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Sample records for address important biological

  1. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  2. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  3. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems. PMID:23128771

  4. Importance of Addressing Sexuality in Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated Certified Rehabilitation Counselors' (CRCs) beliefs about the importance of addressing sexuality issues during rehabilitation. A modified version of the Family Life Sex Education Goals Questionnaire (FLSEGQ) was completed by 199 CRCs to determine which issues CRCs believe are most important to address. Six sexuality-related…

  5. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  6. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data. PMID:26922256

  7. SEER 2008 Keynote Address: The Importance of Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the keynote address given by Katherine J. Pinch at the 2008 Annual Symposium on Experiential Education Research (SEER). Pinch discusses the importance of evaluation research and argues that the realm of evaluation is where the margins of research and practice have the potential to intersect with the greatest ease. She…

  8. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  9. Biological Control of Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1998, the Alabama Fire Ant Management Program has been releasing natural enemies of imported fire ants. These natural enemies are being studied to determine their impact on fire ants. It is hoped that eventually the overall number of fire ants in Alabama can be reduced through biological cont...

  10. Wireless address event representation system for biological sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folowosele, Fopefolu; Tapson, Jonathan; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2007-05-01

    We describe wireless networking systems for close proximity biological sensors, as would be encountered in artificial skin. The sensors communicate to a "base station" that interprets the data and decodes its origin. Using a large bundle of ultra thin metal wires from the sensors to the "base station" introduces significant technological hurdles for both the construction and maintenance of the system. Fortunately, the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol provides an elegant and biomorphic method for transmitting many impulses (i.e. neural spikes) down a single wire/channel. However, AER does not communicate any sensory information within each spike, other that the address of the origination of the spike. Therefore, each sensor must provide a number of spikes to communicate its data, typically in the form of the inter-spike intervals or spike rate. Furthermore, complex circuitry is required to arbitrate access to the channel when multiple sensors communicate simultaneously, which results in spike delay. This error is exacerbated as the number of sensors per channel increases, mandating more channels and more wires. We contend that despite the effectiveness of the wire-based AER protocol, its natural evolution will be the wireless AER protocol. A wireless AER system: (1) does not require arbitration to handle multiple simultaneous access of the channel, (2) uses cross-correlation delay to encode sensor data in every spike (eliminating the error due to arbitration delay), and (3) can be reorganized and expanded with little consequence to the network. The system uses spread spectrum communications principles, implemented with a low-power integrate-and-fire neurons. This paper discusses the design, operation and capabilities of such a system. We show that integrate-and-fire neurons can be used to both decode the origination of each spike and extract the data contained within in. We also show that there are many technical obstacles to overcome before this version

  11. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-09-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols. PMID:26956952

  12. Biologically important compounds in synfuels processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B R; Ho, C; Griest, W H; Guerin, M R

    1980-01-01

    Crude products, by-products and wastes from synfuel processes contain a broad spectrum of chemical compounds - many of which are active in biological systems. Discerning which compound classes are most important is necessary in order to establish effective control over release or exposure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), multialkylated PAH, primary aromatic amines and N-heterocyclic PAH are significant contributors to the overall mutagenic activities of a large number of materials examined. Ames test data show that the basic, primary aromatic amine fraction is the most active. PAHs, multialkylated PAHs and N-heterocyclic PAHs are all components of the neutral fraction. In nearly all cases, the neutral fractions contribute the largest portion of the mutagenic activity, while the basic primary aromatic amine fractions have the highest specific activity. Neutral fractions are usually the largest (wt %) whereas the total basic fractions are small by comparison; thus, the overall greater contribution of the neutral fraction to the mutagenic activity of most samples. Biologically active constituents are isolated in preparative scale amounts from complex mixtures utilizing combinations of liquid-liquid extraction and various liquid chromatographic column-eluant combinations. Fractions are characterized using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  13. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo. PMID:20672079

  14. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances.

    PubMed

    Purtov, K V; Petunin, A I; Burov, A E; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2010-01-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgG(I125) and RAM-nanodiamond-BSA(I125) complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSA(I125) complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody-antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo. PMID:20672079

  15. [Collections of pathogenic viruses for addressing general biologic problems].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A

    2007-01-01

    Development of the theory and practice of building and maintenance of collections of reference cultures of pathogens strains is actual in conservation of a biodiversity, and as for maintenance with standardized superfine starting materials fundamental and applied researches in fields of microbiology, an immunology, biotechnology, ecology, and biosafety. Various approaches to taxonomy of viruses, and also definition of concepts "strain" and "species" are discussed in the article. Formulations of the concepts most conforming to museum collections activity are given. The methodology of collecting pathogens, including fifteen-year experience of maintenance of the National collection of hemorrhagic fever viruses belonging to group I of pathogenicity, is summarized. The systemic approach is suggested as a basis of methodology of collecting. Selection of pathogen species and their specific strains according to purpose and on the basis of complex study of their biological and other characteristics, as well as standardization and unification of methods of pathogens maintenance and preparing on their basis working materials, diagnostic kits and other preparations, create a real basis of optimization, unification and continuity of the subsequent applied researches. The offer about formation at the state level of a new independent direction--pathogens collecting with establishment of federal centers based on pathogens' classes has been made. PMID:18277545

  16. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  17. Rifaximin: An Antibiotic with Important Biologic Effects.

    PubMed

    DuPont, H L

    2015-01-01

    Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed rifamycin drug with unique pharmacokinetic properties: bile solubility making it highly active against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial flora in the bile-rich small bowel and low water solubility making it active only against highly susceptible bacteria, primarily anaerobes, in the aqueous colon. The drug has anti-inflammatory gut mucosal stabilization properties that are important to its sustained effects in non-infectious diseases. Rifaximin is used chronically or recurrently for hepatic encephalopathy and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Monitoring of long-term use of rifaximin for development of resistance and then determining whether developed resistance is associated with reduced efficacy are needed. Studies of changes of intestinal flora during therapy and the health implications of these changes are also needed. PMID:26202192

  18. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  19. 78 FR 19585 - Change of Address; Biologics License Applications; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 600 Change of Address; Biologics License Applications; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to update the address for applicants...

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of chromenes: biological and chemical importance.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Renukadevi

    2015-01-01

    Chromenes constitute chemically important class of heterocyclic compounds having diverse biological and chemical importance. Development of environmentally benign, efficient and economical methods for the synthesis of chromenes remains a significant challenge in synthetic chemistry. The synthesis of chromenes, therefore, has attracted enormous attention from medicinal and organic chemists. Researchers have embraced the concepts of microwave (high speed) synthesis to produce biologically and chemically important chromenes in a time sensitive manner. This review will summarize the recent biological applications such as anticancer, antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and insecticidal activity of new chromenes prepared via microwave irradiation. The development of new methodologies for the synthesis of chromenes including green chemistry processes has also been discussed. PMID:26061107

  1. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  2. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nugala, Babitha; Kumar, Bb Santosh; Sahitya, S; Krishna, P Mohana

    2012-01-01

    An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry. PMID:22368328

  3. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  4. Micropipetting: An Important Laboratory Skill for Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Michell E.; Wong, Susan J.; Miller, Jon S.; Nienhuis, James

    2004-01-01

    Micropipetting is an important skill that plays a very active and critical role in the molecular biology laboratory. It is imperative for a person handling micropipettor to know the correct way of using it so that accurate and precise results are achieved.

  5. Model calculations of nuclear data for biologically-important elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Reffo, G.; Young, P.G.

    1994-05-01

    We describe calculations of neutron-induced reactions on carbon and oxygen for incident energies up to 70 MeV, the relevant clinical energy in radiation neutron therapy. Our calculations using the FKK-GNASH, GNASH, and ALICE codes are compared with experimental measurements, and their usefulness for modeling reactions on biologically-important elements is assessed.

  6. Infrared Structural Biology: Detect Functionally Important Structural Motions of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua

    Proteins are dynamic. Lack of dynamic structures of proteins hampers our understanding of protein functions. Infrared structural biology (IRSB) is an emerging technology. There are several advantages of IRSB for mechanistic studies of proteins: (1) its excellent dynamic range (detecting structural motions from picoseconds to >= seconds); (2) its high structural sensitivity (detect tiny but functionally important structural motions such as proton transfer and changes in hydrogen bonding interaction); (3) its ability to detect different structural motions simultaneously. Successful development of infrared structural biology demands not only new experimental techniques (from infrared technologies to chemical synthesis and cell biology), but also new data processing (how to translate infrared signals into quantitative structural information of proteins). These topics will be discussed as well as examples of how to use IRSB to study structure-function relationship of proteins. This work was supported by NSF DBI1338097 and OCAST HR10-078.

  7. Addressing the unmet need for visualizing conditional random fields in biological data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological world is replete with phenomena that appear to be ideally modeled and analyzed by one archetypal statistical framework - the Graphical Probabilistic Model (GPM). The structure of GPMs is a uniquely good match for biological problems that range from aligning sequences to modeling the genome-to-phenome relationship. The fundamental questions that GPMs address involve making decisions based on a complex web of interacting factors. Unfortunately, while GPMs ideally fit many questions in biology, they are not an easy solution to apply. Building a GPM is not a simple task for an end user. Moreover, applying GPMs is also impeded by the insidious fact that the “complex web of interacting factors” inherent to a problem might be easy to define and also intractable to compute upon. Discussion We propose that the visualization sciences can contribute to many domains of the bio-sciences, by developing tools to address archetypal representation and user interaction issues in GPMs, and in particular a variety of GPM called a Conditional Random Field(CRF). CRFs bring additional power, and additional complexity, because the CRF dependency network can be conditioned on the query data. Conclusions In this manuscript we examine the shared features of several biological problems that are amenable to modeling with CRFs, highlight the challenges that existing visualization and visual analytics paradigms induce for these data, and document an experimental solution called StickWRLD which, while leaving room for improvement, has been successfully applied in several biological research projects. Software and tutorials are available at http://www.stickwrld.org/ PMID:25000815

  8. Interconversion of biologically important carboxylic acids by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interconversion of a group of biologically important polycarboxylic acids (acetic, fumaric, malic, malonic, succinic, citric, isocitric, tricarballylic) under gamma-ray or ultraviolet radiation was investigated. The formation of high molecular weight compounds was observed in all cases. Succinic acid was formed in almost all radiolysis experiments. Citric, malonic, and succinic acids appeared to be relatively insensitive to radiation. Interconversion of the polycarboxylic acids studied may have occurred under the effect of radiation in the prebiotic earth.

  9. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  10. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision

    PubMed Central

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences. PMID:22773951

  11. Planning for community benefit. A seven-step process helps providers define and address important needs.

    PubMed

    Trocchio, J; McDevitt, R N

    1994-01-01

    The Catholic Health Association's (CHA's) Standards for Community Benefit ask Catholic healthcare organizations to show their commitment to addressing community needs. The standards call on providers to stress the importance of community service in a variety of contexts--from their statements of philosophy and values to the decisions made in their board and executive staff meetings. At the heart of the Standards for Community Benefit is the requirement that an organization's governing body adopt a community benefit plan. The community benefit plan can help orient staff, physicians, and volunteers to the facility's charitable role. A provider can also use a completed plan to elicit community members' views on the organization's interpretation of community needs, its priorities, and performance. Not-for-profit healthcare organizations can prepare a community benefit plan by completing the following steps: Restate the organization's mission and commitment Define the community being served Identify unmet community needs Determine and describe the organization's leadership role Determine and describe the organization's community service role Seek public comment on the plan Prepare a formal, written community benefit plan. PMID:10131086

  12. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-hydroxyoxindoles: an update

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oxindole scaffolds are prevalent in natural products and have been recognized as privileged substructures in new drug discovery. Several oxindole-containing compounds have advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of different diseases. Among these compounds, enantioenriched 3-hydroxyoxindole scaffolds also exist in natural products and have proven to possess promising biological activities. A large number of catalytic asymmetric strategies toward the construction of 3-hydroxyoxindoles based on transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis have been reported in the last decades. Additionally, 3-hydroxyoxindoles as versatile precursors have also been used in the total synthesis of natural products and for constructing structurally novel scaffolds. In this review, we aim to provide an overview about the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-substituted 3-hydroxyoxindoles and 3-hydroxyoxindole-based further transformations. PMID:27340490

  13. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-hydroxyoxindoles: an update.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Xing, Hui; Yu, De-Quan; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Oxindole scaffolds are prevalent in natural products and have been recognized as privileged substructures in new drug discovery. Several oxindole-containing compounds have advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of different diseases. Among these compounds, enantioenriched 3-hydroxyoxindole scaffolds also exist in natural products and have proven to possess promising biological activities. A large number of catalytic asymmetric strategies toward the construction of 3-hydroxyoxindoles based on transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis have been reported in the last decades. Additionally, 3-hydroxyoxindoles as versatile precursors have also been used in the total synthesis of natural products and for constructing structurally novel scaffolds. In this review, we aim to provide an overview about the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of biologically important 3-substituted 3-hydroxyoxindoles and 3-hydroxyoxindole-based further transformations. PMID:27340490

  14. Small proteins: untapped area of potential biological importance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mingming; Ling, Yunchao; Yu, Jun; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptides containing ≤100 amino acid residues (AAs) are generally considered to be small proteins (SPs). Many studies have shown that some SPs are involved in important biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and growth. SP generally has a simple domain and has an advantage to be used as model system to overcome folding speed limits in protein folding simulation and drug design. But SPs were once thought to be trivial molecules in biological processes compared to large proteins. Because of the constraints of experimental methods and bioinformatics analysis, many genome projects have used a length threshold of 100 amino acid residues to minimize erroneous predictions and SPs are relatively under-represented in earlier studies. The general protein discovery methods have potential problems to predict and validate SPs, and very few effective tools and algorithms were developed specially for SPs identification. In this review, we mainly consider the diverse strategies applied to SPs prediction and discuss the challenge for differentiate SP coding genes from artifacts. We also summarize current large-scale discovery of SPs in species at the genome level. In addition, we present an overview of SPs with regard to biological significance, structural application, and evolution characterization in an effort to gain insight into the significance of SPs. PMID:24379829

  15. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids FOPIUS ARISANUS and FOPIUS CERATITIVORUS, and t...

  16. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  17. Structural Biology and Regulation of Protein Import into the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mary; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Róna, Gergely; Smith, Kate M; Stewart, Alastair G; Takeda, Agnes A S; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stewart, Murray; Vértessy, Beáta G; Forwood, Jade K; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-05-22

    Proteins are translated in the cytoplasm, but many need to access the nucleus to perform their functions. Understanding how these nuclear proteins are transported through the nuclear envelope and how the import processes are regulated is therefore an important aspect of understanding cell function. Structural biology has played a key role in understanding the molecular events during the transport processes and their regulation, including the recognition of nuclear targeting signals by the corresponding receptors. Here, we review the structural basis of the principal nuclear import pathways and the molecular basis of their regulation. The pathways involve transport factors that are members of the β-karyopherin family, which can bind cargo directly (e.g., importin-β, transportin-1, transportin-3, importin-13) or through adaptor proteins (e.g., importin-α, snurportin-1, symportin-1), as well as unrelated transport factors such as Hikeshi, involved in the transport of heat-shock proteins, and NTF2, involved in the transport of RanGDP. Solenoid proteins feature prominently in these pathways. Nuclear transport factors recognize nuclear targeting signals on the cargo proteins, including the classical nuclear localization signals, recognized by the adaptor importin-α, and the PY nuclear localization signals, recognized by transportin-1. Post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation, constitute key regulatory mechanisms operating in these pathways. PMID:26523678

  18. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

  19. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  20. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ghanotakis, Elena; Peacock, Dean; Wilcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Issues The recently launched “Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive” sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. Description A growing body of evidence suggests that gender inequality, including gender-based violence, is a key obstacle to better outcomes related to all four components of a comprehensive PMTCT programme. Gender inequality affects the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV, prevent unintended pregnancies and access and continue to use HIV prevention, care and treatment services. Lessons Learned In light of this evidence, global health donors and international bodies increasingly recognize that it is critical to address the gender disparities that put women and children at increased risk of HIV and impede their access to care. The current policy environment provides unprecedented opportunities for PMTCT implementers to integrate efforts to address gender inequality with efforts to expand access to clinical interventions for preventing vertical HIV transmission. Effective community- and facility-based strategies to transform harmful gender norms and mitigate the impacts of gender inequality on HIV-related outcomes are emerging. PMTCT programmes must embrace these strategies and expand beyond the traditional focus of delivering ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women living with HIV. Without greater implementation of comprehensive, gender transformative PMTCT programmes, elimination of vertical transmission of HIV will remain elusive. PMID:22789642

  1. The Age of the Earth & Its Importance to Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Biology textbooks tend to assert the correctness of evolutionary concepts but mention very little of the evidence that supports them. This gives the impression that evolutionary theory is poorly supported, which discourages acceptance of the theory. A case in point is the age of the Earth. Biology textbooks usually mention that the planet is…

  2. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  3. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  4. Epistemological beliefs in introductory biology: Addressing measurement concerns and exploring the relationship with strategy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschuh, Jodi Lynn

    This study had two main purposes: to address measurement concerns about assessing students' epistemological beliefs and to explore the relationship between epistemological beliefs and deep and surface strategy use in an introductory biology classroom. The following research questions guided the study: (a) Are epistemological beliefs multidimensional? (b) Are the measures of epistemological beliefs correlated? (c) Are the measures of strategy use correlated? (d) Are epistemological beliefs correlated with deep and surface strategy use? (e) How much of the unique variance in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, grade point average (GPA), and course grade is accounted for by epistemological beliefs and strategy use? (f) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of mature epistemological beliefs? and (g) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of deep strategies? Participants (N = 518) were recruited from two sections of an introductory biology course. All participants completed five assessments including the Epistemological Questionnaire, the Epistemological Scenario, the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory, two strategy checklists, and an open-ended questionnaire. The factor analysis, which was used to answer the first question, indicated no clear loading of the hypothesized dimensions underlying epistemological beliefs as measured by the Epistemological Questionnaire. However, the factor analysis of the Epistemological Scenario indicated four factors underlying epistemological beliefs (i.e., certain knowledge, innate ability, quick learning, and simple knowledge). In addition, the correlation analyses, which were used to answer the second, third, and fourth questions, indicated a significant relationship between epistemological beliefs and strategy use. The multiple regression commonality analysis, which was used to answer the fifth

  5. Important biological activities induced by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venom.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Farsky, Sandra H P; Takehara, Harumi Ando; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2005-02-01

    The accidents caused by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms are frequent and represent a public health problem in some regions of Venezuela. Most accidents occur in the fishing communities and tourists. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema, and necrosis. Due to the lack of efficient therapy it may take weeks, or even months for complete recovery of the victims. The investigations presented here were undertaken to assess the eletrophoretical profile and principal biological properties of the T. maculosa venom. Venom obtained from fresh captured specimens of this fish was tested in vitro or in animal models for a better characterization of its toxic activities. In contrast to other fish venoms, T. maculosa venom showed relative low LD50. The injection of venom in the footpad of mice reproduced a local inflammatory lesion similar to that described in humans. Significant increase of the nociceptive and edematogenic responses was observed followed within 48 h by necrosis. Pronounced alterations on microvascular hemodynamics were visualized after venom application. These alterations were represented by fibrin depots and thrombus formation followed by complete venular stasis and transient arteriolar contraction. T. maculosa venom is devoid of phospholipase A2 activity, but the venom showed proteolytic and myotoxic activities. SDS-Page analysis of the crude venom showed important bands: one band located above 97 M(w), one band between 68 and 97 M(w), one major band between 29 and 43 M(w) and the last one located below 18.4 M(w) Then, the results presented here support that T. maculosa venom present a mixture of bioactive toxins involved in a local inflammatory lesion. PMID:15626364

  6. Addressing the Impact of Foster Care on Biological Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Maha N.; Harp, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study explores from a dual perspective the impact of the fostering process on biological children in the home. Ten foster parents and their biological children were interviewed separately. The impact of foster care on the psychological, educational, and social well-being of biological children and their relationship with parents and siblings…

  7. Convexity, Jensen's inequality, and benefits of noisy or biologically variable life support (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, W. Alan C.

    2005-05-01

    Life support with a mechanical ventilator is used to manage patients with a variety of lung diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recently, management of ARDS has concentrated on ventilating at lower airway pressure using lower tidal volume. A large international study demonstrated a 22% reduction in mortality with the low tidal volume approach. The potential advantages of adding physiologic noise with fractal characteristics to the respiratory rate and tidal volume as delivered by a mechanical ventilator are discussed. A so-called biologically variable ventilator (BVV), incorporating such noise, has been developed. Here we show that the benefits of noisy ventilation - at lower tidal volumes - can be deduced from a simple probabilistic result known as Jensen"s Inequality. Using the local convexity of the pressure-volume relationship in the lung we demonstrate that the addition of noise results in higher mean tidal volume or lower mean airway pressure. The consequence is enhanced gas exchange or less stress on the lungs, both clinically desirable. Jensen"s Inequality has important considerations in engineering, information theory and thermodynamics. Here is an example of the concept applied to medicine that may have important considerations for the clinical management of critically ill patients. Life support devices, such as mechanical ventilators, are of vital use in critical care units and operating rooms. These devices usually have monotonous output. Improving mechanical ventilators and other life support devices may be as simple as adding noise to their output signals.

  8. Developmental biology teaching - the importance of a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, John F

    2015-01-01

    The huge growth in knowledge in many areas of biological sciences over the past few decades has created a major dilemma for those of us in higher education, for not only must we adequately and efficiently convey these new facts and concepts to our students, we must also ensure that they understand and appreciate them. The field of developmental biology has witnessed such a massive growth in knowledge since the mid-1980s, driven mainly by advances in cell and molecular biology, and the development of new imaging techniques and tools. Ensuring that students fully appreciate the four-dimensional nature of embryonic development and morphogenesis is a particular issue, and one that I argue can only be properly learned via direct exposure to embryos via laboratory practicals. PMID:26167273

  9. The Importance of Intertrophic Interactions in Biological Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earliest research leading to successful weed biocontrol included observations and some analysis that the strict “gate-keeping” by peer reviewers, editors and publishers does not often allow today. Within these pioneering studies was a valid picture of the biology of weed biocontrol that is appli...

  10. A vision for the innovative study of fungal biology in China: Presidential address

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengshu

    2015-01-01

    I am proud to be elected as the sixth president of the Mycological Society of China, and highly pleased to have a chance to share my personal opinion here with my fellow mycologists and students regarding the innovative performance of fungal biology studies in China. A stepwise buildup of knowledge and sharp scientific vision is the prerequisite for innovative studies. Taken together with the most advanced techniques and elegant experimental designs, the scholars would have a better chance to acquire novel and conceptual results rather than the “me too” stories by focusing on the mechanisms related with fungal unique biology. PMID:26000193

  11. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Gurr, Geoff M.; You, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles. PMID:26793225

  12. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    PubMed Central

    La Barre, Stéphane; Potin, Philippe; Leblanc, Catherine; Delage, Ludovic

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology. PMID:20479964

  13. Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kenian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiaqian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation and leads to protein diversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalent in metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern is dynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types, including embryonic stem cells. These observations suggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cell biology. Since embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to all types of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of future cell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, most of the studies focused on the expression of a core set of transcription factors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem cell differentiation was not clear. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed the profiling of dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that are responsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and provided novel insights in a number of studies. In this review, we discuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells. An emerging picture from these findings is that AS is integrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks and together they control pluripotency maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25621101

  14. [The importance of biological and social factors in school success].

    PubMed

    Gorbachevskaia, N L; Davydova, E Iu; Petrova, S O; Tiushkevich, S A; Pashkevich, O I

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of children with learning difficulties (a total of 62 children) are dealt with in this study according to their cognitive and psychological special features. In the first group the difficulties are a symptom of the FMR1-gene dysfunction. In the second group the poor school performance is associated with social interaction problems and high intelligence level. In the third group of gifted children with low verbal intelligence parameters the poor school performance occurred because of unevenly developed verbal and non-verbal abili-ties. We demonstrate the importance of complex neurophysiological, neuropsychological and clinical psychological investigation for establishing the reasons for school difficulties. PMID:20586304

  15. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinita; Agarwal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:25383216

  16. The Importance of Biologically Relevant Microclimates in Habitat Suitability Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Johanna; Dearing, M. Denise

    2014-01-01

    Predicting habitat suitability under climate change is vital to conserving biodiversity. However, current species distribution models rely on coarse scale climate data, whereas fine scale microclimate data may be necessary to assess habitat suitability and generate predictive models. Here, we evaluate disparities between temperature data at the coarse scale from weather stations versus fine-scale data measured in microhabitats required for a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We collected two years of temperature data in occupied talus habitats predicted to be suitable (high elevation) and unsuitable (low elevation) by the bioclimatic envelope approach. At low elevations, talus surface and interstitial microclimates drastically differed from ambient temperatures measured on-site and at a nearby weather station. Interstitial talus temperatures were frequently decoupled from high ambient temperatures, resulting in instantaneous disparities of over 30°C between these two measurements. Microhabitat temperatures were also highly heterogeneous, such that temperature measurements within the same patch of talus were not more correlated than measurements at distant patches. An experimental manipulation revealed that vegetation cover may cool the talus surface by up to 10°C during the summer, which may contribute to this spatial heterogeneity. Finally, low elevation microclimates were milder and less variable than typical alpine habitat, suggesting that, counter to species distribution model predictions, these seemingly unsuitable habitats may actually be better refugia for this species under climate change. These results highlight the importance of fine-scale microhabitat data in habitat assessments and underscore the notion that some critical refugia may be counterintuitive. PMID:25115894

  17. Leveraging the biology of adversity to address the roots of disparities in health and development

    PubMed Central

    Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive evidence that personal experiences and environmental exposures are embedded biologically (for better or for worse) and the cumulative knowledge of more than four decades of intervention research provide a promising opportunity to mobilize evolving scientific insights to catalyze a new era of more effective early childhood policy and practice. Drawing on emerging hypotheses about causal mechanisms that link early adversity with lifelong impairments in learning, behavior, and health, this paper proposes an enhanced theory of change to promote better outcomes for vulnerable, young children by strengthening caregiver and community capacities to reduce or mitigate the impacts of toxic stress, rather than simply providing developmental enrichment for the children and parenting education for their mothers. PMID:23045654

  18. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, C.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Dean-Bradley, K.; DeFalco, L.A.; Castle, K.T.; Zimmerman, L.C.; Espinoza, R.E.; Barber, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the threats to the persistence of populations of sensitive species have physiological or pathological mechanisms, and those mechanisms are best understood through the inherently integrative discipline of physiological ecology. The desert tortoise was listed under the Endangered Species Act largely due to a newly recognized upper respiratory disease thought to cause mortality in individuals and severe declines in populations. Numerous hypotheses about the threats to the persistence of desert tortoise populations involve acquisition of nutrients, and its connection to stress and disease. The nutritional wisdom hypothesis posits that animals should forage not for particular food items, but instead, for particular nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus used in building bones. The optimal foraging hypothesis suggests that, in circumstances of resource abundance, tortoises should forage as dietary specialists as a means of maximizing intake of resources. The optimal digestion hypothesis suggests that tortoises should process ingesta in ways that regulate assimilation rate. Finally, the cost-of-switching hypothesis suggests that herbivores, like the desert tortoise, should avoid switching food types to avoid negatively affecting the microbe community responsible for fermenting plants into energy and nutrients. Combining hypotheses into a resource acquisition theory leads to novel predictions that are generally supported by data presented here. Testing hypotheses, and synthesizing test results into a theory, provides a robust scientific alternative to the popular use of untested hypotheses and unanalyzed data to assert the needs of species. The scientific approach should focus on hypotheses concerning anthropogenic modifications of the environment that impact physiological processes ultimately important to population phenomena. We show how measurements of such impacts as nutrient starvation, can cause physiological stress, and that the endocrine mechanisms

  19. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  20. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  1. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  2. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological product imported for research and evaluation under a permit issued in accordance with § 104.4, with...

  3. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological product imported for research and evaluation under a permit issued in accordance with § 104.4, with...

  4. Biologically addressable monolayer structures formed by templates of sulfur-bearing molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Duschl, C; Liley, M; Corradin, G; Vogel, H

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that the combined application of Langmuir-Blodgett and self-assembly techniques allows the fabrication of patterns with contrasting surface properties on gold substrates. The process is monitored using fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon spectroscopy and microscopy. These structures are suitable for the investigation of biochemical processes at surfaces and in ultrathin films. Two examples of such processes are shown. In the first example, the structures are addressed through the binding of a monoclonal antibody to a peptide. This demonstrates the formation of self-assembled monolayers by cysteine-bearing peptides on gold, and the directed binding of proteins to the structured layers. A high contrast between specific and unspecific binding of proteins is observed by the patterned presentation of antigens. Such films possess considerable potential for the design of multichannel sensor devices. In the second example, a structured phospholipid layer is produced by controlled self-assembly from vesicle solution. The structures created--areas of phospholipid bilayer, surrounded by a matrix of phospholipid monolayer--allow formation of a supported bilayer which is robust and strongly bound to the gold support, with small areas of free-standing bilayer which very closely resemble a phospholipid cell membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:7811937

  5. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  6. Adoptive Parents, Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura; Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary legal and scholarly debates emphasize the importance of biological parents for children's well-being. Scholarship in this vein often relies on stepparent families even though adoptive families provide an ideal opportunity to explore the role of biology in family life. In this study, we compare two-adoptive-parent families with other…

  7. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  8. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  9. The 2003 ASBMB-Avanti Award in Lipids Address: Applications of novel synthetic lipids to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Robert

    2004-05-01

    This paper is an overview of the 2003 Avanti Award in Lipids address that was presented by Robert Bittman at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Annual Meeting held in San Diego, CA in conjunction with meetings of five other FASEB Societies, April 15, 2003. The theme of the lecture is: "How can the chemical synthesis of unnatural lipids provide insights into problems ranging from cell biology to biophysics?" The following examples are presented: (1) novel ceramide analogs as experimental anticancer agents, (2) photoactivatable sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs as probes of protein targets of this bioactive lipid, (3) a 13C-enriched cerebroside as a quantitative probe of glycosphingolipid (GSL) transbilayer distribution in bilayers with and without sphingomyelin, (4) cis and trans unsaturated sphingomyelin analogs as modulators of the existence of cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) that may facilitate fusion of alphaviruses with target membranes, (5) ceramide as an indirect enhancer of the permeabilization of membranes induced by cholesterol-specific cytolysins, (6) fluorescent GSL analogs of widely disparate structure as probes of the molecular features responsible for the selective internalization of GSLs in caveolae of living mammalian cells, (7) enantiomeric lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs as probes of receptor subtypes that mediate LPA signaling, and (8) phosphonocholine analogs of the antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 as tools for discerning the primary targets that are critical for cytotoxic activity in tumor cells. PMID:15081855

  10. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  11. Beyond arousal and valence: The importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention; memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that: a) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than socially emotional images, b) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but c) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images’ subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between amygdala and MPFC than biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity. PMID:21964552

  12. Risk analysis for the importation of veterinary biologicals into the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Roth, H J; Gay, C G; Espeseth, D A

    1995-12-01

    International trade in veterinary biological products has been restricted by the following factors: a) concerns that contaminated products could result in the introduction of foreign animal disease agents into the importing country b) differences between countries in the technical requirements for product registration. The provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT: now the World Trade Organisation [WTO]) require importation decisions to be science-based and transparent. This requires regulatory agencies to implement valid, credible, and science-based risk analysis models for decision-making. The Veterinary Biologics section of the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, currently uses a formalized risk analysis model to evaluate the safety risks associated with proposals to field test and license new and biotechnology-derived veterinary biological products. This model for evaluating field tests has been modified to evaluate proposals to import veterinary biological products into the United States of America. The authors describe this risk analysis model, which was specifically designed to evaluate the risks of importing veterinary biological products potentially contaminated with foreign animal disease agents. PMID:8639946

  13. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  14. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  15. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  16. Invasion Biology on Your Campus: Investigating the Red Imported Fire Ant in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forys, Elizabeth A.; Kelly, William B.; Ward, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity on invasion biology to improve students' cognitive skills as well as manual skills. Requires students to develop hypotheses in which a common invasive species will succeed. Focuses on the red imported fire ant in the Southeastern United States, which is a non-native invasive species. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  17. Argument-Driven Inquiry to Promote the Understanding of Important Concepts & Practices in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Victor; Gleim, Leeanne

    2009-01-01

    Inquiry is an integral part of the teaching and learning of science. However, many science teachers are unsure of how to promote and support inquiry in the classroom or how to design lessons that engage students in inquiry in a way that improves students' understanding of important concepts and practices in biology. In this article, the authors…

  18. How important is biological ice nucleation in clouds on a global scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Burrows, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    The high ice nucleating ability of some biological particles has led to speculations about living and dead organisms being involved in cloud ice and precipitation formation, exerting a possibly significant influence on weather and climate. In the present study, the role of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) as heterogeneous ice nuclei is investigated with a global model. Emission parametrizations for bacteria, fungal spores and pollen based on recent literature are introduced, as well as an immersion freezing parametrization based on classical nucleation theory and laboratory measurements. The simulated contribution of PBAPs to the global average ice nucleation rate is only 10 - 5%, with an uppermost estimate of 0.6%. At the same time, observed PBAP concentrations in air and biological ice nucleus concentrations in snow are reasonably well captured by the model. This implies that 'bioprecipitation' processes (snow and rain initiated by PBAPs) are of minor importance on the global scale.

  19. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers’ global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces. PMID:27503887

  20. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces. PMID:27503887

  1. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Peter D.; Berger, Bonnie; Kovats, Diane; Lengauer, Thomas; Linial, Michal; Sabeti, Pardis; Hide, Winston; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) 2016, Orlando, Florida). PMID:26097686

  2. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Peter D.; Berger, Bonnie; Kovats, Diane; Lengauer, Thomas; Linial, Michal; Sabeti, Pardis; Hide, Winston; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology [ISMB] 2016, Orlando, Florida).

  3. 42 CFR 71.54 - Import regulations for infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... threat to public health and safety as listed in 42 CFR 73.3 and 73.4. Vector. Any animals (vertebrate or... issued under this part is not required for an item if: (1) It is a biological agent listed in 42 CFR Part 73 as a select agent and its importation has been authorized in accordance with 42 CFR 73.16 or 9...

  4. 42 CFR 71.54 - Import regulations for infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... threat to public health and safety as listed in 42 CFR 73.3 and 73.4. Vector. Any animals (vertebrate or... issued under this part is not required for an item if: (1) It is a biological agent listed in 42 CFR Part 73 as a select agent and its importation has been authorized in accordance with 42 CFR 73.16 or 9...

  5. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    PubMed Central

    Dosmann, Michael; Groover, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking toward the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing 1,000 Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them. PMID:22737158

  6. Parasitoid nutritional ecology in a community context: the importance of honeydew and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Tena, Alejandro; Wäckers, Felix L; Heimpel, George E; Urbaneja, Alberto; Pekas, Apostolos

    2016-04-01

    One focus of conservation biological control studies has been to improve the nutritional state and fitness of parasitoids by adding nectar and artificial sugars to agroecosystems. This approach has largely overlooked the presence of honeydew, which is likely the primary carbohydrate source available to parasitoids in many agroecosystems. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that parasitoids often utilize this sugar source and there is evidence that honeydew can indirectly impact the population dynamics of herbivores through its nutritional value for parasitoids. The consumption of honeydew by parasitoids can shape direct and indirect interactions with other arthropods. The strength of these effects will depend on: first, parasitoid biology, second, the presence of other sugar sources (mainly nectar), third, the quality and quantity of the honeydew, and fourth, the presence and competitive strength of other honeydew consumers such as ants. The combination of these four factors is expected to result in distinct scenarios that should be analyzed for each agroecosystem. This analysis can reveal opportunities to increase the biocontrol services provided by parasitoids. Moreover, honeydew can be a resource-rich habitat for insect pathogens; or contain plant secondary chemicals sequestered by hemipterans or systemic insecticides toxic for the parasitoid. Their presence and effect on parasitoid fitness will need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27436654

  7. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D K; Brown, A H

    1979-01-01

    HEFLEX is an experiment in plant gravitational physiology now being developed for the Spacelab 1 Mission. Its object is to measure kinetic properties of plant nutation in a very low g environment. HEFLEX is designed to be scientifically compatible with restrictions imposed by engineering considerations. Among those restrictions one of the more important but one not necessarily well appreciated by mission engineers is the specification for spacelab air temperature. Development of the HEFLEX space experiment has been seriously complicated and the flight hardware significantly increased in cost as a result of the burden of insuring adequate temperature control being shifted from the spacelab module design to the biological experiment itself. The question is raised: Is this the most economical method of implementing biological research in space? PMID:12296354

  8. How important is biological ice nucleation in clouds on a global scale? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoose, C.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Burrows, S. M.; Chen, J.; Hazra, A.

    2010-12-01

    The high ice nucleating ability of some biological particles has led to speculations about living and dead organisms being involved in cloud ice and precipitation formation, exerting a possibly significant influence on weather and climate. In the present study, the role of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) in competition with mineral dust and soot as heterogeneous ice nuclei is investigated with the global climate model CAM-Oslo. Emission parameterizations for bacteria, fungal spores and pollen based on recent literature are introduced, as well as heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations based on classical nucleation theory and laboratory measurements. The simulated PBAP number concentrations are compared to data from various locations. The agreement between measurements and observations is overall satisfactory for bacteria and fungal spore concentrations, but the model tends to underestimate total PBAP number. This likely indicates that either pollen or other (possibly submicron) PBAP that are not considered here contribute significantly to the total PBAP number at the measurement locations. The simulated contribution of PBAPs to the global average ice nucleation rate is only 10-5 %, with an uppermost estimate of 0.6% when the emission strengths and ice nucleation efficiencies are varied within the uncertainty ranges. At the same time, observed PBAP concentrations in air and biological ice nucleus concentrations in snow are reasonably well captured by the model. This implies that ‘bioprecipitation’ processes (snow and rain initiated by PBAPs) are of minor importance on the global scale. However, our results do not rule out local, regional or seasonal importance of biological ice nuclei. We will discuss the uncertainties in the underlying model assumptions, compare to results of previous modeling studies and suggest directions for future work.

  9. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges with a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented…

  10. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  11. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. PMID:26194205

  12. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen’s d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen’s d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen’s d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. PMID:26194205

  13. Biologically relevant 3D tumor arrays: treatment response and the importance of stromal partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Imran; Celli, Jonathan P.; Xu, Feng; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Muzikansky, Alona; Elrington, Stefan A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Demirci, Utkan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-02-01

    The development and translational potential of therapeutic strategies for cancer is limited, in part, by a lack of biological models that capture important aspects of tumor growth and treatment response. It is also becoming increasingly evident that no single treatment will be curative for this complex disease. Rationally-designed combination regimens that impact multiple targets provide the best hope of significantly improving clinical outcomes for cancer patients. Rapidly identifying treatments that cooperatively enhance treatment efficacy from the vast library of candidate interventions is not feasible, however, with current systems. There is a vital, unmet need to create cell-based research platforms that more accurately mimic the complex biology of human tumors than monolayer cultures, while providing the ability to screen therapeutic combinations more rapidly than animal models. We have developed a highly reproducible in vitro three-dimensional (3D) tumor model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer (OvCa), which in conjunction with quantitative image analysis routines to batch-process large datasets, serves as a high throughput reporter to screen rationally-designed combination regimens. We use this system to assess mechanism-based combination regimens with photodynamic therapy (PDT), which sensitizes OvCa to chemo and biologic agents, and has shown promise in clinic trials. We show that PDT synergistically enhances carboplatin efficacy in a sequence dependent manner. In printed heterocellular cultures we demonstrate that proximity of fibroblasts enhances 3D tumor growth and investigate co-cultures with endothelial cells. The principles described here could inform the design and evaluation of mechanism-based therapeutic options for a broad spectrum of metastatic solid tumors.

  14. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  15. Importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation in the evaluation of biological experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclei of cells within the bodies of astronauts traveling on extended missions outside the geomagnetosphere will experience single traversals of particles with high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) (e.g., one iron ion per one hundred years, on average) superimposed on a background of tracks with low LET (approximately one proton every two to three days, and one helium ion per month). In addition, some cell populations within the body will be proliferating, thus possibly providing increasing numbers of cells with 'initiated' targets for subsequent radiation hits. These temporal characteristics are not generally reproduced in laboratory experimental protocols. Implications of the differences in the temporal patterns of radiation delivery between conventionally designed radiation biology experiments and the pattern to be experienced in space are examined and the importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation are pointed out in the context of radiation risk assessment on long mission in space.

  16. Mutarotation in biologically important pure L-fucose and its enantiomer.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, P; Cecotka, A; Adrjanowicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2013-09-18

    The sugar specific mutarotation reaction in biologically important L-fucose and its enantiomer in the pure, anhydrous, supercooled liquid state has been studied. Kinetics measurements in the temperature range 313-328 K at ambient pressure have been performed by means of dielectric spectroscopy, a method widely used for studying the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. The kinetic curves have been obtained by tracking the equilibration process in sugar melted and quenched to the desired temperature. Thereafter, an activation energy equal to Ea = 140 kJ mol(-1) for D-fucose and Ea = 123 kJ mol(-1) for L-fucose has been derived from the Arrhenius fit of temperature dependent rate constants. It was also shown that the kinetics curves at the lowest temperatures studied have sigmoidal shape, which was connected to the high concentration of furanosidic forms. PMID:23942008

  17. Naked-eye detection of biologically important anions by a new chromogenic azo-azomethine sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian, Khatereh; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2014-12-01

    A new chromogenic azo-azomethine sensor, containing active phenolic sites, has been designed and synthesized via condensation reaction of N,N,N‧,N‧-tetrakis(2-aminoethyl)-2,2-dimethyl propane-1,3-diamine with 1-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-4-nitrobenzene. The anion recognition ability of the synthesized receptor was evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR technique. The anion recognition studies exhibited that the receptor acts as a sensor for biologically important anions such as F-, AcO- and H2PO4- over other anions. The binding stoichiometry between sensor and anions was found to be 1:2. 1H NMR experiment revealed that sensor recognizes anions via H-bonds and subsequent deprotonation to elicit a vivid color change. Interestingly, the sensory system not only let for the naked eye detection without any spectroscopic instrumentation but also helped to discriminate between anions.

  18. Mutarotation in biologically important pure L-fucose and its enantiomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, P.; Cecotka, A.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Kaminski, K.; Paluch, M.

    2013-09-01

    The sugar specific mutarotation reaction in biologically important L-fucose and its enantiomer in the pure, anhydrous, supercooled liquid state has been studied. Kinetics measurements in the temperature range 313-328 K at ambient pressure have been performed by means of dielectric spectroscopy, a method widely used for studying the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. The kinetic curves have been obtained by tracking the equilibration process in sugar melted and quenched to the desired temperature. Thereafter, an activation energy equal to Ea = 140 kJ mol-1 for D-fucose and Ea = 123 kJ mol-1 for L-fucose has been derived from the Arrhenius fit of temperature dependent rate constants. It was also shown that the kinetics curves at the lowest temperatures studied have sigmoidal shape, which was connected to the high concentration of furanosidic forms.

  19. Ice nucleation by soil dusts: relative importance of mineral and biological components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel; Murray, Ben; Webb, Michael; Whale, Thomas; Atkinson, James; Baustian, Kelly; Malkin, Tamsin

    2013-04-01

    Dusts emitted from agricultural soils may represent a significant source of atmospheric particulates at mid-latitudes. Such dusts, which can be aerosolised by anthropogenic agricultural activities, have previously been estimated to be present in the atmosphere at sufficient number densities that they could potentially compete with other known ice nuclei. In contrast to soils from arid regions, such as the Sahara, fertile soils contain a larger fraction of biological material, which can lead to an enhancement in the ice nucleating ability of their associated dusts. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the relative efficacy of soil dust particles from fertile soils as IN. In particular, the relative contribution to the overall ice nucleating activity from both the biological and mineral components present remains unclear. Using a novel experimental methodology designed to increase sensitivity to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterised the immersion mode ice nucleating activities of PM10 extracted from soils collected in England. By controlling droplet sizes, which ranged in volume from 10-12 to 10-6L, we have been able to characterise the ice active site densities in soils (estimated using a time-independent framework) at temperatures ranging from -5° C down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at ~ -36° C. To distinguish between biological and mineral IN in the soil dusts, we examined the effects of heat treatment and organic matter digestion with hydrogen peroxide on the ice nucleating activities of the soils. Both heat and H2O2 treatment reduced the ice nucleating ability of the soil dust particles at low supercoolings (T >-15° C) by up to two orders of magnitude, suggesting that the ice nucleating active sites are primarily biological in nature within this regime. However, below -15° C, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the

  20. Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Hollecker, M.; Marshall, D. L.; Harvey, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    1. Dendrotoxins from mamba snake venoms are small proteins that block neuronal K+ channels. In order to investigate structural features associated with their biological activity, partially folded versions of dendrotoxins I and K from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) were prepared by selectively reducing one or more of their three S-S bonds. 2. The modified toxins were tested for ability to compete with 125I-labelled native toxin I to high affinity binding sites on rat brain synaptosomal membranes and for the ability to increase acetylcholine release in a neuromuscular preparation. 3. Binding affinity increased progressively as the toxins folded to the native conformation and the most biologically active of the modified species were those in which only the disulphide bond between residues 14 and 38 was not formed. These intermediates had native-like conformations as determined by circular dichroism but still had about 5-10 times lower affinity than native toxins. 4. Addition of negatively charged groups to block the free sulthydryls at positions 14 and 38 caused a further, marked loss of activity. 5. The results are consistent with the existence of two important regions in the dendrotoxin molecules. The region containing two of the disulphide bonds (around Cys5-Cys55 and Cys30-Cys51) and much of the secondary structure is essential for the binding affinity of the toxins, while the region around Cys14 and Cys38, equivalent to part of the antiprotease site of the homologous protease inhibitor from bovine pancreas (BPTI), plays an important role in the potency of dendrotoxins. PMID:7694758

  1. Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hollecker, M; Marshall, D L; Harvey, A L

    1993-10-01

    1. Dendrotoxins from mamba snake venoms are small proteins that block neuronal K+ channels. In order to investigate structural features associated with their biological activity, partially folded versions of dendrotoxins I and K from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) were prepared by selectively reducing one or more of their three S-S bonds. 2. The modified toxins were tested for ability to compete with 125I-labelled native toxin I to high affinity binding sites on rat brain synaptosomal membranes and for the ability to increase acetylcholine release in a neuromuscular preparation. 3. Binding affinity increased progressively as the toxins folded to the native conformation and the most biologically active of the modified species were those in which only the disulphide bond between residues 14 and 38 was not formed. These intermediates had native-like conformations as determined by circular dichroism but still had about 5-10 times lower affinity than native toxins. 4. Addition of negatively charged groups to block the free sulthydryls at positions 14 and 38 caused a further, marked loss of activity. 5. The results are consistent with the existence of two important regions in the dendrotoxin molecules. The region containing two of the disulphide bonds (around Cys5-Cys55 and Cys30-Cys51) and much of the secondary structure is essential for the binding affinity of the toxins, while the region around Cys14 and Cys38, equivalent to part of the antiprotease site of the homologous protease inhibitor from bovine pancreas (BPTI), plays an important role in the potency of dendrotoxins. PMID:7694758

  2. Important geological and biological impacts of natural hydrocarbon seeps: Northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, H.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Large volumes of siliciclastic sediments, input especially during periods of lowered sea level, and compensating salt tectonics have produced a continental slope that is arguably the most complex in today's oceans. Faults associated with deformation of salt and shale provide the primary migration routes for hydrocarbon gases, crude oil, brines, and formation fluids to the modern sea floor. Since the mid 1980s, it has become increasingly clearer that this process has an extremely important impact on the geomorphology, sedimentology, and biology of the modern continental slope. Hydrocarbon source, flux rate, and water depth are important determinants of sea-floor response. Under rapid flux conditions mud volcanoes (to 1 km wide and 50 m high) result, and hydrate hills (rich with authigenic carbonates), carbonate lithoherms, and isolated communities of chemosymbiotic organisms with associated hardgrounds represent much slower flux responses. In numerous moderate- to low-flux cases, cold seep products function to support islands of productivity for communities of chemosymbiotic organisms that contribute both directly (shell material) and through chemical byproducts to the production of massive volumes of calcium-magnesium carbonate in the form of hardgrounds, stacked slabs, and discrete moundlike buildups (commonly >20m). Seep-related carbonates of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope, as well those formed through degassing of accretionary prisms along active margins, are now thought to create hardgrounds and discrete buildups that are excellent analogs for many problematic carbonate buildups in ancient deep-water siliciclastic rocks.

  3. Integration of biological ion channels onto optically addressable micro-fluidic electrode arrays for single molecule characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Bachand, George David; Keller, David J.; Patrick, Elizabeth L.; Marshall, Jason A.; Ortiz, Theodore P.; Meyer, Lauren A.; Davis, Ryan W.; Brozik, James A.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter

    2004-12-01

    The challenge of modeling the organization and function of biological membranes on a solid support has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily driven by potential applications in biosensor design. Affinity-based biosensors show great promise for extremely sensitive detection of BW agents and toxins. Receptor molecules have been successfully incorporated into phospholipid bilayers supported on sensing platforms. However, a collective body of data detailing a mechanistic understanding of membrane processes involved in receptor-substrate interactions and the competition between localized perturbations and delocalized responses resulting in reorganization of transmembrane protein structure, has yet to be produced. This report describes a systematic procedure to develop detailed correlation between (recognition-induced) protein restructuring and function of a ligand gated ion channel by combining single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and single channel current recordings. This document is divided into three sections: (1) reported are the thermodynamics and diffusion properties of gramicidin using single molecule fluorescence imaging and (2) preliminary work on the 5HT{sub 3} serotonin receptor. Thirdly, we describe the design and fabrication of a miniaturized platform using the concepts of these two technologies (spectroscopic and single channel electrochemical techniques) for single molecule analysis, with a longer term goal of using the physical and electronic changes caused by a specific molecular recognition event as a transduction pathway in affinity based biosensors for biotoxin detection.

  4. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noé U.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making. PMID:24466287

  5. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making. PMID:24466287

  6. Multitarget Strategy to Address Alzheimer's Disease: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computational Studies of Coumarin-Based Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Serena; Bartolini, Manuela; Neviani, Paolo; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Pruccoli, Letizia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Falchi, Federico; Andrisano, Vincenza; Miszta, Przemysław; Cavalli, Andrea; Filipek, Sławomir; Bisi, Alessandra; Rampa, Angela

    2016-06-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major public health challenge that faces an aging global population. Current drug treatment has demonstrated only symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for a new generation of disease-modifying therapies. Following the multitarget-directed ligand approach, a small library of coumarin-based derivatives was designed and synthesized as a follow-up to our studies on AP2238, aimed at expanding its biological profile. The coumarin substitution pattern at the 6- or 7-position was modified by introducing alkyl chains of variable lengths and with different terminal amino functional groups. 3-(4-{[Benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-({5-[(7-methoxy-6H-indeno[2,1-b]quinolin-11-yl)amino]pentyl}oxy)-2H-chromen-2-one, bearing the bulkiest amine, emerged as a non-neurotoxic dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor, potentially suitable for the treatment of the middle stage of AD. Furthermore, the introduction of a diethylamino spacer, as in 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-{[5-(diethylamino)pentyl]oxy}-2H-chromen-2-one and 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, led to nanomolar human AChE inhibitors endowed with significant inhibitory activity toward Aβ42 self-aggregation, whereas the reference compound was completely ineffective. Furthermore, 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one also showed promising neuroprotective behavior, which makes it a potential candidate for development into a disease-modifying agent. PMID:26507467

  7. Marine biological diversity: Some important issues, opportunities and critical research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Cheryl Ann; Carlton, James T.

    1995-07-01

    Marine biological diversity is changing, dramatically in some cases, and most recent changes are due to broad-scale human activities. Knowledge of "biodiversity" — the variety of genomes (the genetic material specifying all characteristics and functions within an organism), species and ecosystems — is the foundation for understanding and predicting how human and natural effects can change the ocean's ecosystems. Evaluating the scale and ultimate consequences to life in the sea of a plethora of anthropogenic effects is difficult, however, because there is inadequate knowledge of both the patterns of and the processes that control marine biodiversity. Recognizing change and evaluating its consequences require sufficient knowledge of present and historical natural patterns of biodiversity, and sufficient understanding of how and why these patterns vary in space and time. Data on biodiversity patterns and their causes are sorely lacking for most marine ecosystems. Adequate understanding of what creates and maintains diversity must be the scientific underpinning for policy decisions regarding pollutant and waste disposal, habitat alteration, fisheries management and the preservation of threatened or endangered species. The inability, at this time, to provide such information to policy makers may have important implications for the conservation of marine life [Norse, 1993].

  8. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P.; Larsen, Trond H.; Docherty, Teegan D. S.; Ansell, Felicity A.; Hsu, Wayne W.; Derhé, Mia A.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wilcove, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperilled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperilled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  9. Photoelectron spectra of some important biological molecules: symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration interaction study.

    PubMed

    Farrokhpour, Hossein; Ghandehari, Maryam

    2013-05-23

    In this work, the valence vertical ionization energies (up to 5) of some important biologically active molecules including 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitroanisole, nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid methyl ester, nicotinamide, N,N-diethylnicotinamide, barbituric acid, uric acid, cytosine, β-carotene, and menadione were calculated in the gas phase and compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. The symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) general-R method was used to calculate the ionization energies. The intensity of each ionization band was evaluated using the monopole approximation. Comparison of the calculated photoelectron spectrum of each molecule with its corresponding experimental spectra allowed for assigning the photoelectron bands by natural bonding orbital (NBO) calculations even though some of the associated bands were significantly overlapped for some molecules. Among the considered molecules, there was no agreement between the experimental and calculated photoelectron spectrum of β-carotene. The reason for this disagreement was theoretically investigated and attributed to the degradation and decomposition of β-carotene. The calculated first ionization energies of the considered molecules were correlated with their Hückel k-index to obtain Coulomb (α) and resonance (β) integrals of the Hückel molecular orbital theory for the biomolecules considered in this study. A linear correlation was found between the first ionization energy and the Hückel k-index. PMID:23659524

  10. Interactions between parasitism and biological responses in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Importance in ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Meyer, Antoinette; Molloy, Daniel P; Giambérini, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Given that virtually all organisms are hosts for parasites, the investigation of the combined effects of contamination and parasitism is important in the framework of aquatic bioindication procedures. To assess the impact of such multistresses at the host cellular level, we sampled parasitized zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations from two sites in northeast France that presented different levels of contamination. Experimental groups were formed based on parasite species and host gender and tested by histochemistry and automated image analysis for biological responses, such as structural changes of the lysosomal system and neutral lipid accumulation. Infected organisms displayed smaller and more numerous lysosomes compared with uninfected congeners, and infection further elevated the effect of the chemical contamination on this biomarker. In contrast, co-infection of females with selected parasites did produce inverse results, i.e. a more developed lysosomal system and neutral lipid depletion. Our data, therefore, suggest that parasitism in zebra mussels represents a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies and must be taken into account in environmental risk assessment studies. PMID:19691958

  11. The biological and clinical importance of the 'new generation' cytokines in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Cem; McInnes, Iain B

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of cytokine biology over the last two decades has allowed the successful development of cytokine inhibitors against tumour necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. The introduction of these therapies should be considered a breakthrough in the management of several rheumatic diseases. However, many patients will exhibit no or only partial response to these therapies, thus emphasising the importance of exploring other therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review the most recent information on novel cytokines that are often members of previously described cytokine families such as the IL-1 superfamily (IL-18 and IL-33), the IL-12 superfamily (IL-27 and IL-35), the IL-2 superfamily (IL-15 and IL-21), and IL-17. Several data derived from experimental models and clinical samples indicate that some of these cytokines contribute to the pathophysiology of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Targeting of some of these cytokines has already been tested in clinical trials with interesting results. PMID:19519923

  12. Atmospheric ice nucleation by fertile soil dusts particles: Relative importance of mineral and biological components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel; Murray, B. J.; Malkin, T. L.; Webb, M. E.; Whale, T. F.; Atkinson, J. D.; Baustian, K. J.

    2013-05-01

    Dusts emitted from agricultural soils may represent a significant source of atmospheric particulates at mid-latitudes. Such dusts, which can be aerosolised by anthropogenic agricultural activities, have previously been estimated to be present in the atmosphere at sufficient number densities that they could potentially compete with other known ice nuclei (IN). In contrast to soils from arid regions, such as the Sahara, fertile soils contain a larger fraction of biological material, which can lead to an enhancement in the ice nucleating ability of their associated dusts. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the relative efficacy of soil dust particles from fertile soils as IN. Using an experimental methodology designed to increase sensitivity to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterized the immersion mode ice nucleating activities of sub 11 μm particles extracted from surface soils collected in four locations around England. By using a variety of droplet sizes, from pico-to micro-litre, we have been able to characterize the ice active site densities in soils (estimated using a time-independent framework) at temperatures ranging from -5°C down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at ˜ -36°C. At temperatures below -15°C, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the inorganic fraction of soil dusts becomes increasingly important in the initiation of the ice phase at large supercoolings. Conversely, above -15°C we find that the ice nucleating activity of the soils dusts was larger than expected from the mineral composition of the soils. The sites responsible for this high temperature ice nucleating activity were sensitive to heat treatment and digestion with hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that they are biological in origin. We conclude that although only being a relatively minor contributor to the global atmospheric dust burden, the

  13. Importance of Biological Loess Crusts for Loess Formation in Semi-Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirčev, Z.; Marković, S. B.; Stevens, T.; Smalley, I. J.; Hambach, U.; Obreht, I.; Lukić, T.; Vasiljević, Dj. A.

    2012-04-01

    The essential components for loess deposition are: material, atmospheric circulation and appropriate surface conditions for the trapping of aeolian material as well as the subsequent development of typical loess sedimentary structures. In spite of the world-wide distribution of loess deposits, knowledge of the processes of transformation from accumulated dust to mature loess sediment is still inadequate. Some recent studies highlight the potential importance of biologically crusted surfaces (BCS) in loess formation. BCS are highly specialized extremophile communities and generally play an important role in atmospheric dust trapping and erosion prevention. Our initial results indicate that cyanobacterial strains isolated from loess exhibit some specific morphological and ecophysiological characteristics that play a key role in loess formation, warranting adoption of the new term biological loess crusts (BLC). We suggest that loessification is heavily influenced by the metabolic activity of BLC microorganisms mainly through polysaccharides. The sticky polysaccharide glue on the topographic surface, exuded mostly by cyanobacteria, can trap silty particles suspended in a dusty atmosphere. This collection of airborne loess forming particles is part of the life strategy of crust organisms in so far as they provide the necessary minerals for further growth of the BLC, which in turn provides protection from desiccation during dry periods. Simultaneously, polysaccharides secreted by crust organisms bind particles inside the BLC zone, forming a cohesive crust that resists both wind and water erosion during dry periods. Metabolized particles, exuded metabolites and unused airborne particles become the uppermost loess sediment covered with BLC. During moist periods, accumulation of dust and loess forming particles is very active. During the dry phases, the BLC becomes very stable and develops a resistant surface preventing wind and water erosion. The drying period induces

  14. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  15. NON-BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS MAY BE AN IMPORTANT MECHANISM FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of non-biological transformation of chlorinated solvents was not considered in the U.S. EPA Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water. This deficiency became very apparent when U.S. EPA conducted a beta test of the Pro...

  16. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  17. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered. The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  18. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  19. A program in global biology. [biota-environment interaction important to life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's Global Biology Research Program and its goals for greater understanding of planetary biological processes are discussed. Consideration is given to assessing major pathways and rates of exchange of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, extrapolating local rates of anaerobic activities, determining exchange rates of ocean nutrients, and developing models for the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Satellites and sensors operating today are covered: the Nimbus, NOAA, and Landsat series. Block diagrams of the software and hardware for a typical ground data processing and analysis system are provided. Samples of the surface cover data achieved with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Multispectral Scanner, and the Thematic Mapper are presented, as well as a productive capacity model for coastal wetlands. Finally, attention is given to future goals, their engineering requirements, and the necessary data analysis system.

  20. Asymmetric chemoenzymatic synthesis of miconazole and econazole enantiomers. The importance of chirality in their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mangas-Sánchez, Juan; Busto, Eduardo; Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Malpartida, Francisco; Gotor, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    A simple and novel chemoenzymatic route has been applied for the first time in the synthesis of miconazole and econazole single enantiomers. Lipases and oxidoreductases have been tested in stereoselective processes; the best results were attained with oxidoreductases for the introduction of chirality in an adequate intermediate. The behaviors of a series of ketones and racemic alcohols in bioreductions and acetylation procedures, respectively, have been investigated; the best results were found with alcohol dehydrogenases A and T, which allowed the production of (R)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol in enantiopure form under very mild reaction conditions. Final chemical modifications have been performed in order to isolate the target fungicides miconazole and econazole both as racemates and as single enantiomers. Biological evaluation of the racemates and single enantiomers has shown remarkable differences against the growth of several microorganisms; while (R)-miconazole seemed to account for most of the biological activity of racemic miconazole on all the strains tested, both enantiomers of econazole showed considerable biological activities. In this manner, (R)-econazole showed higher values against Candida krusei , while higher values were observed for (S)-econazole against Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus niger. PMID:21384803

  1. [The importance of in vivo pharmacology in fundamental research on psychotropic drugs and their biological targets].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The main families of psychotropic drugs have been almost fortuitously discovered, from investigations carried out directly in humans. The burst of studies triggered by these discoveries and the considerably strengthened ethical guidelines for clinical trials have allowed remarkable developments in preclinical studies performed in animals, and especially in rodents. The corresponding models may be classified as follows: homologous models mimicking the aetiology of the disease against which one attempts to develop drugs; isomorphic models mimicking specific symptoms of a disease but involving different aetiological mechanisms; predictive models, which assess the effect of a drug on behavioural or other functional signs/symptoms unconnected to the psychiatric disease but involving the same type of biological targets as those affected by the disease; and theoretical or explanatory models that aim to elucidate the mechanism of action of agents producing psychotropic effects. Among the latter, the following can be cited: the knock out of genes coding for a specific biological target; the neutralisation of a specific ARNm by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, which also aims to prevent the synthesis of a specific biological target; use of controlled reproduction to achieve a concentration of genes, the association of which leads to the development of a disease. Each one of these approaches has been illustrated by an example developed within the Rouen Neuropsychopharmacology Unit: the psychobehavioural spectrum of mice with invalidation of the gene coding for adenosine A2A receptors; the abolition of either nociceptin ORL1 receptors or neurotensin NTR2 receptors in order to characterise their functions; the concentration, by controlled breeding in mice, of a phenotype corresponding to that of depression. These developments illustrate several recent developments in neuropsychopharmacology with the aim of emphasising the vitality of this discipline. PMID:15199668

  2. Trace element analytical speciation in biological systems: importance, challenges and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    1998-02-01

    Speciation of trace elements is a relatively new field and it was in toxicology that the relationship between the chemical form of a metal and its harmful effects was first recognized. The present need for chemical speciation information in biochemistry bioinorganic and clinical chemistry is documented in an attempt to justify the present demand for innovative chemical speciation strategies and analytical technologies. The challenge and complexity of speciation is stressed and three different categories of analytical speciation of increasing analytical difficulty are proposed. Analytical strategies developed so far to try to tackle speciation problems (computational approaches, direct species-specific and hybrid techniques) are reviewed and critically assessed for biological materials. It is indisputable these days that in most cases of real-life analytical speciation we have to resort to the development and use of hybrid techniques combining an adequate separation technique for the species physical separation and an element specific detector such as those based in atomic spectrometry. Examples of such strategies, as developed mainly in the author's laboratory and including chromatographic and non-chromatographic type hybrid strategies coupled to flame, plasma and electrothermal vaporization atomic detectors, are discussed in more detail. Finally, in light of the latest trends observed in this new field, the author attempts to cast a forward look into the foreseeable future of analytical speciation research in biological and biomedical sciences. The urgent plea for quality assurance in non-routine analysis and the concept of using complementary analytical techniques and definitive methods to attack the complexity of chemical speciation in biological systems are particularly highlighted.

  3. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  4. Biological and chemical study of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues with important antiparasitic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Urrutia, Christian A.; Olea-Azar, Claudio A.; Zapata, Gerald A.; Lapier, Michel; Mura, Francisco; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Arán, Vicente J.; López-Múñoz, Rodrigo A.; Maya, Juan D.

    A series of fused tri- and tetracyclic indazoles and analogues compounds (NID) with potential antiparasitic effects were studied using voltamperometric and spectroscopic techniques. Nitroanion radicals generated by cyclic voltammetry were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and their spectral lines were explained and analyzed using simulated spectra. In addition, we examined the interaction between radical species generated from nitroindazole derivatives and glutathione (GSH). Biological assays such as activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity against macrophages were carried out. Finally, spin trapping and molecular modeling studies were also done in order to elucidate the potentials action mechanisms involved in the trypanocidal activity.

  5. Seed traits and genes important for translational biology – highlights from recent discoveries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds provide foods, feeds, and fuels. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural species. In this review, seed traits important for agriculture are discussed with an emphasis...

  6. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  7. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  8. Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, P

    1985-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product. PMID:3830700

  9. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that…

  10. Applications of synchrotron μ-XRF to study the distribution of biologically important elements in different environmental matrices: a review.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-11-28

    Environmental matrices including soils, sediments, and living organisms are reservoirs of several essential as well as non-essential elements. Accurate qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and interaction of biologically significant elements is vital to understand the role of these elements in environmental and biological samples. Synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) allows in situ mapping of biologically important elements at nanometer to sub-micrometer scale with high sensitivity, negligible sample damage and enable tuning of the incident energy as desired. Beamlines in the synchrotron facilities are rapidly increasing their analytical versatility in terms of focusing optics, detector technologies, incident energy, and sample environment. Although extremely competitive, it is now feasible to find stations offering complimentary techniques like micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS) that will allow a more complete characterization of complex matrices. This review includes the most recent literature on the emerging applications and challenges of μ-SXRF in studying the distribution of biologically important elements and manufactured nanoparticles in soils, sediments, plants, and microbes. The advantages of using μ-SXRF and complimentary techniques in contrast to conventional techniques used for the respective studies are discussed. PMID:23146389

  11. Sensing Red, White & Blue: Using Spores of the Sensitive Fern to Introduce Important Concepts in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, Helen G.; Kiss, John Z.

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, plants are very much in tune and in time with their immediate environment. The most important environmental cues for plants are light and gravity. In this article, the authors discuss the effects of light on plant development and use the spores of the sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis) in laboratory exercises to…

  12. Importation of Peristenus spp. for the biological control of Lygus hesperus in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 1980’s Peristenus digoneutis was successfully imported and colonized in alfalfa in the eastern United States for the control of Lygus lineolaris. Although a similar effort was made in the 1970’s in central California, Peristenus spp. failed to establish permanent populations. The reported...

  13. Combining biological and chemical controls for the management of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two South American natural enemies of imported fire ants were first detected or released in the United States approximately 10 years ago. The fire ant pathogen, Thelohania solenopsae Knell, Allen, and Hazard, was found in the U.S. in 1996 and a parasitic phorid fly from Brazil, Pseudacteon tricuspi...

  14. Solubility of nano-zinc oxide in environmentally and biologically important matrices

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert B.; Ladner, David A.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Westerhoff, Paul; Ranville, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is leading to a greater probability for release of ENPs into the environment and exposure to organisms. In particular, zinc oxide (ZnO) is toxic, although it is unclear whether this toxicity is due to the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO), dissolution to Zn2+, or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to determine the relative solubilites of both commercially available and in-house synthesized ZnO in matrices used for environmental fate and transport or biological toxicity studies. Dissolution of ZnO was observed in nanopure water (7.18– 7.40 mg/L dissolved Zn, as measured by filtration) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) (~5 mg/L), but much more dissolution was observed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), where the dissolved Zn concentration exceeded 34 mg/L. Moderately hard water exhibited low zinc solubility, likely due to precipitation of a zinc carbonate solid phase. Precipitation of a zinc-containing solid phase in RPMI also appeared to limit zinc solubility. Equilibrium conditions with respect to ZnO solubility were not apparent in these matrices, even after more than 1,000 h of dissolution. These results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution and can result in limits on zinc solubility due to precipitation of less soluble solid phases. PMID:21994124

  15. Is selective absorption of ultrasoft x-rays biologically important in mammalian cells?

    PubMed

    Goodhead, D T; Thacker, J; Cox, R

    1981-11-01

    This paper tests whether photon absorption processes in particular atomic element(s) may be responsible for the observed high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ultrasoft X-rays. The effectiveness of titanium K characteristic X-rays (4.55 keV) is compared with previous observations for aluminium (1.5 keV) and carbon (0.28 keV) K ultrasoft X-rays. For a given absorbed dose, five times more Ti K than Al K photons are absorbed in phosphorus; since Al K X-rays are observed to be more effective in killing human and hamster cells it is concluded that absorption in phosphorus does not play a dominant lethal role. This is supported by the observation that the absolute number of Al K photons absorbed in phosphorus of DNA of human fibroblasts is less than 1 per lethal event. For no element is the relative number of absorbed photons of the three X-ray energies even approximately proportional to their observed RBEs. The effectiveness of ultrasoft X-rays is apparently not due to selective absorption but rather to the secondary electrons; consequently the mechanism of action should be common to the large numbers of low energy secondary electrons produced by most other ionising radiations, including gamma-rays. PMID:7323149

  16. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes)--the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Marques, J F; Santos, M J; Teixeira, C M; Batista, M I; Cabral, H N

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which host biology, ecology and phylogeny determine the diversity of macroparasite assemblages has been investigated in recent years in several taxa, including fish. However, consensus has not been reached probably as a result of data being collected from different sources, different temporal scales or host and parasite biogeography and phylogeny having greater influence than expected. The present study evaluates the relative importance of 27 biological, ecological and phylogenetic characteristics of 14 flatfish species on the diversity of their ecto- and endoparasite assemblages, comprising a total of 53 taxa. Redundancy analyses were applied to the mean abundance of each parasite taxa infecting each host and to the richness, taxonomic distinctness and variance in taxonomic distinctness calculated for each assemblage within each host. Only a few host characteristics contributed significantly to the observed patterns: host distribution was more important in determining the type and mean abundance of ectoparasites present in an assemblage, whereas diversity of these assemblages were mainly related to the host's maximum size. Endoparasite mean abundance and diversity were mostly influenced by the number of food items ingested and by the presence of Crustacea and Polychaeta in the diet. However, the sympatric occurrence of related hosts also played an important role in the diversity values found in macroparasite assemblages. Results showed that a host characteristic has different importance according to the host-parasite relationship being examined, suggesting an important role for host-parasite co-evolution on the diversity of extant macroparasite assemblages. PMID:20819241

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Physiological strain of next generation combat uniforms with chemical and biological protection: importance of clothing vents.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Boscarino, Cathy; Duncan, E J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether vents in the arms, legs and chest of new protective assault uniforms (PTAU) reduced heat strain at 35 °C during a low dressed state (DSlow), and subsequently improved tolerance time (TT) after transitioning to DShigh compared with the battle dress uniform and overgarment (BDU+O). Small but significant reductions in rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate and vapour pressures over the thigh and shin were observed during DSlow with vents open (37.9 ± 0.2 °C, 120 ± 10 b/min, 3.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 1.0 kPa) versus closed (38.0 ± 0.1 °C, 127 ± 5 b/min, 4.3 ± 0.3 and 4.6 ± 0.5 kPa). During DShigh Tre was reduced and TT increased significantly with the PTAUs (1.1 ± 0.2 °C/h and 46 ± 24 min) versus BDU+O (1.6 ± 0.2 °C/h and 33 ± 16 min). The vents marginally reduced heat strain during DSlow and extended TT during DShigh) compared with BDU+O. Practitioner Summary: Clothing vents in chemical and biological protective uniforms can assist with heat transfer in situations where the uniforms must be worn for extended periods prior to exposure to a hazardous condition. Once the vents are closed, exposure time is increased and the increase in body temperature reduced. PMID:23231665

  19. Biologically important radiation damage in DNA. Annual progress report, May 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    Most DNA damage by the hydroxyl radical is confined to the bases, and this base damage represents an important component of locally multiply demanded sites (LMOS). The yields of the major damaged bases have been determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For our propose, it was necessary to convert a known fraction of these damaged bases to strand breaks and then assay these labile sites as the increase in strand break yield over the normally observed level. Three potential agents by which this strategy of conversion of base damage to strand break could be implemented were identified in the original application: 1, Sl nuclease; 2, piperidine; and 3, base damage specific enzymes.

  20. The importance of biological interactions for the vertical distribution of nematodes in a temperate ultra-dissipative sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Esteves, André M.; De Troch, Marleen; Vanreusel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study of the vertical distribution of nematode communities in an ultra-dissipative sandy beach on the North Sea coast at De Panne, Belgium showed species-specific vertical migrations occurred over a tidal cycle. During the period of submersion, smaller deposit feeders were dominant at the subsurface, whereas large nematodes (originally classified as predators) were concentrated at the surface. The interstitial water content showed a weak correlation to the observed patterns and biological interactions among nematodes, such as predation and competition, which were measured through stable isotopes, also explained the observed segregation. The predator Enoplolaimus litoralis and its potential prey species did not co-exist in the same part of the sediment, suggesting avoidance of predation by prey species. In addition, the different prey species inhabited different subsurface layers, which can be explained by avoidance of competition for food. Stable isotope signatures further showed that the two major biological components of sandy beaches (macrofauna and meiofauna, including some species assumed to be predators) partly depend on microphytobenthos, demonstrating the importance of in situ primary producers in the diet of the fauna from ultra-dissipative sandy beaches. However, meiofauna and macrofauna do not seem to compete for these food sources. The combined examination of environmental and biological factors revealed the additional importance of the latter in controlling the vertical distribution of nematodes in environments that were previously assumed to be mainly physically controlled.

  1. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  2. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  3. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  4. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  5. Important Metabolic Pathways and Biological Processes Expressed by Chicken Cecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Ondrej; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Sebkova, Alena; Sisak, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in its host. However, how each microbiota member contributes to the behavior of the whole population is not known. In this study, we therefore determined protein expression in the cecal microbiota in chickens of selected ages and in 7-day-old chickens inoculated with different cecal extracts on the day of hatching. Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Mucispirillum, and Megamonas overgrew in the ceca of 7-day-old chickens inoculated with cecal extracts from donor hens. Firmicutes were characterized by ABC and phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters, extensive acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolism, and expression of l-fucose isomerase. Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Pseudoflavonifractor, Dorea, Blautia, and Subdoligranulum expressed spore proteins. Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Butyrivibrio, Megasphaera, Subdoligranulum, Oscillibacter, Anaerostipes, and Anaerotruncus) expressed enzymes required for butyrate production. Megamonas, Phascolarctobacterium, and Blautia (exceptions from the phylum Firmicutes) and all Bacteroidetes expressed enzymes for propionate production pathways. Representatives of Bacteroidetes also expressed xylose isomerase, enzymes required for polysaccharide degradation, and ExbBD, TonB, and outer membrane receptors likely to be involved in oligosaccharide transport. Based on our data, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, and Subdoligranulum might be optimal probiotic strains, since these represent spore-forming butyrate producers. However, certain care should be taken during microbiota transplantation because the microbiota may behave differently in the intestinal tract of a recipient depending on how well the existing communities are established. PMID:26712550

  6. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals. PMID:17051499

  7. Important Metabolic Pathways and Biological Processes Expressed by Chicken Cecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Polansky, Ondrej; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Sebkova, Alena; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in its host. However, how each microbiota member contributes to the behavior of the whole population is not known. In this study, we therefore determined protein expression in the cecal microbiota in chickens of selected ages and in 7-day-old chickens inoculated with different cecal extracts on the day of hatching. Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Mucispirillum, and Megamonas overgrew in the ceca of 7-day-old chickens inoculated with cecal extracts from donor hens. Firmicutes were characterized by ABC and phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters, extensive acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolism, and expression of l-fucose isomerase. Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Pseudoflavonifractor, Dorea, Blautia, and Subdoligranulum expressed spore proteins. Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Butyrivibrio, Megasphaera, Subdoligranulum, Oscillibacter, Anaerostipes, and Anaerotruncus) expressed enzymes required for butyrate production. Megamonas, Phascolarctobacterium, and Blautia (exceptions from the phylum Firmicutes) and all Bacteroidetes expressed enzymes for propionate production pathways. Representatives of Bacteroidetes also expressed xylose isomerase, enzymes required for polysaccharide degradation, and ExbBD, TonB, and outer membrane receptors likely to be involved in oligosaccharide transport. Based on our data, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, and Subdoligranulum might be optimal probiotic strains, since these represent spore-forming butyrate producers. However, certain care should be taken during microbiota transplantation because the microbiota may behave differently in the intestinal tract of a recipient depending on how well the existing communities are established. PMID:26712550

  8. Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion, and infection biology.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines. PMID:24367109

  9. The chemistry of vitamin B12. The coordination of biologically important molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, H. A. O.; Pratt, J. M.; Thorp, R. G.; Ward, B.; Williams, R. J. P.

    1970-01-01

    The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m−1) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H2O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1×104, which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN−, HO− and H+, which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN− and HO− than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B12, but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

  10. The chemistry of vitamin B 12. The co-ordination of biologically important molecules.

    PubMed

    Hill, H A; Pratt, J M; Thorp, R G; Ward, B; Williams, R J

    1970-11-01

    The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m(-1)) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H(2)O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1x10(4), which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN(-), HO(-) and H(+), which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN(-) and HO(-) than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B(12), but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

  11. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention. PMID:27070372

  12. Biology of Telomeres: Importance in Etiology of Esophageal Cancer And As Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jagannath; Gold, Jason S.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Shammas, Masood A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of telomeres, the mechanisms implicated in their maintenance, and their role in the etiology as well as the treatment of human esophageal cancer. We will also discuss the role of telomeres in the maintenance/preservation of genomic integrity, the consequences of telomere dysfunction, and the various factors that may affect telomere health in esophageal tissue predisposing it to oncogenesis. Recent findings There has been growing evidence that telomeres, which can be affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, contribute to genomic instability, oncogenesis, as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Summary Telomeres are the protective DNA-protein complexes at chromosome ends. Telomeric DNA undergoes progressive shortening with age leading to cellular senescence and/or apoptosis. If senescence/apoptosis is prevented as a consequence of specific genomic changes, continued proliferation leads to very short (i.e. dysfunctional) telomeres that can potentially cause genomic instability thus increasing the risk for activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms and oncogenesis. Like many other cancers, esophageal cancer cells have short telomeres and elevated telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres in most cancer cells. Homologous recombination, which is implicated in the alternate pathway of telomere elongation, is also elevated in Barrett’s-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that both telomerase and homologous recombination contribute to telomere maintenance, DNA repair, and the ongoing survival of esophageal cancer cells. This indicates that telomere maintenance mechanisms may potentially be targeted to make esophageal cancer cells static. The rate at which telomeres in healthy cells shorten is determined by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including those associated with lifestyle. Avoidance of factors that may directly or

  13. Anomalous Diffusion in Polymer Solution as Probed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Its Universal Importance in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushida, Kiminori

    2008-02-01

    Experimental evidence of anomalous diffusion occurring in an inhomogeneous media (hyaluronan aquous solution) was obtained by use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with other techniques (PFG-NMR and Photochemical reactions). The diffusion coefficient was obtained as a function of diffusion time or diffusion distance. Since this polymer solution can be regarded as a model system of extracellular matrices (ECMs), intercellular communication, which takes part in ECM, is greatly influenced by this anomalous diffusion mode. Therefore universal importance of anomalous diffusion in biological activity is identified in this series of independent experiments to measure diffusion coefficients.

  14. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  15. Sensing of biologically important cations such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) using magnetic nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, V; Philip, John

    2013-04-01

    We report a simple approach to the ultrasensitive detection of biologically important metal ions using a magnetic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion used in our study was an oil-in-water emulsion droplet of average size ∼190 nm containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼10 nm. In a static magnetic field, the emulsion droplets self-assemble into a nanoarray with distinct interdroplet spacing. In the presence of cations in the solution, the nanofluid array shows a large blue shift in the diffracted Bragg peak and a visually perceivable color change due to changes in the electrical double layer upon the diffusion of cations. The colloidal force-distance measurements in the presence of cations show large variations at the onset of repulsion in the presence of cations. The sensor shows good selectivity to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) ions and offers a rapid response compared to conventional techniques. This approach can be useful for the recognition of biologically important cations. PMID:23477486

  16. Biology of frailty: Modulation of ageing genes and its importance to prevent age-associated loss of function.

    PubMed

    Viña, Jose; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco Jose; Pérez-Ros, Pilar; Martínez-Arnau, Francisco Miguel; Borras, Consuelo; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is associated with loss of functional reserve as well as with the prediction of adverse events in the old population. The traditional criteria of frailty are based on five physical determinations described in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We propose that biological and genetic markers of frailty should be used to increase the predictive capacity of the established clinical indeces. In recent times, research for biological markers of frailty has gained impetus. Finding a biological markers with diagnostic and prognostic capacity would be a major milestone to identify frailty risk, and also pre-frailty status. In the first section of the manuscript, we review the available biomarkers that help to monitor and prevent the evolution and the efficacy of interventions to delay the onset of frailty and to prevent its progression to incapacity. We also discuss the contribution of genetics to frailty. There are scientific bases that support that genetics influences frailty, although environmental factors probably will have the highest contribution. We review the known SNPs of the genes associated with frailty and classify them, taking into account the pathway in which they are involved. We also highlight the importance of longevity genes and their possible relation with frailty, citing centenarians who reach a very old age as an example of successful ageing. Finally, the reversibility of frailty is discussed. It can potentially be treated with nutritional or pharmacological interventions. However, physical exercise seems to be the most effective strategy to treat and prevent frailty. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to explaining the recommendations on the appropriate design of an exercise protocol to maximize its beneficial effects in a population of frail individuals. PMID:27164416

  17. Electric fields induced in chicken eggs by 60-Hz magnetic fields and the dosimetric importance of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Chicken eggs are convenient models for observing the effects of inhomogeneities and variations, such as those found in biological membranes and in cellular conductivities, on the distribution of internal electric fields as induced by exposure to magnetic fields. The vitelline membrane separates the yolk, which has a conductivity of 0.26 S/m, from the white, which has a conductivity of 0.85 S/m. A miniaturized probe with 2.4-mm resolution was used to measure induced fields in eggs placed in a uniform, 1-mT magnetic field at 60 Hz. The E fields induced in eggs with homogenized contents agreed with expectations based on simple theory. Results were similar to intact eggs unless the probe moved the yolk off-center, which greatly perturbed the induced fields. A more reproducible arrangement, which consisted of saline-agar filled dishes with a hole cut for test samples, was developed to enhance definition of electrical parameters. With this test system, the vitelline membrane was found to be responsible for most of the perturbation of the induced field, because it electrically isolates the yolk from the surrounding white. From a theoretical viewpoint, this dosimetry for the macroscopic egg yolk is analogous to the interaction of fields with microscopic cells. These findings may have important implications for research on biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields, especially for studies of avian embryonic development.

  18. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  19. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  20. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  1. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  2. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    PubMed

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  3. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    PubMed Central

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  4. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  5. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  7. Importance of biologically active aurora-like ultraviolet emission: stochastic irradiation of Earth and Mars by flares and explosions.

    PubMed

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John; Wheeler, J Craig

    2004-10-01

    Habitable planets will be subject to intense sources of ionizing radiation and fast particles from a variety of sources--from the host star to distant explosions--on a variety of timescales. Monte Carlo calculations of high-energy irradiation suggest that the surfaces of terrestrial-like planets with thick atmospheres (column densities greater than about 100 g cm(-2)) are well protected from directly incident X-rays and gamma-rays, but we find that sizeable fractions of incident ionizing radiation from astrophysical sources can be redistributed to biologically and chemically important ultraviolet wavelengths, a significant fraction of which can reach the surface. This redistribution is mediated by secondary electrons, resulting from Compton scattering and X-ray photoabsorption, the energies of which are low enough to excite and ionize atmospheric molecules and atoms, resulting in a rich aurora-like spectrum. We calculate the fraction of energy redistributed into biologically and chemically important wavelength regions for spectra characteristic of stellar flares and supernovae using a Monte-Carlo transport code and then estimate the fraction of this energy that is transmitted from the atmospheric altitudes of redistribution to the surface for a few illustrative cases. For atmospheric models corresponding to the Archean Earth, we assume no significant ultraviolet absorbers, only Rayleigh scattering, and find that the fraction of incident ionizing radiation that is received at the surface in the form of redistributed ultraviolet in the biologically relevant 200-320 nm region (UV-C and UV-B bands) can be up to 4%. On the present-day Earth with its ultraviolet ozone shield, this fraction is found to be 0.2%. Both values are many orders of magnitude higher than the fraction of direct ionizing radiation reaching the surface. This result implies that planetary organisms will be subject to mutationally significant, if intermittent, fluences of UV-B and harder radiation

  8. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  9. How Important Is the Assessment of Practical Work? An Opinion Piece on the New Biology A-Level from BERG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…

  10. The Importance of Pupils' Interests and Out-of-School Experiences in Planning Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…

  11. Characterization of an EST database for the perennial weed leafy spurge: an important resource for weed biology research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics programs in the weed science community have not developed as rapidly as that of other crop, horticultural, forestry, and model plant systems. Development of genomic resources for selected model weeds are expected to enhance our understanding of weed biology, just as they have in other plant...

  12. Microsporidian and viral pathogens for the biological control of imported fire ants: can we walk the talk?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Invasive ants are among the most serious of arthropod invaders. These ants infest a wide range of habitats and impact biodiversity, agriculture, and human health. Self-sustaining biological control is one of the few hopes for permanent regional suppression of these established invasive ants. Fo...

  13. The Most Important Concept of Transport and Circulatory Systems: Turkish Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gulay; Aksu, Ozlem; Aktas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure with regard to "Blood". Qualitative research method has been used. The free word association test and the draw-write technique have been used in collection of data. The data obtained have been evaluated and divided into categories based on…

  14. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  15. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  16. Catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia as a putative way of their prebiotic emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Simonov, Alexander; Parmon, Valentin

    The modern `RNA-world' theory considering the primary life as a system of self-replicating informational and catalytic oligomers is the most widespread hypothesis of life's origin. At the same time an alternative major theory antithetic to the genetic one exists. It is based on the primary formation of important metabolites and building blocks of biopolymers and appearance of the primordial autocatalytic cycles in geochemical environment. [1]. Encouraged by this theory, we suggest the putative emergence pathways to biologically relevant metabolites from simple precursors: formaldehyde (FA) and ammonia, which are known to be present in the interstellar space [2]. Based on our earlier [3, 4] and novel findings as well as on the literature data [5, 6] the scheme of conjugate autocatalytic processes including photochemical condensation of FA yielding C-C bond and catalytic formation of pyruvaldehyde, pyruvic acid, sugars, aminoacids catalyzed by minerals (aluminum silicate, phoshates) and by aminoacids themselves is proposed. Acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycol-and glyceraldehydes (GA and GCA) were identified in this work as products of photolysis of FA aqueous solution with summary selectivity up to 20% and can serve as substrates for the synthesis of more complex organic compounds. In turn, alanine and pyruvic acid are formed during UV-irradiation of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate [6]. Pyruvaldehyde formation from GCA and FA in presence of amino acids was observed by A. Weber [5]. Finally, we revealed the catalytic activity of zeolite HZSM-5-17 in acid form towards formation of pyruvaldehyde from GA and GCA in presence of alanine with the yield about 5%. This observation indicates that the assumption of catalytic activity of silica-alumina towards the synthesis of metabolites could be realistic. Prebiotic synthesis of sugars from lower monosacharides, as we showed earlier, could take place over phosphate catalysts [4]. The substrates and the products

  17. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo. PMID:26643610

  18. Two strategies for the synthesis of the biologically important ATP analogue ApppI, at a multi-milligram scale

    PubMed Central

    Weisell, Janne; Vepsäläinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two strategies for the synthesis of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) analogue ApppI [1-adenosin-5’-yl 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl)triphosphoric acid diester] (1) are described. ApppI is an active metabolite of the mevalonate pathway and thus is of major biological significance. Chemically synthezised ApppI was purified by using triethylammonium bicarbonate as the counter ion in ion-pair chromatography and characterized by 1H, 13C, 31P NMR and MS spectroscopical methods. PMID:26664641

  19. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann. PMID:19260192

  20. Catalytic Enantioselective Peroxidation of α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Biologically Important Chiral Endoperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin; Lu, Xiaojie; Deng, Li

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an unprecedented highly enantioselective catalytic peroxidation of enals. Critical to this development is the discovery that varying the structure of the hydroperoxides has a significant impact on the enantioselectivity of the organocatalytic asymmetric peroxidation. This novel transformation enabled the development of the enantioselective route toward the core structure shared by all members of the stolonoxides family of anticancer natural products, a connected trans-3,6-disubstituted-1,2-dioxane and trans-2,5-disubstituted-tetrahydrofuran ring system. Our route also features an unprecedented cyclization cascade of a chiral bis(epoxy)hydroperoxide. The new methodology and synthetic strategy established from the current studies should be applicable to the enantioselective synthesis of a broad range of chiral 1,2-dioxolanes and 1, 2-dioxanes, thereby facilitating the biological and medicinal chemistry studies of peroxy natural products. PMID:26101971

  1. Towards a Mastery Understanding of Critical Reading in Biology: The Use of Highlighting by Students to Assess Their Value Judgment of the Importance of Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mark; Rinaldo, Vince

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of critical reading styles of freshmen and senior biology students was compared to that of biology faculty members through the use of highlighting a primary research article. Sentence-by-sentence comparisons were made within each group and the data were analyzed; the composite picture from each group was then compared to the other groups. There appears to be a close agreement of what is deemed important content as judged by faculty but less agreement by seniors and even less agreement by freshmen regarding the value of each line of the text. The results imply that experts in a field appear able to discriminate what is important and valuable in the primary literature and that the novice appears to develop some degree of scientific literacy during his or her undergraduate career. PMID:23653801

  2. Importance of tissue preparation methods in FTIR micro-spectroscopical analysis of biological tissues: 'traps for new users'.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Whelan, Donna R; Wood, Bayden R; Pearson, James T; Bambery, Keith R; Black, M Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) micro-spectroscopy is an emerging technique for the biochemical analysis of tissues and cellular materials. It provides objective information on the holistic biochemistry of a cell or tissue sample and has been applied in many areas of medical research. However, it has become apparent that how the tissue is handled prior to FTIR micro-spectroscopic imaging requires special consideration, particularly with regards to methods for preservation of the samples. We have performed FTIR micro-spectroscopy on rodent heart and liver tissue sections (two spectroscopically very different biological tissues) that were prepared by desiccation drying, ethanol substitution and formalin fixation and have compared the resulting spectra with that of fully hydrated freshly excised tissues. We have systematically examined the spectra for any biochemical changes to the native state of the tissue caused by the three methods of preparation and have detected changes in infrared (IR) absorption band intensities and peak positions. In particular, the position and profile of the amide I, key in assigning protein secondary structure, changes depending on preparation method and the lipid absorptions lose intensity drastically when these tissues are hydrated with ethanol. Indeed, we demonstrate that preserving samples through desiccation drying, ethanol substitution or formalin fixation significantly alters the biochemical information detected using spectroscopic methods when compared to spectra of fresh hydrated tissue. It is therefore imperative to consider tissue preparative effects when preparing, measuring, and analyzing samples using FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:25710811

  3. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?

    PubMed

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O; Muir, Derek C G; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-15

    Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of six CHBs (Parlar-26, -40/-41, -44, -50, and -62) among the five seal species. Seal species could be separated into three groups based on their respective sigmaCHB mean concentrations (+/-standard error): gray (49+/-3.9 ng/g lipid weight) and harbor (80+/-20 ng/g lipid weight) seals were more contaminated than ringed seals (18+/-7.6 ng/g lipid weight) but less contaminated than harp (370+/-87 ng/g lipid weight) and hooded (680+/-310 ng/g lipid weight) seals. These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly contaminated via atmospheric transportfrom the southeastern part of the United States. Thus, biological factors such as sex, age, nutritive condition, metabolism capacity, and diet of the animals collected were considered. Results reported in this study indicated that the diet is likely the main factor accounting for interspecies variations in toxaphene contamination in seals from eastern Canada. PMID:15819196

  4. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  5. Biological Roles of the Podospora anserina Mitochondrial Lon Protease and the Importance of Its N-Domain

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Céline; Picard, Marguerite; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Sellem, Carole H.; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-Le; Contamine, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial protease, PaLon1, leads to lethality at high and low temperatures, indicating that PaLON1 plays a main role in protein quality control. Under normal physiological conditions, the PaLon1 deletion is viable but decreases life span. PaLon1 deletion also leads to defects in two steps during development, ascospore germination and sexual reproduction, which suggests that PaLON1 ensures important regulatory functions during fungal development. Mitochondrial Lon proteases are composed of a central ATPase domain flanked by a large non-catalytic N-domain and a C-terminal protease domain. We found that three mutations in the N-domain of PaLON1 affected fungal life cycle, PaLON1 protein expression and mitochondrial proteolytic activity, which reveals the functional importance of the N-domain of the mitochondrial Lon protease. All PaLon1 mutations affected the C-terminal part of the N-domain. Considering that the C-terminal part is predicted to have an α helical arrangement in which the number, length and position of the helices are conserved with the solved structure of its bacterial homologs, we propose that this all-helical structure participates in Lon substrate interaction. PMID:22693589

  6. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum. PMID:26254063

  7. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  8. LacZ β-galactosidase: structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance.

    PubMed

    Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E

    2012-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ β-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize α-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the "missing" N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of β-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

  9. Biological Feedbacks as Cause and Demise of Neoproterozoic Icehouse: Astrobiological Prospects for Faster Evolution and Importance of Cold Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630–850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets. PMID:17299594

  10. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets. PMID:17299594

  11. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Stereochemical Assignment and Biological Evaluation of BE-14106 Unveils the Importance of One Acetate Unit for the Antifungal Activity of Polyene Macrolactams.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Ishibashi, Masami; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-07-22

    Heronamides are a class of potent antifungal metabolites produced by marine-derived actinomycetes. The number of hydroxy groups and the stereochemistry of the two hydroxylated methine carbons are important for the activity of heronamide C, whereas the effect of the hydrocarbon chains is not known. In this study, the stereochemistry and the biological activity of BE-14106, another member of the heronamide class of antibiotics, isolated from an actinomycete Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus IFM 11549 was investigated. Spectroscopic analysis coupled with photo- and O2-induced conversion revealed that BE-14106 and the heronamides had the same stereochemistry. BE-14106 showed potent growth inhibition against fission yeast cells with an MIC value of 0.50 μM (0.21 μg/mL), being 4 times less potent than heronamide C, which revealed the importance of the structure of the hydrocarbon tail for the activity. PMID:27331864

  14. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future. PMID:18299181

  15. The Importance of Biological Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Terry Lawson

    1994-01-01

    Discusses one way to explore the concept of sustainable development with students by examining the loss of biodiversity. Presents information on the root causes of biodiversity loss and the links to an understanding of sustainable development. Contains a 20-question true-false biodiversity quiz with answer key. (LZ)

  16. The Importance of Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurse, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how science is done increases trust in science as it can be seen to be built on reliable data, rational argument and repeated testing. If science is taught as just an assemblage of facts without dealing with the process which gave rise to those facts, then why should pupils trust science more than fables or pseudoscience? Everyone…

  17. Mechanisms and biological importance of photon-induced bystander responses: do they have an impact on low-dose radiation responses.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masanori; Maeda, Munetoshi

    2015-03-01

    Elucidating the biological effect of low linear energy transfer (LET), low-dose and/or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation is essential in ensuring radiation safety. Over the past two decades, non-targeted effects, which are not only a direct consequence of radiation-induced initial lesions produced in cellular DNA but also of intra- and inter-cellular communications involving both targeted and non-targeted cells, have been reported and are currently defining a new paradigm in radiation biology. These effects include radiation-induced adaptive response, low-dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, and radiation-induced bystander response (RIBR). RIBR is generally defined as a cellular response that is induced in non-irradiated cells that receive bystander signals from directly irradiated cells. RIBR could thus play an important biological role in low-dose irradiation conditions. However, this suggestion was mainly based on findings obtained using high-LET charged-particle radiations. The human population (especially the Japanese, who are exposed to lower doses of radon than the world average) is more frequently exposed to low-LET photons (X-rays or γ-rays) than to high-LET charged-particle radiation on a daily basis. There are currently a growing number of reports describing a distinguishing feature between photon-induced bystander response and high-LET RIBR. In particular, photon-induced bystander response is strongly influenced by irradiation dose, the irradiated region of the targeted cells, and p53 status. The present review focuses on the photon-induced bystander response, and discusses its impact on the low-dose radiation effect. PMID:25361549

  18. Mechanisms and biological importance of photon-induced bystander responses: do they have an impact on low-dose radiation responses

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masanori; Maeda, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the biological effect of low linear energy transfer (LET), low-dose and/or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation is essential in ensuring radiation safety. Over the past two decades, non-targeted effects, which are not only a direct consequence of radiation-induced initial lesions produced in cellular DNA but also of intra- and inter-cellular communications involving both targeted and non-targeted cells, have been reported and are currently defining a new paradigm in radiation biology. These effects include radiation-induced adaptive response, low-dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, and radiation-induced bystander response (RIBR). RIBR is generally defined as a cellular response that is induced in non-irradiated cells that receive bystander signals from directly irradiated cells. RIBR could thus play an important biological role in low-dose irradiation conditions. However, this suggestion was mainly based on findings obtained using high-LET charged-particle radiations. The human population (especially the Japanese, who are exposed to lower doses of radon than the world average) is more frequently exposed to low-LET photons (X-rays or γ-rays) than to high-LET charged-particle radiation on a daily basis. There are currently a growing number of reports describing a distinguishing feature between photon-induced bystander response and high-LET RIBR. In particular, photon-induced bystander response is strongly influenced by irradiation dose, the irradiated region of the targeted cells, and p53 status. The present review focuses on the photon-induced bystander response, and discusses its impact on the low-dose radiation effect. PMID:25361549

  19. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  20. 21 CFR 610.64 - Name and address of distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Name and address of distributor. 610.64 Section...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.64 Name and address of distributor. The name and address of the distributor of a product may appear on the label provided that the...

  1. 21 CFR 610.64 - Name and address of distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Name and address of distributor. 610.64 Section...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.64 Name and address of distributor. The name and address of the distributor of a product may appear on the label provided that the...

  2. 21 CFR 610.64 - Name and address of distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Name and address of distributor. 610.64 Section...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.64 Name and address of distributor. The name and address of the distributor of a product may appear on the label provided that the...

  3. Developing Bacillus spp. as a cell factory for production of microbial enzymes and industrially important biochemicals in the context of systems and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Wang, Nam Sun; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    Increasing concerns over limited petroleum resources and associated environmental problems are motivating the development of efficient cell factories to produce chemicals, fuels, and materials from renewable resources in an environmentally sustainable economical manner. Bacillus spp., the best characterized Gram-positive bacteria, possesses unique advantages as a host for producing microbial enzymes and industrially important biochemicals. With appropriate modifications to heterologous protein expression and metabolic engineering, Bacillus species are favorable industrial candidates for efficiently converting renewable resources to microbial enzymes, fine chemicals, bulk chemicals, and fuels. Here, we summarize the recent advances in developing Bacillus spp. as a cell factory. We review the available genetic tools, engineering strategies, genome sequence, genome-scale structure models, proteome, and secretion pathways, and we list successful examples of enzymes and industrially important biochemicals produced by Bacillus spp. Furthermore, we highlight the limitations and challenges in developing Bacillus spp. as a robust and efficient production host, and we discuss in the context of systems and synthetic biology the emerging opportunities and future research prospects in developing Bacillus spp. as a microbial cell factory. PMID:23749118

  4. Relative importance of fluorescent siderophores and other factors in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 and M4-80R.

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, H; Weller, D M; Thomashow, L S

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 suppresses take-all, a major root disease of wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The bacteria produce an antibiotic, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), and a fluorescent pyoverdin siderophore. Previous studies have established that PCA has an important role in the biological control of take-all but that antibiotic production does not account fully for the suppressiveness of the strain. To define the role of the pyoverdin siderophore more precisely, mutants deficient in production of the antibiotic, the siderophore, or both factors were constructed and compared with the parental strain for control of take-all on wheat roots. In all cases, strains that produced PCA were more suppressive than those that did not, and pyoverdin-deficient mutant derivatives controlled take-all as effectively as their respective fluorescent parental strains. Thus, the phenazine antibiotic was the dominant factor in disease suppression and the fluorescent siderophore had little or no role. The siderophore also was of minor importance in a second strain, P. fluorescens M4-80R, that does not produce PCA. Strains 2-79 and M4-80R both produced substances distinct from the pyoverdin siderophore that were responsible for fungal inhibition in vitro under iron limitation, but these substances also had, at most, a minor role in disease suppression in situ. PMID:1838240

  5. Evaluation of biological value and appraisal of polyphenols and glucosinolates from organic baby-leaf salads as antioxidants and antimicrobials against important human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Marques, Esperança; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to investigate the biological role of four different types of baby-leaf salads and to study their potential as natural sources of antioxidants and antimicrobials against several isolates from important human pathogenic bacteria. Four single types of salads (green lettuce, red lettuce, rucola and watercress) and two mixtures [(1) red lettuce+green lettuce; (2) green lettuce + red lettuce + watercress + rucola] were assayed. The HPLC analysis revealed interesting levels of polyphenols and glucosinolates. The results showed a significant variation (p < 0.05) of polyphenols and glucosinolates with plant material. Nine different types of polyphenols grouped in three major classes were found: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and dicaffeoyltartaric acid (phenolic acids); quercitin-3-O-rutinoside, quercitin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin (flavonoids); and cyanidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanins). Only three different glucosinolates were found: glucoraphanin; gluconasturtiin and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin. A positive correlation was detected between polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity. Red lettuce and mixture 1 were the baby-leaf salads with the highest antioxidant potential. As for the antimicrobial activity, the results showed a selective effect of chemicals against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were the bacteria most affected by the phytochemicals. Based on the results achieved baby-leaf salads represent an important source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial substances. PMID:23603948

  6. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  7. High-throughput Multiplexed xMAP Luminex Array Panel for Detection of Twenty TWO Medically Important Mosquito-borne Arboviruses based on Innovations in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M.; Alto, Barry W.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a “single tube” setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a “self-avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an “artificially expanded genetic information system” (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex “liquid microarrays” are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6–10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito. PMID:25680538

  8. Selective observation of biologically important 15N-labeled metabolites in isolated rat brain and liver by 1H-detected multiple-quantum-coherence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Keiko; Ross, Brian D.; Parivar, Farhad

    Four cerebral metabolites of importance in neurotransmission, serotonin, L-tryptophan, L-glutamine, and N-acetyl- L-aspartate, and two hepatic urea-cycle intermediates, citrulline and urea, were found to be observable by 1H- 15N heteronuclear multiple-quantum-coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy in aqueous solution at physiological pH and temperature, through the protons spin-coupled to their indole, amide, or ureido nitrogen. Their 1H chemical shifts were well dispersed over a 5-10 ppm region while the 1J 15N- 1H values were 87-99 Hz. For [γ- 15N]glutamine, a 50- to 100-fold increase in sensitivity over direct 15N detection was achieved, in contrast to a 2-fold increase by the polarization-transfer method. In the isolated brain of portacaval-shunted rats, the amide protons of biologically 15N-enriched [γ- 15N]glutamine were observed in 2 min of acquisition, with suppression of proton signals from all other cerebral metabolites. In isolated liver of 15N-enriched control rats, [ 15NIurea protons were observed in 16 min. The HMQC method is likely to be effective for the in vivo study of cerebral and hepatic nitrogen metabolism.

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  12. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  13. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  14. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  15. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  16. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  17. The importance of accurate convergence in addressing stereoscopic visual fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Christopher A.

    2015-03-01

    Visual fatigue (asthenopia) continues to be a problem in extended viewing of stereoscopic imagery. Poorly converged imagery may contribute to this problem. In 2013, the Author reported that in a study sample a surprisingly high number of 3D feature films released as stereoscopic Blu-rays contained obvious convergence errors.1 The placement of stereoscopic image convergence can be an "artistic" call, but upon close examination, the sampled films seemed to have simply missed their intended convergence location. This failure maybe because some stereoscopic editing tools do not have the necessary fidelity to enable a 3D editor to obtain a high degree of image alignment or set an exact point of convergence. Compounding this matter further is the fact that a large number of stereoscopic editors may not believe that pixel accurate alignment and convergence is necessary. The Author asserts that setting a pixel accurate point of convergence on an object at the start of any given stereoscopic scene will improve the viewer's ability to fuse the left and right images quickly. The premise is that stereoscopic performance (acuity) increases when an accurately converged object is available in the image for the viewer to fuse immediately. Furthermore, this increased viewer stereoscopic performance should reduce the amount of visual fatigue associated with longer-term viewing because less mental effort will be required to perceive the imagery. To test this concept, we developed special stereoscopic imagery to measure viewer visual performance with and without specific objects for convergence. The Company Team conducted a series of visual tests with 24 participants between 25 and 60 years of age. This paper reports the results of these tests.

  18. Intermolecular CH···O/N H-bonds in the biologically important pairs of natural nucleobases: a thorough quantum-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Yurenko, Yevgen P; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to cast light on the physico-chemical nature and energetic of the non-conventional CH···O/N H-bonds in the biologically important natural nucleobase pairs using a comprehensive quantum-chemical approach. As a whole, the 36 biologically important pairs, involving canonical and rare tautomers of nucleobases, were studied by means of all available up-to-date state-of-the-art quantum-chemical techniques along with quantum theory "Atoms in molecules" (QTAIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis, Grunenberg's compliance constants theory, geometrical and vibrational analyses to identify the CH···O/N interactions, reveal their physico-chemical nature and estimate their strengths as well as contribution to the overall base-pairs stability. It was shown that all the 38 CH···O/N contacts (25 CH···O and 13 CH···N H-bonds) completely satisfy all classical geometrical, electron-topological, in particular Bader's and "two-molecule" Koch and Popelier's, and vibrational criteria of H-bonding. The positive values of Grunenberg's compliance constants prove that the CH···O/N contacts in nucleobase pairs are stabilizing interactions unlike electrostatic repulsion and anti-H-bonds. NBO analysis indicates the electron density transfer from the lone electron pair of the acceptor atom (O/N) to the antibonding orbital corresponding to the donor group σ(∗)(CH). Moreover, significant increase in the frequency of the out-of-plane deformation modes γ (CH) under the formation of the CH···O (by 17.2÷81.3/10.8÷84.7 cm(-1)) and CH···N (by 32.7÷85.9/9.0÷77.9 cm(-1)) H-bonds at the density functional theory (DFT)/second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of theory, respectively, and concomitant changes of their intensities can be considered as reliable indicators of H-bonding. The strengths of the CH···O/N interactions, evaluated by means of Espinosa-Molins-Lecomte formula, lie within the range 0.45÷3.89/0.62÷4.10 kcal/mol for the CH

  19. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  20. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks--The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the…

  1. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  4. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  5. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  6. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  7. Illuminating Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  8. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  9. Addressing Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  10. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks—The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

    2013-04-01

    In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the occurrence of multiple models and conceptual variation in Swedish upper secondary textbooks. Two excerpts using different models of gene function were selected from authentic textbooks. Students were given the same questionnaire-instrument after reading the two texts, and the results were compared. In this way the students themselves made a classification of the texts which could then be compared with the researchers' classification of the texts. Forty-one upper secondary students aged 18-19 participated in the study. Nine of the students also participated in semi-structured interviews. Students recognized the existence of multiple models in a general way, but had difficulty discerning the different models and the conceptual variation that occurs between them in the texts. Further they did not recognize the occurrence of incommensurability between multiple models. Students had difficulty in transforming their general knowledge of multiple models into an understanding of content specific models of gene function in the textbooks. These findings may have implications for students' understanding of conceptual knowledge because research has established textbooks as one of the most influential aspects in the planning and execution of biology lessons, and teachers commonly assign reading passages to their students without further explanation.

  11. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  12. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established. PMID:17598524

  13. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  14. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  15. Ligand-Binding Affinity at the Insulin Receptor Isoform-A and Subsequent IR-A Tyrosine Phosphorylation Kinetics are Important Determinants of Mitogenic Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Harinda; Forbes, Briony E.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A) arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signaling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration by activating some unique signaling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signaling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signaling (MAPK and Akt) and receptor internalization rates (related to mitogenic signaling). We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic [(His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51) IGF-I, qIGF-I] or metabolic (S597 peptide) biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signaling through the IR-A. The threefold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316, and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide, it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I. PMID:26217307

  16. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  17. Synthetic biology and the ethics of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Savulescu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biologists aim to generate biological organisms according to rational design principles. Their work may have many beneficial applications, but it also raises potentially serious ethical concerns. In this article, we consider what attention the discipline demands from bioethicists. We argue that the most important issue for ethicists to examine is the risk that knowledge from synthetic biology will be misused, for example, in biological terrorism or warfare. To adequately address this concern, bioethics will need to broaden its scope, contemplating not just the means by which scientific knowledge is produced, but also what kinds of knowledge should be sought and disseminated. PMID:20935316

  18. Evaluation of molecular markers for discriminating Gonaterocerus morrilli: A biological control agent imported from the origin of the glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the utility of molecular markers for discriminating between two very closely related species, Gonatocerus morrilli (Howard) (imported from Texas) and G. walkerjonesi S. Triapitsyn (native to California), to determine whether post-release G. morrilli specimens could be detected and discri...

  19. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  20. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    PubMed

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  1. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  2. ω-Amidase: an underappreciated, but important enzyme in L-glutamine and L-asparagine metabolism; relevance to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, tumor biology and hyperammonemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Shurubor, Yevgeniya I; Dorai, Thambi; Pinto, John T; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Denton, Travis T; Krasnikov, Boris F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, two major routes exist for the metabolic conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate. The most widely studied pathway involves the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to L-glutamate catalyzed by glutaminases, followed by the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by the action of an L-glutamate-linked aminotransferase or via the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. However, another major pathway exists in mammals for the conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate (the glutaminase II pathway) in which L-glutamine is first transaminated to α-ketoglutaramate (KGM) followed by hydrolysis of KGM to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia catalyzed by an amidase known as ω-amidase. In mammals, the glutaminase II pathway is present in both cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments and is most prominent in liver and kidney. Similarly, two routes exist for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate. In the most extensively studied pathway, L-asparagine is hydrolyzed to L-aspartate by the action of asparaginase, followed by transamination of L-aspartate to oxaloacetate. However, another pathway also exists for the conversion of L-asparagine to oxaloacetate (the asparaginase II pathway). In this pathway, L-asparagine is first transaminated to α-ketosuccinamate (KSM), followed by hydrolysis of KSM to oxaloacetate by the action of ω-amidase. One advantage of both the glutaminase II and the asparaginase II pathways is that they are irreversible, and thus are important in anaplerosis by shuttling 5-C (α-ketoglutarate) and 4-C (oxaloacetate) units into the TCA cycle. In this review, we briefly mention the importance of the glutaminase II and asparaginase II pathways in microorganisms and plants. However, the major emphasis of the review is related to the importance of these pathways (especially the common enzyme component of both pathways--ω-amidase) in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in mammals and as a source of anaplerotic carbon moieties in rapidly dividing cells. The

  3. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  4. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  5. Seasonal spatial patterns in seabird and marine mammal distribution in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas: Identifying biologically important pelagic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Hurley, Brendan; Gall, Adrian E.; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Morgan, Tawna C.

    2015-08-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort seas are undergoing rapid climate change and increased human activity. Conservation efforts for upper trophic level predators such as seabirds and marine mammals require information on species' distributions and identification of important marine areas. Here we describe broad-scale distributions of seabirds and marine mammals. We examined spatial patterns of relative abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas during summer (15 June-31 August) and fall (1 September-20 November) from 2007 to 2012. We summarized 49,206 km of shipboard surveys for seabirds and 183,157 km of aerial surveys for marine mammals into a grid of 40-km × 40-km cells. We used Getis-Ord Gi∗ hotspot analysis to test for cells with higher relative abundance than expected when compared to all cells within the study area. We identified cells representing single species and taxonomic group hotspots, cells representing hotspots for multiple species, and cells representing hotspots for both seabirds and marine mammals. The locations of hotspots varied among species but often were located near underwater canyons or over continental shelf features and slopes. Hotspots for seabirds, walrus, and gray whales occurred primarily in the Chukchi Sea. Hotspots for bowhead whales and other pinnipeds (i.e., seals) occurred near Barrow Canyon and along the Beaufort Sea shelf and slope. Hotspots for belugas occurred in both the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. There were three hotspots shared by both seabirds and marine mammals in summer: off Wainwright in the eastern Chukchi Sea, south of Hanna Shoal, and at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. In fall, the only identified shared hotspot occurred at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. Shared hotspots are characterized by strong fronts caused by upwelling and currents, and these areas can have high densities of euphausiids in summer and fall. Due to the high relative abundance of animals and diversity of taxa

  6. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 1. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly Fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia Virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (Ribavirin, Selenazofurin, Carbocyclic-3-deaza-adenosine, Adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  7. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 2. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Pichinde Virus (PIC), Hantaan Virus (HTN), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The in vivo systems are Pichinde Virus infection of hamsters, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (ribavirin, selenazofurin, carbocyclic-3-aza-adenosine, adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  8. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. PMID:25589360

  9. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2006-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  10. Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, B. phoenicis, and B. lewisi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): a review of their biology, feeding injury and economic importance.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; French, J Victor; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V

    2003-01-01

    The genus Brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of Tenuipalpidae. Many Brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. Previous researchers have determined that Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. phoenicis (Geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. The life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. Longevity of each Brevipalpus species is two to three times greater than corresponding longevities of various tetranychid mites. Brevipalpus mites inject toxic saliva into fruits, leaves, stems, twigs, and bud tissues of numerous plants including citrus. Feeding injury symptoms on selected plants include: chlorosis, blistering, bronzing, or necrotic areas on leaves by one or more Brevipalpus mites. Premature leaf drop occurred on 'Robinson' tangerine leaves in Florida (USA). Leaf drop was observed in several sweet orange and grapefruit orchards in Texas (USA) that were heavily infested with Brevipalpus mites feeding on the twigs, leaves, and fruit. Initial circular chlorotic areas appear on both sweet orange and grapefruit varieties in association with developing populations of Brevipalpus mites in Texas. These feeding sites become progressively necrotic, darker in color, and eventually develop into irregular scab-like lesions on affected fruit. Russeting and cracking of the fruits of other plant hosts are reported. Stunting of leaves and the development of Brevipalpus galls on terminal buds were recorded on sour orange, Citrus aurantium L., seedlings heavily infested with B. californicus in an insectary. The most significant threat posed by these mites is as vectors of a potentially invasive viral disease called citrus leprosis. PMID:14756411

  11. Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf-break front - Degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreto, José I.; Montoya, Nora G.; Carignan, Mario O.; Akselman, Rut; Acha, E. Marcelo; Derisio, Carla

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the spring phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonian shelf-break front (PSBF). Using a CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigment data and other methods, the biomass and spatial variability of plankton communities were studied in four sections (39-48°S) across the PSBF during October 2005. Environmental factors and the biomass and composition of plankton communities exhibited a marked spatial heterogeneity. The latitudinal and cross-shelf progression in the timing of the spring bloom initiation and the nutritive properties of the water masses (Subantarctic Shelf Waters and Malvinas Current Waters) seemed to be the key factors. Three plankton regions were distinguished: (a) Outer shelf (OS), (b) Shelf-break front (SBF) and (c) Malvinas Current (MC). At the highly stratified OS region, the post-bloom community showed low-biomasshigh-phytoplankton diversity formed mainly by small cells (haptophytes 30-62%, diatoms 17-49%, chlorophytes 0-34%, and prasinophytes 0-21% of total Chl a). High amounts of degraded fucoxanthin were found associated with the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, Protoperidinium capurroi. Grazing by this microheterotroph on the diatom population seemed to be the most important factor for the spring bloom decay at the OS. A remarkable quasi monospecific bloom (∼90%) of a nanodiatom (Thalassiosira bioculata var. raripora) associated with high Chl a (up to 20 mg m-3) occurred along (∼1000 km) the SBF and in the most northern extension of the MC. In the southern region, the bloom was developed under absent or incipient density stratification, increasing solar irradiance, high nitrate and phosphate availability, and low numbers of phytoplankton grazers. The average mixedlayer PAR irradiance (<2.0 mol quanta PAR m-2 d-1) and Si:N ratios (<0.2) were low, suggesting a diatom population limited by light and under progressive silicate limitation. The more stratified northern region of the

  12. Metal nanoclusters: Protein corona formation and implications for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are a new type of nanoprobe with great potential in various biological applications. For biocompatible and efficient utilization of NCs, a thorough understanding of their interactions with biological systems is highly important. Herein, we focus on recent studies addressing interactions between metal NCs and proteins as well as implications for their further biological application. These findings show that protein adsorption not only affects the photophysical properties of NCs, but also influences their subsequent biological behavior, i.e., cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Moreover, specific protein-NC interactions have also been harnessed to develop novel protein discrimination strategies. PMID:26408503

  13. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  14. Engaging Biology Undergraduates in the Scientific Process through Writing a Theoretical Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Jennifer S.; Duwel, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that research experiences are an important element that should be included in all undergraduate Biology curricula. This is a difficult suggestion to accommodate due to issues with cost, space and time. We addressed this challenge through development of a capstone project in which Biology majors work in groups to develop novel…

  15. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  16. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  17. NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIES: IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for predicting where certain species will invade next is being developed and tested in cooperation with researchers at the University of Kansas. Human activities have increased the wholesale movement, either accidental or deliberate, of many species of animals and plants ...

  18. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  19. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  20. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  1. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  2. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  3. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  4. Plant biology in the future.

    PubMed

    Bazzaz, F A

    2001-05-01

    In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of "Complexity Theory" think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization, from atoms all the way to the structure of the universe, and that when these are discovered, the issue of scaling will be greatly simplified! Plant biology must seriously contribute to, among other things, meeting the nutritional needs of the human population. This challenge constitutes a key part of the backdrop against which future evolution will occur. Genetic engineering technologies are and will continue to be an important component of agriculture; however, we must consider the evolutionary implications of these new technologies. Meeting these demands requires drastic changes in the undergraduate curriculum. Students of biology should be trained in molecular, cellular, organismal

  5. The fallacy of Ratio Correction to address confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Gerdin, Anna-Karin B; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqueline K

    2014-01-01

    Scientists aspire to measure cause and effect. Unfortunately confounding variables, ones that are associated with both the probable cause and the outcome, can lead to an association that is true but potentially misleading. For example, altered body weight is often observed in a gene knockout, however many other variables, such as lean mass, will also change as the body weight changes. This leaves the researcher asking whether the change in that variable is expected for that change in weight. Ratio Correction, which is often referred to as Normalization, is a method used commonly to remove the effect of a confounding variable. Although Ratio Correction is used widely in biological research, it is not the method recommended in the statistical literature to address confounding factors; instead regression methods such as the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) are proposed. This method examines the difference in means after adjusting for the confounding relationship. Using real data, this manuscript demonstrates how the Ratio Correction approach is flawed and can result in erroneous calls of significance leading to inappropriate biological conclusions. This arises as some of the underlying assumptions are not met. The manuscript goes on to demonstrate that researchers should use ANCOVA, and discusses how graphical tools can be used readily to judge the robustness of this method. This study is therefore a clear example of why assumption testing is an important component of a study and thus why it is included in the Animal Research: reporting of In Vivo Experiment (ARRIVE) guidelines. PMID:22829707

  6. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  7. The US Biology Education Standards, New Biology Curricula and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the events leading up to the current US biology education standards, a brief examination of the National Science Education Standards for biology, and a description of the three recently developed biology curricula that were designed to address the new standards. Several evaluative studies of these curricula…

  8. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  9. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  10. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  11. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  12. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  13. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  14. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  15. Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

  16. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  17. [The Biology of Learning].

    PubMed

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. PMID:26572571

  18. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007). The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology / systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology. PMID:20838980

  19. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed…

  20. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  1. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C.; Jahan, Tahmina A.; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E.; Katze, Michael G.

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  3. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  4. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  5. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  6. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  7. Systems cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred D.; Ratushny, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology. PMID:25225336

  8. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  9. Versions to Address Business Process Flexibility Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaâbane, Mohamed Amine; Andonoff, Eric; Bouaziz, Rafik; Bouzguenda, Lotfi

    This paper contributes to address an important issue in business process management: the Business Process (BP) flexibility issue. First, it defends that versions are an interesting solution to deal with both a priori (when designing BPs) and a posteriori (when executing BPs) flexibility. It also explains why previous contributions about versions of BPs are incomplete, and need to be revisited. Then, the paper presents a meta-model for BP versions, which combines five perspectives -the functional, process, informational, organizational and operation perspectives- for BP modelling, and which allows a comprehensive description of versionalized BPs.

  10. Chair's Address: Voices of the Company We Keep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anokye, Akua Duku

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a written version of the address Akua Duku Anokye, chairwoman of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), gave at the CCCC meeting in New York on March 24, 2007. In her address, Anokye talked about the importance of how an entity or an individual is known by the company they keep. To learn with whom has…

  11. 27 CFR 41.253 - Change in location or address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Change in location or address. 41.253 Section 41.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... § 41.253 Change in location or address. Whenever an importer of processed tobacco intends to...

  12. 27 CFR 41.253 - Change in location or address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in location or address. 41.253 Section 41.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... § 41.253 Change in location or address. Whenever an importer of processed tobacco intends to...

  13. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  14. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  15. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  16. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  17. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  18. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  19. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  20. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Models in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the most popular models currently being chosen for biological research and the reasons behind those choices. Among the current favorites are zebra fish, fruit flies, mice, monkeys, and yeast. Concludes with a brief examination of the ethical issues involved, and why some animals may need to be replaced in research with model systems.…

  3. Regents Biology Resource Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Nancy A., Comp.

    This publication provides supplemental information which can be used by the teacher to accompany each unit in the Regents Biology Syllabus. Each unit of the supplement addresses topics and understandings in the corresponding unit of the syllabus. These units are: (1) unity and diversity among living things; (2) maintenance in living things; (3)…

  4. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  5. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. Understanding of Energy in Biology and Vitalistic Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka; Chipman, David

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the possible connection between misconceptions of energy in biological phenomena and adherence to scientifically oriented conceptions of biology. Makes recommendations for basing the biology curriculum on the second law of thermodynamics. Contains 31 references. (DDR)

  8. 1, 2, 3, 4: infusing quantitative literacy into introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Speth, Elena Bray; Momsen, Jennifer L; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Ebert-May, Diane; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara; Linton, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Biology of the twenty-first century is an increasingly quantitative science. Undergraduate biology education therefore needs to provide opportunities for students to develop fluency in the tools and language of quantitative disciplines. Quantitative literacy (QL) is important for future scientists as well as for citizens, who need to interpret numeric information and data-based claims regarding nearly every aspect of daily life. To address the need for QL in biology education, we incorporated quantitative concepts throughout a semester-long introductory biology course at a large research university. Early in the course, we assessed the quantitative skills that students bring to the introductory biology classroom and found that students had difficulties in performing simple calculations, representing data graphically, and articulating data-driven arguments. In response to students' learning needs, we infused the course with quantitative concepts aligned with the existing course content and learning objectives. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by significant improvement in the quality of students' graphical representations of biological data. Infusing QL in introductory biology presents challenges. Our study, however, supports the conclusion that it is feasible in the context of an existing course, consistent with the goals of college biology education, and promotes students' development of important quantitative skills. PMID:20810965

  9. 1, 2, 3, 4: Infusing Quantitative Literacy into Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A.; Ebert-May, Diane; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara; Linton, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Biology of the twenty-first century is an increasingly quantitative science. Undergraduate biology education therefore needs to provide opportunities for students to develop fluency in the tools and language of quantitative disciplines. Quantitative literacy (QL) is important for future scientists as well as for citizens, who need to interpret numeric information and data-based claims regarding nearly every aspect of daily life. To address the need for QL in biology education, we incorporated quantitative concepts throughout a semester-long introductory biology course at a large research university. Early in the course, we assessed the quantitative skills that students bring to the introductory biology classroom and found that students had difficulties in performing simple calculations, representing data graphically, and articulating data-driven arguments. In response to students' learning needs, we infused the course with quantitative concepts aligned with the existing course content and learning objectives. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by significant improvement in the quality of students' graphical representations of biological data. Infusing QL in introductory biology presents challenges. Our study, however, supports the conclusion that it is feasible in the context of an existing course, consistent with the goals of college biology education, and promotes students' development of important quantitative skills. PMID:20810965

  10. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    PubMed

    Radick, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  11. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  12. The Resurgence of Biological Determinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Elizabeth A.; Kilty, Keith M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two areas where science has been and still is used to justify policies and attitudes that are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. This article analyzes the debate over whether these correlations are biologically or socially determined. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the…

  13. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  14. Towards a Liberal Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P. M. C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of a university biology department and the organization of its curriculum in terms of perceived crises in British biology. Concludes that reform becomes a project of crucial importance, not only to the social and technological development of civilized societies, but to the survival of the human species. (Author/AL)

  15. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  16. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  17. Exemplary Programs in Secondary School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, William F.; Penick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes 10 exemplary programs which address topics on individualized biology, a modified team approach, limnology, physical anthropology, the relevance of biology to society, ecology, and health. Provides names and addresses of contact persons for further information. Units cover a broad range of abilities and activities. (RT)

  18. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  19. Presidential address: imagination trumps knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frederick A

    2010-12-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) emerged 30 years ago and became our research focus. Over the years, we have proposed a series of cartoons that rallied multidisciplinary translational research teams around common themes to generate "win-win" hypotheses that when tested (right or wrong) have advanced our understanding of MOF. MOF has a bimodal trajectory, and the gut plays a role in both trajectories. Early MOF occurs because of excessive proinflammation (ie, systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS]), and early gut ischemia-reperfusion can amplify SIRS and contribute to the early fulminant SIRS-MOF trajectory. Fortunately, most patients survive early SIRS, but some develop excessive anti-inflammation (ie, compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). The gut also plays a role in this late indolent compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome-MOF trajectory. Multiple factors cause progressive gut dysfunction such that the gut (an important immunologic organ) worsens compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome and becomes the reservoir for pathogens and toxins that cause late sepsis. PMID:21146000

  20. Remarks by the President at Princeton University Commencement Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, William

    This speech by President William Clinton addresses the 1996 graduating class of Princeton University on the occasion of Princeton's 250th anniversary. After his opening remarks, the President touches on the importance of the graduating seniors' education as well as the importance of education in general to the nation's future. He compares the…

  1. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  3. Methods for biological data integration: perspectives and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological advances have led to the production of different types of biological data and enabled construction of complex networks with various types of interactions between diverse biological entities. Standard network data analysis methods were shown to be limited in dealing with such heterogeneous networked data and consequently, new methods for integrative data analyses have been proposed. The integrative methods can collectively mine multiple types of biological data and produce more holistic, systems-level biological insights. We survey recent methods for collective mining (integration) of various types of networked biological data. We compare different state-of-the-art methods for data integration and highlight their advantages and disadvantages in addressing important biological problems. We identify the important computational challenges of these methods and provide a general guideline for which methods are suited for specific biological problems, or specific data types. Moreover, we propose that recent non-negative matrix factorization-based approaches may become the integration methodology of choice, as they are well suited and accurate in dealing with heterogeneous data and have many opportunities for further development. PMID:26490630

  4. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  8. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  11. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  12. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  13. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  14. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). Unless otherwise stated in paragraphs... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville... biological products regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Unless otherwise...

  15. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). Unless otherwise stated in paragraphs... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville... biological products regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Unless otherwise...

  16. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

  17. The chemical biology of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Zang, Wenwen; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yajun; He, Yanhua; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Jiajia; Zheng, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    The sirtuin family of enzymes are able to catalyze the N(ε)-acyl-lysine deacylation reaction on histone and non-histone protein substrates. Over the past years since the discovery of its founding member (i.e. the yeast silent information regulator 2 (sir2) protein) in 2000, the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has been demonstrated to play an important regulatory role in multiple crucial cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage repair, and metabolism. This reaction has also been regarded as a current therapeutic target for human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. The unique β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD(+) or NAD(+))-dependent nature of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction has also engendered extensive mechanistic studies, resulting in a mechanistic view of the enzyme chemistry supported by several lines of experimental evidence. On the journey toward these knowledge advances, chemical biological means have constituted an important functional arsenal; technically, a variety of chemical probes and modulators (inhibitors and activators) have been developed and some of them have been employed toward an enhanced mechanistic and functional (pharmacological) understanding of the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction. On the other hand, an enhanced mechanistic understanding has also facilitated the development of a variety of chemical probes and modulators. This article will review the tremendous accomplishments achieved during the past few years in the field of sirtuin chemical biology. It is hoped that this would also help to set a stage for how outstanding mechanistic and functional questions for the sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction could be addressed in the future from the chemical biology perspective. PMID:25955411

  18. Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    In "Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership," Charles A. Bonnici addresses several issues facing school leaders through strategies supported by real-life examples and anecdotes. The issues addressed include questions such as: (1) What is the most urgent issue faced by a new school leader?; (2) How can this leader address the…

  19. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  20. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  1. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…

  2. Workshop Introduction: Systems Biology and Biological Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we consider the future of toxicity testing, the importance of applying biological models to this problem is clear. Modeling efforts exist along a continuum with respect to the level of organization (e.g. cell, tissue, organism) linked to the resolution of the model. Generally,...

  3. A New Biology for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Woese, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

  4. Systems Biology - A Pivotal Research Methodology for Understanding the Mechanisms of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Systems biology is a novel subject in the field of life science that aims at a systems’ level understanding of biological systems. Because of the significant progress in high-throughput technologies and molecular biology, systems biology occupies an important place in research during the post-genome era. Methods: The characteristics of systems biology and its applicability to traditional medicine research have been discussed from three points of view: data and databases, network analysis and inference, and modeling and systems prediction. Results: The existing databases are mostly associated with medicinal herbs and their activities, but new databases reflecting clinical situations and platforms to extract, visualize and analyze data easily need to be constructed. Network pharmacology is a key element of systems biology, so addressing the multi-component, multi-target aspect of pharmacology is important. Studies of network pharmacology highlight the drug target network and network target. Mathematical modeling and simulation are just in their infancy, but mathematical modeling of dynamic biological processes is a central aspect of systems biology. Computational simulations allow structured systems and their functional properties to be understood and the effects of herbal medicines in clinical situations to be predicted. Conclusion: Systems biology based on a holistic approach is a pivotal research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. If systems biology is to be incorporated into traditional medicine, computational technologies and holistic insights need to be integrated. PMID:26388998

  5. Addressing Heart Failure Challenges through Illness-Informed Social Work.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Camp, Jessica K; Perry, Tam E

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the role of social workers in addressing the needs of people with heart failure. Although previous studies have explored the role of social workers in health care settings, few studies have addressed the challenges of specific chronic diseases such as heart failure. To address this gap in the literature, this study used qualitative interviews with health care social workers (n = 8) to obtain in-depth information about activities and challenges related to heart failure care. Findings suggest that health care social workers perceive heart failure as characterized by an uncertain illness trajectory, frequent hospitalizations, and difficulties accessing formal and informal care. These findings suggest the importance of what we term illness-informed social work, a practice that combines heart failure knowledge with social work competencies to address the complex psychosocial issues in heart failure care. PMID:26285359

  6. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  7. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  8. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings. PMID:18316882

  9. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  10. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  12. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms. PMID:26205204

  13. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  16. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  17. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  18. Imaging and the new biology: What's wrong with this picture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.

    2004-05-01

    The Human Genome has been defined, giving us one part of the equation that stems from the central dogma of molecular biology. Despite this awesome scientific achievement, the correspondence between genomics and imaging is weak, since we cannot predict an organism's phenotype from even perfect knowledge of its genetic complement. Biological knowledge comes in several forms, and the genome is perhaps the best known and most completely understood type. Imaging creates another form of biological information, providing the ability to study morphology, growth and development, metabolic processes, and diseases in vitro and in vivo at many levels of scale. The principal challenge in biomedical imaging for the future lies in the need to reconcile the data provided by one or multiple modalities with other forms of biological knowledge, most importantly the genome, proteome, physiome, and other "-ome's." To date, the imaging science community has not set a high priority on the unification of their results with genomics, proteomics, and physiological functions in most published work. Images are relatively isolated from other forms of biological data, impairing our ability to conceive and address many fundamental questions in research and clinical practice. This presentation will explain the challenge of biological knowledge integration in basic research and clinical applications from the standpoint of imaging and image processing. The impediments to progress, isolation of the imaging community, and mainstream of new and future biological science will be identified, so the critical and immediate need for change can be highlighted.

  19. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  20. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  1. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  2. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  3. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  4. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  5. Understanding Leadership Strategies for Addressing the Politics of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2008-01-01

    Given the importance of moving diversity agendas forward nationally and the lack of understanding about how to address the politics that almost always emerge when institutionalizing a diversity initiative, the author examined the method by which college presidents handled the politics related to moving a diversity agenda forward. She focused on…

  6. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  8. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  11. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  12. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  13. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  14. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  15. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  16. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  17. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  20. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  1. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  2. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  3. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  4. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  5. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  7. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  8. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  9. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  10. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  11. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  12. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  13. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  14. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  15. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  16. Male Inmate Profiles and Their Biological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Mathilde; Potvin, Stephane; Allaire, Jean-François; Côté, Gilles; Gobbi, Gabriella; Benkirane, Karim; Vachon, Jeanne; Dumais, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Borderline and antisocial personality disorders (PDs) share common clinical features (impulsivity, aggressiveness, substance use disorders [SUDs], and suicidal behaviours) that are greatly overrepresented in prison populations. These disorders have been associated biologically with testosterone and cortisol levels. However, the associations are ambiguous and the subject of controversy, perhaps because these heterogeneous disorders have been addressed as unitary constructs. A consideration of profiles of people, rather than of exclusive diagnoses, might yield clearer relationships. Methods: In our study, multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were employed to identify subgroups among 545 newly convicted inmates. The groups were then compared in terms of clinical features and biological markers, including levels of cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and sulfoconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S). Results: Four clusters with differing psychiatric, criminal, and biological profiles emerged. Clinically, one group had intermediate scores for each of the tested clinical features. Another group comprised people with little comorbidity. Two others displayed severe impulsivity, PD, and SUD. Biologically, cortisol levels were lowest in the last 2 groups and highest in the group with less comorbidity. In keeping with previous findings reported in the literature, testosterone was higher in a younger population with severe psychiatric symptoms. However, some apparently comparable behavioural outcomes were found to be related to distinct biological profiles. No differences were observed for estradiol, progesterone, or DHEA-S levels. Conclusions: The results not only confirm the importance of biological markers in the study of personality features but also demonstrate the need to consider the role of comorbidities and steroid coregulation. PMID:25161069

  17. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  18. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  19. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    PubMed

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. PMID:26260156

  20. Prebiologically Important Interstellar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Charnley, S. B.; Tseng, W.-L.; Snyder, L. E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kisiel, Z.; Thorwirth, S.; Bohn, R. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2004-06-01

    Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically important molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically important molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have important implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.

  1. Presidential Address: a history of appendicitis. With anecdotes illustrating its importance.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G R

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred years after its anatomical description, the appendix was observed to be the site of inflammatory disease. This was not widely accepted until the publication by Fitz 120 years later. American surgeons led in demonstrating that early appendectomy was safe and life saving. Perforation of the appendix with peritonitis continues to be a significant problem, but the mortality rate has dramatically declined. Appendiceal disease has clearly affected the course of history. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 15. PMID:6342553

  2. New measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dual goals of optimizing clinical efficacy of hadrontherapy and determining radiation risk estimates for space research have intersected to a common focus for investigation of the biological effects of charged particles. This paper briefly highlights recent international progress at accelerator facilities engaged in both biological and clinical studies of the effects of particle beams, primarily protons, carbon and iron ions. Basic mechanisms of molecular, cellular and tissue responses continue under investigation for radiations with a range of ionization densities. Late normal tissue effects, including the risk of cancer in particular, are of importance for both research fields. International cooperation has enhanced the rate of progress as evidenced by recent publications. Specific areas of biomedical research related to the biological radiotoxicity of critical organs (especially the central nervous system), individual radiosensitivities to radiation carcinogenesis, and the analysis of effects in mixed radiation fields still require more research. Recommendations for addressing these issues are made.

  3. Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials at the Nanometer Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Electron microscopy of biological matter uses three different imaging modalities: (a) electron crystallography, (b) single-particle analysis, and (c) electron tomography. Ideally, these imaging modalities are applied to frozen-hydrated samples to ensure an optimal preservation of the structures under scrutiny. Cryo-electron microscopy of biological matter has made important advances in the past decades. It has become a research tool that further expands the scope of structural research into unique areas of cell and molecular biology, and it could augment the materials research portfolio in the study of soft and hybrid materials. This review addresses how researchers using transmission electron microscopy can derive structural information at high spatial resolution from fully hydrated specimens, despite their sensitivity to ionizing radiation, despite the adverse conditions of high vacuum for samples that have to be kept in aqueous environments, and despite their low contrast resulting from weakly scattering building blocks.

  4. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  5. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  6. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  7. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  8. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  9. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  10. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  11. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  12. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  13. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  14. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  15. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    PubMed

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology. PMID:21885822

  16. Teaching Biology through Statistics: Application of Statistical Methods in Genetics and Zoology Courses

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math–biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology. PMID:21885822

  17. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  18. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  19. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  20. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  1. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  2. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  3. Grand challenges for biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society. PMID:19772647

  4. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential. PMID:17274769

  5. Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness. (EV)

  6. Hands-on-Entropy, Energy Balance with Biological Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology textbooks is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. From diffusion to cell-membrane formation, to electrostatic binding in protein folding, to the functioning of nerve cells, entropic effects often act to counterbalance deterministic forces such as electrostatic attraction and in so doing, allow for effective molecular signaling. A small group of biology, biophysics and computer science faculty have worked together for the past five years to develop curricular modules (based on SCALEUP pedagogy). This has enabled students to create models of stochastic and deterministic processes. Our students are first-year engineering and science students in the calculus-based physics course and they are not expected to know biology beyond the high-school level. In our class, they learn to reduce complex biological processes and structures in order model them mathematically to account for both deterministic and probabilistic processes. The students test these models in simulations and in laboratory experiments that are biologically relevant such as diffusion, ionic transport, and ligand-receptor binding. Moreover, the students confront random forces and traditional forces in problems, simulations, and in laboratory exploration throughout the year-long course as they move from traditional kinematics through thermodynamics to electrostatic interactions. This talk will present a number of these exercises, with particular focus on the hands-on experiments done by the students, and will give examples of the tangible material that our students work with throughout the two-semester sequence of their course on introductory

  7. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  8. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  9. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  10. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  11. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  12. Behavior of nanoceria in biologically-relevant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Amit; Das, Soumen; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Self, William; Baer, Donald R.; Sayle, Dean C.; Seal, Sudipta

    2014-09-08

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have gained a considerable attention in biological research due to their anti-oxidant like behaviour and regenerative nature. The current literature on CNPs reports many successful attempts on harnessing the beneficial therapeutic properties in biology. However studies have also shown toxicity effect with some types of CNPs. This review discusses issues associated with the behaviours of CNPs in biological systems and identifies key knowledge gaps. We explore how salient physicochemical properties (size, surface chemistry, surface stabilizers) contribute to the potential positive and negative aspects of nanoceria in biological systems. Based on variations of results reported in the literature, important issues need to be addressed. Are we really studying the same particles with slight variations in size and physicochemical properties or do the particles being examined have fundamentally different behaviours? Are the variations observed in the result of differences in the initial properties of the particles or the results of downstream effects that emerge as the particles are prepared for specific studies and they interact with biological or other environmental moieties? How should particles be appropriately prepared for relevant environmental/toxicology/safety studies? It is useful to recognize that nanoparticles encompass some of the same complexities and variability associated with biological components

  13. Introduction to the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  14. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  15. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  16. Biology Teachers and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, L. Jack

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that biology teachers can serve an important role in turning humankind from nuclear warfare to peaceful cooperation. Argues that the school should lead the world in teaching about the universal will to live exhibited by all organisms and about the insanity of nuclear armament. (DC)

  17. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  18. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described. Students research the chosen topic using paper and electronic resources, generate a list of relevant articles, prepare abstracts based on papers read, and, finally, prepare a “state-of-the-art” paper on the topic. This approach, which extends over most of one semester, has resulted in a number of well-researched and well-written papers that incorporate some of the latest research in cell biology. The steps in this project have also led to students who are prepared to address future projects on new and complex topics. The project is part of an undergraduate course in cell biology, but parts of the assignments can be modified to fit a variety of subject areas and levels. PMID:16341261

  19. Biological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  20. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, systems biology provides the knowledge necessary for the development of synthetic biology tools, which in turn facilitates the manipulation and understanding of complex biological systems. Thus, the combination of systems and synthetic biology has huge potential for studying and engineering microbes, especially to perform advanced tasks, such as producing biofuels. Although there have been very few studies in integrating systems and synthetic biology, existing examples have demonstrated great power in extending microbiological capabilities. This review focuses on recent efforts in microbiological genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, aiming to fill the gap between systems and synthetic biology. PMID:23898328

  1. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  2. Functional Tissue Engineering of Tendon: Establishing Biological Success Criteria for Improving Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Andrew P; Gilday, Steven D; Lalley, Andrea L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Gooch, Cynthia; Shearn, Jason T; Butler, David L

    2013-01-01

    Improving tendon repair using Functional Tissue Engineering (FTE) principles has been the focus of our laboratory over the last decade. Although our primary goals were initially focused only on mechanical outcomes, we are now carefully assessing the biological properties of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs so as to link biological influences with mechanics. However, given the complexities of tendon development and healing, it remains challenging to determine which aspects of tendon biology are the most important to focus on in the context of tissue engineering. To address this problem, we have formalized a strategy to identify, prioritize, and evaluate potential biological success criteria for tendon repair. We have defined numerous biological properties of normal tendon relative to cellular phenotype, extracellular matrix and tissue ultra-structure that we would like to reproduce in our tissue-engineered repairs and prioritized these biological criteria by examining their relative importance during both normal development and natural tendon healing. Here, we propose three specific biological criteria which we believe are essential for normal tendon function: 1) scleraxis-expressing cells; 2) well-organized and axially-aligned collagen fibrils having bimodal diameter distribution; and 3) a specialized tendon-to-bone insertion site. Moving forward, these biological success criteria will be used in conjunction with our already established mechanical success criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs. PMID:24200342

  3. Functional tissue engineering of tendon: Establishing biological success criteria for improving tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Andrew P; Gilday, Steven D; Lalley, Andrea L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Gooch, Cynthia; Shearn, Jason T; Butler, David L

    2014-06-27

    Improving tendon repair using Functional Tissue Engineering (FTE) principles has been the focus of our laboratory over the last decade. Although our primary goals were initially focused only on mechanical outcomes, we are now carefully assessing the biological properties of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs so as to link biological influences with mechanics. However, given the complexities of tendon development and healing, it remains challenging to determine which aspects of tendon biology are the most important to focus on in the context of tissue engineering. To address this problem, we have formalized a strategy to identify, prioritize, and evaluate potential biological success criteria for tendon repair. We have defined numerous biological properties of normal tendon relative to cellular phenotype, extracellular matrix and tissue ultra-structure that we would like to reproduce in our tissue-engineered repairs and prioritized these biological criteria by examining their relative importance during both normal development and natural tendon healing. Here, we propose three specific biological criteria which we believe are essential for normal tendon function: (1) scleraxis-expressing cells; (2) well-organized and axially-aligned collagen fibrils having bimodal diameter distribution; and (3) a specialized tendon-to-bone insertion site. Moving forward, these biological success criteria will be used in conjunction with our already established mechanical success criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs. PMID:24200342

  4. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  5. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. PMID:27169438

  6. Information Complexity and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  7. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  8. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  9. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  10. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  11. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  14. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  15. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  16. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  17. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  18. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  19. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  20. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  1. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  2. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  3. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  4. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  5. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  6. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  7. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  8. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  9. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  10. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  11. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  12. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  13. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  14. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  15. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  16. EMAIL -- E-mail address searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Mellor, G. R.

    One of the most common activities on networked computers is the sending and receiving of personal electronic mail (email). Starlink nodes are connected to the worldwide Internet network. This document describes how to find email addresses to communicate with other astronomers and astronomy groups in the UK and the rest of the world.

  17. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  18. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  19. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  20. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  1. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  2. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  3. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  4. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  5. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  6. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  7. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  8. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  9. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features characterizing each one of the probes' visual signals were extracted from images acquired with the three different excitation and emission channels of the imaging instrument. With multivariate regression, the additive contribution from each one of the different building blocks of the bioimaging probes towards each measured, cell-associated image-based feature was calculated. In this manner, variations in the chemical features of the molecules were associated with the resulting staining patterns, facilitating quantitative, objective analysis of chemical address tags. Hierarchical clustering and paired image-cheminformatics analysis revealed key structure-property relationships amongst many building blocks of the fluorescent molecules. The results point to different chemical modifications of the bioimaging probes that can exert similar (or different) effects on the probes' visual signals. Inspection of the clustered structures suggests intramolecular charge migration or partial charge distribution as potential mechanistic determinants of chemical address tag behavior. PMID:20104576

  10. Comprehensive Planning To Address Homelessness. City Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawisza, Kris

    This packet contains documents that provide information about the planning and implementation of a comprehensive plan to address homelessness in cities throughout the U.S. Information on the following components of a comprehensive strategy are included: (1) "Task Forces"; (2) "Assessment Studies"; (3) "Emergency Services"; (4) "Transitional…

  11. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  12. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  13. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  14. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding Federal...) located at Second and D Street, NE., Washington, DC. The CCAS will accept items from couriers with...

  15. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  16. Biology and the Peasant Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

  17. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  18. Enabling Systems Biology Approaches Through Microfabricated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Mei; Chingozha, Loice; Lu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    With the experimental tools and knowledge that have accrued from a long history of reductionist biology, we can now start to put the pieces together and begin to understand how biological systems function as an integrated whole. Here, we describe how microfabricated tools have demonstrated promise in addressing experimental challenges in throughput, resolution and sensitivity to support systems-based approaches to biological understanding. PMID:23984862

  19. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364