exist for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate. In the most extensively studied pathway, L-asparagine is hydrolyzed to L-aspartate by the action of asparaginase, followed by transamination of L-aspartate to oxaloacetate. However, another pathway also exists for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate (the asparaginase II pathway). In this pathway, L-asparagine is first transaminated to α-ketosuccinamate (KSM), followed by hydrolysis of KSM to oxaloacetate by the action of ω-amidase. One advantage of both the glutaminase II and the asparaginase II pathways is that they are irreversible, and thus are important in anaplerosis by shuttling 5-C (α-ketoglutarate) and 4-C (oxaloacetate) units into the TCA cycle. In this review, we briefly mention the importance of the glutaminase II and asparaginase II pathways in microorganisms and plants. However, the major emphasis of the review is related to the importance of these pathways (especially the common enzyme component of both pathways--ω-amidase) in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in mammals and as a source of anaplerotic carbon moieties in rapidly dividing cells. The

  19. ω-Amidase: an underappreciated, but important enzyme in L-glutamine and L-asparagine metabolism; relevance to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, tumor biology and hyperammonemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Shurubor, Yevgeniya I; Dorai, Thambi; Pinto, John T; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Denton, Travis T; Krasnikov, Boris F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, two major routes exist for the metabolic conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate. The most widely studied pathway involves the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to L-glutamate catalyzed by glutaminases, followed by the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by the action of an L-glutamate-linked aminotransferase or via the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. However, another major pathway exists in mammals for the conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate (the glutaminase II pathway) in which L-glutamine is first transaminated to α-ketoglutaramate (KGM) followed by hydrolysis of KGM to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia catalyzed by an amidase known as ω-amidase. In mammals, the glutaminase II pathway is present in both cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments and is most prominent in liver and kidney. Similarly, two routes exist for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate. In the most extensively studied pathway, L-asparagine is hydrolyzed to L-aspartate by the action of asparaginase, followed by transamination of L-aspartate to oxaloacetate. However, another pathway also exists for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate (the asparaginase II pathway). In this pathway, L-asparagine is first transaminated to α-ketosuccinamate (KSM), followed by hydrolysis of KSM to oxaloacetate by the action of ω-amidase. One advantage of both the glutaminase II and the asparaginase II pathways is that they are irreversible, and thus are important in anaplerosis by shuttling 5-C (α-ketoglutarate) and 4-C (oxaloacetate) units into the TCA cycle. In this review, we briefly mention the importance of the glutaminase II and asparaginase II pathways in microorganisms and plants. However, the major emphasis of the review is related to the importance of these pathways (especially the common enzyme component of both pathways--ω-amidase) in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in mammals and as a source of anaplerotic carbon moieties in rapidly dividing cells. The

  20. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea.

    PubMed

    Huang, M T; Xie, J G; Wang, Z Y; Ho, C T; Lou, Y R; Wang, C X; Hard, G C; Conney, A H

    1997-07-01

    Oral administration of green or black tea inhibited UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in the skin of SKH-1 mice. Green tea was a more effective inhibitor than black tea. Oral administration of decaffeinated green or black tea resulted in substantially less inhibitory activity than did administration of the regular teas, and in one experiment, administration of a high-dose level of the decaffeinated teas enhanced the tumorigenic effect of UVB. Oral administration of caffeine alone had a substantial inhibitory effect on UVB-induced carcinogenesis, and adding caffeine to the decaffeinated teas restored the inhibitory effects of these teas on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. In additional studies, topical application of a green tea polyphenol fraction after each UVB application inhibited UVB-induced tumorigenesis. The results indicate that caffeine contributes in an important way to the inhibitory effects of green and black tea on UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis.

  1. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  2. Seasonal spatial patterns in seabird and marine mammal distribution in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas: Identifying biologically important pelagic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Hurley, Brendan; Gall, Adrian E.; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Morgan, Tawna C.

    2015-08-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort seas are undergoing rapid climate change and increased human activity. Conservation efforts for upper trophic level predators such as seabirds and marine mammals require information on species' distributions and identification of important marine areas. Here we describe broad-scale distributions of seabirds and marine mammals. We examined spatial patterns of relative abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas during summer (15 June-31 August) and fall (1 September-20 November) from 2007 to 2012. We summarized 49,206 km of shipboard surveys for seabirds and 183,157 km of aerial surveys for marine mammals into a grid of 40-km × 40-km cells. We used Getis-Ord Gi∗ hotspot analysis to test for cells with higher relative abundance than expected when compared to all cells within the study area. We identified cells representing single species and taxonomic group hotspots, cells representing hotspots for multiple species, and cells representing hotspots for both seabirds and marine mammals. The locations of hotspots varied among species but often were located near underwater canyons or over continental shelf features and slopes. Hotspots for seabirds, walrus, and gray whales occurred primarily in the Chukchi Sea. Hotspots for bowhead whales and other pinnipeds (i.e., seals) occurred near Barrow Canyon and along the Beaufort Sea shelf and slope. Hotspots for belugas occurred in both the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. There were three hotspots shared by both seabirds and marine mammals in summer: off Wainwright in the eastern Chukchi Sea, south of Hanna Shoal, and at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. In fall, the only identified shared hotspot occurred at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. Shared hotspots are characterized by strong fronts caused by upwelling and currents, and these areas can have high densities of euphausiids in summer and fall. Due to the high relative abundance of animals and diversity of taxa

  3. A Novel Chordoma Xenograft Allows In Vivo Drug Testing and Reveals the Importance of NF-κB Signaling in Chordoma Biology

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Matteo M.; Awad, Ola; Wilky, Breelyn A.; Goldstein, Seth D.; Huang, Ruili; Walker, Robert L.; Shah, Preeti; Katuri, Varalakshmi; Gul, Naheed; Zhu, Yuelin J.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Paz-Priel, Ido; Meltzer, Paul S.; Austin, Christopher P.; Xia, Menghang; Loeb, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone malignancy that arises in the skull base, spine and sacrum and originates from remnants of the notochord. These tumors are typically resistant to conventional chemotherapy, and to date there are no FDA-approved agents to treat chordoma. The lack of in vivo models of chordoma has impeded the development of new therapies for this tumor. Primary tumor from a sacral chordoma was xenografted into NOD/SCID/IL-2R γ-null mice. The xenograft is serially transplantable and was characterized by both gene expression analysis and whole genome SNP genotyping. The NIH Chemical Genomics Center performed high-throughput screening of 2,816 compounds using two established chordoma cell lines, U-CH1 and U-CH2B. The screen yielded several compounds that showed activity and two, sunitinib and bortezomib, were tested in the xenograft. Both agents slowed the growth of the xenograft tumor. Sensitivity to an inhibitor of IκB, as well as inhibition of an NF-κB gene expression signature demonstrated the importance of NF-κB signaling for chordoma growth. This serially transplantable chordoma xenograft is thus a practical model to study chordomas and perform in vivo preclinical drug testing. PMID:24223206

  4. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12.

  5. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. PMID:25589360

  6. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 1. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly Fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia Virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (Ribavirin, Selenazofurin, Carbocyclic-3-deaza-adenosine, Adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  7. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 2. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Pichinde Virus (PIC), Hantaan Virus (HTN), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The in vivo systems are Pichinde Virus infection of hamsters, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (ribavirin, selenazofurin, carbocyclic-3-aza-adenosine, adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  8. Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, B. phoenicis, and B. lewisi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): a review of their biology, feeding injury and economic importance.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; French, J Victor; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V

    2003-01-01

    The genus Brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of Tenuipalpidae. Many Brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. Previous researchers have determined that Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. phoenicis (Geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. The life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. Longevity of each Brevipalpus species is two to three times greater than corresponding longevities of various tetranychid mites. Brevipalpus mites inject toxic saliva into fruits, leaves, stems, twigs, and bud tissues of numerous plants including citrus. Feeding injury symptoms on selected plants include: chlorosis, blistering, bronzing, or necrotic areas on leaves by one or more Brevipalpus mites. Premature leaf drop occurred on 'Robinson' tangerine leaves in Florida (USA). Leaf drop was observed in several sweet orange and grapefruit orchards in Texas (USA) that were heavily infested with Brevipalpus mites feeding on the twigs, leaves, and fruit. Initial circular chlorotic areas appear on both sweet orange and grapefruit varieties in association with developing populations of Brevipalpus mites in Texas. These feeding sites become progressively necrotic, darker in color, and eventually develop into irregular scab-like lesions on affected fruit. Russeting and cracking of the fruits of other plant hosts are reported. Stunting of leaves and the development of Brevipalpus galls on terminal buds were recorded on sour orange, Citrus aurantium L., seedlings heavily infested with B. californicus in an insectary. The most significant threat posed by these mites is as vectors of a potentially invasive viral disease called citrus leprosis.

  9. Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, B. phoenicis, and B. lewisi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): a review of their biology, feeding injury and economic importance.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; French, J Victor; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V

    2003-01-01

    The genus Brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of Tenuipalpidae. Many Brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. Previous researchers have determined that Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. phoenicis (Geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. The life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. Longevity of each Brevipalpus species is two to three times greater than corresponding longevities of various tetranychid mites. Brevipalpus mites inject toxic saliva into fruits, leaves, stems, twigs, and bud tissues of numerous plants including citrus. Feeding injury symptoms on selected plants include: chlorosis, blistering, bronzing, or necrotic areas on leaves by one or more Brevipalpus mites. Premature leaf drop occurred on 'Robinson' tangerine leaves in Florida (USA). Leaf drop was observed in several sweet orange and grapefruit orchards in Texas (USA) that were heavily infested with Brevipalpus mites feeding on the twigs, leaves, and fruit. Initial circular chlorotic areas appear on both sweet orange and grapefruit varieties in association with developing populations of Brevipalpus mites in Texas. These feeding sites become progressively necrotic, darker in color, and eventually develop into irregular scab-like lesions on affected fruit. Russeting and cracking of the fruits of other plant hosts are reported. Stunting of leaves and the development of Brevipalpus galls on terminal buds were recorded on sour orange, Citrus aurantium L., seedlings heavily infested with B. californicus in an insectary. The most significant threat posed by these mites is as vectors of a potentially invasive viral disease called citrus leprosis. PMID:14756411

  10. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  11. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  12. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  13. Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf-break front - Degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreto, José I.; Montoya, Nora G.; Carignan, Mario O.; Akselman, Rut; Acha, E. Marcelo; Derisio, Carla

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the spring phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonian shelf-break front (PSBF). Using a CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigment data and other methods, the biomass and spatial variability of plankton communities were studied in four sections (39-48°S) across the PSBF during October 2005. Environmental factors and the biomass and composition of plankton communities exhibited a marked spatial heterogeneity. The latitudinal and cross-shelf progression in the timing of the spring bloom initiation and the nutritive properties of the water masses (Subantarctic Shelf Waters and Malvinas Current Waters) seemed to be the key factors. Three plankton regions were distinguished: (a) Outer shelf (OS), (b) Shelf-break front (SBF) and (c) Malvinas Current (MC). At the highly stratified OS region, the post-bloom community showed low-biomasshigh-phytoplankton diversity formed mainly by small cells (haptophytes 30-62%, diatoms 17-49%, chlorophytes 0-34%, and prasinophytes 0-21% of total Chl a). High amounts of degraded fucoxanthin were found associated with the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, Protoperidinium capurroi. Grazing by this microheterotroph on the diatom population seemed to be the most important factor for the spring bloom decay at the OS. A remarkable quasi monospecific bloom (∼90%) of a nanodiatom (Thalassiosira bioculata var. raripora) associated with high Chl a (up to 20 mg m-3) occurred along (∼1000 km) the SBF and in the most northern extension of the MC. In the southern region, the bloom was developed under absent or incipient density stratification, increasing solar irradiance, high nitrate and phosphate availability, and low numbers of phytoplankton grazers. The average mixedlayer PAR irradiance (<2.0 mol quanta PAR m-2 d-1) and Si:N ratios (<0.2) were low, suggesting a diatom population limited by light and under progressive silicate limitation. The more stratified northern region of the

  14. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  15. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  16. Engaging Biology Undergraduates in the Scientific Process through Writing a Theoretical Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Jennifer S.; Duwel, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that research experiences are an important element that should be included in all undergraduate Biology curricula. This is a difficult suggestion to accommodate due to issues with cost, space and time. We addressed this challenge through development of a capstone project in which Biology majors work in groups to develop novel…

  17. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  18. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  19. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  20. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  1. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  2. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  4. Plant biology in the future.

    PubMed

    Bazzaz, F A

    2001-05-01

    In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of "Complexity Theory" think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization, from atoms all the way to the structure of the universe, and that when these are discovered, the issue of scaling will be greatly simplified! Plant biology must seriously contribute to, among other things, meeting the nutritional needs of the human population. This challenge constitutes a key part of the backdrop against which future evolution will occur. Genetic engineering technologies are and will continue to be an important component of agriculture; however, we must consider the evolutionary implications of these new technologies. Meeting these demands requires drastic changes in the undergraduate curriculum. Students of biology should be trained in molecular, cellular, organismal

  5. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  6. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  7. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  8. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  9. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  10. Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

  11. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  12. The US Biology Education Standards, New Biology Curricula and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the events leading up to the current US biology education standards, a brief examination of the National Science Education Standards for biology, and a description of the three recently developed biology curricula that were designed to address the new standards. Several evaluative studies of these curricula…

  13. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2012-12-01

    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  14. The interaction of antitumor-active anthraquinones with biologically important redox couples: I. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interaction of carminic acid and mitoxantrone with the iron (II, III) and copper (I, II) redox couples.

    PubMed

    Tütem, E; Apak, R; Sözgen, K

    1996-02-01

    Studying the interaction of antitumor-active anthraquinones with biologically important redox couples is important in understanding the possible reductive or oxidative mode of metabolism of these antineoplastic agents coupled with the formation of free radicals. The interactions of such anthraquinones, i.e., carminic acid (CA) and mitoxantrone (Mx) with iron(II, III) and copper(I, II) redox couples in oxygenated and deaerated solutions, were investigated by UV-Visible and IR-spectroscopy. The superoxide radical reagent, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), was added to the metal and anthraquinone solutions and their binary mixtures at varying pH. Formazan, the reduction product of NBT, was produced mainly as a result of Fe(II)-NBT and Fe(II)-Mx-NBT interactions. The ternary mixtures of the lower valencies of iron and copper with CA and NBT exhibited intensive charge-transfer bands in the visible region, while metal-Mx-NBT combinations did not produce such bands, possibly due to the blockage of the redox-active aminoethanolamine side-chains of Mx through coordination with the metals. Copper-Mx combinations showed an oxygen sensitivity as spectral evidence was obtained for the oxidative transformation of Mx to the cyclic primary metabolite. The results were evaluated in regard to the possible oxidative activation of the studied anthracenediones with iron and copper systems. PMID:8576709

  15. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  16. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  17. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  18. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  19. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  20. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  3. [The Biology of Learning].

    PubMed

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry.

  4. [The Biology of Learning].

    PubMed

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. PMID:26572571

  5. Computational systems chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  6. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  7. Life Goals in Vision Rehabilitation: Are They Addressed and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-wen

    2006-01-01

    This study explored if and how vision rehabilitation services address important life goals of young and middle-aged adults who are visually impaired. It found that services that teach functional skills and offer psychosocial therapeutic-type services were instrumental in addressing life goals and that independence-related goals were most often…

  8. 27 CFR 41.253 - Change in location or address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Change in location or address. 41.253 Section 41.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... § 41.253 Change in location or address. Whenever an importer of processed tobacco intends to...

  9. 27 CFR 41.253 - Change in location or address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in location or address. 41.253 Section 41.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... § 41.253 Change in location or address. Whenever an importer of processed tobacco intends to...

  10. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  11. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  12. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  13. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  14. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  15. Biology and biotechnology of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) polymer is a critical component of extracellular matrix with a remarkable structure: is a linear and unbranched polymer without sulphate or phosphate groups. It is ubiquitous in mammals showing several biological functions, ranging from cell proliferation and migration to angiogenesis and inflammation. For its critical biological functions the amount of HA in tissues is carefully controlled by different mechanisms including covalent modification of the synthetic enzymes and epigenetic control of their gene expression. The concentration of HA is also critical in several pathologies including cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Beside these biological roles, the structural properties of HA allow it to take advantage of its capacity to form gels even at concentration of 1 % producing scaffolds with very promising applications in regenerative medicine as biocompatible material for advanced therapeutic uses. In this review we highlight the biological aspects of HA addressing the mechanisms controlling the HA content in tissues as well as its role in important human pathologies. In the second part of the review we highlight the different use of HA polymers in the modern biotechnology.

  16. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  17. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  18. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  19. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C.; Jahan, Tahmina A.; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E.; Katze, Michael G.

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  1. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed…

  2. Systems cell biology.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  3. Systems cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred D.; Ratushny, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology. PMID:25225336

  4. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  5. Biological surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  6. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  7. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  8. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  9. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  10. Conservation Biology and real-world conservation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John G

    2006-06-01

    In the 20 years since Conservation Biology was launched with the aim of disseminating scientific knowledge to help conserve biodiversity and the natural world, our discipline has hugely influenced the practice of conservation. But we have had less impact outside the profession itself and we have not transformed that practice into an enterprise large enough to achieve our conservation goals. As we look to the next 20 years, we need to become more relevant and important to the societies in which we live. To do so, the discipline of conservation biology must generate answers even when full scientific knowledge is lacking, structure scientific research around polices and debates that influence what we value as conservationists, go beyond the certitude of the biological sciences into the more contextual debates of the social sciences, engage scientifically with human-dominated landscapes, and address the question of how conservation can contribute to the improvement of human livelihoods and the quality of human life.

  11. Prognostic Importance of MN1 Transcript Levels, and Biologic Insights From MN1-Associated Gene and MicroRNA Expression Signatures in Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Christian; Marcucci, Guido; Holland, Kelsi B.; Radmacher, Michael D.; Maharry, Kati; Paschka, Peter; Whitman, Susan P.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Baldus, Claudia D.; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic importance of the meningioma 1 (MN1) gene expression levels in the context of other predictive molecular markers, and to derive MN1 associated gene– and microRNA–expression profiles in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods MN1 expression was measured in 119 untreated primary CN-AML adults younger than 60 years by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Patients were also tested for FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, and WT1 mutations, MLL partial tandem duplications, and BAALC and ERG expression. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles were attained by performing genome-wide microarray assays. Patients were intensively treated on two first-line Cancer and Leukemia Group B clinical trials. Results Higher MN1 expression associated with NPM1 wild-type (P < .001), increased BAALC expression (P = .004), and less extramedullary involvement (P = .01). In multivariable analyses, higher MN1 expression associated with a lower complete remission rate (P = .005) after adjustment for WBC; shorter disease-free survival (P = .01) after adjustment for WT1 mutations, FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), and high ERG expression; and shorter survival (P = .04) after adjustment for WT1 and NPM1 mutations, FLT3-ITD, and WBC. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles suggested that high MN1 expressers share features with high BAALC expressers and patients with wild-type NPM1. Higher MN1 expression also appears to be associated with genes and microRNAs that are active in aberrant macrophage/monocytoid function and differentiation. Conclusion MN1 expression independently predicts outcome in CN-AML patients. The MN1 gene- and microRNA-expression signatures suggest biologic features that could be exploited as therapeutic targets. PMID:19451432

  12. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    PubMed

    Radick, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  13. Models in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the most popular models currently being chosen for biological research and the reasons behind those choices. Among the current favorites are zebra fish, fruit flies, mice, monkeys, and yeast. Concludes with a brief examination of the ethical issues involved, and why some animals may need to be replaced in research with model systems.…

  14. The significant role of the intermolecular CH⋯O/N hydrogen bonds in governing the biologically important pairs of the DNA and RNA modified bases: a comprehensive theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Yurenko, Yevgen P; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a logical continuation of the theoretical survey of the CH⋯O/N specific contacts in the nucleobase pairs using a wide arsenal of the modern methods, which was initiated in our previous study [J. Biomol. Struct. & Dynam., 2014, 32, 993-1022]. It was established that 34 CH⋯O and 7 CH⋯N interactions, that were detected by quantum-chemical calculations in the 39 biologically important pairs involving modified nucleobases, completely satisfy all geometrical, vibrational, electron-topological, in particular Bader's and "two-molecule" Koch and Popelier's, Grunenberg's compliance constants theory and natural bond orbital criteria indicating that they can be identified as true H-bonds. The geometrical criteria of the H-bond formation are fulfilled for all considered CH⋯O/N H-bonds without any exception. It was shown that the classical rule of the stretching vibration shifts does not work in the ~95% cases of the CH⋯O/N H-bonds. Furthermore, significant increase in the frequency of the out-of-plane deformation modes γ(CH) under the formation of CH⋯O/N H-bonds and corresponding changes of their intensities can be also considered as reliable indicators of the H-bonding. We revealed high linear mutual correlations between the electron density, Laplacian of the electron density, H-bond energy at the (3, -1) bond critical points of the CH⋯O/N H-bonds, and different physico-chemical parameters of the CH⋯O/N H-bonds. We suggested that the electron density ρ and the interaction energy E((2)) of the lone orbital pairs are the most reliable descriptors of the H-bonding. The linear dependence of the H-bond energy ECH⋯O/N on the electron density ρ was established: ECH⋯O = 250.263∙ρ - .380/258.255∙ρ - .396 and ECH⋯N = 196.800∙ρ - .172/268.559∙ρ - .703 obtained at the density functional theory (DFT)/Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of theory, respectively. The studies of the interaction energies show that the

  15. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  16. Understanding of Energy in Biology and Vitalistic Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka; Chipman, David

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the possible connection between misconceptions of energy in biological phenomena and adherence to scientifically oriented conceptions of biology. Makes recommendations for basing the biology curriculum on the second law of thermodynamics. Contains 31 references. (DDR)

  17. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  18. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  19. 1, 2, 3, 4: infusing quantitative literacy into introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Speth, Elena Bray; Momsen, Jennifer L; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Ebert-May, Diane; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara; Linton, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Biology of the twenty-first century is an increasingly quantitative science. Undergraduate biology education therefore needs to provide opportunities for students to develop fluency in the tools and language of quantitative disciplines. Quantitative literacy (QL) is important for future scientists as well as for citizens, who need to interpret numeric information and data-based claims regarding nearly every aspect of daily life. To address the need for QL in biology education, we incorporated quantitative concepts throughout a semester-long introductory biology course at a large research university. Early in the course, we assessed the quantitative skills that students bring to the introductory biology classroom and found that students had difficulties in performing simple calculations, representing data graphically, and articulating data-driven arguments. In response to students' learning needs, we infused the course with quantitative concepts aligned with the existing course content and learning objectives. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by significant improvement in the quality of students' graphical representations of biological data. Infusing QL in introductory biology presents challenges. Our study, however, supports the conclusion that it is feasible in the context of an existing course, consistent with the goals of college biology education, and promotes students' development of important quantitative skills.

  20. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  1. The Resurgence of Biological Determinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Elizabeth A.; Kilty, Keith M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two areas where science has been and still is used to justify policies and attitudes that are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. This article analyzes the debate over whether these correlations are biologically or socially determined. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the…

  2. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  3. 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take…

  4. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable. PMID:22566670

  5. Towards a Liberal Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P. M. C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of a university biology department and the organization of its curriculum in terms of perceived crises in British biology. Concludes that reform becomes a project of crucial importance, not only to the social and technological development of civilized societies, but to the survival of the human species. (Author/AL)

  6. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  7. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  8. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  9. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  10. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  17. Exemplary Programs in Secondary School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, William F.; Penick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes 10 exemplary programs which address topics on individualized biology, a modified team approach, limnology, physical anthropology, the relevance of biology to society, ecology, and health. Provides names and addresses of contact persons for further information. Units cover a broad range of abilities and activities. (RT)

  18. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  19. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  1. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  2. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  3. Evolutionary Design in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Kay C.

    Much progress has been achieved in recent years in molecular biology and genetics. The sheer volume of data in the form of biological sequences has been enormous and efficient methods for dealing with these huge amounts of data are needed. In addition, the data alone does not provide information on the workings of biological systems; hence much research effort has focused on designing mathematical and computational models to address problems from molecular biology. Often, the terms bioinformatics and computational biology are used to refer to the research fields concerning themselves with designing solutions to molecular problems in biology. However, there is a slight distinction between bioinformatics and computational biology: the former is concerned with managing the enormous amounts of biological data and extracting information from it, while the latter is more concerned with the design and development of new algorithms to address problems such as protein or RNA folding. However, the boundary is blurry, and there is no consistent usage of the terms. We will use the term bioinformatics to encompass both fields. To cover all areas of research in bioinformatics is beyond the scope of this section and we refer the interested reader to [2] for a general introduction. A large part of what bioinformatics is concerned about is evolution and function of biological systems on a molecular level. Evolutionary computation and evolutionary design are concerned with developing computational systems that "mimic" certain aspects of natural evolution (mutation, crossover, selection, fitness). Much of the inner workings of natural evolutionary systems have been copied, sometimes in modified format into evolutionary computation systems. Artificial neural networks mimic the functioning of simple brain cell clusters. Fuzzy systems are concerned with the "fuzzyness" in decision making, similar to a human expert. These three computational paradigms fall into the category of

  4. Methods for biological data integration: perspectives and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological advances have led to the production of different types of biological data and enabled construction of complex networks with various types of interactions between diverse biological entities. Standard network data analysis methods were shown to be limited in dealing with such heterogeneous networked data and consequently, new methods for integrative data analyses have been proposed. The integrative methods can collectively mine multiple types of biological data and produce more holistic, systems-level biological insights. We survey recent methods for collective mining (integration) of various types of networked biological data. We compare different state-of-the-art methods for data integration and highlight their advantages and disadvantages in addressing important biological problems. We identify the important computational challenges of these methods and provide a general guideline for which methods are suited for specific biological problems, or specific data types. Moreover, we propose that recent non-negative matrix factorization-based approaches may become the integration methodology of choice, as they are well suited and accurate in dealing with heterogeneous data and have many opportunities for further development. PMID:26490630

  5. Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    In "Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership," Charles A. Bonnici addresses several issues facing school leaders through strategies supported by real-life examples and anecdotes. The issues addressed include questions such as: (1) What is the most urgent issue faced by a new school leader?; (2) How can this leader address the…

  6. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…

  7. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  8. The chemical biology of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Zang, Wenwen; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yajun; He, Yanhua; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Jiajia; Zheng, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    The sirtuin family of enzymes are able to catalyze the N(ε)-acyl-lysine deacylation reaction on histone and non-histone protein substrates. Over the past years since the discovery of its founding member (i.e. the yeast silent information regulator 2 (sir2) protein) in 2000, the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has been demonstrated to play an important regulatory role in multiple crucial cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage repair, and metabolism. This reaction has also been regarded as a current therapeutic target for human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. The unique β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD(+) or NAD(+))-dependent nature of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has also engendered extensive mechanistic studies, resulting in a mechanistic view of the enzyme chemistry supported by several lines of experimental evidence. On the journey toward these knowledge advances, chemical biological means have constituted an important functional arsenal; technically, a variety of chemical probes and modulators (inhibitors and activators) have been developed and some of them have been employed toward an enhanced mechanistic and functional (pharmacological) understanding of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction. On the other hand, an enhanced mechanistic understanding has also facilitated the development of a variety of chemical probes and modulators. This article will review the tremendous accomplishments achieved during the past few years in the field of sirtuin chemical biology. It is hoped that this would also help to set a stage for how outstanding mechanistic and functional questions for the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction could be addressed in the future from the chemical biology perspective.

  9. Presidential address. Fatti Maschii Parole Femine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G P

    1984-03-15

    The current role of the Society of Surgical Oncology has demonstrated leadership in the field of surgical oncology in both word and deed, as exemplified by the motto of the State of Maryland, adopted from the 1632 family seal of Lord Baltimore, "Fatti Maschii Parole Femine." The current emphasis on the need for clinical research on human cancers, and the education of surgeons in all aspects of various cancers is well founded in the writings and the addresses of Dr. James Ewing, the Society's founder. Our goals as a society for the next decade have been precisely defined and, as in all important national programs, made current and interfaced with corresponding priorities of the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. The Society, in three project areas, is: (1) assessing current progress in surgical oncology, as well as future manpower needs; (2) studying on a comprehensive basis the surgical practices in cancer patient management; and (3) surveying academic centers concerning the nature of current education and training of academic surgeons in clinical research. The Training Committee currently reviews and recognizes 2-year postresidency multidisciplinary training at several institutions, and the James Ewing Foundation has expanded its fiscal support of educational activities. This annual meeting marks an historic first signified by the conjoint sessions being held with other international surgical oncology societies.

  10. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  11. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  13. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  14. Complexity in cancer biology: is systems biology the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Koutsogiannouli, Evangelia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos A

    2013-01-01

    Complex phenotypes emerge from the interactions of thousands of macromolecules that are organized in multimolecular complexes and interacting functional modules. In turn, modules form functional networks in health and disease. Omics approaches collect data on changes for all genes and proteins and statistical analysis attempts to uncover the functional modules that perform the functions that characterize higher levels of biological organization. Systems biology attempts to transcend the study of individual genes/proteins and to integrate them into higher order information. Cancer cells exhibit defective genetic and epigenetic networks formed by altered complexes and network modules arising in different parts of tumor tissues that sustain autonomous cell behavior which ultimately lead tumor growth. We suggest that an understanding of tumor behavior must address not only molecular but also, and more importantly, tumor cell heterogeneity, by considering cancer tissue genetic and epigenetic networks, by characterizing changes in the types, composition, and interactions of complexes and networks in the different parts of tumor tissues, and by identifying critical hubs that connect them in time and space. PMID:23634284

  15. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. Addressing Standards and Assessments on the IEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Esler, Amy; Whetstone, Patti J.

    2001-01-01

    A study that examined state Individualized Education Program (IEP) forms found that out of the 41 with IEP forms, only 5 specifically addressed educational standards on their forms. Thirty-one states addressed the general curriculum on their IEP forms and 30 states listed three or more options for assessment participation. (Contains nine…

  18. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  19. 16 CFR 1000.4 - Commission address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission address. 1000.4 Section 1000.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.4 Commission address. The principal Offices of the Commission are at 4330 East West...

  20. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  1. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  2. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All correspondence, petitions, and any information required by this part shall be submitted to: Administrator, Economic Regulatory Administration, Department...

  3. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  5. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  6. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... institutional offices; (2) Reviews of telephone directories or inquiries of information operators in the...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  14. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... through the U.S. Postal Service, use the following address: Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, P.O....

  15. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  16. Workshop Introduction: Systems Biology and Biological Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we consider the future of toxicity testing, the importance of applying biological models to this problem is clear. Modeling efforts exist along a continuum with respect to the level of organization (e.g. cell, tissue, organism) linked to the resolution of the model. Generally,...

  17. A New Biology for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Woese, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

  18. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  19. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  20. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  1. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  2. Systems Biology - A Pivotal Research Methodology for Understanding the Mechanisms of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Systems biology is a novel subject in the field of life science that aims at a systems’ level understanding of biological systems. Because of the significant progress in high-throughput technologies and molecular biology, systems biology occupies an important place in research during the post-genome era. Methods: The characteristics of systems biology and its applicability to traditional medicine research have been discussed from three points of view: data and databases, network analysis and inference, and modeling and systems prediction. Results: The existing databases are mostly associated with medicinal herbs and their activities, but new databases reflecting clinical situations and platforms to extract, visualize and analyze data easily need to be constructed. Network pharmacology is a key element of systems biology, so addressing the multi-component, multi-target aspect of pharmacology is important. Studies of network pharmacology highlight the drug target network and network target. Mathematical modeling and simulation are just in their infancy, but mathematical modeling of dynamic biological processes is a central aspect of systems biology. Computational simulations allow structured systems and their functional properties to be understood and the effects of herbal medicines in clinical situations to be predicted. Conclusion: Systems biology based on a holistic approach is a pivotal research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. If systems biology is to be incorporated into traditional medicine, computational technologies and holistic insights need to be integrated. PMID:26388998

  3. Dimensions of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Wikswo, J

    2006-01-01

    Systems biology, possibly the latest sub-discipline of biology, has arisen as a result of the shockwave of genomic and proteomic data that has appeared in the past few years. However, despite ubiquitous initiatives that carry this label, there is no precise definition of systems biology other than the implication of a new, all-encompassing, multidisciplinary endeavor. Here we propose that systems biology is more than the integration of biology with methods of the physical and computational sciences, and also more than the expansion of the single-pathway approach to embracing genome-scale networks. It is the discipline that specifically addresses the fundamental properties of the complexity that living systems represent. To facilitate the discussion, we dissect and project the multifaceted systems complexity of living organisms into five dimensions: (1) molecular complexity; (2) structural complexity; (3) temporal complexity; (4) abstraction and emergence; and (5) algorithmic complexity. This "five-dimensional space" may provide a framework for comparing, classifying, and complementing the vast diversity of existing systems biology programs and their goals, and will also give a glimpse of the magnitude of the scientific problems associated with unraveling the ultimate mysteries of life.

  4. Current concepts for the biological basis of dental implants: foreign body equilibrium and osseointegration dynamics.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Ricardo; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To understand the biological basis of osseointegration, one has to understand the 2 main sides of the implant-host interaction: tissue and biomaterial characteristics. This article addresses osseous tissue characteristics, and the potential role of soft tissues in the osseointegration of dental implants. Successful integration is driven by an inflammatory process. Protein adsorption is key for tissue integration with biomaterials. Osseointegration dynamics relate to the in vivo lifetime of the implant. Understanding this biology is important; it opens the door to putting aside heuristic methods and replaces them by methods that produce solutions to achieve a specific biological goal.

  5. Collaborative explanation and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Melinda Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    This paper motivates and outlines a new account of scientific explanation, which I term 'collaborative explanation.' My approach is pluralist: I do not claim that all scientific explanations are collaborative, but only that some important scientific explanations are-notably those of complex organic processes like development. Collaborative explanation is closely related to what philosophers of biology term 'mechanistic explanation' (e.g., Machamer et al., Craver, 2007). I begin with minimal conditions for mechanisms: complexity, causality, and multilevel structure. Different accounts of mechanistic explanation interpret and prioritize these conditions in different ways. This framework reveals two distinct varieties of mechanistic explanation: causal and constitutive. The two have heretofore been conflated, with philosophical discussion focusing on the former. This paper addresses the imbalance, using a case study of modeling practices in Systems Biology to reveals key features of constitutive mechanistic explanation. I then propose an analysis of this variety of mechanistic explanation, in terms of collaborative concepts, and sketch the outlines of a general theory of collaborative explanation. I conclude with some reflections on the connection between this variety of explanation and social aspects of scientific practice.

  6. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  7. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  8. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  9. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  10. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  11. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  16. Residualization is not the answer: Rethinking how to address multicollinearity.

    PubMed

    York, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Here I show that a commonly used procedure to address problems stemming from collinearity and multicollinearity among independent variables in regression analysis, "residualization", leads to biased coefficient and standard error estimates and does not address the fundamental problem of collinearity, which is a lack of information. I demonstrate this using visual representations of collinearity, hypothetical experimental designs, and analyses of both artificial and real world data. I conclude by noting the importance of examining methodological practices to ensure that their validity can be established based on rational criteria.

  17. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  18. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  19. Ins and outs of systems biology vis-à-vis molecular biology: continuation or clear cut?

    PubMed

    De Backer, Philippe; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology 'revolutionizes' molecular biology and 'transcends' its assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology's use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement.

  20. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  1. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  2. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  3. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  10. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  11. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  15. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  16. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  17. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  18. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  19. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  20. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  1. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  2. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  3. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  4. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  5. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  6. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  7. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  8. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  9. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  10. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  11. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  12. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  13. Potentials of single-cell biology in identification and validation of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Furong; Wang, Diane C; Lu, Jiapei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-09-01

    Single-cell biology is considered a new approach to identify and validate disease-specific biomarkers. However, the concern raised by clinicians is how to apply single-cell measurements for clinical practice, translate the message of single-cell systems biology into clinical phenotype or explain alterations of single-cell gene sequencing and function in patient response to therapies. This study is to address the importance and necessity of single-cell gene sequencing in the identification and development of disease-specific biomarkers, the definition and significance of single-cell biology and single-cell systems biology in the understanding of single-cell full picture, the development and establishment of whole-cell models in the validation of targeted biological function and the figure and meaning of single-molecule imaging in single cell to trace intra-single-cell molecule expression, signal, interaction and location. We headline the important role of single-cell biology in the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers with a special emphasis on understanding single-cell biological functions, e.g. mechanical phenotypes, single-cell biology, heterogeneity and organization of genome function. We have reason to believe that such multi-dimensional, multi-layer, multi-crossing and stereoscopic single-cell biology definitely benefits the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers.

  14. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    PubMed

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area.

  15. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  16. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  17. Synthetic biology: Understanding biological design from synthetic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Mukherji, Shankar; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    An important aim of synthetic biology is to uncover the design principles of natural biological systems through the rational design of gene and protein circuits. Here we highlight how the process of engineering biological systems — from synthetic promoters to the control of cell–cell interactions — has contributed to our understanding of how endogenous systems are put together and function. Synthetic biological devices allow us to intuitively grasp the ranges of behavior generated by simple biological circuits, such as linear cascades and interlocking feedback loops, as well as to exert control over natural processes such as gene expression and population dynamics. PMID:19898500

  18. New measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dual goals of optimizing clinical efficacy of hadrontherapy and determining radiation risk estimates for space research have intersected to a common focus for investigation of the biological effects of charged particles. This paper briefly highlights recent international progress at accelerator facilities engaged in both biological and clinical studies of the effects of particle beams, primarily protons, carbon and iron ions. Basic mechanisms of molecular, cellular and tissue responses continue under investigation for radiations with a range of ionization densities. Late normal tissue effects, including the risk of cancer in particular, are of importance for both research fields. International cooperation has enhanced the rate of progress as evidenced by recent publications. Specific areas of biomedical research related to the biological radiotoxicity of critical organs (especially the central nervous system), individual radiosensitivities to radiation carcinogenesis, and the analysis of effects in mixed radiation fields still require more research. Recommendations for addressing these issues are made.

  19. Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials at the Nanometer Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Electron microscopy of biological matter uses three different imaging modalities: (a) electron crystallography, (b) single-particle analysis, and (c) electron tomography. Ideally, these imaging modalities are applied to frozen-hydrated samples to ensure an optimal preservation of the structures under scrutiny. Cryo-electron microscopy of biological matter has made important advances in the past decades. It has become a research tool that further expands the scope of structural research into unique areas of cell and molecular biology, and it could augment the materials research portfolio in the study of soft and hybrid materials. This review addresses how researchers using transmission electron microscopy can derive structural information at high spatial resolution from fully hydrated specimens, despite their sensitivity to ionizing radiation, despite the adverse conditions of high vacuum for samples that have to be kept in aqueous environments, and despite their low contrast resulting from weakly scattering building blocks.

  20. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  1. Individually Addressable Arrays of Replica Microbial Cultures Enabled by Splitting SlipChips

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Datta, Sujit S.; Karymov, Mikhail A; Pan, Qichao; Begolo, Stefano; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2014-01-01

    Isolating microbes carrying genes of interest from environmental samples is important for applications in biology and medicine. However, this involves the use of genetic assays that often require lysis of microbial cells, which is not compatible with the goal of obtaining live cells for isolation and culture. This paper describes the design, fabrication, biological validation, and underlying physics of a microfluidic SlipChip device that addresses this challenge. The device is composed of two conjoined plates containing 1,000 microcompartments, each comprising two juxtaposed wells, one on each opposing plate. Single microbial cells are stochastically confined and subsequently cultured within the microcompartments. Then, we split each microcompartment into two replica droplets, both containing microbial culture, and then controllably separate the two plates while retaining each droplet within each well. We experimentally describe the droplet retention as a function of capillary pressure, viscous pressure, and viscosity of the aqueous phase. Within each pair of replicas, one can be used for genetic analysis, and the other preserves live cells for growth. This microfluidic approach provides a facile way to cultivate anaerobes from complex communities. We validate this method by targeting, isolating, and culturing Bacteroides vulgatus, a core gut anaerobe, from a clinical sample. To date, this methodology has enabled isolation of a novel microbial taxon, representing a new genus. This approach could also be extended to the study of other microorganisms and even mammalian systems, and may enable targeted retrieval of solutions in applications including digital PCR, sequencing, single cell analysis, and protein crystallization. PMID:24953827

  2. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  3. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  4. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  5. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  6. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  7. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    PubMed

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology.

  8. Teaching Biology through Statistics: Application of Statistical Methods in Genetics and Zoology Courses

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math–biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology. PMID:21885822

  9. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  10. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  11. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  12. [Systems biology of cancer].

    PubMed

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  13. Is the DPT tautomerization of the long A·G Watson-Crick DNA base mispair a source of the adenine and guanine mutagenic tautomers? A QM and QTAIM response to the biologically important question.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-03-01

    Herein, we first address the question posed in the title by establishing the tautomerization trajectory via the double proton transfer of the adenine·guanine (A·G) DNA base mispair formed by the canonical tautomers of the A and G bases into the A*·G* DNA base mispair, involving mutagenic tautomers, with the use of the quantum-mechanical calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It was detected that the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization proceeds through the asynchronous concerted mechanism. It was revealed that the A·G base mispair is stabilized by the N6H···O6 (5.68) and N1H···N1 (6.51) hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and the N2H···HC2 dihydrogen bond (DH-bond) (0.68 kcal·mol(-1) ), whereas the A*·G* base mispair-by the O6H···N6 (10.88), N1H···N1 (7.01) and C2H···N2 H-bonds (0.42 kcal·mol(-1) ). The N2H···HC2 DH-bond smoothly and without bifurcation transforms into the C2H···N2 H-bond at the IRC = -10.07 Bohr in the course of the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization. Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···O6 H-bond is anticooperative to the two others-N1H···N1 and N2H···HC2 in the A·G base mispair, while the latters are significantly cooperative, mutually strengthening each other. In opposite, all three O6H···N6, N1H···N1, and C2H···N2 H-bonds are cooperative in the A*·G* base mispair. All in all, we established the dynamical instability of the А*·G* base mispair with a short lifetime (4.83·10(-14) s), enabling it not to be deemed feasible source of the A* and G* mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases. The small lifetime of the А*·G* base mispair is predetermined by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy for the A*·G* → A·G transition. Moreover, all of the six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations cannot develop during this lifetime that additionally confirms the aforementioned results. Thus, the A*·G* base mispair cannot be

  14. Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness. (EV)

  15. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential.

  16. Grand challenges for biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society. PMID:19772647

  17. Addressing multigenerational conflict: mutual respect and carefronting as strategy.

    PubMed

    Kupperschmidt, Betty R

    2006-05-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by nurses as they work side-by-side with nurses from a variety of generational cohorts. First a brief overview of the generational characteristics of the four generational cohorts in today's workplace is presented. Next the importance of each nurse using respect and carefronting as antidotes to generational conflict is discussed. Finally the role of nursing leadership in facilitating respect and carefronting is noted. PMID:17201578

  18. Hands-on-Entropy, Energy Balance with Biological Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology textbooks is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. From diffusion to cell-membrane formation, to electrostatic binding in protein folding, to the functioning of nerve cells, entropic effects often act to counterbalance deterministic forces such as electrostatic attraction and in so doing, allow for effective molecular signaling. A small group of biology, biophysics and computer science faculty have worked together for the past five years to develop curricular modules (based on SCALEUP pedagogy). This has enabled students to create models of stochastic and deterministic processes. Our students are first-year engineering and science students in the calculus-based physics course and they are not expected to know biology beyond the high-school level. In our class, they learn to reduce complex biological processes and structures in order model them mathematically to account for both deterministic and probabilistic processes. The students test these models in simulations and in laboratory experiments that are biologically relevant such as diffusion, ionic transport, and ligand-receptor binding. Moreover, the students confront random forces and traditional forces in problems, simulations, and in laboratory exploration throughout the year-long course as they move from traditional kinematics through thermodynamics to electrostatic interactions. This talk will present a number of these exercises, with particular focus on the hands-on experiments done by the students, and will give examples of the tangible material that our students work with throughout the two-semester sequence of their course on introductory

  19. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  20. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  1. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  2. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  3. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  4. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  5. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF... Services Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions...

  6. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  7. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  8. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  9. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  10. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  11. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  12. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  13. State of the District Address, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    This address by the Chancellor of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) discusses recent and long-term changes in the district's programs, educational quality, and financial standing, and suggests means for future improvements. First, the paper highlights the district's achievements in improving transfer education and developing new…

  14. 40 CFR 65.14 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 65.14 Section 65.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED... Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Air Quality and Radiation Control, Forbes Field,...

  15. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  16. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  17. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  18. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  19. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  20. The biology of personality.

    PubMed

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.